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Diversos sistemas de Transferencia - Comisión Nacional para el ...

Diversos sistemas de

Transferencia

4

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4 Power Technologies

Fundada en 1888

ASCO Power Technologies, L.P.

Division de Emerson Electric - Desde 1985

Switch Business (Transferencias Automáticas & Sistemas de Control de

Potencia)

Matriz en NJ

Diseño/Desarrollo & Ingeniería

Ensamble/ Fabricación

~1200 Empleados

Fabricante Mundial No. 1 de Transferencias Automáticas – Bajo Normas UL & IEC

Fabricante de Sistemas de Control de Potencia Critica No. 1 de Norte América

ISO 9001 desde 1990

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

2

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Transferencia

Automática

(Serie 165)

4 Transfererencias Automaticas

ASCO Power

Technologies

Transferencia

Automática

(Serie 300)

Soft Load Overview

Serie 7000

(Transiciones Abierta

ó Cerrada

c/Interruptor de

Desvío)

3

Sistema de

Transferencia

Suave de Carga

(Soft-Load)

Residencial General Crítico Peak-Shaving

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ASCO Power

Technologies

4 Power Control Systems

Tablero de emparalelamiento de grupos electrógenos

Para 8 Generadores de 2000 KiloWatt c/u

Soft Load Overview

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Características

del mecanismo de transferencia

Operado por bobina solenoide

Diseño doble tiro

Inherentemente interbloqueado

Simple y Confiable

Operación Rápida

A diferencia de otros mecanismos

disponibles en el mercado:

A base de motores lineales

Engranes de plástico

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

Bobina

Vástago stago

Contrapesa

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Características del control del

mecanismo

La bobina solenoide está alimentada a través de relevadores en el tablero de

control de la transferencia.

El tablero de control inicia la transferencia de la carga energizando el relé SE

(normal) para transferir de emergencia a normal ó el relé ER (emergencia) para

transferir de normal a emergencia.

El operador de la transferencia siempre

de la fuente a hacia la cual se transferirá.

Ventaja: Previene transferencias hacia

una fuente mala.

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

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Transfer Switch Types

Mechanically Held Transfer Switches

ASCO Power

Technologies

Not Affected by Voltage Fluctuations

Positive Contact Locking

Higher Withstand Ratings

True Double-Throw Operation

Improved Serviceability

No AC HUM

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Transfer Switch & Overcurrent

Protective Device Locations

Transfer Switches should be located as

close to the load as possible to protect

against internal building failures in

addition to utility outages.

Overcurrent Protective Devices (Fuses

or Circuit Breakers) Breakers)

should be located

as close to the source as possible to

provide protection of service

conductors. conductors.

NEC requires CB no more

than 20 ft. from source. This also helps

assure proper system coordination.

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

X

X

X

UTILITY LOAD GENERATOR

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X

CB CB

X

CB CB


Four Pole ATS’

Enable Proper Detection of Ground Faults

Eliminate Nuisance GFP tripping

Alternate Source (EG Set) can be grounded

(“Separately Derived System”)

Eliminate Shock Hazards

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

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Ground Fault Protection

ASCO Power

Technologies

Neutral Isolation by

Overlapping Neutral Contacts

Soft Load Overview

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Overlapping Neutral

Eliminate Voltage Spikes

Prevent Degradation of Contacts Due to Arcing

Fully-Rated - Continuous Current & WCR

UL Tested, Qualified and Listed

Approved & Preferred by Every Gov’t Agency Including

FAA, VA, GSA & Army Corps of Engr.

Approved by IEEE, NFPA, UL, CSA & All Known Electrical

Codes

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

11

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ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

12

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Open Transition Transfer

“Break Before Make” switching

Load is disconnected for a finite period of time

Open transition -- step by step

transfer initiated

operator energized

TS mechanism begins to move

ASCO Power

Technologies

if transfer is between two live sources, an arc is formed

if transfer is from a dead source, load is disconnected

arc extinguished (if leaving a live source)

TS connects load to new source

Soft Load Overview

13

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Open Transition Transfer

ASCO Power

Technologies

Load on

Normal

Load Not

Connected

Load on

Emergency

N E

Soft Load Overview

L

N E

L

N E

L

14

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Random Open Transition Transfer

Transfer is initiated without regard for the relationship of

the normal and emergency sources

For some loads, random connection to a different source

can cause problems

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

15

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Random Open Transition Transfer

(resistive load)

ASCO Power

Technologies

NORMAL VOLTAGE

LOAD VOLTAGE

EMERGENCY VOLTAGE

Soft Load Overview

16

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Random Open Transition Transfer

(motor load)

back EMF of motor!

