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Survey of Western Music (MUS 115) - Mary Byrne

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MUS 115

A Survey

of

Music History

Course Handout for Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D., Instructor


School of Arts & Science

DEPT: Music

MUS 115

A Survey of Music History

COURSE OUTLINE

The Approved Course Description is available on the web @ TBA ______________________________

Please note: This outline will not be kept indefinitely. It is recommended students keep this outline for your records.

1. Instructor Information

(a) Instructor: Dr. Mary C. J. Byrne

(b) Office hours: by appointment only (marybyrne@shaw.ca); NOTE office location

(c) Location: Victoria Conservatory of Music (900 Johnson Street) studio 320

(d) Phone: (250) 386-5311, ext 5000 or leave message with Victoria Conservatory of Music staff

(e) E-mail: marybyrne@shaw.ca – Please ensure that you always place MUS 115 in the

subject line

(f) Website: www.vcm.bc.ca or visit www.marybyrneflute.ca (see section for student notes for

most recent posting of assignments)

2. Intended Learning Outcomes

(If any changes are made to this part, then the Approved Course Description must also be changed and sent through the approval process.)

Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

1. Present thoughtful and discriminating commentary on composer, period, and genre style.

2. Discuss select aspects of developments in musical instruments, including voice and

orchestra.

3. Discuss music in relationship to social, political, and scientific norms.

4. Present research in written or other format on topics related to music.

5. Discuss relationships between the disciplines of music and non-musical fields.

6. Present a performance review of a live concert of classical music and/or related musical

genres

2 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


3. Required Materials

(a) Texts:

Jan Swafford, The Vintage Guide to Classical Music (Vintage Books, Random

House, 1992) – available at Lansdowne Campus Bookstore for $24.95

Course Pack prepared for this course, available at Lansdowne Campus Bookstore

(b) Other

Internet access in a setting permitting focessed audio-video use.

Ticket ($10 at group rate, to be purchased through instructor in mid-September) and

personal transportation to attend Pacific Opera production of Giuseppe Verdi’s

Macbeth at the Royal Theatre, October 2, 2012, 6:30-10:00. Please mark this date

with its change of meeting location and time on your calendar now!

4. Course Content and Schedule

MUS 115 comprises approximately 5-6 hours of total time per week, leading to 3 credits:

classroom time: 3 instructional hours (150 minutes) per week: lecture, discussion, and

demonstration on topics relevant to the course materials; listening to and observing

representative works of the western classical repertoire; and completing in-class

demonstrations of personal study and listening.

Personal study and listening time: approximately 2-3 hours per week: focussed

listening and study relevant to the course materials; out-of-class assignments as given.

The goal of MUS 115 is to get to know and become conversant with wonders of Western

(European-based) classical music. To this end we will:

conduct a historical survey of Western classical music from Greco-Roman times to the

present through study of major composers, major works, and the major artistic periods;

explore the interlock of music with the prevailing politics, philosophy, and social

climate at the time of composition; and

conduct a survey of the base elements of music (melody, rhythm, harmony, metre,

form, timbre, orchestration, performance, interpretation, and performance practice).

Class Meeting Times

The class meets once per week, Tuesday evenings, Fischer 100 at Camosun Lansdowne

Campus: 5:30-7:00, 15 minute break, and continuing 7:15-8:15. PLEASE NOTE:

the exception to this schedule is October 2 when we meet at the Royal Theatre

6:30-10:30 for the Pacific Opera Victoria production of Macbeth by Giuseppe

Verdi.

A partial list of assignments is included in this course pack (See page 10-13) This list

is provided to assist students who must miss the occasional class to remain somewhat

up-to-date with assignments. Additional assignments may be made during class

meetings.

3 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


5. Basis of Student Assessment (Weighting), linked directly to learning outcomes.

Assignments (50%) – see pages 10-13 for a partial list

Midterm 1 (10%) – October 9, 2012 – see page 8

Midterm 2 (10%) – November 6, 2012 – see page 8

Term Paper (15%) – November 13, 2012 – see pages 5-7

… Assignments (50%)

Final Examination (15%) – probably December 11, 2012; 6:00-8:00 – see page

8 – check Camlink for exact day, time and location

Assignments (50%)

There will be weekly assignments 13 total: the 50% mark is calculated as an average AFTER

dropping the lowest score. See pages 10-13 for a partial list – additional assignments may be

made during class meeting time. Assignments are due at the next class meeting. While there

is no direct penalty for late submission of work, no assignment will be accepted for marks

once the midterm (or final course review) for that section of the course has taken place.

Final submission deadlines are:

October 9 for all September assignments;

November 7 for all October assignments;

December 4 for all November assignments.

Written work may be submitted in-person in printed hard-copy

or

electronically to marybyrne@shaw.ca

Electronic submission must be in MSWord or MS/PC compatible format, or copied

into the body of the email itself. Always place MUS 115 in your subject line so that your

work is diverted to the correct location upon receipt. For ease in locating your specific

work for a specific date (should question of receipt arise later), it would be best to use

the full subject line “(name), MUS 115 assignment (date).” Work submitted

electronically will be acknowledged prior to the following class meeting; if you do not

receive acknowledgement within that time, resend to marybyrne@shaw.ca and as a

precaution, speak with the instructor at the next class. Work submitted electronically will

be marked and returned electronically.

All work will be marked and ready for pick-up at the next class meeting (hard copy) or

by email (electronic submission). Please pick-up your hard-copy written assignments

each week.

It is rare, but sometimes assignments go missing. If you are not receiving electronic

confirmation of receipt back from the instructor, or are not finding your assignments in

the return pile each class, then your work may not be making it to the instructor to

begin with. Please feel free to inquire about assignments if you are afraid one might

have gone missing.

4 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Term Paper (15%), due November 13, 2012

…Term Paper (15%)

The paper should explore the relationship of music with or to a non-music field or

discipline, perhaps your own personal field of academic study (your major):

The paper should de 2000-2500 words. A paper which falls short of this guideline will

be assessed on an individual basis for “completion of argument.” If the paper feels

thoroughly argued and complete, then a shorter paper may receive full marks. If a

shorter paper feels insubstantial and incomplete, then a percentage mark will be

assigned, i.e. 60% of the required length gives a base mark of 60.

It is possible that this topic might not require full citations or bibliography depending

on the perspective of the paper. If the topic relates heavily to any of the sciences, it

may be possible to use author-date style of citations rather than Chicago Manual of Style.

Before assuming that either is okay, please confer directly with the instructor and get a

signature of approval.

Topics in this category often become quite large. You may wish to discuss your topic

choice with the instructor prior to investing a lot of time in your research, but this is

not required.

You may also be asked for a few spoken words for the class regarding your paper

topic, just so that the whole class might know what you explored and discovered – very

impromptu, there is no reason to make a prepared statement (just be ready for the

question).

If you would prefer to explore a non-written option for either of these papers – oral

presentation, PowerPoint, videography, arts performance – please speak with

instructor ASAP and no less than three weeks before due date.

Your written work should be entirely your own work and should be presented entirely

in your own words, according to accepted academic practice including appropriate

notes and reference annotations (see below). Any written work not meeting these most

basic criteria will be returned with a mark of “0.” To clarify, written work will be returned

with a mark of “0,” if …

If the instructor perceives any evidence of cut-n-paste from another source without

full footnote citation;

If the instructor perceives irregularity in the writing style which suggests more than

one author; or

If any other aspect of the paper, whether or not specified here, suggests to the

instructor that the paper, in whole or in part, is the work of an individual or

individuals other than the student who submits the work.

Your written work should be thoughtful and well-researched. Work lacking in research,

reasoned argument, or appropriate personal observation (as required by the assignment) will

suffer a mark reduction of at least one full letter grade.

5 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


…Term Paper (15%)

Listen to any music you reference in your written work with focussed attention

Use a variety of resources for your research where research is required. A minimum of five

edited sources is a good starting point in addition to any sonic source. Since it is not a

heavily edited source, avoid using Wikipedia or Wiki-like sources unless supporting these

sources with substantial research from specialists in the field.

Make it a point to discuss your topic to completion, or to express your thoughts in full even

if it takes fewer or extra pages/words. Work which is brief will only receive deduction if the

instructor senses that the argument is incomplete or shallowly considered.

Your written work should express your engagement with the topic. Written work which fails

to convey a sense of personal understanding will suffer a mark reduction of at least one full letter

grade.

Choose your topic carefully, making it a topic about which you are genuinely interested in

discovering more.

Make it your goal to express your understanding of your research rather than to give a simple

enumeration of what you found out from your sources. In other words, interpret your

findings and bring them to life!

When asked to give your own personal observations, thoughts, and responses, please feel

free to do so without concern for judgment – although use of polite and non-inflammatory

language is appreciated.

Submitted papers should reflect accepted scholarly writing and formatting style and

practice. To this end, you should:

Present an organized text including introductory and concluding paragraphs as required for

you topic, and follow a logical flow of argument throughout the full text;

Use full sentences, punctuating and capitalizing as appropriate;

Organize the text into paragraphs, either indenting or spacing prior to each new paragraph

(single-spaced paper only);

Avoid colloquial English such as contractions, unless such is indicated by the style and tone

of the paper;

Take great care with agreement and continuity of tense and number, and with use of

pronouns;

Use FULL FOOTNOTE or ENDNOTE citation in accordance with The Chicago Manual of

Style formatting for humanities subjects (not parenthetical citation author/date except by

special and prior permission). It is crucial that a reader be able to locate the source of any

information which is not your own original thought, down to the page number. Provide

FULL FOOTNOTE or ENDNOTE for the following:

All direct quotation of another author or source. Quotations of fewer than three

lines of text should be quotation marks and given in the body of the paragraph.

Quotations of more than three full lines of text should be given single-spaced and

indented on both margins.

All facts which cannot be assumed to be common knowledge for the field of study.

6 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


…Term Paper (15%)

All theories, claims, thoughts, hypotheses and the like which are not original to you,

whether given in your own words or in the words of the original author.

Submit a full list of resources used including all books, journals, on-line resources,

and recordings of music. A minimum of 5 non-Wikipedia or Wiki-like “Print”

sources is required. Resource citations must be in accordance with The Chicago

Manual of Style formatting for humanities subjects.

PLEASE NOTE: not every paper written will require citations or a list of

references as this is highly reliant on topic of choice, but the vast majority will.

Assuming that your paper will require citations and a list of references,

please use Chicago Manual of Style formatting for these, or gain

permission from the instructor to use alternate formatting.

See http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

Negligence regarding citations and a list of references, including incomplete or inaccurate

citations according to Chicago Manual of Style, may constitute plagiarism and will result in a

mark of “0” for the paper.

If you are in doubt, please consult your instructor or The Writing Centre.

If you are looking to “Be Green” submit electronically (see rules in the box on the previous

page), omit a separate title page, continue directly on to the endnotes and/or bibliography

following the last line of text, single space, narrow the margins, use a smaller font (nothing smaller

than 9 pt. preferred), print double-sided (but DO paginate) – the choice is yours, with no bonus or

deducted marks.

You may hand-write, type, or word-process your written work. You may submit in hard-copy

or electronic format in MSWord or MS/PC compatible format.

Marking of full papers will be based on quality of the writing and quality of the study

presented. The following is a rough distribution of points from 100 for the basic elements of a

well-written paper.

Content of study and discussion (65%)

Correct and thorough factual information

Appropriate choice of music and research materials

Quality and thoughtfulness of study/discussion

Discussion and study within one on the topic guidelines below

Essentials of written English (35%)

Basic grammar, punctuation, word choice, and spelling (spell-check or grammarcheck

may be used)

Appropriate organization of thoughts – sentences, paragraphs, order of topics within

the study/discussion (i.e. well outlined)

7 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Examinations and a Wod on Plagiarism

Proper use of quotation marks, footnotes or end notes, and bibliographic citations

(bibliography required)

Understanding is granted those whose first language is not English.

Examinations (cumulative 35%)

Midterm 1 (10%) – October 9, 2012

Midterm 2 (10%) – November 6, 2012

Final Examination (15%) – probably December 11, 2012, 6:00-8:00 – check Camlink

Midterm examinations will take about 1 hour at the end of class.

The Final examination will take about 2 hours in a designated session during exam week.

Each will be made up of a variety of questions (~ 25 for midterms, ~ 50 for final)

Short answer questions based on listening to music in the examination

Short answer questions based on reading, class materials, and weekly assignments

Longer answer questions (1-2 on each midterm, 3-4 on final examination)

Examination are thorough – hard but not impossible – and will be based equally on in-class

and out-of-class study of the previous month for the midterms, and of the full term for the

final. The student who diligently attends class, reviews the week’s material after each class,

and completes the assigned listening in a thoughtful and timely fashion – in essence,

practicing their materials as would be expected from a music student learning an instrument

– will do well on the examinations.

No formal review of material will be given in advance of the examination; however, a list of

terms and music to be covered will be given at the previous class session. It is promised that

all works and concepts tested on the final examination will have been discussed directly in

class.

PLEASE NOTE – RE: MIDTERMS – if you miss a midterm, you have limited

options for making up the examination. (1) You must have a note from the

appropriate professional stating clearly why you were unable to be present at the

class meeting of midterm examination; (2) you must take the make-up examination

at the Victoria Conservatory of Music (900 Johnson Street); (3) you must complete

the make-up examination before the marked midterm examinations are returned to

your classmates the week after the original exam.

A word about plagiarism and academic misconduct:

Plagiarism is a serious academic offence, see:

http://camosun.ca/about/policies/education-academic/e-2-student-services-&support/e-2.5.1.pdf

Academic misconduct, likewise, is a serious offence, see:

http://camosun.ca/learn/calendar/current/pdf/academic.pdf

failure to cite the work of other authors or sources, or indulging in plagiarism of any kind

will result in a mark of “0” for the assignment in question, in addition to any penalties

8 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Examinations and a Wod on Plagiarism

incurred under the broader Camosun Academic Conduct policy. Incidences of suspected

plagiarism will incur the penalty above and then be investigated through one-on-one

discussion between instructor and student to determine appropriate course of action. Any

suspected violation of the Academic Conduct Policy will result in a mark of “0” for all

participants on the assignment in question, and may incur additional penalties under the

broader Camosun Academic Conduct policy.

6. Grading System

(If any changes are made to this part, then the Approved Course description must also be changed and sent through the approval process.)

the following percentage conversion to letter grade will be used:

A+ = 90 - 100% B = 73 - 76% D = 50 - 59%

A = 85 - 89% B- = 70 - 72% F = 0.0 - 49%

A- = 80 - 84% C+ = 65 - 69%

B+ = 77 - 79% C = 60 - 64%

Letter Grades (minimum 70% required to use course as prerequisite for another course, or

to use toward completion of MUSF credential)

7. Recommended Materials/Services to Assist Students to Succeed Throughout the Course

LEARNING SUPPORT AND SERVICES FOR STUDENTS

There are a variety of services available for students to assist them throughout their learning. This information is

available in the College Calendar, Registrar’s Office or the College web site at http://www.camosun.bc.ca

English Help Centre – Ewing Building

Open to International Students in college level courses, Ewing 202, 250-370-3676

Writing Help Centre – Isabelle Dawson Building

Lansdowne Campus: Dawson 202A, 250–370–3491 or writingcentre@camosun.bc.ca

Camosun College also provides several on-line resources for assistance in writing an excellent

paper:

Editing List: http://camosun.ca/services/writing-centre/editing-checklist.html

Essay Writing Guide: http://camosun.ca.libguides.com/essay

Helpful Links: http://camosun.ca/services/writing-centre/links.html

The excellent website from UBC Department of History can answer many of your questions

regarding use of footnotes: http://www2.history.ubc.ca/102ws/index_page0008.htm

ACADEMIC CONDUCT POLICY

There is an Academic Conduct Policy. It is the student’s responsibility to become familiar with the content of this

policy. The policy is available in each School Administration Office, Registration, and on the College web site in

the Policy Section. www.camosun.bc.ca/divisions/pres/policy/2-education/2-5.html

9 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Class 1

Sept 4

Buy course

pack and text

Class 2

Sept 11

Turn in $10 for

opera ticket

List of Assignments

Required Reading, Viewing,

or Listening

Course Pack: “Classification

of Instruments,” “Families” of

instruments; “Study of Music

and “Classical Music on a

World Stage;”

Textbook: Introduction

Textbook: subsection Melody

(pg. 8+)

Textbook: pages 348-352

Textbook subsection:

Consonance and Dissonance (pg.

28+)

Coursepack: Section

“Numerology, Letters and

Circles for Musicians”

…List of Assignments and Class Calendar

Composers and Music

(Reflections due the NEXT week)

See page 158 for works by the first 3 composers

John Williams

http://www.johnwilliams.org/reference/biography.

html

Hans Zimmer http://www.hanszimmer.com/

Harry Gregson-Williams

Or select from the following lists (total of 3):

http://listverse.com/2010/02/27/15-mostinfluential-jazz-artists/

Google “IMDb Movie Composers”

http://www.gamesradar.com/10-great-video-gamecomposers/

http://www.rollingstone.com/music/lists/100greatest-artists-of-all-time-19691231/talking-heads-

19691231

R(aymond). Murray Schafer (# 1, 227, 311)

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/

Sofia Gubaidulina (# 251, 252, 310)

http://www.allmusic.com/artist/sofia-gubaidulina

George Crumb (# 284, 290, 291, 345)

http://www.georgecrumb.net/

VS Concert – Cage 100 Festival, Saturday, Nov. 17,

8:00, Alix Goolden Performance Hall

UVIC Music, Eve Egoyan, Pianist, performs Surface

Tension, a unique collaborative work for Disklavier

piano and interactive video by the artist and David

Rokeby. UVIC Maclaurin, Saturday Oct. 13, 8:00)

Aventa Ensemble, PT Young at Maclaurin, 8:00,

Saturday Sept. 8; OR Sunday Nov. 4; OR Friday Nov.

30.

10 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Class 3

Sept 18

Turn in $10 for

opera ticket

Class 4

Sept 25

Pick-up opera

ticket

Class 5

Oct 2

Class 6

Oct 9

Midterm 1

Last day to turn in

September

listening

Required Reading, Viewing,

or Listening

Biography of Hildegard von

Bingen at

http://saints.sqpn.com/blesse

d-hildegard-von-bingen/

Textbook subsection:

Monophony to Polyphony to

Homophony

Textbook: Subsection The

Early Music Movement

Textbook: subsection Fugue

and Canon

Textbook: Subsection

Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-

Century Opera (pg. 58+)

Coursepack sections: “TMI”

and “Performance Practice”

Attend Pacific Opera Victoria

performance

Class meets at Royal Theatre 6:30-

6:40 for check-in prior to start of

opera at 7:00

Royal Theatre

805 Broughton Street

Bus: eastbound Fort at

Blanchard [100045]

Directions, including parking,

may be found at

www.rmta.bc.ca

Textbook, subsection Sonata

Form, Symphony, Sonata, and

Related Forms

Coursepack sectioms: “way

TMI” and “If Sonata Allero

Form Were a Story”

…List of Assignments and Class Calendar

Composers and Music

(Reflections due the NEXT week)

Hildegard von Bingen (# 48, 49, 50)

Guillaume de Machaut (# 57, 58, 59)

Josquin Desprez (#65, 66, 67, 68)

Guillaume Dufay (#62, 63, 64)

Early Music Society of the Islands, 8:00, Saturdays

Sept. 29, Nov. 3, Nov. 24, OR Dec. 15, Alix Goolden

Performance Hall

Giovanni di Palestrina (#77, 78, 82)

Giulio Caccini (#84, 85, 86)

Claudio Monteverdi (#87, 88, 89)

Orion Series at UVIC, That Lascivious Cornetto, Oct.

15, 8:00, PT Young at UVIC Maclaurin

Victoria Baroque Ensemble, Sunday Sept. 23; OR

Friday Nov. 9, Church of St John the Divine, time

TBA

Antonio Vivaldi (#103, 104)

(VS Concert Sunday, Sept. 30, 2:30, UVIC)

George Frederich Handel (# 105, 106, 107, 108)

Johann Sebastian Bach (# 111-118)

Prepare for Opera by reading:

Textbook: Subsection Nineteenth-Century Opera (pg.

204+)

And visiting …

http://www.pov.bc.ca/macbeth.html and

http://www.pov.bc.ca/resources.html

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (#124, 130-137)

(VS Concert Sunday, Sept. 30, 2:30, UVIC; Saturday

Nov. 24, 8:00, Royal Theatre; OR Sunday, Nov. 25,

2:30, Royal Theatre)

Joseph Haydn (#125-129)

(VS Concert Sunday, Oct. 21, 2:30, UVIC)

11 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Class 7

Oct 16

Class 8

Oct 23

Class 9

Oct 30

Class 10

Nov 6

Midterm 2

Last day to turn in

October listening

Class 11

Nov 13

Paper due

Required Reading, Viewing,

or Listening

Coursepack sections:

“Orchestral Instrumentation”

and “Characteristics of Major

anf Minor Keys”

Textbook, subsection Sonata

Form, Symphony, Sonata, and

Related Forms

Coursepack sections:

“Deciphering the Codes” and

“Numbering and Identifying

Compositions”

Textbook: subsection “Other

Nineteenth-Century

Composers”

…List of Assignments and Class Calendar

Composers and Music

(Reflections due the NEXT week)

Giacchino Rossini (#169-171)

Ludwig van Beethoven (#141, 142, 145, 146, 148,

151)

(VS Concert Saturday, October 27, 8:00, Royal

Theatre; OR Sunday, Oct. 28, 2:30, Royal Theatre)

Franz Schubert (#153-157)

(VS Concert Monday, Nov. 12, 8:00, Royal Theatre;

UVIC Lieder at Lunch, Wednesdays, Sept. 12 and

Oct. 17, 12:30, PT Young at UVIC Maclaurin)

Gustav Mahler (#253, 255, 256, 331)

Robert [and Clara] Schumann (#161-164)

(UVIC Music, Robert Silverman, piano with the

Lafayette String Quartet, Sunday Sept 23, 2:30, PT

Young at UVIC Maclaurin)

Felix[ snd Fanny] Mendelssohn (#172-174)

Johannes Brahms (#183, 203-6)

(VS Concert Sunday, Oct. 21, 2:30, UVIC)

Frederich Chopin (#166, 180)

Franz Liszt (# 167, 176, 181)

Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov (#182, 207, 208)

Piotr Tchaikovsky (#187, 197-201

(Nutcracker Ballet, Nov. 30-Dec. 2, Royal Theatre)

Richard Strauss (#312, 314, 315)

Antonin Dvorak (# 182, 207, 208)

Dmitri Shostakovich (#258-60, 283)

Serge Prokofiev (# 23, 243, 257, 261)

Bela Bartok (#238, 248, 265, 273)

12 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Class 12

Nov 21

Class 13

Nov 28

Class 14

Dec 4

Required Reading, Viewing,

or Listening

Textbook: subsection Tonality

and Atonality (pg. 258+)

Textbook: AFTERWORD

Textbook: subsections

“Other Twentieth-Century

Composers”

…List of Assignments and Class Calendar

Composers and Music

(Reflections due the NEXT week)

Claude Debussy (#225, 262, 313, 316)

(UVIC Music, Bruce Vogt, Piano, PT Young at

UVIC Maclaurin, Saturday Oct. 27, 8:00)

Aaron Copland (# 239-41, 247, 337)

(VS Concert Saturday, Nov. 24, 8:00, Royal Theatre;

OR Sunday, Nov. 25, 2:30, Royal Theatre)

Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (free, use

last.fm))

UVIC Music - An intimate evening of original

music and jazz standards featuring Patrick Boyle

(trumpet, guitar), Ian McDougall (trombone),

Jonathan Goldman (accordion), Joanna Hood

(viola) and Brian Anderson (double bass), Friday,

Sept 28, 8:00, PT Young at UVIC Maclaurin

George Gershwin (#214, 244, 326)

Leonard Bernstein (# 220, 221, 327, 356)

Serge Rachmaninov (#245, 313, 317, 330)

Last day to turn in November listening

Each week, listen again to any titled works or kind of music heard in class – many examples will

be found on the web for free listening and perhaps download. Selections highlighted in-class

may return on the examinations. If you identify an on-line source for each selection after each

class bookmark the addresses you find, your review will be much easier at the end of term.

Selections will be identified in class by number inthis handout.

The Weekly Composer Study

Each week, you are asked to study and hopefully enjoy through the coming week the works and

lives of 3 composers (see chart above). Please listen to each work listed for each composer.

Please read the biography of each composer in your textbook: Jan Swafford, The Vintage Guide to

13 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


…List of Assignments and Class Calendar

Classical Music, or at the designated online site if there is no biography in the textbook. If you find

yourself especially interested in any one composer, do read or listen to more as you have time.

Try to really get to know each composer, her or his music, how the music reflects the time and

place in which it was written, and how it speaks to you as a listener in 2012 Canada. You should

strive to become so familiar with the style of each composer that you feel you could pick out

her/his music just by listening and could easily share observations and understandings about the

music with others, both those who are music aficionados and those who are musical newbies.

As you encounter the assigned music, look for your own answers to questions such as these:

What does the composer have to say about her/his time and place?

How does this music affect me? Do I like this? Why?

What seems unique or common about this composer’s music?

Why might this music be considered great?

Can this music speak to audiences of today?

What kind of music might this composer write if s/he were still composing (if retired or

passed on)?

Am I most aware of the rhythm, melody, harmony, text, instrument, etc.?

For each composer, please submit a personal reflection on your experience with the music. Most

will choose to submit a written prose reflection, in which case, look to write a half to a full page

(typed or handwritten equivalent) for each composer. Some will choose to record an audio or

video file, in which case we should chat regarding best method for submission. Others may

respond to the listening through a non-music art form (including visual arts, poetry, creative

writing, movement, or performance art), in which case, again, we should chat regarding best form

of submission. The choice of your reflection is up to you. In each reflection it is expected that

you will have something insightful to offer about the music of each composer and that you will

communicate well your full and individual, personal engagement with the music. Each reflection

will be marked from 100 based upon these criteria.

As a substitute for the weekly composer assignment, you may submit a critical review of and concert programme

from a live concert performance. You will still be held to account for any information which would be expected to be

gained from doing the composer assignment. A maximum of 3 concert reviews may be substituted for assigned

written work during the term. The chart above suggests some concerts which feature music by our

selected composers. These websites of Victoria-based concert organizations might also be of

interest to you:

http://www.balletvictoria.ca/

http://finearts.uvic.ca/music/events/

http://www.aventa.ca/

http://victoria-baroque.com/

http://www.pov.bc.ca/

http://www.victoriasymphony.ca/

http://www.earlymusicsocietyoftheislands.ca/

14 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Attending the Pacific Opera Victoria

Performance: October 2

Class meets at Royal Theotre 6:30-6:40 for seating

prior to start of opera at 7:00

805 Broughton Street

Directions may be found at www.rmta.bc.ca

…List of Assignments and Class Calendar

Prepare for attending Pacific Opera Victoria production

of Verdi’s Macbeth by reading up on the opera and

production on the Pacific Opera Victoria website, http://www.pov.bc.ca/resources.html . While

it is possible to fly it blind on the night of the opera, because the text will be in Italian and the

English translations (surtitles) will be shown on screens above the stage which many people find

VERY distracting, it is STRONGLY recommended that you at least study the list of characters and

the opera synopsis prior to arriving at the Royal Theatre on October 2.

To Pursue Topics of MusicTheory Search These Music Theory Links

http://www.musictheory.net/ -- Ricci Adams Music Theory, an interactive romp through the basics.

http://www.soundadvicedirect.com/about.html -- Sound Advice is Camosun’s entry-level theory

programme and is home-grown here in Victori

15 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Study of Music

…Study of Music

By taking this course you are embarking upon or extending your practice of musicology. Because it

is an accurate and inciteful expression of musicology, I quote the opening of the “Musicology”

article of Wikipedia in full with modifications shown in [ ]:

Musicology (Greek: μουσική = "music" and λόγος = "word" or "reason") is the scholarly study

of music. The word is used in narrow, broad and intermediate senses. In the narrow sense,

musicology is confined to the music history of Western culture. In the intermediate sense, it

includes all relevant cultures and a range of musical forms, styles, genres and traditions. In

the broad sense, it includes all musically relevant disciplines and all manifestations of music

in all cultures. ….

