Volker Grassmuck Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin @ Operation Ton ...


Volker Grassmuck Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin @ Operation Ton ...

Freies Wissen in der

Turing Galaxis

Volker Grassmuck

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin


Operation Ton,

Rock City Hamburg, 12.1.2008

1. Freiheit

2. Geld verdienen


3. Urheberrecht quo vadis?


„The vitality and existence of the music

industry relies on only two priniciple groups

– the authors and consumers of creative

material. All the entities that sit in between

these two groups have to justify their

existence and their reward by how they

enable and facilitate the communication and

interaction between artists and consumers.“

(Peter Jenner, Generalsekretär des

International Music Managers' Forum, London,

in The Music Tank Report 2006)

Freie Lizenzen

„Das Plagiat ist notwendig. Es ist im Fortschritt

inbegriffen. Es geht dem Satz eines Autors zu

Leibe, bedient sich seiner Ausdrücke, streicht

eine falsche Idee, ersetzt sie durch die richtige


(Lautréamont, Poésies, 1870)

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Ethos of Science: CUDOS




Organised Skepticism

(Robert Merton, 1942)

Freie Lizenzen

“This song is Copyrighted in U.S., under Seal

of Copyright #154085, for a period of 28

years, and anybody caught singin' it without

our permission, will be mighty good friends

of ours, cause we don't give a dern. Publish

it. Write it. Sing it. Swing to it. Yodel it. We

wrote it, that's all we wanted to do.”

(Woody Guthrie, 1930s)

Freie Lizenzen

„All texts published in Situationist

International may be freely reproduced,

translated and edited, even without crediting

the original source.“

(Situationist International from 1958)

Freie Lizenzen

Pirate Editions, New York 1971


(Artur Matuck

from 1972



SemionR (incl.




Copy Art

Anti-Copyright und Plagiarismus

Zines/Websites: Vague, SMILE, Photostatic/

Retrofuturism, phutile international, Copyright

Violation Squad Bulletin

Kollektive Pseudonyme: Karen Eliot und Monty

Cantsin, Luther Blisset

Festivals of Plagiarism (1988-89)

Audiocassetten/VHS-Video: Plunderphonics, Tape-

beatles, Negativeland

Fan Art

Fan-Fiction, Manga, Sub, Dubs

(Star Wars, Manga & Anime, Games (WoW),

South Park, Harry Potter)

Rechtliche Grauzone (Parodie?)



Freie Lizenzen

• 0 is the freedom to run the program for any purpose.

• 1 is the freedom to study the source code and change it to

do what you wish.

• 2 is the freedom to help your neighbour, that's the freedom

to make copies and distribute them to others.

• 3 is the freedom to help your community, that's the freedom

to publish or distribute modified versions.

• ... if you share your modifications under the same condition.

Debian Social Contract

with the Free Software Community (2004)

1. Debian will remain 100% free

2. We will give back to the free software community

3. We will not hide problems

4. Our priorities are our users and free software

5. Works that do not meet our free software


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The Debian Free Software Guidelines


1. Free Redistribution

2. Source Code

3. Derived Works

4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code

5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups

6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor

7. Distribution of License

8. License Must Not Be Specific to Debian

9. License Must Not Contaminate Other Software

10. Example Licenses: The GPL, BSD, and Artistic


Freie Lizenzen

Open Hardware

1. open design (fully documented, license-free,

modifiable SA)

2. free firmware

3. free manufacture and sale

e.g. Simputer General Public License, Freedom CPU


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Open Networks

Pico Peering Agreement

1. Free transit (no interference with data)

2. Open communication (all info published, owner


3. No warranty

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4. May formulate use policy beyond 1-3

5. Local conditions concerning additional services

(DHCP, Web, Mail etc .)

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GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL)

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Open Content License (OPL, 1998)

1. You may copy and distribute exact replicas of the OpenContent (OC) ...

give any other recipients of the OC a copy of this License along with the

OC. You may at your option charge a fee for the media and/or handling

involved in creating a unique copy of the OC for use offline, you may at

your option offer instructional support for the OC in exchange for a fee, or

you may at your option offer warranty in exchange for a fee. You may not

charge a fee for the OC itself.

2. You may modify your copy ... of the OpenContent ... and distribute such

modifications or work under the terms of Section 1.

a) You must cause the modified content to carry prominent notices stating

that you changed it, the exact nature and content of the changes, and the

date of any change.