ASCO Power

Technologies

NORMAL VOLTAGE

LOAD VOLTAGE

EMERGENCY VOLTAGE

Soft Load Overview

17

step change

in motor voltage!

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Back EMF of Motor

voltage

ASCO Power

Technologies

MOTOR BACK EMF VERSUS TIME

The back EMF of the motor will decrease with

time. The rate of decrease will depend upon

several factors including the size of the motor,

the inertia of the motor and the size of the nonmotor

loads which are in parallel.

time

Soft Load Overview

18

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Problems Caused by Random Transfer of

Motor Loads

Breaker trips due to induced high currents

Motor insulation damage due to voltage transients

Motor shaft and coupling damage due to mechanical

stress

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

19

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Possible Solutions

Delayed Transition Transfer

Motor Load Disconnect Circuit (Accessory 31’s)

In Phase Transfer

Closed Transition Transfer

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

20

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Delayed Transition Transfer

“Break and wait before make” switching

Eliminates the energy stored in the motor by

disconnecting the load, waiting until the energy stored in

the motor is dissipated then connecting the load to the

new source

Requires TS mechanism to have a center “off” position

Requires load to be disconnected for period of time

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

21

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Delayed Transition Transfer

Load on

Normal

Load Not

Connected

Load on

Emergency

N

N

N

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

L

L

L

22

E

E

E

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Delayed Transition Transfer -- Disadvantages

Requires dual operator TS mechanism

more complicated

more expensive

Requires motor load time constant analysis

How long does the motor need to be disconnected in

order to dissipate the stored energy?

Subjects motor to increased number of inrush currents

on/off/on when transferred and re-transferred

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

23

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In Phase Transfer

Monitors the phase difference between sources and

initiates transfer so that the sources will be within 60

degrees of each other when re-connection occurs

If the sources are within 60 degrees of each other then

the motor current will not exceed the motor starting

current

Quarterback analogy

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

24

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In Phase Transfer -- Advantages

No additional hardware cost

dual operator not required (DTTS)

control wiring and circuitry not required (Acc 31)

software implemented solution

Motors do not need to be turned off

minimizes disruption of operation

motors are not subjected to “on/off/on” cycles

Field proven for > 20 years

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

25

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Closed Transition Transfer

“Make before Break” switching

Sources are momentarily connected

Requires dual operator TS mechanism

Requires isochronous type governor

Requires sources to be “in sync”

+/- 5% voltage differential

+/- 0.2 Hz frequency differential

+/- 5 degrees phase angle differential

if these three requirements are not met, closed

transition transfer will be inhibited

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

26

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Closed Transition Transfer

Load on

Normal

Sources

Paralleled

Load on

Emergency

N

N

N

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

L

L

L

27

E

E

E

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Closed Transition Transfer -- Advantages

No disruption of power to load

Reduces stress on UPS’s

Promotes periodic testing of the entire emergency

power system

Motors do not need to be disconnected

minimizes disruption of operation

motors are not subjected to “on/off/on” cycles

Eliminates transients caused by transformer switching

Field proven for > 20 years

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

28

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Application of

7000 Series Soft Load Systems

When a Single Transfer Switch is Transferring a

Block of Load at Least 80% of the Gen-Set Capacity

Soft Load Should be Considered if Voltage &

Frequency Excursions are not Acceptable for the

Controlled Loads

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

29Soft

Load Transfer

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7000 Series Soft Load

Transfer Switch with Active Control and Protection

Utility Protective

Devices

32 Reverse Power

27/59 Under-Over Voltage

81 Under-Over Frequency

67 Directional Over-current

46 Negative Sequence Overcurrent

47 Negative Sequence Voltage

Under Power is Also Used to

Assure System is not

Energizing Lines

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

30

Generator

Protective

Devices

32 Reverse Power

27/59 Under-Over Voltage

81 Under-Over Frequency

40 Loss of Excitation

(Excess Reverse VARs)

Additional Engine Controls:

Var PF Controller

Loading & Unloading Controls

Import/Export Controls

Voltage Matching

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ASCO Power

Technologies

7000 Series Soft Load

Soft Load Transfer Mode Example

Utility Service Supplying 1000kW Load 1200kW Generator

Initiate Soft Load By

Manual or Automatic

Initiation

Soft Load Overview

31

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ASCO Power

Technologies

7000 Series Soft Load

Soft Load Transfer Mode Example

Utility Service Supplying 1000kW Load 1200kW Generator

Soft Load Overview

32

Engine is Signaled

to Start.