In the broad definition, the parent disciplines of musicology include history; cultural …[,

social, religious,] and gender studies; philosophy, aesthetics and semiotics; ethnology and

cultural anthropology; archeology and prehistory; psychology and sociology; physiology and

neuroscience; acoustics and psychoacoustics; and computer/information sciences[, many of

the hard sciences,] and mathematics. Musicology also has two [three] central, practically

oriented subdisciplines with no parent discipline: [performance], performance practice

and research; and the theory, analysis and composition of music. [bold and italics added]

The disciplinary neighbors of musicology address other forms of [the visual, plastic, literary,

and performing] art[s, along with the history, theory, and practice of each] … [as well as

aspects of] ritual and communication, … architecture; linguistics, literature and theater;

religion and theology; and sport. Musical knowledge and know-how are applied in medicine,

education and music therapy, which may be regarded as the parent disciplines of Applied

Musicology.

Traditionally, historical musicology has been considered the largest and most important

subdiscipline of musicology. Today, historical musicology is one of several large

subdisciplines. Historical musicology, ethnomusicology, and systematic musicology are

approximately equal in size - if numbers of active participants at international conferences is

any guide. Systematic musicology includes music acoustics, the science and technology of

acoustical musical instruments, physiology, psychology, sociology, philosophy and

computing. Cognitive Musicology is the set of phenomena surrounding the computational

modeling of music. 1

Ultimately, music and the study of music is about the music itself, that created and that recreated.

It is to the end of enjoying and enriching the many benefits and joys of music that we dedicate our

study.

1 Wikipedia, “Musicology,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musicology (accessed 21 May 2010).

16 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Western Classical Music on a World Stage

Play-Lists and Notes

Western Classical Music on a World Stage

Contemporary Reflections in Traditional Music

It is a seemingly impossible task – in fact, we are going to concede failure at the outset – yet we will

make a stab at the unlikely: define Western Classical Music. For our purposes we will take the

following as guidelines rather than rules – as a starting point, and then probably discuss and argue

the points for the rest of the term and beyond.

Western . . .

We could have just as easily used the appellation occident (as opposed to orient) to describe the region

considered to be “The West” or “The Western World.” For our study we will take “Western” to

mean having roots in Greco-Roman civilization. The only absolute that comes from this definition

is the understanding that we are now limited to the past 2500 years, give or take a century:

geographically we are still at sea as this definition does not denote the same territory over the past 25

centuries. As empires have risen and fallen since the time of Alexander the Great, boundaries and

governments change and along with these so changes cultural practice.

For our purposes, we will track our geography along with the Roman Empire.

The story of Western

Music begins temporally

with this broad area of the

Mediterranean world. In

this vast Empire (shown

here about 300 CE) 2 , the

religious movement we

now know as Christianity

was first legalized (313 CE)

and then assumed a

dominating role within the

Empire (through the 4 th

century). It was a time of

turmoil for the Roman

Empire with numerous

challenges on the borders

of the empire by

neighbouring tribes and

internal divisions caused by power-hungry political and military. Even Italy and the city of Rome

herself were threatened.

2 Map from www.ccs.k12.in.us/.../Roman_Empire_Map.png, accessed 25 July 2010

17 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Further challenges to the decaying Western Roman

Empire continued for the next centuries, both from

“barbarian tribes” of the north (Germany,

Scandanavia) and east (Danube region, Eastern

Europe), from the northwest (native tribes of the

British Isles), and from the south and adjoining

Middle East and Iberian Peninsula (Muslim

Empire). 4 By the year 800 CE little of the territory

of Europe could claim to be of the old Roman

Empire, but a central core of Europe could rightly

claim to be firmly held under the Roman Catholic

Church.

Western Classical Music on a World Stage

Play-Lists and Notes

With the seat of political

government officially moved to

Constinople in 395 CE, the Empire

was split for one final time east-andwest,

leaving the western Empire in

the hands of the minor political

leaders and the religious leadership

of the Catholic Church. It is with

the split of the Roman Empire

that we first are able to place a

finger on the general geographic

outlines of “The West.”. 3

On Christmas Day 800 CE, the Roman Catholic Pope –

representative of the Papacy of the Church, which for

nearly 400 years had wielded full political power over

the old Western Roman Empire – gave control of nearly

all remaining lands to the Frankish King Charlemagne

and annointed him Holy Roman Emperor in return for

allegiance to the Catholic Church and military

protection. 5

3 Map from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Western_Roman_Empire.png (accessed 25 July 2010)

4 Map from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ostrogothic_Kingdom.png, (accessed 25 July 2010)

5 Map from http://neon.niederlandistik.fu-berlin.de/static/nedling/taalgeschiedenis/Frankenrijk_onderKDG.jpg

(accessed 25 July 2010)

18 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Western Classical Music on a World Stage

Play-Lists and Notes

From the establishment of the roots of the Holy

Roman Empire in 800 CE through the next 1000

years we see the territories of Western Europe being

drawn in, becoming “The West.” Through the 17 th

and 18 th centuries we may also add the political court

of Russia at St. Petersburg with its strong liaison with

the French court at Paris. 6 Through the 19 th , 20 th ,

and 21 st centuries we now add many (but not all) of

former European colonial countries and regions to

our official map of “The West” including all of North

America and Greenland, all of South America,

Australian and New Zealand, South Africa and some

smaller areas on the African continent, Russia and

most states of the former Soviet Union, Turkey, and

finally again Greece herself along with most of the

Balkan states. Since the middle of the 20 th century

and with the advent of wide-spread communication

technologies, areas traditionally comprising the orient– Japan, China, Korea, and other areas of

Southeast Asia – may now be considered largely, but not exclusively “western” for the purposes of

considering contemporary art and popular music. Indigenous peoples throughout this vast

geographic region are not necessarily drawn into the western cultural sphere where music is

concerned.

In truth, in recent decades it may be possible to consider any region of the world to embrace the

ideals of the West where contemporary art and pop music are concerned except those areas which

have for many centuries been politically and religiously Muslim, a culture which embraces unique

ideals regarding music. Regardless of the presence of Western musical ideals in some of the music

from a particular geographic location, many indigenous cultures practice and embody musical ideals

which differ from Western musical practice, for example Canadian First Nations and Australian

Aboriginal.

. . . Classical . . .

May I begin by going on record: I am not in favour of making hard distinctions between “types” of

music. I have no objection to using terms to designate musics which have similar qualities, but I am

not fond on allowing those loose designations to define or pigeon-hole music. To permit the latter

is to open the door to isolating some music and even dismissing some music. This must not be

permitted as all music may be understood as an expression of the culture which gives it birth. Still it

may be useful to attempt placing rough outlines on the designation “classical.”

When considering music, we labour under a triple whammy regarding the word “Classical.”

Allow me first to quote from the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians:

6 Map from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:V%C3%A4steuropa-karta.png (accessed 25 July 2010)

19 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Western Classical Music on a World Stage

Play-Lists and Notes

‘Classic, Classical’ evolved from the Latin classicus (a taxpayer, later also a writer, of the

highest class) through the French classique into English ‘classical’ and German Klassik.

In one of the earliest definitions (R. Cotgrave: Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues,

1611), classique is translated as ‘classical, formall, orderlie, in due or fit ranke; also,

approved, authenticall, chiefe, principall’. The two parts of this definition will be

retained here and glossed as (i) formal discipline, (ii) model of excellence, supplemented

by (iii) that which has to do with Greek or Latin antiquity (Dictionnaire de l’Académie,

1694), and (iv) that which is opposed to ‘romantic’, the latter understood as morbid and

unruly (Goethe, 1829). 7

A not dissimilar definition comes from The Oxford Dictionary of Music:

Term [classicism] which, applied to mus[ic], has vague rather than specific meaning:

(1) Mus. comp. roughly between 1750 and 1830 (i.e. post-Baroque and pre-Romantic)

which covers the development of the classical sym. and conc.

(2) Mus. of an orderly nature, with qualities of clarity and balance, and emphasising formal

beauty rather than emotional expression (which is not to say that emotion is lacking).

(3) Mus. generally regarded as having permanent rather than ephemeral value.

(4) ‘Classical music’ is used as a generic term meaning the opposite of light or popular

music. 8

With this in mind, we find that our triple whammy is thus:

Music may be described as “Classical” in order to differentiate it from music which is

“Popular” or “Folk” in nature. Definition by differentiation is hard to argue, and frankly,

is a bit of a cop-out. The underlying assumption here is that “Classical” music is more

difficult to understand and less immediate to the listener than either “Folk” or “Popular”

music. This simply is not true as a rule! “Folk” music can be differentiated from “Art” music

in that we can trace the origin of any single piece of “Art” music with fair accuracy whereas

“Folk” music usually has an undefinable point of origin. “Popular” music can be

differentiated in many respects from “Concert” music simply on the basis of intended

performance venue or vehicle, but even this is going out on a very narrow limb.

Usually the appellation of “Classical” in this case is applied either as an act of derision or as

an act of snobbery – depending on the personal stance of the speaker!

Still, if we are carefully observant we can discern at the roots of this misunderstood and

misdirected use of the classification “Classical” some characteristics which do, in fact, set

aside “Classical” from “non-classical” music.

7 Daniel Heartz and Bruce Alan Brown. "Classical." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,

http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.library.uvic.ca/subscriber/article/grove/music/05889 (accessed July 25,

2010).

8 "Classical." In The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed. rev., edited by Michael Kennedy. Oxford Music Online,

http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.library.uvic.ca/subscriber/article/opr/t237/e2198 (accessed July 25, 2010).

20 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Western Classical Music on a World Stage

Play-Lists and Notes

o “Classical” music tends to exhibit characteristics of large-scale unfolding over a

period of time, usually requiring the listener to retain an aural memory of an idea

experienced in the beginning of the work, relate it to an idea experienced later in a

work, and make a connection or reflection based on those experiences which creates

a further experience.

o “Classical” music tends to exhibit characteristics of dramatic tension and resolution,

usually on multiple levels – there is usually a balance between anticipation and

delivery, usually a certain but not necessarily predicatible logic to the unfolding of the

work.

o “Classical” music is usually a written, composed form – limiting improvisation to a

small, specified set of possibilities. Performers are asked to interpret rather than

participate in the act of composition, especially in recent centuries. It is usually

possible to drop a clean line between the existence of a work of “Classical” music as

separate from the existence of a work through a specific and identifying performance.

o “Classical” music often contains strong, persistent, and frequently structural elements

of aural metaphor and symbolism, whether overt or subliminal, as well as

implications of character or temperament.

o “Classical” music often embodies deliberate assignation and selection of

instrument/voice based on the need for specific qualities or temperaments of the

music to be manifest by specific qualities and capabilities of a particular instrument.

These qualities are not limited to “Classical” music – “Classical” music exists in many

cultures including non-Western traditions – but “Western Classical” music will nearly always

embody these qualities. While not succumbing to a declaration that “Western Classical”

music is the perview of the educated elite, it must be confessed that often it does take a

measure of learning, or at least experience, in order to begin to draw out of much of meaning

embodied in works ofWestern Classical” music that the composer intended.

Music may be described as “Classical” as opposed to “Romantic” as with (iv) in our

New Grove definition – “that which is opposed to ‘romantic’” – or (2) in the Oxford

definition – “Mus[ic] of an orderly nature, with qualities of clarity and balance, and

emphasising formal beauty rather than emotional expression (which is not to say that

emotion is lacking). In a way (2) defines and clarifies (iv).

Throughout musical history some styles of music inherently lean more toward the “Classical”

side and others more to the “Romantic” side. The same can be said of styles within the

visual arts including painting, sculpture, and architecture among others. The same can also

be said of many literary arts. When we separate “Classical” and “Romantic” in this context

“Classical” is defined as beautiful by reason of clarity of form and “Romantic” is defined as

beautiful by reason of emotional affectation.

In this context “Classical” music is understood to mimic the ideals of classical Greco-Roman

antiquity – beauty by clarity – hense the attribution of the term “classical.”

21 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Western Classical Music on a World Stage

Play-Lists and Notes

Music History includes what we know as a specific “Classical Period.” Our Classical

Period is roughly defined by the years 1750-1800(25) and by the music of Haydn, Mozart,

and a young Beethoven. In giving the title of “Classical Period” to this style of music,

musicologists aver the sentiment that at this time music reached a peak of “beauty by clarity”

which has been unsurpassed by all other styles. Admittedly this is a subjective call on the

part of musicologists, but one which, in my opinion, is completely justified.

When we use the word “Classical” as part of Western Classical Music we mean the first salvo

in our “triple whammy.”

. . . Music

The great Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians devotes 21 print pages to pussy-footing around a

definition ofMusic.” 9 My beloved Harvard Dictionary of Music by Willi Apel, second edition,

however, makes a pretty good stab at it, pointing out that the word “Music” – in all likelihood 10 –

derives from the Muses of Greek antiquity, the nine of whom oversaw all aspects of human cultural

endeavour: Epic Poetry, Lyric Poetry, Choral Poetry, Tragedy, Comedy, Music, Dance, History, and

Astronomy. 11

Even within the time of the Muses, when there was virtually no line between sacred and secular in

any aspect of life, in the hands of Greek (and later) philosophers “music” edged into the realm of the

metaphysical, the mystical, the cultish, and even the forbidden. In the Middle Ages scholars included

Music among the sister sciences – the quadrivium: Music, Astronomy, Mathematics, and Geometry. 12

Part of the problem of achieving definition is – not the least of which – that Music must be

recognized as part art, part science, and part metaphysics. In fact, we have more success categorizing

broad aspects of music than we do defining it. Plato, for example – almost like applying genus and

species – categorized types of music as scientia harmonica, scientia metrica, and scientia rhythmica, or the

science of pitch, the science of meter, and the science of [textual] rhythm respectively. 13 The

medieval theorist Boethius divided music as musica mundana, musica humana, and musica instrumentalis:

harmony of the universe, harmony of the human soul and body, and harmony of produced sound. 14

St. Isidore of Seville in the early 7 th century termed music as musica harmonica, musica organica [ex

flatu], and musica rhythmica [ex pulsis digitorum]: music of the voice, music of tuneful instruments,

music of drums. 15 The 14 th century witnessed the emergence of musica mundana (of the universe),

9 Bruno Nettl. "Music." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online,

http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.library.uvic.ca/subscriber/article/grove/music/40476 (accessed July 25,

2010).

10 Medieval writers also suggested a origin of the word “Music” in the ancient Egyptian word for water: moys. This

possibility is somewhat more circumstantial, but none-the-less lends a refreshing twist to the idea of music.

11 Interesting that at this stage that both “History” and astronomy are considered” human endeavours,” and that the

visual arts are entirely missing.

12 An absolutely fascinating book on this very topic is Temperament: How Music Became the Battleground for the Greatest Minds

of Western Civilization by Stuart Isacoff

13 Willi Apel, “Music,” Harvard Dictionary of Music, second edition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979).

14 ibid.

15 ibid.

22 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Western Classical Music on a World Stage

Play-Lists and Notes

musica humana (of humans), musica vocalis (of animal voices), musica artificialis armonica (of spoken word),

musica artificialis armonica prosaica metrica rhythmica (of metered and rhymed prose), musica artificialis

instrmentalis cordae (of strings), musica artificialis instrumentalis ventus (of winds), and musica artificialis

instrumentalis pulsus (of percussion). 16 As late as 1500 CE theorists were resurrecting Aristoxenos’

simple division of music into practical (performance, artistic, or sounding) and theoretical (scientific,

written, or scholarly) disciplines of 300 BCE: these broad divisions as well as many of the smaller

ones above persist to this day. 17

These many annotations of some of the historical divisions of music do less to bring us closer to a

definition of music than they do in highlighting where some of the problems of achieving a useful

definition lie. To complicate further, even within Western languages, the word “Music” does not

always seem to represent the same entity, in the same way not everyone might agree on what is

meant by the colour “Purple.” In some languages the word for “Music” clearly includes poetry

and/or drrama, whereas English tends to separate the three words. Alternately, in common English

usage it is sometimes unclear of whether we are speaking ofMusic” in a literal or metaphorical

sense, as in “music to my ears.” For every person who attempts to define “Music” there is little limit

to the number who disagree with the definition.

I hypothesize the following:

In the beginning is “Sound.” “Sound” has loudness or softness (“Dynamic”), character or colour

(“Timbre”), duration, and an acoustic vibration frequency (“Pitch”).

“Sound” becomes “Tone” as differentiated from “Noise” when it acquires an intangible and

subjective aspect of pleasantness.

When “Tones” are combined and organized OR heard to be combined and/or

organized,“Music” emerges.

”Tones” and their opposite “silences” may be understood to be organized within time into

perceivable, even recognizable patterns of “Ryhthm;”

“Tones” may be understood to be organized in patterns of rise and fall, however slight,

creating a perceivable, even recognizable “Melody.”

Western Music.” with its assumptions of deliberate human genesis and creation within a cultural

context, further suggests:

16 ibid.

17 ibid.

A recognizable “Pulse;”

Metrical organization of tones, rhythms, and pulses on smaller or larger frameworks

(“Meter”);

Organization of tones and melodies according to set pitch patterns such as “Modes” or

scales;

Potential presence of multiple layers, actual or implied, of melody resulting in “Harmony.”

23 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Western Classical Music on a World Stage

Play-Lists and Notes

Potential effect of “Harmony,” actual or implied, to add further dimension to “Rhythm”

and/or “Meter;”

A power of motion and spirit (temperment) suggestive of song, dance, meditation, or

recitation;

A communicative power

Western Classical Music” with its greater assumptions of formal structure and aesthetic value,

further suggests:

Organization into formal structures of melody, harmony, rhythm, and meter (“Form”);

Deliberate selection and cultivation of tone colours (“Timbres”);

Beauty, within the perspective of the communicated message;

An implied but not requisite ideal that both performance and listening are deliberately

undertaken and that both benefit from special practice of skills not normally routine to daily

life

24 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Elements of Music

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

… Elements of Music

1. David New, Listen (2009), National Film Board of Canada http://www.nfb.ca/film/listen/

Music selections which follow are, for the most part, field recordings, and are drawn from the

following two sources: Jeff Todd Titon, ed., et al., Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the

World’s Peoples (Belmont, CA: Schirmer, 2005) , and Guy L. Beck, ed., et al., Sacred Sound: Experiencing

Music in World Religions (Waterloo, ONT: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2006).

2. Songs of hermit thrushes. Maine, USA (1999)

3. Postal workers canceling stamps. Ghana (1975)

4. Bubaran “Kembang Pacar,” University of Wisconsin-Madison Javanese Gamelan Ensemble.

Madison, WI (2000)

5. Festival Drumming, Taiko Ensemble Yuukyuu-kai. Bamberg, Germany (2000)

6. “Tsuru no sugomori” (“Nesting Cranes”), shakuhachi and shamisen, Washington, DC (1986)

7. “Sarasiruha” (“To the Goddess Saraswati”), Kriti in Natai raga, adi tala. Chennai, INDIA

(2001)

8. “Kutirimunapaq” (“So that we can return”), K’antu of Bolivia. La Paz, Bolivia (1982)

9. “Nag Beigu” (“Ferocious Wild Bull’), traditional Dagbon. Ghana (1984)

25 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Elements of Music

10. “Nhemamusasa” (literally, cutting branches for shelter), traditional Shona. Zimbabwe (1971)

11. “Hakusen no” (“A White Fan”), performed by Shitaya Kotsuru.

A white fan / spreading out / lasting forever / the firm pledges / like the silver node of

the fan / shimmering in the shadows / the boughs of pine trees / the splendid leafy

colour of deep green / the clearness of the pond / in the garden approached /

undisturbed by waves of wind / the surface of the water. / What an envialble life, / don’t

you think?

12. “Lullaby,” traditional Zuni. New Mexico (1950)

My boy, little cottontail, little jackrabbit, little jackrabbit.

My boy, little cottontail, little rat, little boy, little boy

My boy, little jackrabbit, little cottontail, little cottontail.

My boy little jackrabbit, little cottontail, little rat, little rat.

13. Biblical Cantillation of Torah, sung by Joseph A. Levine (2000)

Translation: And God spoke to Moses, after the death of Aaron’s two sons … and God

said …

14. Qur’ān recitation (sūra 1.107), al-Fātitha, recited by Hafiz Kani Karaca (1997)

Translation):

In the Name of Allāh the Compassionate, the Merciful

Praise be to Allāh, Lord of the Creation,

The Compassionate, the Merciful,

King of Judgment Day!

You alone we worship, and to You alone we pray for help.

Guide us to the straight path,

The path of those whom You have favoured,

Not of those who have incurred Your wrath,

Nor of those who have gone astray.

From The Koran, trans. N.J. Dawood (London,

Penguin 1956)

26 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


15. Bhagavad Gītā 18:65-66, sung by Guy L. Beck (2005)

Translation:

Think of me, love me, and worship Me.

Sacrifice and offer submission to Me.:

Thus you will come to me;

I promise you in truth, for you are very dear to me.

Renounce all types of religious duties and

Simply surrender to Me.

You will thus achieve liberation from all sins.

Of these there is no doubt.

… Elements of Music

Translated by Guy L. Beck in Sacred Sound:

Experiencing Music in World Religions (Waterloo,

ONT: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2006),

p. 129

16. Shabad of Kabīr “Āsā Srī Kabīr Jīu: Har Kā Bilovanā, sung by Bhai Harjinder Singh Ji

(1998)

Translation:

My brother! Churn the milk of devotion to God

Churn it with poised mind, lest its essence is lost.

Sanak and Sanandanm, Brahmin sons,

have not realized the extent of the Creator.

Brahmā himself has made his life waste in the study of the Vedas.

Make your body a churning pot, do the churning in

your heart, mind and soul.

Gather the Holy Word into this pot

Divine churning consists of contemplation in heart, mind, soul.

One obtains the stream of divine nectar

through the grace of Guru.

Says Kabīr: Should the Lord cast his glance of grace,

One gets across the other shore through the Divine Name. Translation by Guy L. Beck in Sacred

Sound: Experiencing Music in World

Religions (Waterloo, ONT: Wilfrid

Laurier Unjversity Press, 2006), p. 151

17. Invocation: Mangalacharanam, Three Gems: Trisaranam, Chanted by the Theravāda monks

form the Mahābodhi Society, Calcutta, India (1999)

Translation:

Homage to Him (Buddha), the Blessed One, the Worthy One, the Perfectly

Enlightened One!

=

To the Buddha for refuge I go

To the Dharma for refuge I go

To the Sangha for refuge I go

=

27 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


For the second time to the Buddha for refuge I go …

=

For the third time to the Buddha for refuge I go …

… Elements of Music

18. Tibet Contour Chant, chanted by the Tibetan monks of the Drepung Monastery (1989)

19. Amazing Grace, Nashville (2001)

20. “Weeping Pilgrim” from The Sacred Harp (1844), a book of over 250 hymns and songs for

communal choral singing published by Benjamin Franklin White (1800-1879) and Elisha

J. King (1821-1844), Georgia, USA.

Musical terms associated with this section:

Dynamic

Form

Harmony

Melody

Meter

Mode

Pitch

Pulse

Rhythm

Timbre

Tone

28 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Classification of Musical Instruments

….Musical Instruments and Voices

Humans have gone to great lengths to develop instruments to help give voice to the expression of

music … and we have done this for a very long time (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/scienceenvironment-18196349

from May 2012) We may yet realise that we humans are not alone in this

practice. At the same time, we are quickly broadening our understanding and acceptance of what is

an instrument.

In recent years musicologists have found benefit to assigning instruments a designation of “family,”

somewhat as biologists assign Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Order, Class, Family, Genus, and

Species to life forms. Over history the way we classify instruments, both formally and colloquially,

has changed. Generally instruments within a family have a similarity in playing method and

sounding mechanism. Each instrument retains its own “voice” through timbre (pronounced

“tamber” -- the colour, characterisitic, or quality of a sounding pitch) and tessitura (“range” – high or

low – of an instrument or voice), in addition to strengths, areas of ease, historical usage and an

overall personality

Here is a quick overview of those broad families – our common or colloquial designation on the

left and the formal Hornbostel-Sachs classification on the right:

Common Hornbostel-Sachs Classification

Woodwinds

Brass

Percussion

Strings

Flute, clarinet, saxophone,

oboe, bassoon Aerophone: Free, non-free, and

Trumpet, trombone,

French horn, tuba

unclassified

Xylophone, Marimba, Ideophones: Struck, plucked, friction,

chimes, maracas, shakers

and blown

drums

Membranophone: Struck, plucked,

friction, singing, and unclassified

Violin, viola, ‘cello, guitar,

harp

Chordophone: simple and complex

Mixed: usually a chordophone or

anaerophone

Soprano, Alto, Tenor,

Bass voices

Not classified

Keyboard piano, organ

Voice

Electronic or

amplified

Synthesizer, Electric bass Electrophone

Please take time to scan the Wikipedia article on Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments at

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hornbostel-Sachs as it is excellent in synopsizing this complex topic,

and showing the breadth and depth of musical instruments worldwide

29 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


….Musical Instruments and Voices

Most Familiar Modern Instruments:

An Introduction through Sound

It takes some practice to be sure what instrument you are hearing, and even the most experienced

listener can get it incredibly wrong if the instrument is used in a way that it not typical for the

instrument. The following selections demonstrate some of the most typical characteristics of the

most familiar instruments:

Flute (piccolo) #133, 225

Oboe (English horn) #276

Clarinet (E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet) #134, 135, 275, 293, 301

Saxophone (family of four) #279, 292, 307, 308

Bassoon (contrabassoon) #136, 288

Trumpet #294

French horn #191 bullet 3, 287, 300

Trombone #286

Tuba #309

Percussion #298, 299, 302, 303

Harp #280, 304

Guitar #137, 296, 305, 306

Piano #132, 141, 142, 161-4, 166-8, 310

Organ #95

Violin #160, 273

Viola #110

Cello #111

Double bass #289

Harpsichord #120, 121

For voice types, please refer to class

presentation for reference works

A number of iconic and popular works feature individual instruments in signature roles

21. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), Bolero (1928)

see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bol%C3%A9ro for the order of instruments as they

are heard

30 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


….Musical Instruments and Voices

22. Benjamin Britten (1913-1976), Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra (1946)

Instruments in order of appearance: Full orchestra, Woodwinds, Brass, Strings, then

Percussion; Piccolo and Flute; Oboes; Clarinets; Bassoons; Violins; Violas; Cellos;

Double Basses; Harp; Horns; Trumpets; Trombones and Bass-Tuba; Percussion

(Timpani; Bass Drum & Cymbals; Tambourine & Triangle; Snare Drum & Wood Block;

Xylophone; Castanets & Gong; Whip; Percussion Tutti); full orchestra

23. Serge Prokofiev (1891-1953), Peter and the Wolf, op. 67 (1936)

24. Paul Tripp (1911-2002) and George Kleinsinger (1914-1982), Tubby the Tuba (1945)

If you are shaky on your knowledge of modern concert instruments, check out the following:

Even though many of these websites are focussed toward kids, they are good:

BBC Guide to the Orchestra (http://www.bbc.co.uk/orchestras/learn/guidetotheorchestra/

“Arts Alive” Instrument Lab (http://www.artsalive.ca/en/mus/instrumentlab/ ), National

Arts Centre Orchestra

SFS Kids Music Lab (http://www.sfskids.org/templates/splash.asp ), San Francisco

Symphony

DSO Kids Listen (http://www.dsokids.com/ ), Dallas Symphony Orchestra

Top 10 Uncommon Orchestral Instruments (http://listverse.com/2007/12/09/top-10uncommon-orchestral-instruments/

) – links to saxophone and bass clarinet are broken,

celesta and alto flute are very poor examples, and others are VERY good.

And you may particularly enjoy:

Garrison Keillor, Young Lutheran’s Guide to the Orchestra (comedy, but still the

musical and character representation of the various instruments of the orchestra are quite

valid – perhaps avoid this one, however, if you do not wish to participate in comedy which

pokes fun at a religious denomination.