Freie Lizenzen

Licença de Uso Completo Re:combo (LUCR, 2001 by Caio


a) encouragement of ‘intellectual generosity’

b) the redefinition of the role of the artist within industry

c) dialogue with the public/audience, as the creative agent for the work

podem ser livremente copiados, reproduzidos, distribuídos, executados,

modificados e comercializados por terceiros através ...

7.2- É terminantemente proibido o uso dos trabalhos alcançados por esta

Licença para qualquer utilização em trabalhos que tenham caráter

preconceituoso, em termos de gênero, raça, credo, orientação sexual, classe

social, etnias, língua e espécie; e em trabalhos de caráter pedófilo.

7.3- O detentor dos direitos autorais do trabalho utilizado por terceiros

deve ser consultado quanto à utilização do produto em trabalhos

relacionados à política, agremiações e times de futebol ou para fins de

publicidade ou vantagens comercial.

Freie Lizenzen

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Definition of Free Cultural Works (Erik Möller, Benjamin

Mako Hill, Mia Garlick, Angela Beesley, 2006)

Social and technological advances make it possible for a growing part of

humanity to access, create, modify, publish and distribute various kinds of

works - artworks, scientific and educational materials, software, articles - in

short: anything that can be represented in digital form. Many communities

have formed to exercise those new possibilities and create a wealth of

collectively re-usable works.

Most authors, whatever their field of activity, whatever their amateur or

professional status, have a genuine interest in favoring an ecosystem where

works can be spread, re-used and derived in creative ways. The easier it is

to re-use and derive works, the richer our cultures become.

Freie Lizenzen

Definition of Free Cultural Licenses (cont.)

To ensure the graceful functioning of this ecosystem, works of authorship

should be free, and by freedom we mean:

• the freedom to use the work and enjoy the benefits of using it

• the freedom to study the work and to apply knowledge acquired from it

• the freedom to make and redistribute copies, in whole or in part, of the

information or expression

• the freedom to make changes and improvements, and to distribute

derivative works

(Beispiele: GPL, GFDL, CC-BY, CC-BY-SA)

Freie Lizenzen

Definition of Free Cultural Works (cont.)

Availability of source data: Where a final work has been obtained through

the compilation or processing of a source file or multiple source files, all

underlying source data should be available alongside the work itself under

the same conditions. This can be the score of a musical composition, the

models used in a 3D scene, the data of a scientific publication, the source

code of a computer application, or any other such information.

Use of a free format: For digital files, the format in which the work is made

available should not be protected by patents ...

No technical restrictions: The work must be available in a form where no

technical measures are used to limit the freedoms enumerated above.

No other restrictions or limitations: The work itself must not be covered by

legal restrictions (patents, contracts, etc.) or limitations (such as privacy

rights) which would impede the freedoms enumerated above...

Freie Lizenzen

Functional works

getting a job done

interoperating components


iterative improvements

hierarchical quality eval.

modifiabiliy (SA) mandatory



Non-functional works

enjoyment & enlightenment

solitary works / choice


recontextualizing & transforming

egalitarian quality eval.

modifiabiliy desirable

no coordination needed


Freie Lizenzen

Modifikationsfreiheit: Wahrheitsfindung

(Lautréamont, Merton)

Alles frei, don’t give a dern: radikale politisch-

künstlerische Praktiken

(Guthrie, Situationisten, Hoffman)

(Fast) alles frei: (radikale) künstlerische


(Semion, Plagiarism, Hip-Hop)

Nutzungs- und Modifikationsfreiheit:

kooperative Funktionsverbesserung

(GPL, Open Hardware, Pico Peering Agreement)

Freie Verbreitung: popularmediale Praktiken


Geld verdienen

Nollywood movies


„In fact, the easier it is to copy music, the

less of a threat piracy will become. When

piracy gets easier, professional pirates have

less to offer. The only ‚pirates‘ left will be

fans. The real question should not be, ‚How

can I keep my fans from hearing my music for

free?‘ It should be, ‚How can I best make

money from my fans?‘“

(Jaron Lanier, Piracy is Your Friend, 1999)

Geld verdienen

1. CD Verkäufe

2007 um 15% auf 500,5 Mio.

zurückgegangen. (Nielsen)

-> Oberholzer-Gee and Strumpf, 2004

-> Battacharjee et al., 2007

2. Downloads und Streaming

Downloads sind 2007 um 14% auf 1,4 Mrd.

gestiegen, Alben um 2,4% auf 30,1 Mio.