Soft Load Controls

Drive Voltage,

Frequency, And

Phase Angle into

Synchronism

Transfer Switch

Closes,

Paralleling the

Generator and

Utility

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ASCO Power

Technologies

7000 Series Soft Load

Modes of Operation

Soft Load Transfer: Gradually Increases

Power at a Preset Rate, And Disconnects from

Utility

Base Load: Ramps to a Generator Load Set-

point and Holds

Import / Export: Ramps to a Utility Load Set-

point and Holds

Soft Load Overview

33

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Utility kW

Digital Value

One Line

Diagram

Utility

kW Bar

Graph

ASCO Power

Technologies

7000 Series Soft Load

Color Touch Screen Display

Soft Load Overview

34

Preset Mode

Setting

Generator

kW Bar

Graph

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GUI Setup Screen

Enable/Disable Feature

Enable/Disable

individual Utility PM’s

Enable/Disable Gen PM

Select PM’s for kW

Computation

Select if Computed kW

affects kW Demand

Activation and Import

Mode Control

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

35

Assign descriptive names

to individual PM’s

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GUI Status Screen

Individual and

computed aggregate

data display.

Toggle button for

Default, Aggregate kW

(shown), or Aggregate

kW Demand display

Status of

communication with

external PM(s)

Revised graphic

appears when

Aggregate data window

shown

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

36

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ASCO Power

Technologies

Pruebas y Mantenimiento

sin dejar de alimentar la carga

Fuente

Emergente

Fuente

Normal

^

Soft Load Overview

BP BP

^

IS IS IS

E L N

Condición Condici Normal

Transferencia ASCO

37

^

Cargas

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ASCO Power

Technologies

Pruebas y Mantenimiento

sin dejar de alimentar la carga

Fuente

Emergente

Fuente

Normal

^

Soft Load Overview

BP BP

^

IS IS IS

E L N

Utilizando el desvío desv

Transferencia ASCO

38

^

Cargas

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ASCO Power

Technologies

Pruebas y Mantenimiento

sin dejar de alimentar la carga

Fuente

Emergente

Fuente

Normal

^

Soft Load Overview

BP BP

^

IS IS IS

E L N

Se Prueba

Transferencia ASCO

39

^

Cargas

Network Power


ASCO Power

Technologies

Pruebas y Mantenimiento

sin dejar de alimentar la carga

Fuente

Emergente

Fuente

Normal

Soft Load Overview

BP BP

^ ^ ^

^ ^ ^

IS IS IS

E L N

Se extrae

Transferencia ASCO

40

Cargas

Network Power


Multiple SLTS’ CANNOT Be Connected

To A Common Gen-Set

Utility Service

Transfer Switch

Solution

1

ASCO Power

Technologies

1 2

Load A

Load B

Emergency & Standby

Generator

SLTS

Soft Load Overview


Multiple SLTS Controls

Interfere With Each

Other When They

Contend For Control

SLTS Each SLTS Cannot

Provide Proper Control

1 2

Because of Parallel

Distribution Paths

Soft Load Transfer

41

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4 Switchboard Design

ASCO Power

Technologies

Generators on one side / load on the other

G G L L

Power Flow

Soft Load Overview

42

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4 Switchboard Design

ASCO Power

Technologies

Generators in the center / load on either side

L G G L

Power Flow

Soft Load Overview

43

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4 Switchboard Design

ASCO Power

Technologies

Load in the center / generators on either side

G L L G

Power Flow

Soft Load Overview

44

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4 Switchboard Design

ASCO Power

Technologies

Generators in the center / load on either side

L G L G

Power Flow

Soft Load Overview

45

L

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4 Switchboard Design

1250KW @ 480 = 1875A

4 X 1875A = 7500A

G G

2000A

ASCO Power

Technologies

G G

8000A

Soft Load Overview

800A

3000A

46

800A

1200A

1600A

1200A

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4 Power Control Systems

Trafo de

Acometida

Acometida

ASCO Power

Technologies

N

Interrupción del suministro

ATS

2

L

E

Generador 1

El edificio se queda sin energía

Soft Load Overview

E

ATS

1

47

L

Generador

2

N

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4 Power Control Systems

Utility

Transformer

Incoming Service

ASCO Power

Technologies

Generadores en paralelo

480V 480V

480V

Fault

Soft Load Overview

48

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ASCO 974 MV ATS

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

ALLOWS FOR FULL

ANSIC3720.2 TESTING

AND COMPLIANCE AS

WELL AS U.L.

49

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4 Power Control Systems

Four EG system with master controls and distribution

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

50

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Algunos proyectos en México (1)

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

51

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Algunos proyectos en México (2)

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

52

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Algunos proyectos en México (3)

ASCO Power

Technologies

Soft Load Overview

53

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4 PowerQuest VPi

Product Family

ASCO Power

Technologies

Power Control Systems

Soft Load Overview

54

4

VPi

Transfer

Switches

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Gracias por su atención.

4

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