Leonard Bernstein, Young People’s Concerts, episode 3 (an oldie, but goody)

Musical Terms in association with this section:

Tone

Brass

Timbre

Range

Tessitura

Woodwinds

Percussion

Strings

Keyboard

Voice

Aerophone

Ideophones

Membranophone

Chordophone

Electrophone

31 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Relative to Voice:

….Musical Instruments and Voices

Musicians use this term for several purposes: (1) literally, the human voice; (2) the “voice” of the

instrument; or (3) a line of music performable by a single performer (vocal or instrumental).

Considering, now, specifically the human singing voice …

Soprano: in modern usage, a high voice, usually that carrying the melody: this can apply to

voice or instrument! Soprano can also be used to define the whole range of high-voiced

singers, usually female or children’s. Within the soprano tessitura, musicians commonly make

several divisions:

The highest of the high women’s voice is sopranino, or coloratura (see down). Maturity is

implied.

A high child’s voice (unbroken) is treble, or descant. Lightness and purety is implied.

A moderately high, or limited range soprano voice is mezzo soprano, or simply mezzo

A somgful high woman’s voice is designated “lyric soprano”

A heavy high woman’s voice is designated “dramatic soprano”

Alto: in modern usage, a medium voice: a low high-voice, or a very high low-voice: this can

apply to voice or instrument. For singers this represents the approximate speaking range of the

average woman, and implies a certain huskiness or mellowness of timbre. Both men and

women are capable of singing alto.

A very low female voice is contralto. Contralto always designates a woman’s voice, but

this woman may be able to sing very low into the tenor or even baritone register.

A high trained-falsetto men’s voice is countertenor.

An unchanged male voice or an extremely high natural male voice (VERY rare) may be

an alto

A low child’s voice may be alto (boy or girl)

A mezzo soprano may double as alto.

Tenor: in modern usage a medium voice: a high low-voice: this can apply to voice or

instrument. Tenor, in early music, is likely to refer to the melody: the voice holding (tenere!)

the melody. In singing tenor defines a naturally high men’s voice. A true male tenor voice is

usually a very trained voice and very short-lived as it is very difficult on the vocal apparatus.

Within the tenor tessitura, musicians commonly make several divisions:

A very high, light, and flexible men’s tenor voice is designated leggiero tenor

A strong, warm, but not heavy men’s tenor voice is designated lyric tenor

A bright, high, and heroic men’s tenor is designated spinto tenor

A strongly dramatic, ringing, emotive, and powerful men’s tenor is designated dramatic

tenor, or tenore de fooza, or rubusto

A dark, rich, very powerful men’s tenor is designated heldentenor

Baritone: in modern usage, a moderately low voice: this can apply to voice or instrument. As

previously, the men’s baritone voice has divisions and designations as do tenor and soprano, but

is mostly limited to “lyric” and “dramatic.” A deep, low men’s baritone voice is designated

Bass-baritone

Bass: in modern usage, a low voice: this can apply to voice or instrument! In singing the

men’s bass voice is divided lyric and dramatic, and also high (hoher) and low (profundo)

32 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Voices

No official classification

ChildrenÊs Voices

treble

….Musical Instruments and Voices

WomenÊs voices from highest to lowest, including quality

Coloratura Soprano (high range and great flexibility)

Lyric Soprano (lighter in quality)

Dramatic Soprano (powerful and declamatory)

Mezzo-soprano (mid-range and my have any of the qualities of a soprano)

Dramatic Contralto

Contralto

MenÊs voices from highest to lowest, including quality

Countertenor (similar range to female contralto or possibly mezzo-soprano)

Heldentenor (heroic tenor with power and agility)

Lyric Tenor (lighter in quality)

Tenore robusto (dramatic, powerful, vigorous)

Baritone

Basso buffo (comical, agile bass, may also have extreme low range)

Basso cantante (lighter in quality)

Basso profundo (low and powerful, solemn in character)

33 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Flute Family

….Musical Instruments and Voices

Sachs Classification: edge-blown aerophone. Common Classification: Woodwind

Ancient and Modern Flutes

Fipple Flutes:

Recorder

Tin whistle

Flageolet

Ocarina

Flue section of the Organ

Bosun’s Whistle

Most Native American flutes

Tibia

Transverse Flutes:

Piccolo

Concert Flute (or German flute) – and bigger versions of same

Fife

Bansuri

Dizi

Traverso

Willow flute

End-blown flutes:

Pan Pipes

Shakuhachi

Ney

Anasazi

Xaio

Kaval

Quena

jug

34 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Oboe and Bassoon Families

….Musical Instruments and Voices

Sachs Classification: double-reed aerophone. Common classification: Woodwind

Ancient relatives of Oboes

Shawm

Sorna

Raita

Suona

Sopila

Zurna

Aulos

Crumhorn

Duduk

Mussette

More recent relatives of the Oboe

English Horn (Cor anglais)

Oboe d’amore

Bass Oboe

Heckelphone

Oboe da caccia

Ancient Relatives of the Bassoon

Dulcian

Rackett

More recent relatives of the Bassoon

Contrabassoon

Sarrusophone

Other Double Reeds

HighlandBagpipes

Cornemeuse

Uillean pipes

Dudelsack

35 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


….Musical Instruments and Voices

Clarinet and Saxophone Families

Sachs Classification: single--reed aerophone. Common Classification: Woodwind

Ancient relatives of Clarinet

Alboque

Chalumeau

Hornpipe

Pibgorn

Mijwiz

Arghul

More recent relatives of the Clarinet

Basset Horn

Larger and smaller versions of the modern clarinet

As a relatively recent invention (1846), the brain-child of

Adolphe Sax,, the saxophone is a reasonably unique

instrument with no identifiable predecessors other than

the larger body of sinigle-reed instruments!

Other Single Reeds

Duda

Swedish bagpipes

36 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Brass Families

….Musical Instruments and Voices

Official Classification: lip-reed (trumpet) aerophone. Common Classification: Brass

Ancient relatives of Trumpet

Romam Tuba

Bucina

Shofar

Conch

Lur

Didgeridoo

Natural Trumpet

Cornetto

More recent relatives of the Trumpet

Flugelhorn

Cornet

Bugle

Rotary valve and slide trumpets

Smaller and larger trumpets

Ancient Relatives of the Horn

Natural Horn

Hunting Horn

Alphorn

Post Horn

More recent relatives of the Horn

Mellophone

Wagner tuba

Alto horn

Saxhorn

Vienna Horn

37 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Ancient Relatives of the Trombone

Sackbut

Bucchin

More recent relatives of the Trombone

Valve Trombone

Alto and Bass Trombones

Ancient Relatives of the Tuba

Serpent

Ophecleide

More recent relatives of the Tuba

Euphonium

Baritone Horn

Contrabass Bugle

Sousaphone

….Musical Instruments and Voices

38 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Struck Idiophones

….Musical Instruments and Voices

Percussion Family

Two official classifications: idiophones and membranophones

Bells, Chimes, Glockenspiel

Cymbals

Xylophone

Marimba

Castanets

Triangle

Spoons

Shaken, Plucked, or Rubbed Idiophones

Rattles (shaken)

Rainsticks (shaken)

Jaw harp (plucked)

Glass Harmonica, crystal glasses (rubbed)

Scrapers and ratchets (rubbed)

Saw (rubbed)

Membranophones

Drums

Timpani

Mirliton or Kazoo

A bit of each idiophone and membranophone

Snare Drum

Tambourine


39 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Keyboard Instruments

No official classification, rather subset of other families.

String family keyboards (modern and ancient)

Piano (struck)

Pianoforte (struck)

Harpsichord (plucked)

Virginal (plucked)

Spinet (plucked)

Clavichord (touched)

Wind family keyboards (modern and ancient)

Flue section of the Pipe Organ (flute!)

Reed section of the Pipe Organ (free-reed)

Harmonium (free-reed)

Percussion family keyboards (modern and ancient)

Celeste

….Musical Instruments and Voices

40 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modern Bowed Strings

Violin

Viola

Violoncello (or ‘Cello)

Double Bass

Regional and ethnic Fiddles

Ancient Bowed Strings

viols, especially viola da gamba

vielle

hurdy-gurdy

tromba marina

String Families

Sachs Classification: chordophone.

Common Classification: Strings

….Musical Instruments and Voices

41 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Plucked Strings (modern and ancient)

Zither or autoharp

Psaltery

Lute

Guitar

Lyre

Kithara

Harp

Koto (or Chyn)

Veena

Struck Strings (modern and ancient)

Dulcimer

Cimbalom

Pantaleon

….Musical Instruments and Voices

42 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


….Musical Instruments and Voices

Free-Reed Families

Sachs Classification: single--reed aerophone. No single common classification

Fitted-slots instruments

Harmonica

Accordion

Bandoneon

Concertina

Harmonium

Reed section of the Organ

Whirling instruments

Siren

Lasso d’amore

Bullroarer

Plosive instruments

Boomwhacker

End-struck pipe


43 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music of Greco-Roman Antiquity

Music of Greco-Roman Antiquity

600 BCE – 400 CE

Music heard in class is drawn from the following. These selections are rerecreated from verbal

and pictorial sources by current Italian recreative music group, Synaulia – Synaulia has a very

informative website and some postings on YouTube if you would like to investigate this area more.

There you can find pictures and descriptions of all instruments used, including much archeological

background. All compositions are newly composed by Walter Maioli and his team of

musician/perfomers, and are inspired by Ancient Rome (1 st and 2 nd centuries CE)

25. Animula Vagula (double flute, 2 tympana, cymbal)

26. Tympanum (tympanum)

27. Fortuna (tympanum, horn scraper, bells)

28. Tibia Duplex (double fistulae)

29. Pompeii (double fistulae, tympanum, cymbals, crotales)

30. Tibiae Impares (two tibiae, one 30 cm, the other 35 cm)

31. Lares (wedged fistula, tibiae, percussion)

32. Diana (three buccine and cymbals)

33. Arena (cornu and tuba)

34. Pastorale (tibia)

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Melody:

Rhythm

Pythagoras of Crotos

Plato (Greek)

Textbook pages 4-5 may be used for additional reference.

Aristotle (Greek)

Cicero (Roman)

The Muses

Music of the Spheres (Egypt)

For additional and fascinating reading, check out Essays no. 1-30 by David Whitwell at

http://www.whitwellessays.com/

44 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Aural Traditions of the Early Church

Aural Traditions of the Early Church

Chant in Local Christian Communities

BYZANTINE, VISIGOTH, LOMBARD, OLD ROMAN, GALLICAN

(300 CE – 600 CE)

Gregorian Unification

(600 CE – 800 CE)

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

35. “Alleluia” from services for Holy Monday (week before Easter): example of Byzantine Chant,

centered around Constantinople, c. 400 CE

Text: Alleluia

36. “Hymn to the Virgin Mary” from the liturgy (church service) of St. John Chrysostom: example of Greekinfluenced

chant from Antioch, Turkey, c. 400 CE

Text: Axion esti …

Translation: Worthy to be …

37. Psalm 110 (from the Old Testament of the Bible): Tecum principium in die virtutis tue: example of

Milanese (centered at Milan in northeastern Italy) and Ambrosian (named for St.

Ambrose [340-397] of the church at Milan) chant, c. 375 CE

Text: Tecum princípium in die virtútis tuæ

Translation: Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power

38. Communion: Qui manducaverit ; example of Beneventan (centered at Benevento in southern

Italy) or Old Lombard chant, c. 350 CE

Text: Qui manducaverit / corpus meum / et biberit / sanguinem meam / ipse in me manet / et ego in

eum / alleluia

Translation (loosely): I will take in the he body and blood of Christ. Alleluia

45 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Aural Traditions of the Early Church

39. Sacrificium: vox clamantis : example of Visigothic, later called Mozarabic (literally “Christian in

an Arab land”) chant, centered in Toledo, Spain, c. 400-700 CE

Text : Vox clamantis …

Translation: The voice crying out loud …

40. Adoration of the Cross: Agios o Theos, Sanctus Deus: example of Old Roman Chant, centered in

Rome, Italy, c. 500 CE

Text: Agios o Theos, Sanctus Deus …

Translation: O Holy God …

41. “Versus de l’eveque Theodulf d’Orleans: Gloria, Laus”: example of Gallican chant, broadly

centered in what is now France. Much of this body of chant will later be codified into

what is now known as Gregorian Chant

Text: Gloria, laus et honor tibi sit Rex Christe, Redemptor

Translation: Glory, praise, and honour be given to you, King Christ, the Redeemer

42. “Viderunt Omnes” : example of Gregorian Chant (plainsong)

Text: Viderunt omnes fines terre salutare Dei nostril / jubilate Deo omnes terra. / Notum fecit

dominus salutare suum: / ante conspectum gentium revelavit iusticiam suam.

Translation: All the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God: / sing joyfully

to God, all the earth. / The Lord has made known his salvation: / He has

revealed His righteousness in the sight of the nations.

Musical Terms in association with this time period (consult glossary of text for further elaboration):

Mode / Modal

Plainchant

Voice

Unison

Drone

Melisma

Monophony

Mass

In addition, textbook pages 6-13 may be used for further reference on this period.

Boethius

(Philosopher)

Song of the Sibyl

(UNESCO)

If you have little or no experience with the traditional mass of the Roman Catholic Church, you may

find this to be helpful: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_%28music%29 in order to gain some

insight into the musical side of the medieval and early Christan Liturgical Mass.

46 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music in the Medieval Catholic Church

Music in the Medieval Catholic Church

Carolingian Organum

EMERGENCE OF “COORDINATE HARMONY”

(800 CE – 1000 CE)

Romanesque Polyphony

BREAK-AWAY VOICES

(1000 CE – 1150 CE)

Gothic Style

NOTRE DAME AMD AQUITAINE

(1150 CE – 1300 CE)

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

43. Domine, labia mea aperies: Psalm 51, verses 17 and 18, here presented as a plainchant; followed

by section of parallel organum. While this example originates from Aquitaine region of

modern France (late 12 th Century), it is exemplary of the older Carolingian style of parallel

organum

Text: Domine, labia mea aperies: et os meum annuntiabit laudem tuam / Deus in adjutorium meum

intende.

Translation: O Lord, you will open my lips: and my mouth shall declare your praise. /

For if you had desired sacrifice, I would indeed have given it

44. O primus homo coruit: Originates from Aquitaine region of modern France, verses for the

Matins service for Christmas Day, here a 2-voice (organum duplum) florid organum,

single voice over original plainsong (late 12 th century).

Text: O primus homo coruit

Translation: O glittering first among men …

47 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music in the Medieval Catholic Church

45. Magister Leoninus “Leonin” (fl. 1150-1201), Viderunt Omnes, 2-part free organum (organum

duplum) on the chant of the same name, Paris, Notre Dame Cathedral and universitas

magistrorum et scholarium [Université de Paris]. The term of Notre Dame School is applied

to the music originating from the Cathedral masters for the hundred years 1150 – 1250

CE.

46. Magister Perotinus, “Perotin” (fl. 1200), Viderunt Omnes 4-part free organum (organum

quadruplum) on the plainchant by the same name, Paris, Notre Dame Cathedral and universitas

magistrorum et scholarium [Université de Paris].

Musical Terms in association with this time period (consult glossary of text for further elaboration):

Plainchant

Cantus firmus

Consonance

Dissonance

Interval

Cadence

Counterpoint

Organum

Parallel Organum

Free or Florid Organum

Discant

Polyphony

Staff

Clef

Guido d’Arezzo

Guidonian Hand

Neumes (notation)

Rhythmic modes

Trivium

Quadrivium

48 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Ars Antiqua

PERSONAL EXPRESSIONS: SACRED AND SECULAR

(1150 CE – 1300 CE)

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

… Ars Antiqua

47. Anonymous, La Chanson de Roland (9 th century). This epic poem in the minstral tradition

is amongst the first to extant sources of song texts from middle ages Europe. The poetry

describes the exploits of Charlesmagne against the Moors of Islamic Spain.

48. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179), O virgo ac diadema : an example of a Da Sancta Maria

Sequentia, or a hymn (sung poetry) to the Virgin Mary. Such hymns are usually in

rhyming poetic couplets.

English Translation of Latin Text

Green branch and imperial diadem, in your virginity enclosed as in shining armour,

You branched, blossoming, in a fashion changed from that by which Adam produced

the whole human race. hail, from your womb came forth another life which Adam

had stripped from his sons.

O flower, it was not the dew that made you bud, nor drops of rain, nor did the wind

waft over you, but the divine radiance brought you forth from the most noble

branch.

O branch, God foresaw your flowering on the first day of creation. And he made you,

o virgin most worthy of praise, as a golden matrix for his Word

O how great in its strength is the side of Man from which God brought forth Woman,

whom he made the the mirror of all his beauty and the embrace of all his creation.

And so all heaven's instruments make music together, and all the earth admires you,

Mary most worthy of praise, whom God has loved so deeply.

A very great cause it was for lamenting and mourning, That through the counsel of

the serpent, sorrow and guilt flowed into woman.

For that woman, whom God had set to be the mother of us all, she destroyed her own

womb with the wounds of ignorance and gave birth to all pain for her children.

But, o dawn, from your womb a new Sun rises, which has cleansed all Eve's sins, and

through you a blessing flows greater than the harm Eve did to men.

And thus you have saved us, you who bore the New Light for humankind. Gather

then the members of your Son into celestial harmony.

49 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Ars Antiqua

49. Hildegarde von Bingen, O viridissimi virgo : an example of a sequence to the Virgin Mary (Da

Sancta Maria Sequentia)

O greenest branch, I greet you, you who budded in the winds of the questioning of

the saints.

The time came for you to blossom in your branches, I salute you! The sun's heat

distilled in you the fragrance of balsam.

For in you bloomed the beautiful flower which gave fragrance to all the dried out

spices.

And they all burgeoned in their strength and greenness. And because of this, the

heavens dropped their dew upon the grass,

And all the earth was made glad, for her womb brought forth wheat, and the birds of

heaven made their nests in her.

From this, humankind is nourished, which brings great joy to the feasters. And hence,

o sweet virgin, in you no joy is lacking.

All of this, Eve rejected. Indeed, let us praise the Most High.

50. Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1179), Ordo Virtutum (c. 1151): Earliest known morality play,

composed in monophonic song except for the single speaking role of the devil.

51. Bernart de Ventadorn (b. 12 th century), “Quan vei la lauzeta mover” : unascribed

Troubadour chanson

Text: Quan vei la lauzeta mover …

Translation: When I see the lark move its wings for joy against the sun’s rays and forgets

to fly and allows itself to fall for the sweetness that goes to its heart, alas, such

envy comes over me of those I see filled with happiness I marvel that my heart

does not melt from desire.…

52. Alfonso X El Sabio (1221–1284), attributed, Santa Maria Leva, no. 320 from Cantigas de

Santa Maria ("Canticles of Holy Mary"), a set of 420 poems with musical notation, written

in Galician-Portuguese

Text

Santa Maria leva

o ben que perdeu Eva.

O ben que perdeu Eva

pola sa neicidade,

O ben que perdeu Eva

pela sa gran loucura,

cobrou Santa Maria

Translation:

Saint Mary restored

the good that Eve lost.

The good that Eve lost

through her ignorance

Saint Mary restored

by her humility.

Saint Mary restored, etc.

50 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


cona sa gran cordura

Santa Maria leva, etc.

O ben que perdeu Eva

a nossa madr’antiga

cobrou Santa Maria

u foi de Deus amiga.

Santa Maria leva, etc.

O ben que perdeu Eva

du perdeu parayso,

cobrou Santa Maria

pelo seu mui bon siso.

Santa Maria leva, etc.

… Ars Antiqua

The good that Eve lost

through her great folly

Saint Mary restored

through her great wisdom.

Saint Mary restored, etc.

The good that Eve lost,

our Mother of old,

Saint Mary recovered,

when she became the friend of God.

Saint Mary restored, etc.

The good that Eve lost

when she forsook Paradise

Saint Mary recovered

by her holy judgment.

Saint Mary restored, etc.

53. Pierre de la Croix, “On doit fin (e) amor / la beaute / In speculum” : Motet from the Montpelier

Codex

Text 1: On doit fin(e) Amor anourer nuit et jour [old French] … ; translates to: One should honour

true love night and day for one can obtain honour and esteem and gain courtesy and worth

through him. But one must serve loyally and with ones entire heart as best he can. This is why

I want to serve true Love loyally, without regret …

Text 2: La biauté ma dame le cuer m’esjoi(s)t, quant je pens a li. [old French] … translates to: The

beauty of my lady makes my heart rejoice when I think of her ture, loving, tender heart in who

all good flourishes…

Text 3: In Speculum [plainchant]

54. Adam de la Halle (1237-1288), “Robins m’aime” : Rondeau or chanson drawn from musical

drama, “Le Jeu de Robin et de Marion:

Text [old French] sung by character Marion: Robins m’aime Robins m’a …

Translation: Robin loves me, I am his

55. Adam de la Halle, “Mout / Robins m’aime / PORTARE” : Motet combining a new

melody on the text “Mout me fu grief …” and the existing melody on the text of

“Robins m’aime,” all spun over top of the plaintchant accompanying the word

PORTARE.

51 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Ars Antiqua

Text (top voice): Mout me fu grief li departir de m’amiete ,,,

Translation (top voice): The departure of my dear sweetheart grieved me deeply /

the pretty one with the bright face / as white and vermillion as the rose set against

the lily / or so it seems to me / her ever so sweet laughter makes e tremble and

her gray-blue eyes languish. / O God, woe that I left her! Little white lily flower

when will I see you? Worthy lady, red as a rose in May / on your account I suffer

from grief.

Text (middle voice): Robin m’aime. Robin m’a …

Translation (middle voice): Robin loves me. Robin has me. Robin asked for me and

he will have me. Robin bought me a belt and a little purse of silk / Why they

would I not love him / Halleluia!

Musical Terms in association with this time

Mode

Counterpoint

Consonance

Dissonance

Interval

Cadence

Cantus firmus

Polyphony

Rhythmic modes

Motet

Minstral

Jongleur

In addition, textbook pages 6-13 may be used for further reference on this period.

Troubadour

Trouvere

Minnesinger

Cantigas.

Chanson

52 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Numerology, Letter, and Circles for Muscians

Rhythm, Pitch, Scales, Mores,

Intervals, and Keys

NUMEROLOGY, LETTERS, AND CIRCLES FOR MUSICIANS

SOME OF THE MYTHOLOGY BEHIND THE THEORY AND ART OF MUSIC

~ RHYTHM~

Current music has a preference for 2’s and 4’s, and the multiples of these numbers. For example:

Row, row, row boat gently down stream. Merrily, merrily, merrily, merrily, life but dream

your

the

is a

beats

accents,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

bar,

measure,

meter

sub

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

phrase

1

2

full

phrase

or

melody

For each FULL PHRASE/MELODY: whether there are 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, or 48 BEATS, there will usually still be only 8

big ACCENTs. There will usually be two SUB-PHRASEs– one rising and needing to “continue”, one falling and

coming to conclusion. So much of our music fits this model that we feel somewhat uncomfortable when a piece of music

departs from this plan … of course good composers know how to both work within this plan giving much that is new

and meaningful AND to break these rules of thumb for interest and gentle (or deep) provocation.

1

If we took this one step further, you would probably find that either 2 or 4 full phrases make a VERSE

One significant pattern which differs from this practice is the “12-Bar Blues”: its pattern is 48 beats, 12 bars, 3

sub-phrases, 1 full phrase.

Movie soundtracks will also often depart from this pattern because of the need to align music with action – and

movie action rarely has patience for something so predictable as 2’s and 4’s.

If we looked the other direction – a SUBDIVISION of each beat – we find that “square-ish” division of the beat into 2’s

and 4’s is popular, but so is “rounded” lilting division into 3’s. These patterns are very common to European-based

music, but less so for non-European music.If we consider music with Eastern European and African influence, we see

that ACCENT patterns may easily be groups of 5 or 7 beats. Ultimately, this produces a peg-legged effect with irregular

accent patterns. Many western composers and performers have picked up on this enticing sound and used it to great

effect. Notable here are the 5 beat marching pattern of Middle Earth’s Uruk hai written by Howard Shore in the film

score of Two Towers, and the 7-beat pattern of Danny Elfman’s theme song for The Simpson’s or Hans Zimmer’s Angels

and Demons soundtrack. Calypso music usually has a peg-legged 8-beat pattern. 8-beat patterns often divide into

PULSEs of 3+3+2 beats instead of the more predictable 2+2+2+2 beats.

Older forms of music had definite preference for ACCENT patterns of 3 beats. In addition to the preference for a beat

SUBDIVISION of 3, these multiples of 3 were considered to be “holy” aligning with the idea of the Holy Trinity for

music of the Mediaeval and early Renaissance periods. Through the Baroque and early Classical period we had a definite

preference for ACCENT patterns of 3 beats, because this made for cool dance steps, since 1-2-3, 1-2-3, 1-2-3, 1-2-3

comes out L-R-L, R-L-R, L-R-L, R-L-R. Evenson all of this, the SUB-PHRASE, FULL PHRASE, and VERSE will still

usually be 2’s and 4’s

Taken all together, we humans tend to feel BEATS and ACCENTS of 2’s, 4’s and their multiples as strong; 3’s

and its multiples as gentle; and 5’s, 7’s and irregular groupings as exotic.

53 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


~ PITCH, SCALE, and MODES ~

Numerology, Letter, and Circles for Muscians

Rhythm, Pitch, Scales, Mores,

Intervals, and Keys

The notes which make up our music are named by letters of the alphabet (at least in English and German).

A B C D E F G A … our minor scale!

C D E F G A B C …our major scale!

Today these letters DO designate specific pitches, described by exact frequencies of vibration; however, early on – in the

days of ancient Greece – the letters represented something more like proportions of vibration frequency. If you would

like to read into this further, may I highly recommend the book Temperament: How Music Became the Battleground for the

Greatest Minds of History by Stuart Isacoff

The same Greek mathematician, Pythagoras, who gave us X 2 + Y 2 = Z 2 also made pioneering strides into the

understanding of the scientific physics behind musical tones. He discovered that dividing a string (like on a violin or on a

guitar) into perfect fractional proportions would produce most of the notes of today’s major or minor scale.

A B “C” D E F G A. Full length

1:1 (8:9) 4:5 3:4 2:3 3:5 9:16 1:2

Proportions of a string

Pythagoras focussed only on proportions using only 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; and so the proportions of B and G are worked out

mathematically, and therefore, are considered somewhat less pure. However, here, even in ancient Greece, the seeds of

our modern scales were sown!

In ancient Greece, scales were called tonoi. These tonoi used the very pitches described above. Tonoi had interesting

names like Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, which referred to regions of the Grecian world where the patterns of

notes, the tonoi, were prevalent: Lydia and Phrygia on Asia Minor, Dorian referring to a region on the Peloponnesian

Peninsula.

Some 1000 years later, mediaeval musicians adopted these same names for the scales then being used by music in the

Roman Church liturgy. Mediaeval musicians called their scales “modes,” and even though the mediaeval modes had the

same names as the Greek tonoi they did not have the same notes (or as near as we can figure today, the same manner of

working).

The principal mediaeval church modes looked something like this:

D E F G A B C D Dorian

E F G A B C D E Phrygian

F G A B C D E F Lydian

G A B C D E F G Mixolydian

There were also three theoretical modes:

A B C D E F G A Aeolian

B C D E F G A B Locrian

C D E F G A B C Ionian

54 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Numerology, Letter, and Circles for Muscians

Rhythm, Pitch, Scales, Mores,

Intervals, and Keys

You may notice that this theoretical group includes our present major and minor scales. It is hard to say why musicians

began to prefer the sound of the present major and minor scales, but it probably had something to do with the beauty of

the harmonies that could be created with major/minor scales and the satisfying movement from harmony to harmony

that could be achieved within major/minor. One way or the other, the shift toward the major-minor system seems to

have begun in the 13 th and 14 th centuries, was in full swing by the mid 16 th century, and had finally settled by the

beginning of the 18 th century.