Trotz Tauschbörsen und (wegen?) Ausstieg

aus DRM.

Geld verdienen

3. Neue Vertriebsformen

CDs im Zeitschriftenhandel (Lobão:


Geld verdienen

Prince, Ray Davis, Seal (Promo)

Live-Album nach dem Konzert

Geld verdienen

3. Bundling

Pepsi verlost zum Super Bowl 1 Mrd. Songs

über Amazon.

Käufer eines N-Serien Handies von Nokia

erhalten ein Jahr gratis Musik von Universal

Geld verdienen

4. Rechtehandel

B2B: Musik für Filme, Werbung, Websites.

4. Rechtehandel


Geld verdienen

“It is often claimed that copyright does

ensure income for artists, but that’s plain


(Martin Kretschmer, director of the Centre

for Intellectual Property Policy &

Management of Bournemouth University,


Geld verdienen?

Geld verdienen

5. Kollektive Rechtewahrnehmung

„Royalties from performing rights

administered by collecting societies appear

to form an important and increasing part of

artists’ earnings. They appear to encourage

artists at the margins of full–time work.“

(Martin Kretschmer, Artists’ earnings and

copyright, First Monday, Januar 2005)

6. Dienstleistungen


(z.B.: Madonna, die vom Label Warner zum

Konzertveranstalter Live Nation wechselt)


(Rock- und Popmusiker verdienen 80% ihres

Einkommen in Musikschulen. Enquetekommission


Geld verdienen

7. Frei und bezahlt




Geld verdienen

7. Frei und bezahlt






Geld verdienen

Freiwillig bezahlt





Geld verdienen

Geld verdienen

8. Freikaufen

Street Performer Protocol

John Kelsey & Bruce Schneier, 1999

Werk und Zahlungen bei Treuhänder bis

Eintreffen der Zielvorgabe.

Geld verdienen

8. Freikaufen

Geld verdienen

Geld verdienen

Eingestellt 1.3.2004: “keine Frage, die A-fair-Lizenz ist eine tolle Idee.

Leider hat sich das nicht so herumgesprochen wie von uns erhofft.”

Alternative Vergütung

Geld verdienen

Geld verdienen

Geld verdienen

Alternative Vergütung

Geld verdienen

Geld verdienen

10. Pauschalvergütung fürs Netz

ACS / Digital Media Exchange (Terry Fisher)

Content-Flatrate (WOS)

Content Cent (Cay Wesnigk)

Licence Global (L’Alliance public-artistes)

Voluntary Collective Licensing of Music File

Sharing (EFF)

Geld verdienen

11. Kulturförderung

Kulturprozent (Migros)

Nachwuchsförderung (GEMA)

KSB, HKF, Filmförderung

öffentlich-rechtlicher Rundfunk


Bedingungsloses Grundeinkommen

UrhR & Kultur

EU-Mitteilung zu Content Online, 3.1.08

EU-weite Online-Lizenzierung (und Wettbewerb

unter den VGs)

Interoperables DRM

• Internet-Filterung

UrhR & Kultur

Kulturpolitik / Urheberrecht soll

Urheber befähigen, Werke zu schaffen

sie teilhaben lassen, am ökonomischen Erfolg ihrer


ihre Attribution sichern

das Interesse an einem lebendigen, vielfältigen

Wissens-Ökosystem sichern

Was tun?

UrhR & Kultur

1. Urheber und Verwerter klar trennen

2. Nutzer differenzieren

3. Werkarten differenzieren

4. Fairness und Transparenz

UrhR & Kultur

The Fair Music Manifesto

1. Unlimited freedom of musical expression.

2. Free access to musical expressions.

3. Justice of contract standards securing fair remuneration for

the artists.

4. Adequate use of technology for a fair distribution of

revenues instead of creating new monopolies.

5. Wide support for fairness and justice in the music business

as key elements of cultural diversity.

6. Full recognition of the cultural character of musical products

instead of limiting them to mere commercial artefacts.

7. A code of conduct for the music business, so that fairness

and justice become the norm and not the exception.

UrhR & Kultur

5. Kulturpolitik muss von den

Kulturschaffenden (mit) gemacht werden





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