Allow me to return to the mediaeval modes for a moment: it is interesting to note that while, for example, the Dorian

mode stretches from D to D, it is important to note that music in the Dorian mode actually revolves around the one of

the middle notes, usually the fifth one but sometimes the third. The note at the center of the mode was actually

considered the most important note, and so was called the dominant note. This terminology becomes important again

with major and minor scales, although in major/minor it means something a little bit different – still it is interesting that

the term returns in our modern system. It perhaps seems odd to us that the strongest, most dominant note of the mode

might be somewhere in the middle rather than on the end: after all, we tend to practice our scales end-to-end now-adays.

If you think about it, however, many tunes begin higher or lower than, or swirl around the final pitch before

settling on it: prove this to yourself by humming “Happy Birthday.”.. In mediaeval theory, “Happy Birthday” would be

in the Mixolydian mode – using the full range of G to G – with a dominant (finishing note) of C. In tonal scale theory

“Happy Birthday” would be said to be in C major. Same tune, different theory. This is one of the difficulties

musicologists encounter when studying centuries of music: the theory changes over time!

In today’s usage we give each note of a scale both a number (“scale degree”) and a specific name/title based on where

the note falls within the scale. Glance back to the top of this section and follow the notes/pitches of A minor through

from left to right: you see that A is the first note, B the second, C the third, E the fourth, etc. Here is the list of scale

degrees and names for A minor:

A first note scale degree 1 (tonic)

B second note scale degree 2 (supertonic)

C third note scale degree 3 (mediant)

D fourth note scale degree 4 (subdominant)

E fifth note scale degree 5 (dominant)

F sixth note scale degree 6 (submediant)

G seventh note scale degree 7 (subtonic or leading tone)

Take particular notice of scale degree 5, dominant; scale degree 3, mediant; scale degree 4, subdominant; scale degree 7,

leading tone. Amongst other things, here is our significant return of the term dominant: remember this as we take on

the next concepts.

~ CIRCLES and INTERVALS ~

Musicians like to use circles to help demonstrate certain principles of music construction. A simple circle showing the

alphabetical notes of music can help demonstrate the principle of musical intervals: the musical space between pitches

(notes). We begin by placing the seven alphabet letters of our notation around a circle:

A

G B

F C

E D

If you start on A and travel clockwise around the circle, you identify the notes of the “a minor” scale. If you start on C

and travel clockwise around the circle, you identify the notes of the “C major” scale. “A minor” is not the only minor

55 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Numerology, Letter, and Circles for Muscians

Rhythm, Pitch, Scales, Mores,

Intervals, and Keys

scale we use – there are 14 others – but it is the easiest to work with just in letters. Likewise, C major is not the only

major scale – there are also 14 others – but again it is the easiest to work with using simple letters.

We can now use this circle to help demonstrate the “musical intervals.” For musicians, intervals are identified

numerically, giving the distance around the circle between two pitches. In a way, it’s like playing a musical game of “One

potato, two potato.” For example, if you were to go from A to B clockwise around the circle, then A would be “one

potato” – or one – and B would be “two potato” – or two. Since the count is one-two, we would call this interval the

interval of a second. In fact any two adjacent notes around the circle gives the interval of a second: for example, AB,

CD, EF, GA.

A

G B

F C

E D

Expand this process! Go from A to C clockwise around the circle: A would be “one potato” – or one – and B would be

“two potato” – or two – C would be “three potato” – or three. Since the count is one-two-three, we would call this

interval the interval of a third. In fact skipping one note as you move around the circle gives the interval of a third: for

example AC, DF, GB

A

G B

F C

E D

By the time you add the “fourth potato” you are describing the interval of the fourth: for example AD, DG

A

G B

F C

E D

The process can be continued: find the interval of a fifth by skipping 3 notes; a sixth by skipping 4 notes; a seventh by

skipping 5 notes; and finally an octave (an eighth) by going full circle back to the starting note.

The idea of intervals may seem very abstract and unnecessary to enjoying music. However, as we chat about the music

different time periods, as we attempt to describe why music of different times sounds different, we often find that we are

turning to intervals to try to illuminate the workings of the music. As we move into and through “The Common Practice

Period,” it is not only the space between individual notes, but the space between chords (groups of simultaneous notes)

that comes to define many of the qualities of the music.

56 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


~ CIRCLES and KEYS ~

Numerology, Letter, and Circles for Muscians

Rhythm, Pitch, Scales, Mores,

Intervals, and Keys

We will now encounter the “greatest” and most befuddling circle in music study: The Circle of Fifths. The reason that

this is so difficult for so many people, even experienced musicians, is because many concepts have to come together to

make the whole work. If the understanding of this Circle is elusive for you, don’t worry: we can still get much of the

information that we ultimately need from this circle just by looking at it.

If you will indulge me, take the next thing I say on faith … because, honestly, I’m skipping past a LOT of learning and

experience here.

To create a Circle of Fifths, we need to first identify our fifths.

Beginning with C, find the note a fifth higher – G (also the dominant of the C scale). From G we find the next fifth up –

D (also the dominant of the G scale). From D we again find the next fifth note up – A (again the dominant of the D

scale). If we continue this process for a full seven times, each time finding the dominant of the previous scale, we get the

series: C, G, D, A, E, B, F# (F-sharp), and C#. We wrap these notes clockwise around a circle from C at the top.

C

C# B

F#

We then carry out a similar process, moving counter-clockwise around the interval circle from C to find the fifth below C

– here we find F (the subdominant of the C scale). From F we again seek the fifth below – Bb (B-flat), again the

subdominant of the F scale. Doing this seven full times, we get the series: F, Bb, Eb, Ab, Db, Gb, and Cb. These we

wrap counter-clockwise around the circle above: complete with overlap of notes (enharmonic notes – sounding the same

in modern usage, but given different names).

G

C

F G

D

E

A

Bb D

Eb A

Ab E

Db/C# Cb/B

Gb/F#

And … behold! The Circe of Fifths!

It may not seem like much, but ultimately it is a very useful little circle. We will come back to it just as a visual reference

as we move through the class material.

~ AND … To Pursue Topics of MusicTheory Further, Search These Music Theory Links ~

http://www.musictheory.net/ -- Ricci Adams Music Theory, an interactive romp through the basics.

http://www.soundadvicedirect.com/about.html -- Sound Advice is Camosun’s entry-level theory programme and is

home-grown here in Victori

57 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


ARS NOVA

TRECENTO IN FRANCE, ITALY, AND ENGLAND

(1300 - 1400 CE)

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

…Ars Nova

56. Philippe de Vetry (fl. 1310-1316), “In mari miserie” chanson from the satire play Le Roman

de Fauvel. The tale of Roman de Fauvel is an satrical allegory about a horse named

Fauvel. The name Fauvel is an acronym of the French words for six of the seven deadly

sins of the church : Flattery, Averice, Villany, Fickleness (varieté), Envy, and

Cowardness (lacheté). The original poem was written in 1310 by Gervais de Bus

Text :

In mort miserie, maris stella

Ervantes cotidie a frocella

Defende now et precare dominem fie

Ut at portas glorie now trahat per hoc mare

nos

Que Fauvel faciat superare

Translation :

In the ocean of misery, star of teh sea

Protect us from the storm, we who mislead

Ourselves daily, and affectionately call on

The Lord who drags us by this sea right up

To the gates of glory, and who causes us to

overcome Fauvel

57. Guillaume de Machaut [pronounce Ma-show] (1300-1371), “Credo” from “Misse de Notre

Dame,” first full setting of the mass ordinary by a single composer. Machaut’s biography

may be found in the textbook, but is somewhat erroneously under “Middle Ages.”

Text

Credo in unum Deum, Patrem

omnipoténtem, factorem cæli et terræ,

visibílium ómnium et invisibílium.

Et in unum Dóminum Iesum Christum,

Fílium Dei unigénitum, et ex Patre

natum, ante ómnia sæcula. Deum de

Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum verum de

Deo vero. Genitum, non factum,

consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia

facta sunt.

Translation

I believe in one God, almighty

Father, maker of heaven and earth,

all things visible and invisible.

And in Jesus Christ His only son,

born of the Father before all

things, God from God, light from

light, God true from God true.

Begotten, not made; of one

substance with the Father by

whom all things made were.

58 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Qui propter nos homines, et propter

nostram salutem descendit de caelis.

Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto

ex Maria Virgine.

Et homo factus est. Crucifixus etiam

pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato, passus, et

sepultus est. Et resurrexit tertia die,

secundus Et interum venturus est cum

gloria, judicare vivos et mortuos, cujus

regni non erit finis. Scripturas. Et

ascendit in caelum, sedet ad dexteram

Patris.

Et in Spiritum Sanctum Dominum, et

vivificantem, qui ex Patre Filioque

procedit. Qui cum Patre, et Filio simul

adoratur et conglorificatur, qui locutus est

per Prophetas.

Et unam, sanctam, catholicam, et

apostolicam Ecclesiam. Confiteor unum

baptisma in remissionem peccatorum.

Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum.

Et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen

…Ars Nova

Who for us and for our salvation

descended from heavens.

Made flesh was of Spirit Holy

of Mary Virgin.

Was crucified also for us under

Pontius Pilate, suffered, and was

buried. He rose third day,

according to Scriptures, and he

ascended into heaven. He sits at

right hand of the Father, and will

come again in glory to judge living

and dead, of whose kingdom will

be no end.

And in Spirit Holy Lord, and

lifegiver, who from the Father and

the Son proceeds. Who with the

Father, and the Son together is

adored and glorified, who spoke

through Prophets.

And one, holy, catholic, and

Apostolic Church. I confess one

baptism for remission of sins.

And I expect resurrection of dead,

and life to come of age. Amen.

58. Guillaume de Machart (1300-1371), “Puis qu'en oubli” Le Voir Dit. Rondeau 18:

One of Machaut’s most famous songs, it originates as a simple poetic rondeau of simple

rhymed meter, but displays musical and rhythmic sophistication.

Text

Puis qu'en oubli sui de vous, dous amis,

Vie amoureuse et joie à Dieu commant.

Mar vi le jour que m'amour en vous mis,

Puis qu'en oubli sui de vous, dous amis.

Mais ce tenray que je vous ay promis,

C'est que jamais n'aray nul autre amant.

Puis qu'en oubli sui de vous, dous amis,

Vie amoureuse et joie à Dieu commant.

Translation

Since I am forgotten by you, sweet friend,

I bid farewell to a life of love and joy.

Unlucky was the day I placed my love in

you;

Since I am forgotten by you, sweet friend.

But what was promised you I will sustain:

That I shall never have any other love.

Since I am forgotten by you, sweet friend,

I bid farewell to a life of love and joy.

59 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


59. Guillaume de Machart (1300-1371), De toutes flours: Ballade

Text

De toutes flours n'avoit et de tous fruis

En mon vergier fors une seule rose:

Gastes estoit li seurplus et destruis

Par Fortune qui durement s'oppose

Contre ceste doulce flour

Pour amatir sa colour et s'odour.

Mais se cueillir la voy ou trebuchier.

Autre apres li ja mais avoir ne quier.

Mais vraiement ymaginer ne puis

Que la vertus, ou ma rose est enclose.

Viengne par toy et par tes faus conduis.

Ains est drois dons natureus; si suppose

Que tu n'avras ja vigour

D'amanrir son pris et sa valour.

Lay la moy donc, qu'ailleurs n'en mon vergier

Autre apres li ja mais avoir ne quier.

He! Fortune, qui es gouffres et puis

Pour engloutir tout homme qui croire ose.

Ta fausse loy, ou riens de biens ne truis

Ne de seur, trop est decevans chose;

Ton ris, ta joie, t'onnour

Ne sont que plour, tristesse et deshonnour.

Se ty faus tour font ma rose sechier.

Autre apres li ja mais avoir ne quier.

…Ars Nova

Translation

Of all flowers and all fruits there were none

In my orchard except a single rose:

The rest was laid waste and destroyed

By Fortune who harshly makes war

Against this sweet flower

To crush its colour and perfume.

But if I see it picked or fallen.

After it I never seek to have another.

But truly I cannot imagine

That the virtue which surrounds my rose

Should come from you and by your false deeds.

Rather it is a true gift of nature; and I believe

That you will never have the strength

To abase its value and worth.

Leave it to me then, for elsewhere than in my

orchard

After it I never seek to have another.

Ah! Fortune, who are a gulf and pit

To swallow up any man who dares believe

Your false law, in which I find nothing good

And nothing sure, is too deceptive a thing;

Your smile, your joy, your honour

Are only tears, sadness and dishonour.

If your false turns make my rose wither.

After it I never seek to have another.

Translation: Jennifer Garnham

http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/MMDB/composer/H0031031.HTM

accessed Aug. 4. 2012

60. Francesco Landini (1325/35-1397), Che pena è quest'al cor [c. 1350]: ballata

Text

Che pena F questa al cor, che s8 non posso

usar cortesemente

con questa mala gente.

ch'i' non sia pur da l'invidia percosso!

Ma veramente ma' non mi torrano

dal proposito mio quest'invidiosi.

Ben potranno dir mal, se dir vorrano.

ch'i' non seguiti quel ch'io mi disposi

gia lungo tempo; e farogli dogliosi

non gia con villania.

Translation

What pain is this in my heart.

that I cannot deal politely

with these evil people

without being smitten by their envy.

And yet, truly, they will not keep me

from my purpose, these envious people.

Let them speak evil if they want to:

I will still pursue what I decided to do

a long time ago, and I will make them feel

sorry.

60 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


ma per tener tal via.

che far non mi potran diventar rosso.

not by being discourteous.

…Ars Nova

but by treading such a path

that they will be unable to make me blush.

Translation, Giovanni Carsanigaa

http://www.lib.latrobe.edu.au/MMDB/composer/H0045020.htm

Accessed Aug. 4, 2012

61. John Dunstaple [Dunstable] (1390-1453), Veni Sancte Spiritus/Veni Creator. Isorhythmic

motet combining two of the great hymn texts of the Church: Veni Sancte Spiritus, “the

Golden Sequence”for Pentacost, and Veni Creator Spiritus, an invocation of the Holy

Spirit

Translation

Veni, Sancte Spiritus

Come, Holy Spirit,

send forth the heavenly

radiance of your light.

Come, father of the poor,

come, giver of gifts,

come, light of the heart.

….

Give to your faithful,

those who trust in you,

the sevenfold gifts.

Grant the reward of virtue,

grant the deliverance of salvation,

grant eternal joy.

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Polyphony

Homophony

Mode

Cadence

Leading Tone

Perfect consonance

Imperfect consonance

Musica Ficta

Time Signature

Mensural notation

Chanson

Translation

Veni, creator Spiritus

Come, Holy Ghost, Creator blest,

and in our hearts take up Thy rest;

come with Thy grace and heav'nly aid,

To fill the hearts which Thou hast

made.


Praise we the Father and the Son

and Holy Spirit with them One;

and may the Son on us bestow

the gifts that from the Spirit flow.

Amen.

Rondeau

Ballatta

Motet (medieval)

Catholic Mass

Kyrie (Mass)

Gloria (Mass)

Credo (Mass)

Sanctus (Mass)

Agnus Dei (Mass)

61 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Humanism and the Renaissance

HUMANISM AND THE RENAISSANCE

QUATTROCENTO IN ITALY, BURGUNDY, AND THE NETHERLANDS

(1400-1600)

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

62. Guillaume Dufay [pronounced Doof-I] (1397-1474), Adieu ces bons vins de lannoys (1426), a very

secular 3-voice rondeau from the young Dufay

Text

Adieu ces bons vins de Lannoys.

Adieu dames, adieu bourgeois,

Adieu celle que tant amoye,

Adieu toute playssante joye,

Adieu tout compagnons gallois.

Je m’en vois tout arquant des nois,

Car je ne truis feve ne pois,

Dont bien souvent au cuer m’ennoye.

De moy serés par plusiers fois,

Regrets par dedans les bois,

Ou il n’y a sentier ne voye;

Puis ne scaray que faire doye

Se je ne crie a haute vois:

Adieu ces bons vins de Lannoys...

Translation

Farewell those good wines of the Lannoys

Farewell ladies, farewell burghers,

Farewell to her whom I so loved.

Farewell all pleasure and joy.

Farewell all boon companions,

I depart all bent over by my load of nuts,

For I cannot find beans nor peas,

At which my heart feels constant annoyance.

I shall miss you frequently

Within the woods

Where there is neither path nor way.

And I shall not know what I ought to do,

But to cry aloud:

Farewell those good wines of the Lannoys…

63. Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), Nuper Rosarum Flores / Terribilis est locus iste (1436),

isorhythmic motet for the dedication of Brunelleschi’s dome completing the Duomo

(Cathedral) at Florence Italy. The lengthy anonymous text proclaims the glories of

Florence over a cantus firmus “terribilis est locus iste” used for the consecration of

churches: the English translation of the cantus may be paraphrased as “This place is

awesome!” Terribilis est locus iste

Text

Nuper rosarum flores

Ex dono pontificis

Hieme licet horrida

Tibi, virgo coelica,

Pie et sancte deditum

Grandis templum machinae

Condecorarunt perpetim.

Hodie vicarius

Jesu Christe et Petri

Successor Eugenius

Hoc idem amplissimum

Translation

Recently garlands of roses

were given by the Pope—

despite a terrible winter—

to you, heavenly Virgin,

dedicated in a pious and holy fashion,

a temple of great ingenuity,

to be a perpetual adornment.

Today the vicar

of Jesus Christ and of Peter

a successor, Eugenius,

has to this vast

62 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Sacris templum manibus

Sanctisque liquoribus \Consecrare dignatus est.

Igitur, alma parens

Nati tui et filia

Virgo decus virginum,

Tuus te Florentiae

Devotus erat populus,

Ut qui mente et corpore

Mundo quicquam exorarit.

Oratione tua

Cruciatus et meritis

Tui secundum carnem

Nati Domini sui

Grata beneficia

Veniamque reatum

Accipere meraeatur. Amen

… Humanism and the Renaissance

temple with his hands

and holy liquors

deigned to consecrate.

Therefore, sweet parent

of your son, and daughter,

virgin of virgins,

to you the Florentines

devoted as a people,

together in mind and body

on earth, pray to you.

By your prayer

to the crucified and worthy,

your second flesh,

their Lord,

grant us benefit

and receive pardons

for their transgression. Amen.

64. Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474), Missa L’homme armé (c. 1460), one of the first examples of a

cyclical mass, where all the sections of the mass use the same tune – in this case the

thoroughly secular popular tune “L’homme armé” which has a lightly engaging rhythm

and elegant melodic shape – as cantus firmus.

Agnus Dei :

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis (repeat)

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem.

Translation

Lamb of God, you who take away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. (repeat)

Lamb of God, you who take away the sins of the world, grant us peace.

65. Josquin des Prez (c. 1450-1521), Absolom, fili mi (c. 1497), 4-voice motet based on the

Biblical text of King David, Samuel 18:33. Josquin’s biography may be found in the

textbook

Text

Translation

Absalon fili mi,

quis det ut moriar pro te, Absalon?

Non vivam ultra,

sed descendam in infernum plorans.

Absalon my son,

if only I had died instead of you,

Absalon!

I shall live no more,

but go down to hell, weeping.

63 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


66. Josquin des Prez (c. 1450-1521), Tu solus qui facis mirabilia (c. 1500), motet.

Text

Tu solus qui facis mirabilia,

Tu solus Creator, qui creasti nos,

Tu solus Redemptor, qui redemisti nos

sanguine tuo pretiosissimo.

Ad te solum confugimus,

in te solum confidimus

nec alium adoramus,

Jesu Christe.

Ad te preces effundimus

exaudi quod supplicamus,

et concede quod petimus,

Rex benigne.

D'ung aultre amer,

Nobis esset fallacia:Magna esset

stultitia

et peccatum.

Audi nostra suspiria,

Replenos tua gratia,

O rex regum,

Ut ad tua servitia

Sistamus cum laetitia

in aeternum.

… Humanism and the Renaissance

Translation

You alone can do wonders,

You alone are the Creator, and created us;

You alone are the Redeemer, and redeemed

us

With your most precious blood.

In you alone we find refuge,

In you alone we trust,

None other do we worship,

Jesus Christ.

To you we pour out our prayers,

Hear our supplication, and grant us our

request,

O King of kindness!

To love another would be deceitful;

To love another would be great madness and

sin.

Hear our sighing, fill us with your grace,

O King of kings!

So we may remain in your service

With joy for ever.

67. Josquin des Prez (c. 1450-1521), El Grillo (c. 1505), secular madrigal for unaccompanied

voices

Text

Translation

El grillo è buon cantore

Che tiene longo verso.

Dalle beve grillo canta.

Ma non fa come gli altri uccelli

Come li han cantato un poco,

Van de fatto in altro loco

Sempre el grillo sta pur saldo,

Quando la maggior el caldo

Alhor canta sol per amore.

The cricket is a good singer

He can sing very long

He sings all the time.

But he isn't like the other birds.

If they've sung a little bit

They go somewhere else

The cricket remains where he is

When the heat is very fierce

Then he sings only for love.

64 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Humanism and the Renaissance

68. Josquin des Prez (c. 1450-1521), Mille Regretz (first published 1549 posthumus), secular

chanson for 4 unaccompanied voices:

Text

Translation

Mille regretz de vous abandonner

Et d'eslonger vostre fache amoureuse,

Jay si grand dueil et paine douloureuse,

Quon me verra brief mes jours definer.

A thousand regrets at deserting you

and leaving behind your loving face,

I feel so much sadness and such painful distress,

that it seems to me my days will soon dwindle away.

69. Anonymous, Pavana le Bataglia: example of Florentine (Florence, Italy) dance music

70. Anonymous, Pavana la monina paried with Gagliard la mafroline: example of Florentine

(Florence, Italy) dance music

71. Anonymous, Canto de lanzi vinturieri: example of Florentine (Florence, Italy) canto. The

anonymous poet of this text recounts the story of perpetually war-ready troops whose

custom it is to always carry which them their arms and armour.

72. Carlo Gesualdo (1556-1613), Beltà, poi che t’assenti (1611) for 5 voices from Book 6 of

Madrigals, a madrigal in a most extravagant expression of mannerism:

Text

Translation

Beltà poi che t’assenti

Come ne porti il cor

Porta i tormenti.

Ché tormentato cor

può ben sentire

La doglia del morire,

E un alma senza core,

Non può sentir dolore.

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Polyphony

Imitation

Counterpoint

Popular instruments of the period

Shawm

Crumhorn

Recorder

Cornemuse

Isorhythm

Cyclical

Mass

Racket

Pibgorn

Sackbut

Musette

Beauty, since you depart,

take, as you do my heart, also my

torments.

For a tormented heart can feel

indeed

the pain of death,

but a soul without its heart

can feel no grief.

Motet (Renaissance)

Madrigal

Chanson

Cornetto

Lute or archlute

Organ

Calvicembalom

65 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


…Reformation and Counter Reformation

REFORMATION AND COUNTEREFORMATION

(1500-1600)

73. Thomas Tallis (1505-1585), Spem in Alium (1570), 40-voice motet (8 choirs of 5 voices

each) written for the Matin (morning) service; the text comes from the Sarum Rite

(Salisbury, Wiltshire, ENGLAND) and is adapted from the Book of Judith. The work

survies for us in a manuscript used for the investiture of Henry Frederich, son of King

James I, as Prince of Wales in 1610. While Tallis’ biography is not found in the

textbook, the section “English Madrigalists” is applicable to his time and music.

Text: Spem in alium numquam habui praeter in te/ Deus Israelqui irasceris/ et propitius eris / et

omnia peccata hominum in tribulatione dimittis / Domine Deus / Creator coeli et terrae /

respice humilitatem nostrum

Translation: Sing and glorify heaven's high Majesty, / Author of this blessed harmony; /

Sound divine praises / With melodious graces; / This is the day, holy / day,

happy day, / For ever give it greeting, / Love and joy, heart and voice meeting: /

Live Henry princely and mighty, / Harry live in thy creation happy.

74. Michael Praetorius (1571-1621), Es ist ein Ros ensprungen: 1599 hymn tune (Speyer Hymnal,

Cologne), here sung by choir in Praetorius’ 1609 harmonization

Text: anonymous

Es ist ein Ros' entsprungen

Aus einer Wurzel zart.

Wie uns die Alten sungen,

Aus Jesse kam die Art

Und hat ein Blümlein bracht,

Mitten im kalten Winter,

Wohl zu der halben Nacht.

Das Röslein das ich meine,

Davon Jesaias sagt:

Maria ist's, die Reine,

Die uns das Blümlein bracht:

Aus Gottes ewigem Rat

Hat sie ein Kindlein g'boren

Bleibend ein reine Magd.

Translation: Theodore Baker (1894)

Lo, how a rose e'er blooming

From tender stem hath sprung!

Of Jesse's lineage coming,

As men of old have sung.

It came, a flow'ret bright,

Amid the cold of winter,

When half-spent was the night.

Isaiah 'twas foretold it,

The rose I have in mind,

With Mary we behold it.

The Virgin mother kind.

To show God's love aright

She bore to them a Savior,

When half-spent was the night

66 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


…Reformation and Counter Reformation

75. William Byrd (1540-1623), Ave Verum Corpus, motet for Festival of Corpus Christe, c. 1600.

The short Eucharistic hymn text is from the 14 th century and is attributed to Pope

Innocent VI. A very brief mention of Byrd and this music is made in the textbook under

“English Madrigalists.”

Text: Ave verum corpus, natum / de Maria Virgine, / vere passum, immolatum / in cruce pro

homine, / cuius latus perforatum / fluxit aqua et sanguine / esto nobis praegustatum / in

mortis examine

Translation: Hail, true Body, born / of the Virgin Mary, / truly suffered, sacrificed / on

the cross for man, / whose pierced side / flowed with water and blood: / May it

be for us a foretaste / in the trial of death.

76. Michael Praetorius (1571-1621), In Dulci Jubilo: 1607 setting by Praetorius. The original

hymn poem was written by Heinrich Seuse in 1328 in a macaronic mix of medieval

German and Latin, a poem which was sung to him by angels in a vision. The poem has

several modern English translations, and the tune has been set numerous times by many

composers of repute.

Text

In dulci jubilo,

Nun singet und seid froh!

Unsers Herzens Wonne

Leit in praesepio;

Translation

In sweet rejoicing,

now sing and be glad!

Our hearts' joy

lies in the manger;

Und leuchtet wie die Sonne

Matris in gremio.

Alpha es et O!

And it shines like the sun

in the mother's lap.

You are the alpha and omega!

77. Giovannini Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594), Lamentationes Ieremiah [Hieremiae]

Prophetae (1588). The loarge-scale work comprises settings of the Tenebrae (Maundy

Thursday) litury as drawn from the Book of Lamentations from the Hebrew Bible. The

settings are all for 4 or 5 voices are are set in full, but clear polyphonic style.

78. Giovannini Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594), Missa Papae Marcelli. This mass is one the

earliest examples of the fully composed mass which does not have a single unifying

musical element such as a cantus firmus. While written some years after his death (1562),

the mass was written in honour of Pope Marcellus who reigned a mere 3 weeks in 1555.

Kyrie: God have mercy; Christ have mercy; God have mercy

67 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


…Reformation and Counter Reformation

79. Traditional, Tu scendi dalle stelle (You descend from the stars), Pifferi (pipes or shawms), and

zampagna (cornemuse or bagpipes)

80. Giovanni Francesco Anerio, Nell’apperir del sempiterno sole (2 soprano, tenor).

81. Tomas Luis de Victoria (1548-1611, known as the Spanish Palestrina), O Magnum Mysterium,

Motet

82. Giovannini Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594), Missa “Hodie Christus natus est”. The 8-voice

mass for Christmas is built upon a cantus firmus from the motet “Hodie Christus natus

est.” Palestrina’s biography may be found in the textbook.

Kyrie: God have mercy; Christ have mercy; God have mercy

Gloria: Glory to God in the highest …

Cantus for all parts of this mass: Hodie Christus natus est: Christ is born today.

83. Girlamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) Canzona detta la Biachina , Violin, cornett, chitarrone, harp,

and organ

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Polyphony

Imitation

Counterpoint

Homophony

Chorale

Hymn

Popular instruments of the period

Shawm

Crumhorn

Recorder

Cornemuse

Racket

Pibgorn

Mass

Motet (Renaissance)

Madrigal

Chanson

Canzona

Canso

Sackbut

Musette

Cornetto

Lute or archlute

Organ

Calvicembalom

In addition to the pages cited above, textbook pages 18-33 may be used for further reference on this

period.

68 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Making the Terminology a

Bit Easier to Understand

MAKING THE TERMINOLOGY A BIT EASIER TO UNDERSTAND

MORE INFORMATION THAN YOU MAY NEED TO KNOW,

BUT WHICH MIGHT BE INTERESTING TO THE CURIOUS OR HELPFUL TO THE CONFUSED

Much musical terminology comes from languages other than English. Sometimes just recognizing

the roots of the musical words and their non-English counterparts makes remembering them much

easier.

Words beginning with …

“Cant…” or “chan…” derive from the Latin word meaning “to sing or recite.” and so nearly

always refer to use of the human voice: cantabile (singing style), cantata (large work for

voice), canto (song or verse), chant (singing or song in speech rhythm), chanson (song),

chanteur (singer), cantor (lead singer), etc.

“Son…” derive from the Latin word meaning “to sound” and so nearly always refer to use of

instruments: Sonata (a large work for instruments); sonatina (a small sonata)

“Sym…,” “Sim…,” “Sin…” derive from words meaning “to sound together” and so nearly

always refer to music by larger ensembles (usually instruments): Symphony, Sinfonia (large

orchestral forms of music or a orcestras)

“Concert…” derive from the Latin word meaning “to harmonzie or rehearse” and so nearly

always refer to music played together: concert, concerto (solo playing with orchestra),

concertino (solo instrument of a concerto, a small accordion, or a small concerto). There is

an older association with the Latin word meaning “to contest or to fight,” implying in its

meaning a good natured fight between “warring” virtuoso soloist and virtuoso orchestra.

Words ending in …

“…phony” or “…phonic” derive from the Greek word meaning “voice, utterance,” and so

nearly always refers to how many different kinds of sounds (utterances) make up the music:

Monophony (single [mono] melody without any accompaniment), polyphony (multiple [poly]

melodies at the same time); antiphony (two or more melodies one after the other [call and

response] or performed by musicians separated significantly in space); homophony (multiple

melodies [or melody and accompaniment] all using the same rhythm); dodecaphony (music

freely using all possible pitches); heterophony (music with extreme complexity of

simultaneous rhythms); even symphony (multiple instruments coming together).

“…tonic” derive from the word for “tone or pitch” and so nearly always refer to a type of

scale and the kinds of pitches which make up the scales: pentatonic (five-note Asian, East

European, or Celtic scales), diatonic (our modern major and minor scales), and even the term

“tonic” itself (the name-note or central pitch of a scale)

Unlikely relations …

“Organ” and “organum” both derive from the same root word in Ancient Greek meaning

“tool or instrument.” In the earliest days of the first millineum CE “organum” meant any

instrument, but rather specifically the organ. How “organum” came to be applied to the style

of polyphonic music of the Notre Dame School and beyond is unkonwn, but prosumably is

so named because in this style voices produce a sound similar to an organ or to a the type of

musical sound produced instrumentally.

69 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Making the Terminology a

Bit Easier to Understand

“Monody” and “Monophony” both have their roots in the prefix “mono” meaning “single.”

“Monody” is the oldest of the two terms dating back to the 16 th century and signifies a single

melody (voice or instrument) lightly supported by a simple accompaniment. “Monophony”

as a term did not appear until the 18 th century when historians of music began to attempt to

classify music into categories: here it was used to designate music of a single unaccompanied

melody

“Symphony” has two distinct meanings, one being a large orchestra including strings,

woodwinds, brasses, and percussion (sometines singers); and the other being a formal

composition (usually in four specific movements) for orchestra.

“Opera” is the plural of the Latin word “opus” meaning “work” and so an opera may be

considered a large sung theatre piece consisting of many individual works. In later usage,

beginning in the late 18 th century the word “opus” came to be applied by publishers to

designate the order of published works by a composer, and so a work given the designation

opus 42 is the 42 nd published work by that particular composer.

70 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


PERFORMANCE PRACTICE

Performance Practice …

It is no mystery that styles of music change over time: we enjoy this, expect this, and usually delight

in this; however, even today, the art of music performance is taught and learned principally as a part

of an oral tradition. Certainly today we have recordings, audio and video – what I marvellous asset!

In days past we had books, treatises, teaching methods, personal logs, and the writings of music

critics that tell us today what music performance was like in long ago days. Sometimes we get lucky

and have a source of notated music with verbal text saying essentially “play this passage this way” –

Telemann’s Methodical Sonatas for violin and/or flute leap to mind. We even have ancient

“recording devices” like music boxes, musical clocks, or player pianos which can give us a hint as to

how notation might be interpreted – a series of small compositions for “musical clocks” by Franz

Joseph Haydn are particularly fascinating. Frequently we are even lucky enough to have the older

instruments themselves, which even if not playable in present condition (like our 9000-year-old bone

flute), can be scanned using MRI and other imaging techniques and from there, be replicated and

played to hear what they sound like – consider the work done by paleoarcheologists reproducing

dinosaur calls from reconstructions of skulls. We even have pioneering technologies which enable us

to scan and read electronically old recordings on wax cylinder or shellac disc, making these devices

“playable’ without risking then damage inflicted by mechanical needles and spinning parts.

Still the fact remains: no matter how deep our resources and how rich our clues, we find it tricky to

know exactly how much music would have been performed and how it would have sounded when

first written. The art of attempting to recreate original performance as closely as possible is what we

call performance practice. Our quest to discover and put into practice original performance techniques is

a little bit archaeology, a little bit anthropology, a great deal of artistic reasoning, and a whole lot of

luck! What I learned as a young flute student in the late 1970s about performance of 17 th - and 18 th -

century music is entirely different from what I teach my own students now in the second decade of

the 21 st century.

A practical starting point for discovering “original sound” is to think on the actual instrument or

instrument type likely to have been used. Even this can be difficult! For example, words meaning

“flute” today certainly meant “recorder” in the 16 th century, most likely meant “recorder” in the 17 th

century, probably meant “recorder” in early 18 th -century Germany but “flute” in France, and at all

times in Scandinavian and Iberian countries all bets are off! Et cetera, et cetera and so forth. Even

when “flute” is the instrument meant, it isn’t our current keyed silver pipe but something more like a

stick with holes. The general tone quality of many of these instruments can be mimicked on the

modern flute, but we have to know what we are aiming for. Sometimes performers opt to not play

baroque music on a modern flute, or choose to perform on modern reproductions of 17 th -century

style instruments exclusively.

We then consider the performance venues and setting. Choral works from the 15 th century were

mostly likely to be performed in a large cavernous church or cathedral as part of a religious service.

A string quartet from the early 19 th century was probably intended for performance in a living room

71 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Performance Practice …

for an intimate group of friends or maybe only for the enjoyment of the performers. It was assumed

that opera in the 17 th and 18 th centuries would be background music, secondary to dinner, and that

listeners would go and come from the audience chamber to hear only their favourite singers and to

cavort with their favourite consorts in the meanwhile. It is tricky at the best of times to move these

works into the modern concert hall: sacred music frequently loses its impact in a secular setting,

chamber music looses its intimacy when performed for 1000s of listeners in a huge hall, and opera

can leave something to be desired when audience members are actually sitting still and paying full

attention.

We move on and consider issues of the written notation. Some notation can’t be deciphered at all:

we have yet to find a “Rosetta Stone” for 9 th -century (or earlier) notation, for example. Frequently

the notational symbols used are familiar to us but appear to have different meanings in different

locations, different times, or even by different composers working closely in time and location. We

have to concede that some rhythmic notation we have today simply did not exist in earlier times:

does this mean that the rhythms weren’t used at that time or just couldn’t be notated precisely? We

do the best we can with these, studying instructional manuals from the time or place or composer to

attempt to read the notation correctly, or studying what appear to be parallel practices which still

exist in other cultures. It’s a little like trying to make good sense out of Shakespeare or Beowulf on the

written page, from the spoken word, and under staged performance!

At this point, we enter the tricky discussion of pitch! To a certain extent, we are pretty sure what

those “dots on the page” mean as far as pitch goes, but there are some pretty grisly and controversial

issues which raise their ugly head here. To give you a taste of what’s been a-foot, here’s a short list.

Our familiar major and minor scales did not come into common usage until the 17 th century but were

starting to be used in the 14 th century and weren’t worked into firm notation until the late 18 th

century: this means that all you learned for your Conservatory exams can be completely out the

window for about 500 years’ worth of music. A practice of Musica Ficta (false music) existed for

centuries which essentially acknowledged that yes, the notation said to play these pitches but really

you changed it all to these pitches in practice (Raymond Luxury-Yacht = Throatwarbler Mangrove

… don’t worry if you don’t get that!). Our scheme of half-steps and whole-steps didn’t exist until

the 18 th century and wasn’t embraced until the 19 th century – this means that how instruments have

been tuned over the last 150 years is completely different than in all previous times: dare I mention

that even today choirs, orchestras, bands, and keyboard instruments actually function within a variety

of tuning systems? And lastly – for the short list – the “center of pitch” has been getting higher and

lower over the centuries (a kind of musical climate change?): the acoustical frequency of written

pitches in the 17 th century was any where from one half-step to one full-step lower than the same

written pitch today, but written pitches in the 19 th century might have been one quarter- to one halfstep

higher than the same written pitches today.

These are the big-ticket items, but these are by no means all that needs considering. When all is said

and done, it is a wonder that anyone can cope with music performance. In essence what we

musicians do is attempt to determine the appropriate performance practice of general categories of

compositions, and make the choice to apply or not to apply these practices to our own performance.

For example, some musicians choose to focus on one kind or style of performance: a cellist may opt

to perform only on viola da gamba and therefore to play only music from the 15 th to 18 th centuries; a

bass player may opt to play only electric bass and therefore to focus only on music from the mid-20 th

century to today; a male baritone singer may choose to train as a countertenor and thus perform

exclusively music from before the 19 th century; a singer may dedicate herself to the practice of Bel

72 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Performance Practice …

Canto singing and therefore perform only roles from 18 th century opera; some string players only

play string quartets and not symphonic works … the list goes on. Other musicians are more

generalist and we attempt to bring elements of other styles of performance into whatever we play at

the time: for example, I do not play the 17 th -century flute or the recorder but I will bring elements of

these instruments and their sounds/styles to my performance on modern flute; one of our local

singers in internationally renowned for her light early music voice but copes perfectly well with giant

19 th -century romantic repertoire; a good friend of mine is an excellent guitar player but is also really

great to work with on both the Renaissance lute or on the Middle eastern Oudh.

When all is said and done, musicians have a sense that the ear is the final arbiter of style – either it

sounds good or it doesn’t, to put it in shockingly black and white terms! Each musician finds her or

his own niche, and each attempts “to do right” by the music, and to represent the composer and

music as well as possible.

Does this really make that much of a difference? Well, yes and no!

Sometimes a work is so indelibly linked to a particular performer – can we hear Yellow Submarine

without thinking of The Beatles, or Over the Rainbow without hearing Judy Garland – that we can’t

separate the piece itself from the performance. I don’t think that we’d find ourselves enriched if

Hannah Montana decided to perform Michael Jackson’s Thriller, and really it takes a Celine Dion

impersonator to sing music from Titanic with any credibility. Music, particularly of the past century,

is often allied with a specific performer or performance, and to not duplicate that as closely as

possible makes the piece sound odd! Here the performance practice is EVERYTHING!

On the other hand, some can sustain a lot of reinterpretation and still be beautiful. Recorded

performances from the 1950s by the Bach Aria Group (music by Johann Sebastian Bach) are as far in

style from how I would play those same works today as one can get, but my heavens they are

beautiful. Just because a work is performed on original instruments, in the original location, under

original conditions, does not mean that the performance is beautiful … and the opposite is also true.

Recordings I loved in my youth I sometimes fine comical now for the wilful excesses of the

performer. Conversely, as a kid I didn’t understand what Haydn and Beethoven were up to and so I

thought the music was just weird and anachronistic, and trust me, I had only limited patience for

opera. Yet after hearing handful of enlightened performances of each my curiosity was piqued; now

I chuckle at Haydn, shake my head in unabashed awe at Beethoven, and weep through more operas

than I care to admit.

When all the elements of a performance come together – whether by talent, or learning, or instinct,

or accident, or intent – when the performance really comes together, something special happens. All

of the work performers do attempting to get into the spirit of the composer, and to blend ourselves

with the esprit of the music, is all done in service of the music and in the hope that magic happens.

73 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MUSIC AND RATIONALISM

BAROQUE

Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 1

PART 1:

LE NOUVE MUSICHE AND THE DOCTRINE OF AFFECTIONS

(1600-1700)

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

84. Giulio Caccini (1545-1618), Amor, io parto (Le Nuovo Musiche, 1601): Setting of an elevenline

madrigal text by an unknown author; it isoften described as “the plaint of the hapless

lover” for voice, plucked chordal string instrument (lute/harp), and plucked viola da

gamba. The text roughly translates as “I leave and my heart breaks, but the one I leave

feels nothing for me.”

Al penar, al morire,

Ch'io parto da colei ch'è la mia vita,

Se ben ella gioisce

Quand'il mio cor languisce.

O durezza incredibil'e infinita

D'anima ch'l suo core

Può restar morto, e non sentir dolore!

Ben mi trafigge amore

L'aspra mia pen', il mio dolor pungente,

Ma più mi duol il duol ch'ella non

sente.

85. Giulio Caccini (1545-1618), Dolcissimo sospiro (Le Nuove Musiche, 1601): set to a 9-line

madrigal text by Ottavio Rinuccini is set with great affectation (Affekt in German): voice

and viola da gamba alone. The text roughly translates as “I hear your sighs and offer my

heart. Ease my grief! But perhaps you sigh for someone else.”

Dolcissimo sospiro

Ch'esci da quella bocca

Ove d'amor ogni dolcezza fiocca;

Deh, vieni a raddolcire

L'amaro mio dolore.

Ecco, ch'io t'apro il core,

Ma, folle, a chi ridico il mio martire?

Ad'un sospiro errante

Che forse vola in sen ad altro amante.

74 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 1

86. Giulio Caccini (1545-1618), Belle rose porporine (Le Nuove Musiche, 1601): a setting of this

most famous canzonetta text by Gabrielo Chiabrera, set with great energy, which is added

to by the performers. In the cansonette an urequited observer tries to decipher the

inscrutability of a laugh and a smile, whose secrets are guarded by rosy cheeks.

Belle rose porporine

Che tra spine

Sull'aurora non aprite;

Ma, ministri degl'amori,

Bei tesori

Di bei denti custodite.

Dite, rose preziose,

Amorose;

Dit'ond'è, che s'io m'affiso

Nel bel guardo acceso ardente

Voi repente

Disciogliete un bel sorriso?

E ciò forse per aita

Di mia vita,

Che non regge alle vostr'ire?

O pur è perchè voi siete

Tutte liete,

Me mirando'n su'l morire?

Belle rose, ò feritate,

O pietate

Del si far la cagion sia

Io vo dir in nuovi modi

Vostri lodi;

Ma ridete tuttavia.

Se bel rio, bell'auretta

Tra l'erbetta

Su'l mattin mormorando erra;

Se di fiori un praticello

Si fa bello;

Noi diciam: Ride la terra.

Quando avvien, ch'un zeffiretto

Per diletto

Muova'l piè sull'onde chiare,

Si che l'acqua in sull'arena

Scherzi appena;

Noi diciam, che ride il mare.

Se già mai tra fior vermigli,

Se tra gigli

Veste l'alba un'aureo velo,

E sù rote di zaffiro

Muove in giro;

Noi diciam, che ride il cielo.

Ben è ver, quand'è giocondo

Rid'il mondo,

Rid'il ciel quand'è gioioso;

Ben è ver; ma non san poi

Come voi

Far un riso grazioso.

87. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), L’Orfeo favola in musica [The Legend of Orpheus in Music], SV

318 (1607): An example of early opera, attempting to recreate the style of ancient Greek

drama in sung recitation on a libretto by Alessandro Striggio treating the musicallyrelevant

Greek myth of Orpheus and Euridice. Monody in its purest conceptual form:

fully inflected text adhering to word and poetry rhythm; music, while not unmelodic and

certainly singable, is not necessarily memorable and not readily transferable to alternate

text. Monteverdi’s biography may be found in the textbook.

Act 1, “Ritornello -- Dal mio permesso amato”

Act 3, “Possente Spirto e formidabil Nume”

Act 4, “Ritornello – Qual honor di te fia degno”:

75 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 1

88. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Vespero della Beata Virgine or simply Vespers (1610)

Versicle and Response (Movement 1): “Deus in adjutorium / Domine ad adjuvandum”:

Note here the wild change of style after the initial chant. Focus on the voices in their

role as “chant” under the brilliant brass. (Psalm 69:1)

Verse: Deus in adjutorium meum intende

Response: Domine ad adjuvandum me festina

Translation: O God make speed to save me. // O Lord make haste to help me. /

Glory be to the Father and to the Son/ and to the Holy ghost. / As it was in the

beginning, now and for ever, / world without end.

Antiphon and Psalm (Movement 2): “Domine Dixit” -- set for 6 voices and 6

instruments in motet-style. (Psalm 110)

Translation: Mary has been received into heaven. / The angels rejoice; they bless the

Lord with Praise.

The Lord said unto my Lord: / sit thou at my right hand, until I make / thine

enemies my footstool.

The Lord shall send the rod of thy strength out of / Sion: rule thou in the midst

of thine enemies. / thine is the foundation in the day of thy power;/ in the

beauties of holiness/ I have born thee fron the womb before the morning star.

The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent/ Thou art a priest for ever, after the

order of Melchiz'edek

The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath.

He shall judge among the heathen he shall fill the places with the dead bodies;,

he shall wound the heads over many countries

He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he lift up the head

Motet (Movement 3): “Nigra sum” – Set for solo voice in monodic style (Psalm 112)

Translation: I am black but beautiful, daughters of Jerusalem,/ so the King loved

me, and led me in / to his chamber and said unto me: / Arise, my love, and

come away. / Now winter has passed, the rain has gone / and the flowers have

appeared in our land; / the time of pruning has come.

89. Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), L'incoronazione di Poppea [The Coronation of Poppea], SV 308,

(1642-43). Monteverdi’s last opera is set on a libretto by Giovanni Francesco Busenello.

The opera is one of the first be based upon historical people and events (Roman

Emperor Nero and his mistress Poppea), drawing on the writings of Tacitus, Suetonius,

among others.

76 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 1

90. Heinrich Schütz (1583-1643), “Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied,” SWV 35 from Symphoniae

Sacrae (Book II, 1647) – Psalm 98 and Doxology are set for soprano and ensemble; note

conversational style between singer and instrument, and the way each vers is set to

different music. A small note regarding Schütz and his music may be found in the

textbook, pages 50-51.

Text

Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied,

denn er tut Wunder.

Er sieget mit seiner Rechten

und mit seinem heilgen Arm.

Der Herr lässet sein Heil verkündigen

Vor den Völkern

läßt er seine Gerechtigkeit offenbaren.

Er gedenket an seine Gnade und Wahrheit

dem Hause Israel.

Aller Welt Enden sehen

das Heil unsers Gottes.

Jauchzet dem Herren,

alle Welt;

singet, rühmet und lobet!

Lobet den Herren mit Harfen,

mit Harfen und Psalmen!

Mit Drompeten und Posaunen

jauchzet vor dem Herrn,

dem Könige!

Das Meer brause und was drinnen ist,

der Erdboden und die drauf wohnen.

Die Wasserströme frohlocken,

und alle Berge sind fröhlich

für vor dem Herrn;

denn er kömmt, das Erdreich zu richten.

Er wird den Erdboden richten

mit Gerechtigkeit

und die Völker mit Recht.

Ehre sei dem Vater und dem Sohn

und auch dem Heiligen Geiste,

wie es war im Anfang,

jetzt und immerdar

und von Ewigkeit zu Ewigkeit. Amen.

Translation

Sing to Yahweh a new song,

for he has done marvelous things!

His right hand, and his holy arm, have worked

salvation for him.

Yahweh has made known his salvation.

He has openly shown his righteousness in the

sight of the nations. He has remembered his

loving kindness and his faithfulness toward

the house of Israel.

All the ends of the earth have seen the

salvation of our God.

Make a joyful noise to Yahweh, all the earth!

Burst out and sing for joy, yes, sing praises!

Sing praises to Yahweh with the harp,

with the harp and the voice of melody.

With trumpets and sound of the ram’s horn,

make a joyful noise before the King, Yahweh.

Let the sea roar with its fullness;

the world, and those who dwell therein.

Let the rivers clap their hands.

Let the mountains sing for joy together.

Let them sing before Yahweh,

for he comes to judge the earth.

He will judge the world with righteousness,

and the peoples with equity.

Glory be to the Father and to the Son

and to the Holy Ghost,

as it was in the beginning,

is now and ever shall be,

from eternity to eternity. Amen.

http://ebible.org/bible/web/Psalms.ht

maccessed 14 November 201

77 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 1

91. Heinrich Schütz, “Es steh Gott auf” from Symphoniae Sacrae (Book II, 1647); Psalm 68 is set

for male duet with instruments; note use of the instruments with the rhythm to establish

an overall mood for this work.

Text

Es steh Gott auf,

daß seine Feind plotzlich zerstreuet werden,

und all, die ihm zuwider seind,

für ihm fliehen auf Erden.

Der Gottlos verschwindt

gleichwie Rauch von Wind,

mit Feuersgewalt das Wachs

zerschmelzet bald,

für Gott muß er umkommen.

Der Grechte muß des freuen sich,

fröhlich allzeit im Herren,

von Herzengrund ganz inniglich

singt er seim Namen Ehre,

macht Bahn, lieben Leut,

der Weg sei bereit,

der Herr fährt herein

und kehrt sanft bei uns ein,

sein Zukunft uns erfreuet.

Er ist der Weisen Vater frumm,

der Witwen Richter treue,

er ist Gott in seim Heiligtum,

die Einsam Gott erfreuet,

gibt Kinder im Haus,

führt die Gfange aus,

Tuts zu rechter Zeit,

die abtrünnigen Leut

müssen zu Grund verdorren

Translation

Let God arise!

Let his enemies be scattered!

Let them who hate him also flee before

him.

As smoke is driven away,

so drive them away.

As wax melts before the fire,

so let the wicked perish at the presence of

God.

But let the righteous be glad.

Let them rejoice before God.

Yes, let them rejoice with gladness.

Sing to God! Sing praises to his name!

Extol him who rides on the clouds:

to Yah, his name!

Rejoice before him!

A father of the fatherless, and a defender

of the widows,

is God in his holy habitation.

God sets the lonely in families.

He brings out the prisoners with singing,

but the rebellious dwell in a sun-scorched

land.

http://ebible.org/bible/web/Psalms.ht

maccessed 14 November 201

92. Henry Purcell [pronounced Purse-l] (1659-1695), Dido and Aeneas, S. 626 (ante 1688). Here

Purcell demonstrates his usual uncommon ease and unfailing precision at setting the

English language. Purcell sets Nahum Tate’s libretto as a beautiful opera in three scenes

and a prologue of great dramatic power with brilliant text painting. A small note

regarding Purcell and his musis may be found in the textbook page 53-54.

Sinfonia (Instrumental)

Shake the Clouds (Aria)

When I Am Laid in Earth (Aria)

78 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Musical Terms in association with this time period (see textbook for further elaboration):

Florentine Camerata: see previous.

Doctrine of Affections or Affekt:

Word painting

Monody

Basso Continuo, Basso, or Continuo

Figured Bass

Free Ornamentation

Opera

Libretto

Number

Castrato

Countertenor (vocal range)

Aria

Recitative

Sinfonia (Italian Overture, Prologue)

Incidental Music

Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 1

In addition to the pages cited above, textbook pages 36-111 may be used for further reference on

this period and its principal composers.

79 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MUSIC AND RATIONALISM

BAROQUE

PART 2:

INSTRUMENTS FIND THEIR VOICES

(1600-1700)

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 2

93. Giovanni Gabrieli (1554-1612), Canzon septimi toni no.2, from Sacrae Symphoniae (1597): as a

very loose definition of canzon, the form of this work is free and changing section by

section as if imitating in instruments the type of music which might be set to very

expressive poetry (for example, the 13th-14th-century Italian Canzona). A small note

regarding Gabrieli and his music may be found in the textbook, pages 40-41.

94. Giovanni, Gabrieli, Canzon duodecimi toni á 10, from Sacrae Symphoniae (1597): unlike the

previous which is performed on modern brass instruments, this more closely adheres to

original conception of instrumentation using period instruments such as organ, cornetts,

violins, and the ever-popular sackbutt. Note how the change of instrumentation changes

the whole quality and edge of the music.

95. Matthias Weckmann (c. 1616-1674), “4 verses from Magnificat secondi toni” (composition

date unknown). Weckmann was student of the far more well-known Jan Pieterszoon

Sweeklinck. The contrapuntal compositional style is self-evident to the ears and visually

engaging in video presentation.

96. Girlamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643), “Toccata Prima” from Toccate d’Involuntura de cimbalo del

Primo Libro (1615): performed on harpsichord.

80 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 2

97. François Couperin (1668-1733), “Sixiême ordre: les barricades mistérieuses” from Livres de

Clavecin in 22 Ordres (1713-1730), performed on harpsichord. A small note regarding

Couperin and his music may be found in the textbook, page 54.

98. François Couperin [pronounced cooper-an] (1668-1733), “Premiere ordre: l’enchantresse” from

Livres de Clavecin in 22 Ordres (1713-1730), performed on harpsichord

99. Philippe Rameau [ponounced Ram-o] (1683-1764), “Allemande” from “Suite in e minor” from

Pièces de Clavecin (1724), performed on harpsichord. A small note regarding Rameau and

his music may be found in the textbook on page 54.

100. Philippe Rameau, “Les niais de Sologne de deux doubles” from “Suite in D major” from

Pièces de Clavecin (1724), performed on harpsichord

101. Marin Marais (1656-1728), 32 Couplets des Folies d'Espagne from Deuxième livre de pièces de viole

for viola da gamba and figured bass (1701): while written simply as a variation set on this

famous 17th-century sarabande, the variety of spirit and mood shown in the couplet

variations lends themselves to dance both on the origianl sarabande dance tune and on

the subsequent variations.

102. Archangelo Corelli (1653-1715), Concerto Grosso, op. 6, no. 1 (1708). A small note regarding

Corelli and his music may be found in the textbook on pages 52-53.

103. Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741), Concerto in D major “Il Gardellino” for flute/recorder and

orchestra, RV 428, mvt. 1. Vivaldi’s biography may be found in the textbook.

81 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 2

104. Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741), Le Quattro Stagioni (1723), The accompanying sonnets – the

basis of the composition – are anonymous but are presummed to be of Vivaldi’s

authorship (Translation from http://www.baroquemusic.org/vivaldiseasons.html, accessed 15 May 2010)

Concerto No.1 in E Major, RV 269, "SPRING"

Allegro / Largo / Allegro (Pastorale dance)

Allegro

Springtime is upon us.

The birds celebrate her return with festive song,

and murmuring streams are softly caressed by the breezes.

Thunderstorms, those heralds of Spring, roar, casting their dark mantle over heaven,

Then they die away to silence, and the birds take up their charming songs once more.

Largo

On the flower-strewn meadow, with leafy branches rustling overhead, the goat-herd sleeps,

his faithful dog beside him.

Allegro

Led by the festive sound of rustic bagpipes, nymphs and shepherds lightly dance beneath the

brilliant canopy of spring.

Concerto No.2 in g minor, RV 315, "SUMMER"

Allegro non molto - Allegro / Adagio – Presto – Adagio / Presto (Summer Storm)

Allegro non molto

Beneath the blazing sun's relentless heat

men and flocks are sweltering,

pines are scorched.

We hear the cuckoo's voice; then sweet songs of the turtle dove and finch are heard.

Soft breezes stir the air….but threatening north wind sweeps them suddenly aside. The

shepherd trembles, fearful of violent storm and what may lie ahead.

Adagio e piano - Presto e forte

His limbs are now awakened from their repose by fear of lightning's flash and thunder's roar,

as gnats and flies buzz furiously around.

Presto

Alas, his worst fears were justified, as the heavens roar and great hailstones beat down upon

the proudly standing corn.

Concerto No.3 in F Major, RV 293, "AUTUMN"

Allegro (Peasant Dance and Song) / Adagio molto (Sleeping Drunkards) / Allegro (The Hunt)

Allegro

The peasant celebrates with song and dance the harvest safely gathered in.

The cup of Bacchus flows freely, and many find their relief in deep slumber.

82 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Adagio molto

The singing and the dancing die away

as cooling breezes fan the pleasant air,

inviting all to sleep

without a care.

Allegro

The hunters emerge at dawn,

ready for the chase,

with horns and dogs and cries.

Their quarry flees while they give chase.

Terrified and wounded, the prey struggles on,

but, harried, dies.

Concerto No.4 in f minor, RV 297, "WINTER"

Allegro non molto / Largo / Allegro

Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 2

Allegro non molto

Shivering, frozen mid the frosty snow in biting, stinging winds;

running to and fro to stamp one's icy feet, teeth chattering in the bitter chill.

Largo

To rest contentedly beside the hearth, while those outside are drenched by pouring

rain.

Allegro

We tread the icy path slowly and cautiously, for fear of tripping and falling.

Then turn abruptly, slip, crash on the ground and, rising, hasten on across the ice lest

it cracks up.

We feel the chill north winds coarse through the home despite the locked and bolted

doors…

this is winter, which nonetheless brings its own delights.

Musical Terms in association with this time period (see textbook for further elaboration):

Text Painting

Movement

Concerto

Concerto Grosso

Instruments of this period:

Harpsichord

Viol and Violin families

Unkeyed (simple system) woodwinds

[no clarinet or saxophone]

Concertino

Sonata (Baroque)

Chaconne

Passacaglia

Unvalved brass

Organ

Toccata

Suite

Fugue

Canon

83 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MUSIC AND RATIONALISM

BAROQUE

PART 3:

SYNTHESIS AND THE MASTERS

(1700-1750)

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 3

105. Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759), Messiah, HWV 56 (1741): on a libretto by Charles

Jennens, adapted from Hebrew Bible and the Christian New Testiment. A full biography

of Handel and notes on selected well-known compositions may be found in the

textbook.

#1 Sinfonia (Part 1, Scene1)

#18 Aria, Soprano (Part 1, Scene 5), „Rejoice Greatly, O Daughter of Zion”

#44 Chorus (Part 2, Scene 7) “Halleluia!” Arguably the most famous of

choruses from the most famous of all oratorios, the “Halleluiah Chorus” is a

staple of the Christmas season despite the fact that only the first of the oratorios

three parts is linked to Christmas (specifically “The Annunciation”), the other

two parts covering “The Passion” (events leading to Easter) and “The

Aftermath.” (including Judgement Day). The “Halleluia Chorus” closes part 2.

#45 Aria, Soprano (Part 3, Scene 1), “I Know That My Redemer Liveth”

#48 Aria, Bass (Part 3, Scene 2), “The Trumpet Shall Sound”

106. Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759), Water Music, HWV 348 and 349 (1717), selections:

Water Music is comprised entirely of stylized dances (in two suites) which were intended

as concert music, not dance music, and was composed with the knowledge that the

performers (a 50-piece orchestra) would play from barge near the King’s barge as both

travelled down the Thames River. This event was captured on canvas by the

contemporary painters Edouard Jean Conrad Hamman and Giovanni Antonio Canal

“Canaletto.

84 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


From Suite 1, HWV 348

1. Overture (Largo – Allegro)

2. Adagio e staccato

3. Allegro – Andante – Allegro da capo

4. Minuet

5. Air

6. Minuet

Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 3

7. Bourrée

8. Hornpipe

9. Allegro (no actual tempo marking)

10. Allegro (variant)

11. Alla Hornpipe (variant)

107. Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759), Music for the Royal Fireworks, HWV 351 (1749),

selections: A suite of stylized dances (Handel preferred the title “overture” but was overruled

by the King) to accompany the fireworks in celebration of the Treaty of Aix-lachapelle,

ending the War of Austrian Succession and, amongst other things, guaranteed

the Hanoverian succession to the British throne. The fireworks themselves were

disasterous, setting the launching barge on fire. The events of this exciting day are

captured in contemporary etchings.

1. Ouverture: Adagio, Allegro, Lentement, Allegro

2. Bourrée

3. La Paix: Largo alla siciliana

4. La Réjouissance: Allegro

5. Menuets I and II

108. Georg Friedrich Handel (1685-1759), Sonata in g minor for Recorder and Basso Continuo, HWV

360 (ante 1710), “Adagio” and “Presto” movements: in these small intimate sonatas, the

work of the basso continuo is clearly audible (and completely enjoyable).

109. Georg Phillip Telemann (1681-1767), “Methodical” Sonata in d minor for Flute and Basso

Continuo (1728-1735), Andante and Allegro: in this impressive set of sonatas, Telemann

composed possible solutions and options for improvised ornamentation which the

performers were required to add in order to complete the effect of the music.

110. Georg Phillip Telemann (1681-1767), Fantasia no. 1 in A major for solo instrument (c. 1727/8,

pub. 1735): during the Baroque period, instruments were not considered capable of

sustaining expression single-handedly; however, Telemann and others of his generation

demonstrated otherwise. In this class we will hear these on a variety of instruments

including flute, viola, and oboe.

111. Johann Sebastian Bach [pronounced BAHK or even BAHhh] (1685-1750), Suite no. 1 in G major

for Solo Cello (1717-1723), “Prelude”: A full biography of Bach and notes on selected

well-known compositions may be found in the textbook.

85 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 3

112. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), Brandenburg Concerto no. 2, BWV 1047 (1708-1717),

Allegro: solo instruments (the concertino) are flute,

trumpet, violin, and oboe.

Gottfried Reiche was by reputation the finest trumpeter of the "Bach

Era". It is believed that he performed the Brandenburg Concerto No. 2

on a Jager (coiled) trumpet such as in the above portrait. Here is an

account of his death from a newspaper of 1734:

"...Herr Gottfried Reiche, the Leucopetra-Misnicus and senior member

of the municipal company of musicians in this place, suffered a stroke as

he was travelling home and dropped dead in the Stadtpfeifer-Allee not

far from his house where he was taken. The reason for this was on

account of the enormous strain he suffered the night before while

blowing [the trumpet] for the royal music, his condition having been

greatly aggravated from the smoke given off by the torch-lights."

Johann S. Riemer's Manuscript Chronik preserved in the Stadtarchiv, Leipzig for Wednesday, Oct. 6, 1734

http://www.peakviewmusic.com/Brandenburg%20C

oncerto%20No.%202%20Piccolo%20Trumpet%20pa

rt.2.html, accessed 28 June 2010

113. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), Brandenburg Concerto no. 4, BWV 1049 (1708-1717),

Allegro and Air; the concertino group is two recorders and violin – usually now the

recorders are replaced by flutes, but “period” performances, such as this one, are also

popular

May I suggest an excellent read: Stuart

Isacoff’s 2003 non-fiction book:

Temperment: How Music Became the

Battleground for the Greatest Minds of

Western Civilization

114. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), The Well-Tempered Clavier, BWV 846–893, Book 1

(1722), Prelude and Fugue in C major: at this time Clavier referred to any keyboard

instrument, and is performed today on all variety of keyboard instruments; in class we

will hear this performed on piano.

115. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4 (Easter, 1707), text

by Martin Luther.

i. Sinfonia: strings and continuo

ii. Verse I: "Christ lag in Todes Banden" - The alto, tenor, and bass voices sing free

counterpoint, while the cantus firmus is sung by the soprano in unadorned, long notes.

iii. Verse II: "Den Tod niemand zwingen kunnt" ("Nobody could overcome death") -

for soprano, alto and continuo.

iv. Verse III: "Jesus Christus, Gottes Sohn" ("Jesus Christ, Son of God") - for tenor and

continuo with 2 violins obbligato.

v. Verse IV: "Es war ein wunderlicher Krieg" ("There was a wondrous war") - for

soprano, alto, tenor, bass and continuo.

86 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music and Rationalism

(Baroque)

Part 3

vi. Verse V: "Hier ist das rechte Osterlamm" ("Here is the true Easter Lamb") - for bass,

strings and continuo.

vii. Verse VI: "So feiern wir das hohe Fest" ("So we celebrate the high feast") - for

soprano, tenor and continuo.

viii. Verse VII: "Wir essen und leben wohl" ("We eat and live well") - A chorale, sung and

played by the whole ensemble.

116. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), Wachet Auf, ruft uns die Stimme, BWV 140 (Advent,

1731), selections: text is from the Christian Bible, Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 25.

(Chorus) Wachet auf, ruft uns die Stimme … [Wake up, a voice is calling …]

(Chorale) Zion hört die Wächter singen … [Zion hears the watchmen singing …]

(Chorale) Gloria sei dir gesungen … [May “Gloria” be sung to you …]

117. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), Magnificat, BWV 243 (Christmas Vespers, 1723), “Quia

Respexit”: text is from the Roman Rite, drawn directly from the Christian Bible, Gospel

of Luke, chapter 2.

Quia Respexit … [Because he hath regarded the humility of his handmaid; for behold

from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed.]

118. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), Mass in b minor (1749, assembled from earlier

compositions), selections

Kyrie: (Chorus) Kýrie, eléison [Lord, have mercy]

Credo: (Chorus) Gratia agimus tibi … [We give Thee thanks …]

Credo: (Duet) Domine Deus … [O Lord God, heavenly King …]

Credo: (Chorus) Qui tollis peccata mundi … [Thou takest away the sins of the world]

Musical Terms in association with this time period (see textbook for further elaboration):

Tonality

Major scale or tonality

Minor scale or tonality

Scale

Cadence

Cantata

Oratorio

Obbligato

Text Painting

Movement

Concerto

Concerto Grosso

Concertino

Sonata (Baroque period)

Chaconne

Passacaglia

Toccata

Suite

Fugue

Canon

87 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


DECIPHERING THE CODES

STILL MORE THAN YOU MAY WANT TO KNOW, BUT WHICH CAN BE VERY HELPFUL AS YOU LISTEN TO MUSIC

PATTERNS IN MULTIMOVEMENTS WORKS

Deciphering the Codes

Patterns in multimovement works

Mass in the Roman Catholic and related Christian Traditions

“Ordinary” Kyrie (God have mercy)

Gloria (Glory to God in the highest …)

Credo (I believe …)

Sanctus (Holy, holy, holy) and Benedictus (Blessed is he who comes …)

Agnus Dei (Lamb of God)

These are the oldest set pieces of the Roman Catholic liturgy, and are the

“movements” usually committed to music. A handy acronym for

remembering the order of these movements is: Kiss Geese Crossiing

SouthBound Avenues.

Other “movements” may be added from the “Porper” of the Mass:

Introit (Call to worship); Gradual, Tract, Sequence (hymns or responses);

Psalms (Song of praise); Alleluia (response).

A useful way to remember “Ordinary” and “Proper” is: sections of the

Ordinary are what is expected to be included, but it is Proper to add extra

Requiem

17 th and 18 th centuries

Bel canto

opera seria

opera buffa

musical elements.

Mass for the dead: these include the non-joyful elements of the Ordinary,

and broad inclusions from the Proper.

Introit: Requiem aeternam (Grant eternal rest).

Gradual: Requiem aeternam … lux perpetua (light eternal)

Tract: Absolve, Domine (Forgive, O Lord)

Sequence: Dies irae, dies illa (Day of wrath)

Offertory (Free the souls of all the departed)

Pie Jesu (O sweet Jesus)

Libera me (Free me)

In Paradisum (In paradise)

Composers take particular light in dramatically setting the emotional extra

sections of the Requiem Mass.

Opera

Up to 5 Acts: each act usually opens with an instrumental work, usually

called sinfonia, and later in the period sometimes overture or entr’acte.

By 18 th century – Italian opera seria or semiseria is characterized by 3 Acts,

opera buffa by 2 Acts.

Drama proceeds through a series of paired vocal selections for individual

88 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


See also pages

58-63 in the

text book

(lower article)

tragedie lyrique

Singspiel

19 th century

Grand Opera

Operetta

Music Drama

See also

pages 204-7

of the

textbook

Late 19 th century on

Verismo/realisme

Deciphering the Codes

Patterns in multimovement works

(and sometimes small groups of) characters. The pair is comprised of a

recitative – which gives the narration – and an aria – which provides

commentary. This pattern of play and the need to have more time on

stage for main characters than supporting characters, but also more time

off-stage for main characters to rest their voices is part of what

contributes to the complex plot of the traditional opera.

Dances or scene-shaping music may be interspersed (Incidental or Banda

music). French operas always have a formal ballet in the middle act

Choruses are used for crowd scenes and are usually confined to beginning

and ends of acts (unless otherwise indicated by the drama)

Each of these sections is known as a NUMBER, hence the colloquial use

of the term “number opera”

NOTE: The above is very typical for Italian opera (both in Italy and in

Germany). During this time, opera in France is called tragedie lyrique and is

gives great importance to spectacle, mob scenes, instrumental music,

dance, short and snappy arias. Opera in England is more theatrical and

light-hearted even so, but failed to develop a strong tradition owing to the

English prejudice against staged works during the 17 th century.

Singspiel in Germany is essentially a drama with music, essentially what

we would now equate with Musical Theatre.

All of the above parts are still present and the general shape of the opera

remains the same (except for Music Drama); however, divisions between

sections are increasingly blurred and begin to run more seamlessly

between each other. Ultimately there is less distinction between

recitative and aria, and by late in the century it may be difficult to

determine where one ends and the other begins.

French operas retain more of the older sections longer – adding much

spectacle. Smaller casts of characters means more focus on main

characters and less involved plots – plots become more play-like.

Small operas of light quality (or light opera) focus on spoken drama

interspersed with music: these are the precursors of our modern Musical

Theatre

Organization of a Music Drama is different from a traditional opera.

Quoting from the Harvard Dictionary of Music (1979): “[Here] all the

constituent arts are transfigured, sacrificing their individuality and some

of their special characteristics for the larger possibilitieis of development

opened up by the new association.”

Construction is of continuous music with no formal stops except at ends

of acts. No distinction between aria and recitative – all is dialogue with

emotion incorporated as is in normal speech.

Drama is coordinated through use of leitmotivs – musical identifiers for

characters, moods, events, objects, etc.

Late century reactions to Music Drama resulted in development of topics

and plots of extreme, even difficult realism.

Opera may be shaped according to traditional principles and divisions, or

Music Drama, or a combination of both.

American-style Musical Theatre: officially described as operetta

89 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Deciphering the Codes

Patterns in multimovement works


Oratorio

Virtually always treating a religious topic, and as such is historically NOT

staged. Music, form, and movements, however, will usually be identical

to that of opera (although “never” Music Drama, opera buffa, or light opera

varieties) of the parallel period.

Usually a full dramatic telling of a large scale Christian Biblical story

Magnificat Setting of each line of text of the Song of Mary (Luke 1: 46-55) – My

soul doth magnify the Lord

Associated with Advent (four weeks preceding Christmas)

Stabat mater Setting of each line of text of the 13 th century sequence relating the

suffering of Mary, mother of Jesus, at Jesus’ crucifiction.

Associated with Holy Week (the week preceding Easter) and Good Friday

(day of Jesus’ crucifiction)

Passion Setting of the Biblical gospel texts (either literally or dramatically

interpreted) relating the story of Jesus’ crucifiction and the time leading

up to that event.

Gloria Setting of each line of the text of the Greater (Gloria in excelsis Deo) or

Lesser (Gloria patri) Doxology – hymn of thanks and praise

Cantata

As a miniature Oratorio – narrating either a sacred or secular story –

conventions will be the same as the oratorio of the day, except that the

performance forces are much smaller, there are usually many fewer

movements, and there are no division into Acts.

Suite

Baroque/Classical A set of instrumental dances, possibly introduced by an overture: dances

are most often typical of the period (usually those found at royal courts),

but are stylized, i.e. not intended to be actually danced.

May be performed by one instrument, a chamber ensemble, or larger

orchestra.

Bach’s Suite Identified by the famous acronym ACSOG

Allemande – processional dance of German origin

Courante (slow French dance) or Corrente (running Italian dance)

Sarabande – sultry slow dance of Sapnish origin

Optional – free selection of dances

Gigue – quick-step dance of British origin

French Overture A pompous instrumental movement of two sections – an entry

procession and snappy quick step – followed by a series of typically

French dances and songs (might actuallyt be set for dance or drawn from

previous theatrical work)

Sonata da camera Italian suite consisting of a prelude and a following free dances

Set for chamber ensemble (just a few instruments), hence the name:

camera means chamber.

Classical Period A set of light works usually in a dance style but not intended to be

danced, or lyric style but not intended to be sung. These suite-like works

were used prinicipally as background music for events – often found in

what we know today as the traditional “50 minute set” still used as

industry standard for “club music,” “garden music, “ or “reception

90 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Deciphering the Codes

Patterns in multimovement works

music.” These suite-like works come by many names: Divertimento,

Cassation, Notturno, Serenades

Romantic and beyond A selection of individual dances and songs from a larger, usually

theatrical, work, i.e. selections from …

A set of national-style dances of no set format

Sonata

Pre-Baroque single-movement instrumental work in contrasting sections: variously

Baroque

Sonata da chiesa

Classical

Solo Sonata

See also

pages 160-

174 of the

textbook

Chamber Sonata

Orchestral Sonata

duo

trio

quartet

quintet

Symphony

named canzona, canzone a sonar, ricercar, or sonata

multi-movement instrumental work, usually for small groups of

instruments

Literally, Sonata in church style (chiesa means church), which implies now

secular elements such as lowly dances

Four movements: Slow (Adagio) – Fast (Allegro) – Slow (Adagio) – Fast

(Allegro)

Sonata a due or duo sonata – is in two “voices/lines,” treble and bass but

requires THREE players: remember bass in this period means basso

continuo, or bass instrument with harmonic-fill instrument.

Sonata a tre or trio sonata – is in three “voices/lines,” two treble and one

bass but requires FOUR players: remember bass means basso continuo

Sonata a quattro or a cinque – is in four or five “voices/lines” respectively,

and was mostly likely performed by small orchestra.

Sonatas were also sometimes written for solo keyboard instrument.

A multi-movement instrumental work, for single instrument or for small

groups of instruments – but a completely different type of work than the

baroque sonata.

Solo keyboard sonata

Solo sonata: melody instrument with keyboard – flute and piano, violin

and piano, etc.

chamber sonata – trio, quartet, or quintet of instruments

orchestral sonata – symphony

Three movements: Fast (allegro) – Slow (Adagio) – Fast (allegro or

dance)

Four movements: Fast (allegro or sonata form) – Slow (Adagio or songstyle)

– Minuet or Scherzo (dance-style) – Fast (Allegro or rondo)

string duo: violin and cello

piano (flute, clarinet) trio: piano (flute, clarinet) plus string duo

string trio: violin, viola, and cello

piano (flute, oboe) quartet: piano (flute, oboe) plus string trio

string quartet: two violins, viola, and cello

flute (clarinet, oboe) quintet: flute (clarinet, oboe) plus string quartet

larger groups of stringed instruments, with or without wind, brass, or

percussion instruments

Romantic and beyond Base forms nd structures remain essentially the same as in the classical

period, except that composers made conscious decisions to accept and

work within these practices or to intentionally press, expand, contract,

and challenge these. Each composer and work must be encountered

individually.

91 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Deciphering the Codes

Patterns in multimovement works

Concerto

Baroque Generally in three movements: Fast (allegro) – Slow (Adagio) – Fast

(allegro)

Usually the soloist and the orchestra are featured in alternating blocks

Classical and

Romantic

Late Romantic and

beyond

Generally in three movements: Fast (allegro or sonata form) – Slow

(Adagio or song) – Fast (Allegro or rondo)

The soloist is usually featured as musical leader accompanied by the

orchestra, while the orchestra is periodically featured in a leadership

position.

Generally in the same three movements as the previous style

Increasingly the soloist comes to be integrated as a dominant solo voice

within the orchestra, sometimes featured, sometimes absorbed.

92 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Numbering and Identifying Comositions

NUMBERING AND IDENTIFYING COMPOSITIONS

It is hard to know how many works have been composed through history: I would consider it safe

to say millions. With this many compositions in existance, it is important to have identifiable names.

Composers and their publishers must create distinct names for compositions, and where those

distinct names do not really exist then to add more qualifiers to clarify meaning.

If a work carries a very distinctive title – Scheherazade, Also sprach Zarathustra, Four Seasons – we really

don’t need any further information once we know the composer’s name (and sometimes it is clear

even without the composer’s name).

Since the advent of publishing, however, most composers choose to apply “opus numbers”

to their works.

Opus is the Latin word for work, and when used in a musical title is abbreviated “op.” A

composer will usually apply the designation opus 1 to her/his first published work. In such

a case, the note “op. 1” will be placed after the title proper, for example in Violin

Concerto, op. 1.

If the concerto had been published after the composer’s death the abbreviation is “op.

posth.,” meaning opus pothumous – this indicates that the composer did not make the

decision as to whether the composition should be published: Violin Concerto, op. posth.

If a work is published without the composer’s blessing, the composition might carry the

notation of WoO, meaning “without opus”: Violin Concerto, WoO

Sometimes compositions are published as sets such as Chopin did with many of his opus 64

waltzes. In this case, the whole set has an opus number, and then each individual waltz has a

number. For example Chopin’s Trois Valses is his opus 64; the first waltz of this set is

number (no.) 1, the second is no. 2, and the third no. 3. And so … the first waltz would be:

Waltz, op. 64, no. 1

Many works are written in a specific key. Often this key is given in the title. For this very

same waltz, written in the key of D-flat major, the title reads:

Waltz in D-flat major, op. 64, no 1

Sometimes it happens that an additional number appears in title. This would be the case if

Chopin chose to number just his waltzes. For this waltz, Chopin’s 6 th waltz, a fuller title

might read:

Waltz no. 6 in D-flat major, op. 64, no. 1

Lastly, if a publisher feels that a nickname applied to a work with an otherwise plain name

would help sales, then the nickname is added to the end of the title. A nickname sometimes

comes from the composer her or himself, sometimes from the publisher trying to boost

sales, and sometimes from popular usage by performers themselves. Therefore with our

waltz – the famous “Minute Waltz” – our final title is:

Waltz no. 6 in D-flat major, op. 64, no. 1, “Minute”

93 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Numbering and Identifying Comositions

In the days prior to composers publishing within their lifetimes, we cannot rely on this complex

of opus numbers. Here we have to rely on later musicologists to gather up and catalogue the

works of these older composers. You will recognize this fact by seemingly odd collections of

letters and numbers after titles. For example the works of J. S. Bach are catalogued in the Bach

Werke Verzeichnes, and so Bach’s titles are followed by BWV 1034 – this is the Sonata no. 5 in e

minor for flute and continuo. Here is a short list of composer catalogues:

J.S. Bach: Bach Werke Verzeichnes – BWV

W.A. Mozart: Koechel (named for the cataloguer) – K. or sometimes KV

Franz Schubert: Deutsch (named for the cataloguer, Otto Erich Deutsch) – D.

F. J. Haydn: Hoboken Verzeichnes – H (followed by a complex of Roman numerals)

G. P. Telemann: Telemann Werke Verzeichnes – TWV

G. F. Handel: Handel Werke Verzeichnes – HWV

Unlike “opus numbers” which usually indicate some kind of loose chronology of composition,

composer catalogues usually group like-works together. Therefore, all the operas might be

numbered together, followed by all the symphonies, followed by all the sonatas. For example all

of J.S. Bach’s sonatas for flute are numbered together: the three flute sonatas with klavier are

BWV. 1030-1032, and the three with continuo are BWV 1033-1035, even though almost 15 years

separate the composition of the earliest (BWV 1032) and the latest (BWV 1035).

These catalogues will also contain incomplete and doubtful works. For example BWV 1032 was

not actually finished (or so it appears form the manuscript), and both BWV 1031 and BWV 1033

are thought to be by composers other than Johann Sebastian (the first by his some Carl Phillip

Emanuel, and the latter by an unknown composer but perhaps harmonized by J.Sebastian – or

possibly the other way around.

94 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


What You Would Expect to See on a

Concert programme …

What You Would Expect to See on a Concert Programme

Date and Place of

the conder,

including YEAR

Full title of each work to be

played is given to the left

Pirating and Plagiarism Permitted

February 21, 2011

Old School House @ Qualicum Beach

Mary Byrne, flutes

Wendy Stofer, piano

Title includes opus or catalogue numbers ig

included on the on the title pages

Programme

Sonata in F major, KV 376, ............................................................. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

from Die Aurnhammer-Sonaten (1781)

composed for Piano and Violin

Fantaisie Brillante sur “La Déesse et le Berger de DUPRATO” ............... Jules Demersseman

Titles which are Forms are NOT italicized,

titles which are “poetic” are italicized; opus

and catalogue numbers are not italicized. Intermission

Comic opera by Jules Duprato (Paris, 1863)

Sonatina ............................................................................................................ Lennox Berkeley

composed for Treble Recorder and Piano (1940)

Moderato

Adagio

Allegro moderato

Performers

Tirana: Homenaje a Sarasate ................................................................................. Jesús Guridi

posthumous dedication (1971)

Sonatina in G major, op. 100 ............................................................................. Antonín Dvořák

composed for Violin and Piano (1893)

Allegro risoluto

Larghetto

Scherzo: Molto vivace

Finale: Allegro

Concert title, if there is one

Instruments or voices for

each performer or soloist

Allegro

Andante

Rondeau: Allegretto grazioso

Title includes key, if

composer includes it on

the title page

“from …” may appear on the title line or

in this position under the conposer’s name;

Six Metamorphoses after Ovid, op. 40 ............................................................ date is optional.

Benjamin Britten

composed for Oboe solo (1952)

performed on Alto Flute

Pan who played upon the reed pipe which was Syrinx, his beloved

Phaeton who rode upon the chariot of the sun for one day and was hurled into the river Padus by a thunderbolt

Niobe who, lamenting the death of her fourteen children, was turned Sometimes into a mountain the composer’s birth [and death] dates are given

Bacchus at whose feasts is heard the noise of gaggling women’s tattling below tongues her/his and name. shouting Usually out of boys the date of the composition is

Narcissus who fell in love with his own image and became a flower not given unless it is an identifier as part of the title, and then

Arethusa who, flying from the love of Alpheus the river god, was turned it is given into a fountain on the title line.

If there are movements to the work, these will be listed below

the title, often just the Italian tempo marking of the movement.

Usually a title such as this includes the instruments as a

part of the title, and these should be included if on the

title page of the work. Because this programme has

special circumstances, the original instrumentation is

given below th composer’s name

Composer’s name is given in full to

the right, with arranger or adapter

given below

95 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Programmes may include programme notes

to share information about works to be

heard or curatorial choices made with

regards to the selection of the works; and

may include texts and English translations

of songs to be performed.

Pirating and Plagiarism Permitted

Mary Byrne, flutes

Wendy Stofer, piano

What You Would Expect to See on a

Concert programme …

"… A daring romp which at every turn challenges us to reconsider our beliefs

of what is appropriate music for the flute!”

It is no mystery that in the last four centuries composers have tended to be either highly discerning

In a flute-o-centric world it is easy to indict composers who sometimes have shockingly shunned the

flute in favour of instruments considered more capable, more beautiful, or more expressive – recall

Mozart's famous, alleged aversion to the flute! With this programme flutist Mary Byrne along with

pianist Wendy Stofer will fearlessly assume the guise of the Hungarian violin, the Spanish recorder,

and the "mythological" oboe; press the limits of 19th-century operatic repertoire and broaden the

scope of the 20th century recorder; and, yes ... even gently suggest that Mozart might like to

reconsider his opinion on the flute.

Biographies of the featured performers are

often included. Presenters, sponsors, and

donors may be mentioned; other words of

Mary Byrne – Flutist – teaches flute and flute pedagogy at the thanks Victoria may Conservatory be included.

of Music,

where she also serves on the Artistic Directorate and as Head of the Woodwinds, Brass and

Percussion Department. She performs regularly with the Victoria Symphony, Aurora Trio (Flute,

Viola and Harp), Fairwinds Quintet (Woodwind Quintet) and the Island Chamber Player, in addition

to appearing as solo and chamber recitalist with the many concert series events of Vancouver Island.

She is an active lecturer on diverse topics of musicological interest and an avid adjudicator at music

festivals and competitions throughout Canada and the United States. Dr. Byrne holds a Ph. D. in

Musicology from the University of Victoria, as well as B. Mus. in Wind Performance and Music

Education, and M. Mus. in Flute Performance degrees from the University of Michigan. Her major

flute studies have been undertaken with Keith Bryan, Lois Wynn, and Carol Kniebusch Noe, with

great influence from Bonita Boyd.

Wendy Stofer – pianist – began piano studies at the age of four. She received a Bachelor of Music

degree from the University of Washington studying with the renowned pianist Bela Siki, and a

Master of Music in accompanying and chamber music from the University of Michigan under

Eugene Bossart. While pursuing doctoral studies with Martin Katz at the University of Michigan,

Ms. Stofer was appointed as visiting instructor/faculty accompanist to the University of Alaska

Fairbanks where she subsequently taught for five years. Ms. Stofer has performed in recitals with

flutists Trevor Wye, Susan Hoeppner, Fiona Wilkinson, Amy Hamilton and Carol Kniebusch Noe,

violinist Benny Kim, soprano Paulina Stark, as well as other performers of international reputation.

Since returning to her native Victoria in 1991, she has been much in demand as accompanist and

chamber musician, and has been pianist for the Victoria Choral Society for the past eighteen years.

96 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


FORMS AND SHAPES IN MUSIC

Forms and Shapes I n Music

Musicologists have identified a certain predictability to the shapes of some kinds of movements. It is

entirely possible to enjoy listening without knowing these forms; however, there are three compelling

reasons you might want to take on the challenge of wrapping your mind around this.

First, music moves through time. When you understand the general shapes of some of these

longer movements, it may be possible for you to begin to predict what will happen next, and

how much longer there is to go – it’s like reading a map, only hearing a map in sound.

Second, composers really expect that listeners can do this, and have great fun playing with

your sense of expectation.

Third, since the form of the music is like the skeleton upon which the composer hangs the

clothes of the music, you can enjoy the play and variation of the detail of the melody,

harmony, and rhythmic pulse.

Does this make or break your sense of the beauty of the work? No! Does it deprive you of getting

the meaning or the story? No! Does it allow you to delight in the hidden mysteries of the music?

Perhaps! Mostly, it brings you closer to engaging the genius of some composers. If it’s not for you,

don’t worry about it – it may just be too much information to clutter an otherwise perfect listening

experience. If you’re curious, read on.

SONGS

Songs themselves are driven by text, words, lyrics. The music which underlays the text is expected to

be singable and hopefully memorable. The shape of the melody of a well-composed song fits the

nuances of the poetry, the rhyme and the word stress. We know instinctively when this works and

when it doesn’t. Even with the emphasis on words, the pattern of the music is what we musicians

characterize in letters, almost as if poetry.

Much Pop music and/or songs we encounter daily are in what we might call AABA form. By this

we mean that the tune takes place once (A), it repeats with new words (A), there is a contrasting

section (B), and then the first tune comes back with new or old words (A). The letters indicate

repetition (or newness) of melody or musical theme.

Some tunes – our traditional Christmas carols or national folk tunes – have only one tune but many

verses of words: this is called strophic and might be represented by AAAA… how ever many we

need. Some tunes have these same verses, but the verses are separated by a short refrain or what we

might call the chorus – this doesn’t really change the form

Most old songs – particularly earlier operas – are in a simple ABA form. This would represent a

main section (A), a contrasting center section (B), and a repeat of the main section (A). Sometimes

we call this “aria form,” or “song form.” We even expect to find this form in the song-like

movements of instrumental works. We also sometimes call these arias “Da Capo” arias – da capo

97 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Forms and Shapes I n Music

means “from the top” in Italian and indicates a straight repeat of the first section (although in some

practice the repeat is not really straight, but highly ornamented and almost imporvised).

Some song movements in instrumental works are actually variation movements. This means that the

same tune repeats over and over, but with increasing variations applied each time to fancy up the

tune. Usually instrumentalists are asked to perform at the height of their technical capabilities by the

end of a variation movement. This is really another take on AAAAA.

DANCES

Dances are always shaped according to the expected sense of motion – slow or fast, smooth or leapy

– and always give exactly enough beats to complete the required step sequence (unless the

choreography is done later, as in most modern dance): old dances (Minuets, sarabandes, even polkas

and waltzes) have specific step patterns which must be completed. Again, however, it is the music

which we characterize in letters.

Most old dances – both courtly and popular – are in binary form: AABB … one short tune

repeated, and a second short tune repeated.

Usually in suites, symphonies, and and other “sonata-type” works, dances are paired: for example

Minuet and Trio (essentially two minuets, the second one played by a smaller group [a trio]), or

Passpied 1 and 2. Essentially the pair of dances makes for a single movement. The first of the two

dances would be AABB, the second CCDD, but we always go back and play the first dance again

without the repeats AB. Therefore, the whole movement would be AABB CCDD AB. As a side

note, this is a pattern and practice that all musicians learn as a part of their first year of music history

study; therefore when experienced musicians sit down to play a dance movement, no one ever asks

“do we take the repeats?” – we just know this is the game plan and this is how we play.

ALLEGRO movements

Allegro is the Italian word for “happy, fast.” Generally, we expect first and last movements of

multimovement instrumental works to be fast, therefore allegro movements.

Last movements of instrumental works are often what is termed Rondo form – an old word deriving

from “round dances” and poetic rondeaux. In a rondo, there is a single identifiable, recognizable tune

– this is the rondo theme and we call it A. We hear (A), then we have a different tune (B) followed

by a return of (A), then there is another tune (C) followed again by (A). This pattern continues,

alternating familiar (rondo theme) and new for a pattern like ABACADAEA…

First movements of sonata-type works are usually cast in a very complex but elegant form which has

come to be known to us as Sonata-Allegro Form, or sometimes simply Sonata Form or Firstmovement

Form: all of these names clearly betray the strong association of this form with this type

of work. Sonata-Allegro is particular to the Classical period and beyond, and variations of this form

will be found throughout the symphonies, chamber music, concertos, and even solo sonatas of this

period and beyond. Here’s how this works!

98 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


There is one musical form that you really

should try to get your mind around as it is

the form of choice for composers for most

of the past two-and-a-half centuries ⁄. . .

Sonata-Allegro Movement Form

Forms and Shapes I n Music

The whole philosophical idea behind the Sonata-Allegro Form is to take the listener on a journey,

beginning in the home key, moving away though different keys, and then returning home. Along the

way we experience a variety of musical ideas, at first given plainly, then quickly related to each other;

when the return home is made the intention is for the listener to hear what is now familiar in a new

light. The journey is complete and the listener has been changed.

Exposition: the first section of the sonata-allegro movement. This section accounts for fully half of

the movement. In the exposition, the composer will give a series of contrasting themes, always in

two groups. The first group of themes will always be in the home key, the tonic key (usually the titlekey

of the piece): the first group themes are usually perky. The second group of themes will be

contrasting in style (usually lyrical) and will NOT be in the home key but will be in a related key: this

group of themes will always conclude in the dominant key, the most propulsive key available.

Honestly, this is where we lose most people! If you’re still with me, however, then keep going it gets

easier from here. The exposition now repeats! After the repeat of the exposition, we are roughly

halfway through the movement.

Development: Now the composer will take many or all the themes presented and mix them up: a

bit here, a bit there, different combinations, some exaggeration here and there. In this section the

composer will usually weave through different keys, searching for the home key. Suddenly … the

Recapitulation arrives!

Recapitulation: Here the exposition is “repeated” but not exactly! Unlike the exposition, here in the

Recapitulation, all the themes stay in the home key.

If not totally put off at this time, turn the page for a potentially useful comparison to one of the great

stories of our time! If you haven’t yet seen The Wizard of Oz, add this to your “To-Do” list.

99 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Forms and Shapes I n Music

IF SONATA ALLEGRO FORM WERE A STORY, IT WOULD BE THE WIZARD OF OZ (MOVIE)

Introduction (optional)

Suspenseful or exciting opening music The opening music and credits set scene

Exposition

First set of themes ............................... Tonic key (I) Dorothy (our principal character) and Toto

Tunes are similar are home in Kansas

Key stays home and dream of going Over the Rainbow

With Dorothy we meet the friendly farm hands

Second set of themes .......................... related keys Suddenly her world changes

Tunes are new The evil neighbour takes Toto away\

Key is close but not home Dorothy runs away from home

Section concludes: we meet the traveller who sends her home

It has moved away from home key .. Dominant key (V) but she isn’t home safely, all are gone!

REPEATS! Pretend that all this repeats in the story!

First set of themes ............................... Tonic key (I) Dorothy (our principal character) and Toto

Tunes are similar are home in Kansas

Key stays home and dream of going Over the Rainbow

With Dorothy we meet the friendly farm hands

Second set of themes .......................... related keys Suddenly her world changes

Tunes are new The evil neighbour takes Toto away\

Key is close but not home Dorothy runs away from home

Section concludes: we meet the traveller who sends her home

It has moved away from home key .. Dominant key (V) but she isn’t home safely, all are gone!

Development

Many of the themes are reheard ........ Mixture of wild keys Suddenly there is a great storm

but differently presented Remote keys Dorothy (injured) “sees” snips of familiar folks

fragmented The neighbour transforms into a wicked witch

unstable Dorothy “awakes” and the world is in colour

recognizable but hidden Familiar people are there but in new roles

relationships are different Many new things and characters are there too.

but elements of characters remain After a great journey and difficulty she realizes:

Themes are experienced in new light There is no place like home!

Recapitulation

First set of themes ............................... Tonic key (I) So home she goes!

in full She is home, but things are a bit different.

We see Dorothy and her friends

but she no longer wants to leave.

She “knows” her friends journeyed with her

Second set of themes .......................... Tonic key (I) This time, her world does not change

There is no place like home She is home, her friends are there

All is heard in new light She was “away” but never really left.

Section ends on home base ................ Tonic key (I) Now she sees everything with new eyes.

Coda (optional)

Closing music to affirm spirit of music closing credits and music, story done

100 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Fresh Ideals Leading to Enlightenment …

FRESH IDEALS LEADING TO ENLIGHTENMENT

THE BACH BROTHERS ON THE LEADING EDGE

(1720 - 1770 CE)

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

119. Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782), Overture; Adriano in Siria (1765): the lighter gallant

style and the work of this son of the great J. S. Bach, as well as the older styled works of

“Papa” Bach were highly influential on the style of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

120. Wilhelm Freidmann Bach (1710-1784) Concerto in F minor for harpsichord (c. 1767):

Harpsichord moves alternately between being a driving member of the orchestra and

taking on a soloist’s role.

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HarpsichordMechanism-EN.svg, accessed 1 July 2010

121. Wilhelm Freidmann Bach (1710-1784) Concerto in F major, F10 for two harpsichords (c.

1740): Here only the two harpsichords, no orchestra. While not fitting our standard

assumption of what makes a concerto, it is completely within keeping for the full

definition of the genre.

122. Carl Philip Emanuel Bach (1714-1788), Sonata in g minor, Wq 65/17 (1746): The stormy

and irrational perspectives of this son of the great J. S. Bach were highly influential on the

style of Franz Joseph Haydn and a hallmark of the empfindsamerstil (highly affected style).

Clavichord Mechanism

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clavichord_gebunden_Funktion.JPG

101 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Pianoforte (Piano) Mechanism

http://www.concertpitchpiano.com/GrandActionModel.html

Fresh Ideals Leading to Enlightenment …

For fun, go to this site! http://www.concertpitchpiano.com/AnimatedUprightAction.html

123. Christoph Willibald von Gluck [pronounced GLUE-k] (1714-1787), Orfeo ed Euridice (1762

Vienna/1774 Paris): the libretto by Ranieri de' Calzabigi is based on the myth of

Orpheus. The opera was first performed at Vienna and is the first of Gluck's "reform"

operas where he got moved past the expected convoluted plots and complex music with

tuneful easy-going simplicity of plot and music.

Overture

Opening Chorus: “Ah, se intorno”/“Ah! Dans ce bois”

Orfeo’s Aria, Act 1: "Chiamo il mio ben"/“Objet de mon amour”

Act 2 Ballet and Scene of the Elysium Fields

Orfeo’s Aria, Act 3: "Che farò senza Euridice?”/“J’ai perdu mon Eurydice”

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Gallant style

Empfindsamerstil

Sturm und Drang

Roccoco style

Instruments now changing:

Harpsichord to clavichord

Clavichord to fortepiano

Viol to violin and viola

Concerto (late Baroque)

Sonata (new classical)

Overture

Reform Opera

Bass Gamba to cello and bass

Lute to keyboards

Basso Continuo to full string section

In addition to the pages cited above, textbook pages 112-193 may be used for further reference on

this period.

102 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MUSIC OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

(1770 - 1820 CE)

PART I: CLASSICAL IDEALS AND SONATA FORM

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Music of the Enlightenment …

124. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart [pronounced MOAT-sart] (1756-1791), Serenade no. 13 for Strings

in G major, K. 525 (1787), Eine Kleine Nachtmusik: musicians regard this very popular

work as a supreme and perfect example of Sonata form. An extemsive section on

Mozart and his music may be found in the textbook.

125. Franz Joseph Haydn [pronounced HIDE-n] (1732-1809), String Quartet no. 30 in E b major,

op. 33, no. 2, “Joke,” Hob. III:38 (1781): the string quartet did not exist as a form or as

an entity prior to Haydn’s time – early, contemporary biographers suggest that the

selection of thses instruments was purely circumstantial, but it worked. Even though this

is the thirtieth of Haydn’s string quartets is it amongst the oldest string quartets in the

current repertoire. An extensive section on Haydn and his music may be found in the

textbook.

126. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), String Quartet no. 63 in B b major, op. 76, no. 4,

“Sunrise,” Hob. III:78 (1797): here the substantial change in writing for string quartet

from the op. 33 Quartets from 16 years earlier is eveident in the independence of the part

and the broad range of expresson.

127. Franz Jospeh Haydn (1732-1809), Symphony No. 29 in E major, Hoboken I/29 (1765):

this early symphony of Haydn is lightly socred for two oboes, two bassoons, two horns,

strings and continuo. For the time being the basso continuo continues to provide a

foundation for most orchestral ensembles, even though it has effectively disappeared

from chamber music forms such as the string quartet. Tiny gems such as these were

custom-composed for intimate spaces such as the public rooms at Eserhazy palace.

128. Franz Joseph Haydn, Symphony no. 83 in g minor, “Le Poule” [“The Hen”] Hoboken

I/83, (1787): Haydn is credited with being “The Father of the Symphony” largely

because devoted so much creative energy to developing this implrtant sonata-form (itself

only just coming into existance at the time of Haydn’s birth). More than 35 years

103 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music of the Enlightenment …

separate the composition of Haydn’s first and last symphonies. In that time Haydn

defined the symphonic form, established the workings of what would become the

symphony orchestra, and created more than 100 delightful gems of the modern

repertoire.

129. Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), Symphony no. 94 in G major, “Surprise,” Hoboken I/94

(1791): the nicknames of most works by Haydn are not assigned by Haydn, but are added

by later publishers, performers, or critics. A quick glance at the following site will

illuminate the many colourful names given to Haydn symphonies over the years:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_symphonies_with_names

130. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Symphony no. 40 in g minor, K. 550 (1788): this

is one of only two minor-key symphonies Mozart wrote. Its urgent and stormy

disposition makes it absolutely characteristic of the intoxicating sturm-und-drang

movement sweeping German-speaking countries in the late 18 th century.

131. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Symphony No. 41 in C major, K. 551, “Jupiter”

(1788). This last symphony of Mozart is scored for a full classical orchestra: flute, two

each oboes, bassoons, horns, trumpets, strings and timpani – no continuo! The

symphony’s nickname derives apparently from impresario Johann Peter Salomon who

coined the term and appended it to an early arrangement for piano. The symphony was

Mozart’s last symphony.

132. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Piano Sonata no. 11 in A major, K. 331 (1778

Paris or 1783 Vienna): the move to write sonatas for single instrument without basso

continuo took place essentially in Mozart’s lifetime. Sonatas for instruments without

harmonic capability – woodwinds and strings – continued to include keyboard (usually

now piano); however, the enormous flexibility and powerful expression of the new

pianoforte (or simply piano) made it an instrument capable of standing on its own.

133. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Quartet for Flute and Strings in D major, K. 285

(1777/1778): Here the flute takes the role usually assumed by the first violin of a string

quartet.

134. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Quintet for Clarinet and Strings in A major, K.

581 “Stadler”: the newly invented clarinet was made a serious instrument by the

104 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Music of the Enlightenment …

clarinetist Anton Stadler. Composers of the day began to recognize its enormous

expressive capabilities, its huge range, and its extraordinary capacity for intimacy.

135. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Concerto for clarinet and orchestra, K. 622

(1791): the capabilities of the newly invented clarinet and its particular brand of

expression – broader than all other wind instruments of the day – are heightened and

featured throughout.

136. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Concerto for Bassoon and Orchestra in Bb

major, K. 191

137. Mauro Giuliani (1781-1829), Sei Rondo, op. 14 (1811), no. 1, Presto

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Functional Tonality

Key

Tonic

Dominant

Cadence

Sonata form (movement)

Movif or Motive

Sonata form (full work)

String Quartet (ensemble)

String Quartet (work)

Symphony (ensemble)

Symphony (work)

Concerto

Cadenza

Sonata

Minuet

Scherzo

Rondo

Overture

Divertimento

Chamber music

105 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MUSIC OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

(1770 - 1820 CE)

Music of the Enlightenment …

PART 2 : CHALLENGING ARISTOCRACY THROUGH OPERA

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

138. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Le nozze di Figaro, ossia la folle giornata, [The Marriage

of Figaro or the Day of Madness], K. 492 (1786) on a libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte setting

the 1784 play La folle journée, ou le Mariage de Figaro by Pierre Beaumarchais. The play was

second of a scandalous trilogy which was banned in Vienna at the time owing to its

unflattering representation of the aristocracy.

Sinfonia

Act 1, Duet: Cinque, dieci, venti, trenta (Five, ten, twenty, thirty) …

Act 1, Cavatina: Se vuol ballare, signor contino

Act 2, Cavatina: Porgi, amor, qualche ristoro al mio duolo

139. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, (The Rake

Punished or Don Giovanni) K. 527 (1787, Prague) on a libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte, and

based upon Alexander Pushkin’s theater comedy The Stone Guest. Despite the dark finale,

the opera – in the same spirit as the play – is a buffa opera.

Act 1, Aria: Madamina, il catalogo è questo (My little lady, this is the catalogue)

Act 2, Finale: Giá la mensa preparata

140. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute), K. 620

Act 1, Sinfonia-Overture

Act 1, Scene 1, Quintet: Hm hm hm hm

Act 2, Scene 6, Aria: Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen (Hell's vengeance boileth in

mine heart)

Act 2, Scene 10, Duet: Papageno! Papagena!

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Italian opera, German

opera, French opera,

English opera, etc.

Opera seria

Opera buffa

Singspiel

Number (opera)

Recitative

Aria

Bel canto

106 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MUSIC OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT

(1770 - 1820 CE)

PART 3: ROMANTICISM THREATHENS CLASSICISM

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Music of the Enlightenment …

141. Ludwig von Beethoven [pronounced BAY-toe-ven] (1770-1827), Sonata no. 8 in c minor, op.

13, “Pathetique” (1798-99): the power and expression of the piano is exploited in this

early work by Beethoven, a fine example of his early-period style. A substantial account

of Beethoven and his music may be found in the textbook.

142. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), Sonata no. 14 in c# minor “quasi una fantasia,” op.

27, no. 2, “Moonlight” (1801): as Beethoven wrestles the restrictions of Classical period

form, he explores the possiblity of creating moods and tearing down formal boundaries

as necessary to gain his desired effect.

143. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), Symphony no. 3 in E b major, op. 55, “Eroica” (1803):

many musicians point to this symphony and declare this to be the arrival of the Romantic

period; however over-stated this may be, certainly this work turns the tide of Beethoven’s

craft and puts music on an irreversable course toward romanticism.

144. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), “Razumovsky” String Quartet no. 1, op. 59., no. 1

(1806)

145. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), Symphony no. 5 in c minor, op, 67 (1808); when

musicians speak of “The 5 th ” this is the work we speak of; it is difficult to argue that any

other work in the repertoire embodies a more perfect working of the smallest of motifs.

May I suggest an excellent read – an

entwined triparte non-fiction tale:

Russell Marti’s 2001 book Beethoven’s

Hair

107 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Classical Orchestra

Woodwinds

2 Flutes

2 Oboes

2 Clarinets (in C, Bflat,

or A)

2 Bassoons

Brass

2 or 4 Horns (in any

key)

2 Trumpets (in any

key)

Percussion

Timpani

Strings

6 Violins I

6 Violins II

4 Violas

3 Violoncellos

2 Double basses

ORCHESTRAL INSTRUMENTATION

Early Romantic

Orchestra

Woodwinds

(Piccolo)

2 Flutes

2 Oboes

(English horn)

2 Clarinets in B-flat, A

(Bass Clarinet in B-flat,

A)

2 Bassoons

(Contrabassoon)

Brass

4 French Horns in F

2 Trumpets in F

(2 Cornets in B-flat)

3 Trombones (2

Tenors, 1 Bass)

(Tuba)

Percussion

Timpani

Snare Drum

Bass Drum

Cymbals

Triangle

Tambourine

Glockenspiel

Strings

Harp

14 Violins I

12 Violins II

10 Violas

8 Violoncellos

6 Double basses

Late Romantic

Orchestra

Woodwinds

Piccolo

3 Flutes

3 Oboes

English horn

Clarinet in E-flat

3 Clarinets in B-flat, A

Bass Clarinet

3 Bassoons

Contrabassoon

Brass

8 French Horns in F

4 Trumpets in F, C, Bflat

4 Trombones (3

Tenors, 1 Bass)

(Euphonium)

(Wagner Tubas (2

Tenor, 2 Bass))

Tuba

Percussion

Timpani

Snare drum

Bass drum

Cymbals

Tam-tam

Triangle

Tambourine

Glockenspiel

Xylophone

Chimes

Keyboards

Celesta

Organ

Strings

2 Harps

16 Violins I

16 Violins II

12 Violas

12 Violoncellos

12 Double basses

Orchestral Instrumentation

Modern Orchestra

Woodwinds

Piccolo

2 Flutes

2 Oboes

English horn

2 Clarinets in B-flat, A

Bass Clarinet (and/or

Clarinet in E-flat)

2 Bassoons

Contrabassoon

Brass

4 French Horns in F

3 Trumpets in B-flat

3 Trombones (2

Tenors, 1 Bass)

Tuba

Euphonium

Percussion

Timpani

Snare Drum

Tenor Drum

Bass Drum

Cymbals

Tam-tam

Triangle

Wood block

Tambourine

Glockenspiel

Xylophone

Vibraphone

Tubular bells

Keyboards

Celesta

Piano

Strings

Harp

16 Violins I

14 Violins II

12 Violas

10 Cellos

8 Double basses

108 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


The Personality and Hidden

Language of Key …

The Personality and Hidden Language of Key

From Christian Schubart, Ideen zu einer Aesthetik der Tonkunst (1806)

Translated by Rita Steblin, A History of Key Characteristics in the 18th and Early 19th Centuries. (Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1983)

http://www.wmich.edu/mus-theo/courses/keys.html, accessed 1 July 2010

C Major

Completely Pure. Its character is: innocence, simplicity,

naïvety, children's talk.

C Minor

Declaration of love and at the same time the lament of

unhappy love. All languishing, longing, sighing of the

love-sick soul lies in this key.

D b Major

A leering key, degenerating into grief and rapture. It

cannot laugh, but it can smile; it cannot howl, but it can

at least grimace its crying.--Consequently only unusual

characters and feelings can be brought out in this key.

C # Minor

Penitential lamentation, intimate conversation with God,

the friend and help-meet of life; sighs of disappointed

friendship and love lie in its radius.

D Major

The key of triumph, of Hallejuahs, of war-cries, of

victory-rejoicing. Thus, the inviting symphonies, the

marches, holiday songs and heaven-rejoicing choruses

are set in this key.

D Minor

Melancholy womanliness, the spleen and humours

brood.

E b Major

The key of love, of devotion, of intimate conversation

with God.

D # Minor

Feelings of the anxiety of the soul's deepest distress, of

brooding despair, of blackest depresssion, of the most

gloomy condition of the soul. Every fear, every

hesitation of the shuddering heart, breathes out of

horrible D# minor. If ghosts could speak, their speech

would approximate this key.

E Major

Noisy shouts of joy, laughing pleasure and not yet

complete, full delight lies in E Major.

E minor

Naïve, womanly innocent declaration of love, lament

without grumbling; sighs accompanied by few tears; this

key speaks of the imminent hope of resolving in the

pure happiness of C major.

F Major

Complaisance & Calm.

F Minor

Deep depression, funereal lament, groans of misery and

longing for the grave.

F # Major

Triumph over difficulty, free sigh of relief utered when

hurdles are surmounted; echo of a soul which has

fiercely struggled and finally conquered lies in all uses of

this key.

F # Minor

A gloomy key: it tugs at passion as a dog biting a dress.

Resentment and discontent are its language.

G Major

Everything rustic, idyllic and lyrical, every calm and

satisfied passion, every tender gratitude for true

friendship and faithful love,--in a word every gentle and

peaceful emotion of the heart is correctly expressed by

this key.

G Minor

Discontent, uneasiness, worry about a failed scheme;

bad-tempered gnashing of teeth; in a word: resentment

and dislike.

A b Major

Key of the grave. Death, grave, putrefaction, judgment,

eternity lie in its radius.

109 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


A b Minor

Grumbler, heart squeezed until it suffocates; wailing

lament, difficult struggle; in a word, the color of this key

is everything struggling with difficulty.

A Major

This key includes declarations of innocent love,

satisfaction with one's state of affairs; hope of seeing

one's beloved again when parting; youthful cheerfulness

and trust in God.

A minor

Pious womanliness and tenderness of character.

B b Major

Cheerful love, clear conscience, hope aspiration for a

better world.

The Personality and Hidden

Language of Key …

B b minor

A quaint creature, often dressed in the garment of night.

It is somewhat surly and very seldom takes on a pleasant

countenance. Mocking God and the world; discontented

with itself and with everything; preparation for suicide

sounds in this key.

B Major

Strongly coloured, announcing wild passions, composed

from the most glaring coulors. Anger, rage, jealousy,

fury, despair and every burden of the heart lies in its

sphere.

B Minor

This is as it were the key of patience, of calm awaiting

ones's fate and of submission to divine dispensation.

From Marc-Andres Charpentier Régles de Composition (Paris: ca. 1682), translator unknown

http://biteyourownelbow.com/keychar.htm, accessed 1 July 2010

C major:

C minor:

D major:

D minor:

E b major:

E major:

E minor:

F major:

F minor:

G major:

G minor:

A major:

A minor:

B major:

B minor:

B b major:

B b minor:

gay and warlike

obscure and sad

joyous and very warlike

serious and pious

cruel and hard

quarrelsome and boisterous

effeminate, amorous, plaintive

furious and quick-tempered subjects

obscure and plaintive

serious and magnificent

serious and magnificent

joyful and pastoral

tender and plaintive

harsh and plaintive

solitary and melancholic

magnificent and joyful

obscure and terrible

110 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


ROMANTICISM IN MUSIC

(1820-1900 CE)

PART 1: CLASSICISM COMES APART

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Romanticism in Music

146. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), Piano Concerto no. 5 in E b , op. 73 “Emperor” (1811)

147. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), Piano Trio no. 7 in B b major, op. 97 “Archduke”

(1811)

148. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), Symphony no. 9 in d minor, op. 125 “Choral” (1824).

While chronologically the completion of this work dates from Beethoven’s last years, the

ideas which lead to its final form began in Beethoven’s mind as early as 1793 when he

first became acquainted with the essays of Schiller. A setting of An die Freunde was

contemplated as a cantata in 1811. The original fourth movement of this symphony was

planned to be purely instrumental – this movement eventually became the last movement

of the Op. 132 String Quartet. The idea of including voice in the symphony, with this

poem only came to Beethoven the year before the work was completed.

“An die Freude”

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller

O Freunde, nicht diese Töne!

Sondern laßt uns angenehmere anstimmen,

und freudenvollere.

Freude! Freude!

Freude, schöner Götterfunken*

Tochter aus Elysium,

Wir betreten feuertrunken,

Himmlische, dein Heiligtum!

Deine Zauber binden wieder

Was die Mode streng geteilt;

Alle Menschen werden Brüder,

Wo dein sanfter Flügel weilt.

Wem der große Wurf gelungen,

Eines Freundes Freund zu sein;

Wer ein holdes Weib errungen,

Mische seinen Jubel ein!

Ja, wer auch nur eine Seele

Sein nennt auf dem Erdenrund!

Und wer's nie gekonnt, der stehle

Weinend sich aus diesem Bund!

Freude trinken alle Wesen

An den Brüsten der Natur;

Alle Guten, alle Bösen

Folgen ihrer Rosenspur.

Küße gab sie uns und Reben,

Einen Freund, geprüft im Tod;

“Ode to Joy”

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller

Oh friends, not these tones!

Rather, let us raise our voices in more pleasing

And more joyful sounds!

Joy! Joy!

Joy, beautiful spark of divinity*

Daughter of Elysium,

We enter, drunk with fire,

Into your sanctuary, heavenly (daughter)!

Your magic reunites

What custom strictly divided.

All men become brothers,

Whoever has had the great fortune

To be a friend's friend,

Whoever has won a devoted wife,

Join in our jubilation!

Indeed, whoever can call even one soul,

Where your gentle wing rests.

His own on this earth!

And whoever was never able to, must creep

Tearfully away from this band!

Joy all creatures drink

At the breasts of nature;

All good, all bad

Follow her trail of roses.

Kisses she gave us, and wine,

A friend, proved in death;

111 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Wollust ward dem Wurm gegeben,

Und der Cherub steht vor Gott.

Vor Gott!

Froh, wie seine Sonnen fliegen

Durch des Himmels prächt'gen Plan,

Laufet, Brüder, eure Bahn,

Freudig, wie ein Held zum Siegen.

Seid umschlungen, Millionen!

Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!

Brüder, über'm Sternenzelt

Muss ein lieber Vater wohnen.

Ihr stürzt nieder, Millionen?

Ahnest du den Schöpfer, Welt?

Such' ihn über'm Sternenzelt!

Über Sternen muss er wohnen.

Finale repeats the words:

Seid umschlungen, Millionen!

Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!

Brüder, über'm Sternenzelt

Muss ein lieber Vater wohnen.

Seid umschlungen,

Diesen Kuß der ganzen Welt!

Freude, schöner Götterfunken

Tochter aus Elysium,

Freude, schöner Götterfunken

Götterfunken!

Romanticism in Music

Pleasure was given to the worm,

And the cherub stands before God.

Before God!

Glad, as His suns fly

Through the Heaven's glorious design,

Run, brothers, your path,

Joyful, as a hero to victory.

Be embraced, millions!

This kiss for the whole world!

Brothers, above the starry canopy

Must a loving Father dwell.

Do you bow down, millions?

Do you sense the Creator, world?

Seek Him beyond the starry canopy!

Beyond the stars must He dwell.

Finale repeats the words:

Be embraced, you millions!

This kiss for the whole world!

Brothers, beyond the star-canopy

Must a loving Father dwell.

Be embraced,

This kiss for the whole world!

Joy, beautiful spark of divinity,

Daughter of Elysium,

Joy, beautiful spark of divinity

Divinity!

Text and translation

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sym

phony_No._9_%28Beethoven%29

accessed 30 June 2010

149. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), Missa Solemnis in D major, op. 123 (1824): setting of

the Ordinary of the Catholic Latin Mass

150. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), String Quartet no 13 in B b major, op. 130 (1825)

151. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), String Quartet no 15 in A major, op. 132 (1825)

152. Ludwig von Beethoven (1770-1827), Grosse Fuge, op. 133 (1826)

153. Franz Schubert, Symphony no. 8 in b minor, D. 759, “Unfinished” (begun 1822): first two

movements are complete, a third movement is roughly complete but was never

orchestrated; it is possible that a 4 th movement may have been composed but ultimately

became the finale for Schubert’s ballet Rosemunde. There are no apparent reasons why

Schubert left this emphony incomplete. Schubert’s 9 th Symphony, the “Great C major”

was composed in 1828 shortly before his death, and published only in 1840 as the 7 th

Symphony.

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Cyclic or cyclical.

Cyclical Symphony

Key Relationship

Tonality

Directional Tonality

In addition to the pages cited above, textbook pages 194-334 may be used for further reference on

this period.

112 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


ROMANTICISM IN MUSIC

(1820-1900 CE)

PART 2: INDIVIDUALISM IN MINAIATURES

Romanticism in Music

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

154. Franz Schubert [pronounced SHOE-bert] (1798-1828), Gretchen am Spinnrade [Gretchen at the

Spinning Wheel], op.2, D 118 (1814): text is excerpted from the play Faust (1808) by

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, considered one of the greatest works of German theatre.

In this lied, the piano represents the spinning wheel. The common English translation of

the text follows. Schubert’s biography and a note on his music may be found in the

textbook.

My peace is gone,

My heart is heavy,

I will find it never

and never more.

Where I do not have him,

That is the grave,

The whole world

Is bitter to me.

My poor head

Is crazy to me,

My poor mind

Is torn apart.

My peace is gone,

My heart is heavy,

I will find it never

and never more.

For him only, I look

Out the window

Only for him do I go

Out of the house.

His tall walk,

His noble figure,

His mouth's smile,

His eyes' power,

And his mouth's

Magic flow,

His handclasp,

and ah! his kiss!

My peace is gone,

My heart is heavy,

I will find it never

and never more.

My bosom urges itself

toward him.

Ah, might I grasp

And hold him!

And kiss him,

As I would wish,

At his kisses

I should die!

155. Franz Schubert (1798-1828), Erlkönig [The Erlking, or The Alder King], op. 1, D. 328 (1815):

text is excerpted from the ballad opera entitled Die Fischerin (1782) by Johann Wolfgang

von Goethe. In this lied, the piano represents a galloping horse. The common English

translation of the text follows.

113 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Who's riding so late through night, so wild?

It is the father who's holding his child;

He's tucked the boy secure in his arm,

He holds him tight and keeps him warm.

My son, why hide you your face in fear?"

See you not, father, the Erl King near?

The Erl King in his crown and train?"

My son, 'tis but a foggy strain."

Sweet lovely child, come, go with me!

What wonderful games I'll play with thee;

Flowers, most colorful, yours to behold.

My mother for you has garments of gold."

My father, my father, and can you not hear

What Erl King is promising into my ear?"

Be calm, stay calm, o child of mine;

The wind through dried leaves is rustling so

fine."

Romanticism in Music

Wouldst thou, fine lad, go forth with me?

My daughters should royally wait upon thee;

My daughters conduct each night their song fest

To swing and to dance and to sing thee to rest."

My Father, my father, and can you not see

Erl King's daughters, there by the tree?"

My son, my son, I see it clear;

The ancient willows so grey do appear."

I love thee, I'm aroused by thy beautiful form;

And be thou not willing, I'll take thee by storm."

My father, my father, he's clutching my arm!

Erl King has done me a painful harm!"

The father shudders and onward presses;

The gasping child in his arms he caresses;

He reaches the courtyard, and barely inside,

He holds in his arms the child who has died.

156. Franz Schubert (1798-1828), Die schöne Müllerin, ein Zyklus von Liedern, gedichtet von Wilhelm

Müller [The lovely maid of the mill, a song cycle to poems by Wilhelm Müller], op. 25, D. 795 (1823).

Schubert set a selection of twenty of Müller’s poems as lieder and fashioned them into a

narrative story about a young man, a miller’s daughter, and the journey from youth to

death through the valley of unrequited love. The piano drives much of the emotional

energy of the cycle, assuming throughout the role of “the brook” which takes on and

exhibits various anthropomorphized perspectives. The common English translation of

the first lied’s text follows.

(1) “ Das Wandern” [“The Wandeer”]

(2) "Wohin?" ["Where?”]

(3) "Halt!" ["Stop!"]

(4) "Danksagung an den Bach" ["A Song of Thanks to the Brook"]

157. Franz Schubert (1798-1828), Winterreise [Winter Journey], op. 89, D. 911 (1827): song cycle

of 24 poems by Wilhelm Müller. The full cycle treats themes of death through the

metaphor of winter. Schubert himself had famously said that each night he fell asleep

hoping for death to overtake him and that each morning came as a disappointment to

him. While not clearly autobiographical, the literary themes resonated with the

composer.

(1) “Gute Nacht” [“Good Night}

114 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Romanticism in Music

158. Franz Schubert (1798-1828), String Quartet no. 14 in d minor, D. 810, “Death and the

Maiden” (1824): named after his 1814 lied by the same name, D. 531 the tune (no words)

of which forms the basis of the second movement. Schubert wrote ths quartet at a time

when he knew that he was dying of syphillis. The original lied is on a poem by Matthias

Claudius. Text from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_and_the_Maiden_%28song%29, accessed 2 July

Der Tod und das Mädchen

Matthias Claudius

Das Mädchen:

Vorüber! Ach, vorüber!

Geh, wilder Knochenmann!

Ich bin noch jung! Geh, lieber,

Und rühre mich nicht an.

Und rühre mich nicht an.

Der Tod:

Gib deine Hand, du schön und zart Gebild!

Bin Freund, und komme nicht, zu strafen.

Sei gutes Muts! ich bin nicht wild,

Sollst sanft in meinen Armen schlafen!

Death and the Maiden

English Translation

The Maiden:

Pass me by! Oh, pass me by!

Go, fierce man of bones!

I am still young! Go, rather,

And do not touch me.

And do not touch me.

Death:

Give me your hand, you beautiful and tender

form!

I am a friend, and come not to punish.

Be of good cheer! I am not fierce,

Softly shall you sleep in my arms!

159. Franz Schubert (1798-1828), Piano Quintet in A major, op. posthumos, D. 667 (1819),

“Trout”: again, the nickname comes from the lied “Die Forelle” [“The Trout”] which

gives its tune to the last movement variations of the Quintet. The Quintet was written

for a non-standard instrumentation: piano, violin, viola, cello, and string bass.

160. Nicolo Paganini (1782-1840), Caprice for Violin solo in g minor, op. 1, no. 24 (1802-1817,

published in 1819)

161. Robert Schumann (1810-1856), Papillons, op. 2 (1832)

162. Robert Schumann (1810-1856), Carnaval, op. 9 (1834)

163. Robert Schumann (1810-1856), Fantaisiestücke, op. 12 (1837)

164. Robert Schumann (1810-1856), Kreisleriana, op. 16 (1838)

165. Robert Schumann (1810-1856), Myrthen, 26 songs, op. 25 (1845)

115 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Romanticism in Music

166. Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849), Nocturne in c minor, op, 48, no. 1 (1841): One of Chopin’s

many nocturnes, a form which barely existed prior to Chopin’s magnificent compositions

under this title.

167. Franz [Ritter von] Liszt (1811-1886), Etude d'execution transcendante, S 139, No.5 “Feux

follets” [Transcendental Etude, no. 5, “Will o’the Wisp”](1852)

168. Franz [Ritter von] Liszt (1811-1886), Mephistro Waltz no. 1, S 514, “Der Tanz in der

Dorfschenke” [“The Dance in the Village Inn”] (1852)

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Lied (singular, pronounced leed) or Lieder (plural, pronounced leader)

Song cycle

Nocturne

116 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


ROMANTICISM IN MUSIC

(1820-1900 CE)

PART 3: VISIONS, STORIES, TALES, AND FANTASY

Romanticism in Music

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

169. Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868), La Cenerentola, ossia La bontà in trionfo [Cinderella, or Goodness

Triumphant] (1817), dramma giocoso in two acts on a libretto was by Jacopo Ferretti. In

an unusual move, Rossini casts the heroine as a contralto, to express her downtrodden

state. Still the role is a coloratura role demanding extreme prowes on the part of the

singer.

"Nacqui all'affanno … Non piu mesta" (Angelina’s aria, act 2)

170. Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868), Il barbiere di Siviglia, ossia L'inutile precauzione [The Barber of

Seville, or The Useless Precaution] (1816), excerpts: opera buffa in two acts based on Pierre

Beaumarchais's comedy Le Barbier de Séville (1775), itself originally an opéra comique with a

mixture of spoken play and music.

Sinfonia

Ecco ridente in cielo/There, laughing in the sky: Act 1, scene 1, Serenade (town band)

and Cavatina (Count), under Rossina’s window

Largo al factotum della città/Make way for the factotum of the city: Act 1, scene 2,

Figaro’s Cavatina – a patter-song unequalled by many other composers or aria

Una voce poco fa/A voice just now: Act 1, scene 5, Rossina’s pyrotechnic Cavatina

171. Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868), Overture to the Opera “Guillaume Tell” (1829): instrumental

introduction to Rossini’s last opera. As with all Rossini’s operas, and many other operas

from the early 19 th century, the quest for colourful and broad representation in music of

the drama leads to the introduction ofnew and exotic instrumental sounds into the

orchestra. Rapid developments as a result of the incipient Industrial Revolution bring

new capabilities to instrumental performance through sophisticated mechanical changes

to individual instruments. An article on Rossini and his music may be found in the

textbook.

1. Prelude: Dawn

2. Storm

3. Ranz des Vache (“Call to the Cows”)

4. Finale

117 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Romanticism in Music

172. Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847), Die Hebriden, op. 26 (1832): a colourful concert overture

which was originally titled The Lonely Island and at one time bore the title Fingal’s Cave:

the latter title is still commonly used today. Mendelssohn’s visit to Fingal’s Cave on

Staffa Island (Hebrides Archipelago, Scotland) was most certainly the inspiration for this

work which he dedicated to Frederich Wilhelm IV of Prussia. A biography of

Mendelssohn and an account of his music may be found in the textbook.

173. Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847), Ein Sommernachtstraum [A Midsummer’s Night Dream]

Overture, op. 21 (1826) and Incidental Music, op 61 (1842): written fifteen years apart,

the Overture was written as a concert overture “just because,” while the incidental music

was written at the request of King Frederich Wilhelm IV of Prussia – Mendelssohn’s

employer – to accompany a stage production of Shahespeare’s play by the same name.

For the incidental music, Mendelssohn drew from the earlier ideas of his Overture and

completed a full 40 minute suite of music.

174. Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847), Symphony no. 4 in A major “Italian,” op. 90 (1851)

175. Hector Berlioz (1803-1869), Episode de la vie d'un Artiste...en cinq parties: Symphonie Fantastique,

op. 14 (1830, with later revisions): full-out programme symphony with a story line

written by Berlioz, included in the score, and instructed to be distributed to all concert

members so as to fully appreciate the work. The symphony was written to express the

unrequited love Berlioz felt toward the Irish actress Harriette Smithson: Berlioz and

Smithson married and but only lived together a few years before separating. A note

elaborating upon Berlioz and his music may be found in the textbook.

Part one: Daydreams, passions

The author imagines that a young musician, afflicted by the sickness of spirit which a famous

writer has called the vagueness of passions (le vague des passions), sees for the first time a woman

who unites all the charms of the ideal person his imagination was dreaming of, and falls

desperately in love with her. By a strange anomaly, the beloved image never presents itself to

the artist’s mind without being associated with a musical idea, in which he recognises a certain

quality of passion, but endowed with the nobility and shyness which he credits to the object of

his love.

This melodic image and its model keep haunting him ceaselessly like a double idée fixe. This

explains the constant recurrence in all the movements of the symphony of the melody which

launches the first allegro. The transitions from this state of dreamy melancholy, interrupted by

occasional upsurges of aimless joy, to delirious passion, with its outbursts of fury and jealousy,

its returns of tenderness, its tears, its religious consolations – all this forms the subject of the

first movement.

Part two: A ball

The artist finds himself in the most diverse situations in life, in the tumult of a festive party,

in the peaceful contemplation of the beautiful sights of nature, yet everywhere, whether in town

or in the countryside, the beloved image keeps haunting him and throws his spirit into

confusion.

Part three: Scene in the countryside

One evening in the countryside he hears two shepherds in the distance dialoguing with their

‘ranz des vaches’; this pastoral duet, the setting, the gentle rustling of the trees in the wind,

118 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


some causes for hope that he has recently conceived, all conspire to restore to his heart an

unaccustomed feeling of calm and to give to his thoughts a happier colouring. He broods on

his loneliness, and hopes that soon he will no longer be on his own… But what if she betrayed

him!… This mingled hope and fear, these ideas of happiness, disturbed by dark premonitions,

form the subject of the adagio. At the end one of the shepherds resumes his ‘ranz des vaches’;

the other one no longer answers. Distant sound of thunder… solitude… silence…

Part four: March to the scaffold

Convinced that his love is spurned, the artist poisons himself with opium. The dose of

narcotic, while too weak to cause his death, plunges him into a heavy sleep accompanied by the

strangest of visions. He dreams that he has killed his beloved, that he is condemned, led to the

scaffold and is witnessing his own execution. The procession advances to the sound of a march

that is sometimes sombre and wild, and sometimes brilliant and solemn, in which a dull sound

of heavy footsteps follows without transition the loudest outbursts. At the end of the march,

the first four bars of the idée fixe reappear like a final thought of love interrupted by the fatal

blow.

Part five: Dream of a witches’ sabbath

He sees himself at a witches’ sabbath, in the midst of a hideous gathering of shades,

sorcerers and monsters of every kind who have come together for his funeral. Strange sounds,

groans, outbursts of laughter; distant shouts which seem to be answered by more shouts. The

beloved melody appears once more, but has now lost its noble and shy character; it is now no

more than a vulgar dance tune, trivial and grotesque: it is she who is coming to the sabbath…

Roar of delight at her arrival… She joins the diabolical orgy… The funeral knell tolls, burlesque

parody of the Dies irae, the dance of the witches. The dance of the witches combined with the Dies

irae.

Romanticism in Music

http://www.hberlioz.com/Scores/fantas.htm, accessed 2 July 2010

176. Franz [Ritter von] Liszt [pronounced LIST], or by his Hungarian birth name Liszt Ferencz or

Ferenc (1811-1886), Les préludes [d'après Lamartine] (1856): symphonic poem based on an

ode by Alphonse de Lamartine, Nouvelles méditations poétiques. Despite the obvious poetic

association with Lamartine, Liszt included the following expression – apparantly

personal, and definitely after the fact – in the front of the score to Les préludes, here in

English translation:

What else is our life but a series of preludes to that unknown Hymn, the first and solemn note

of which is intoned by Death? - Love is the glowing dawn of all existence; but what is the fate

where the first delights of happiness are not interrupted by some storm, the mortal blast of

which dissipates its fine illusions, the fatal lightening of which consumes its altar; and where in

the cruelly wounded soul which, on issuing from one of these tempests, does not endeavour to

rest his recollection in the calm serenity of life in the fields? Nevertheless man hardly gives

himself up for long to the enjoyment of the beneficent stillness which at first he has shared in

Nature's bosom, and when "the trumpet sounds the alarm", he hastens, to the dangerous post,

whatever the war may be, which calls him to its ranks, in order at last to recover in the combat

full consciousness of himself and entire possession of his energy.

A note on Liszt and his music may be found in the textbook.

177. Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Capriccio Espanol [Capriccio on Spanish

Themes], op. 34 (1887): This extroverted showpiece for orchestra was originally

conceived as a work for solo violin and orchestra. The solo violin does take a leading

role, but it is the whole of a very virtuosic orchestra which takes center stage. Here

Rimsky-Korsakov does not mere assign parts to instruments of the orchestra, but rather

119 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Romanticism in Music

demonstrates his supreme skill at working with full orchestra by composing for orchestra

from the beginning.

In his autobiography, Rimsky-Korsakov wrote of the piece and the public reaaction to it:

[I] took it into my head to write another virtuoso piece for violin and orchestra, this

time on Spanish themes. However, after making a sketch of it I gave up that idea and

decided instead to compose an orchestral piece with virtuoso instrumentation. [This

piece] was to glitter with dazzling colors. The opinion formed by both critics and

the public, that the Capriccio is a "magnificently orchestrated piece," is wrong. The

Capriccio is a brilliant composition for orchestra. The change of timbre, the felicitous choice

of melodic design and figuration patterns, exactly suiting each kind of instrument,

brief virtuoso cadenzas for solo instruments, the rhythm of the percussion

instruments, etc., constitute here the very essence of the composition and not its

garb or orchestration. The Spanish themes, of dance character, furnished me with

rich material for putting in use multiform orchestral effects. All in all, the Capriccio is

undoubtedly a purely external piece, but vividly brilliant for all that.

178. Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Sheherezada, op. 35 (1888):

Immediately on the heels of Capriccio Espagnol, Rimsky-Korsakov was moved by The

Book of One Thousand and One Nights [The Arabian Nights]. While he gave the

movements specific titles in the beginning, in later editions he removed the titles so that

the listener would hear “oriental fairy tales” rather than specific events – musicians today

still use the original titles, however. From the first score:

“The Sultan Schariar, convinced that all women are false and faithless, vowed to put

to death each of his wives after the first nuptial night. But the Sultana Sheherazade

saved her life by entertaining her lord with fascinating tales, told seriatim, for a

thousand and one nights. The Sultan, consumed with curiosity, postponed from day

to day the execution of his wife, and finally repudiated his bloody vow entirely

“The Sea and Sinbad’s Ship”

“The Kalendar Prince”

“The Young Prince and the Young Princess”

“Festival at Bagdad -- The Sea – The Ship Breaks Against a Cliff

Surmounted by Bronze Horsemen”

120 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Romanticism in Music

179. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), Verklärte Nacht [Transfigured Night], op. 4 (1899): String

sextet loosely based on the poem by the same name by Robert Dehmel. An article

regarding Schoenberg and his music may be found in the textbook.

Zwei Menschen gehn durch kahlen, kalten Hain;

der Mond läuft mit, sie schaun hinein.

Der Mond läuft über hohe Eichen;

kein Wölkchen trübt das Himmelslicht,

in das die schwarzen Zacken reichen.

Die Stimme eines Weibes spricht:

„Ich trag ein Kind, und nit von Dir,

ich geh in Sünde neben Dir.

Ich hab mich schwer an mir vergangen.

Ich glaubte nicht mehr an ein Glück

und hatte doch ein schwer Verlangen

nach Lebensinhalt, nach Mutterglüch

und Pflicht; da hab ich mich erfrecht,

da ließ ich schaudernd mein Geschlecht

von einem fremden Mann umfangen,

und hab mich noch dafür gesegnet.

Nun hat das Leben sich gerächt:

nun bin ich Dir, o Dir, begegnet.“

Sie geht mit ungelenkem Schritt.

Sie schaut empor; der Mond läuft mit.

Ihr dunkler Blick ertrinkt in Licht.

Die Stimme eines Mannes spricht:

„Das Kind, das Du empfangen hast,

sei Deiner Seele keine Last,

o sieh, wie klar das Weltall schimmert!

Es ist ein Glanz um alles her;

Du treibst mit mir auf kaltem Meer,

doch eine eigne Wärme flimmert

von Dir in mich, von mir in Dich.

Die wird das fremde Kind verklären,

Du wirst es mir, von mir gebären;

Du hast den Glanz in mich gebracht,

Du hast mich selbst zum Kind gemacht.“

Er faßt sie um die starken Hüften.

Ihr Atem küßt sich in den Lüften.

Zwei Menschen gehn durch hohe, helle Nacht

English translation by Mary Whittall

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verkl%C3%A4rte_Nacht

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Absolute or Abstract Music

Programme Music

Concert Overture

Symphonic Poem

Two people are walking through a bare, cold wood;

the moon keeps pace with them and draws their gaze.

The moon moves along above tall oak trees,

there is no wisp of cloud to obscure the radiance

to which the black, jagged tips reach up.

A woman’s voice speaks:

“I am carrying a child, and not by you.

I am walking here with you in a state of sin.

I have offended grievously against myself.

I despaired of happiness,

and yet I still felt a grievous longing

for life’s fullness, for a mother’s joys

and duties; and so I sinned,

and so I yielded, shuddering, my sex

to the embrace of a stranger,

and even thought myself blessed.

Now life has taken its revenge,

and I have met you, met you.”

She walks on, stumbling.

She looks up; the moon keeps pace.

Her dark gaze drowns in light.

A man’s voice speaks:

“Do not let the child you have conceived

be a burden on your soul.

Look, how brightly the universe shines!

Splendour falls on everything around,

you are voyaging with me on a cold sea,

but there is the glow of an inner warmth

from you in me, from me in you.

That warmth will transfigure the stranger’s child,

and you bear it me, begot by me.

You have transfused me with splendour,

you have made a child of me.”

He puts an arm about her strong hips.

Their breath embraces in the air.

Two people walk on through the high, bright night.

Tone Poem

Leitmotiv

Orchestration

Diatonic

121 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


ROMANTICISM IN MUSIC

(1820-1900 CE)

PART 4: EMERGING NATIONALISM IN MANY FORMS

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Romanticism in Music

180. Frédéric Chopin [pronounced SHAW-pe(n) in Polish, more usually SHOW-pan in English] (1810-

1849), Mazurka in a minor, op, 67, no. 4 (1834): One of Chopin’s many nationalistic

works, drawing on the spirit and rhythms of this native Polish dance.

181. Franz [Ritter von] Liszt [pronounced LIST], or by his Hungarian birth name Liszt Ferencz or

Ferenc (1811-1886), Hungarian Rhapsody no. 2, S. 244 (1847)

182. Antonín, Dvořák [pronounced d VOR-jacque] (1841-1904), Slavonic Dances, op. 46 (1878) and

op. 72 (1886): each dance of the total sixteen is in the style of, but not directly quoting, a

traditional dance of Slavic or Slovac origin. These dances were originally written for the

common “parlour” instrumentation of “piano four-hands” or two players at the same

piano!

183. Johannes Brahams (1833-1897), Hungarian Dances, Books 1 and 2 (1869), Books 3 and 4

(1880), WoO 1.

184. Aleksandr Borodin (1833-1887), Polovtsian Dances (1880): taken from his unfinished opera

Prince Igor, these dances now constitute one of the major showpieces of the orchestral

repertoire. In the opera, the dances were danced in sequence accompanied by full

chorus. In an orchestral setting neither choir nor dancers are present, and the missing

choir parts have been redisctributed to instruments within the orchestra, notable the

clarinet, oboe, and English horn. While the dances (and opera) are Borodin’s work, they

were not completed at the time of his death, and were subsequently completed by the

great Russian composers of the day Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Aleksandr Glazunov

185. Bedřich Smetana (1824-1864), Ma Vlást [My Fatherland] (1874-79), no. 2, Vltava [The

Moldau] (1875): What seems on the surface to be a six movement work, Ma Vlást is

actually a set of six independent pieces: the second of the set, Vltava, being the most

frequently performed.

122 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Romanticism in Music

186. Edvard Grieg (Pee1843-1907), Peer Gynt, Op. 23 (1875): Greig’s incidental music to

Henrik Ibsen's 1867 play of the same name was later broken into two four-movement

orchestral suites: Suite No. 1, Op. 46 includes the famous “Morning Mood” and “In the

Hall of the Mountain King” while Suite No. 2, Op. 55 includes the lovely “Solvieg’s

Song.”

187. Pyotr Illyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893), Ouverture Solonnelle “1812,” op. 49 (1880):

Tchaikovsky pulls out all the stops, adding to the traditional orchestra 16 military

cannon, a full carillon, and any extra brass players obtainable to bring to life the narrative

of the historical Battle of Borodino with instrumental forces only, as surely as could any

verbal narrative. Oddly enough, the effects that Tchaikovsky sought were virtually

unattainable with the artillary technology available at the time of its composition. A note

on Tchaikovsky and his music may be found in the textbook.

188. Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881), A Night on Bald Mountain (1867 and 1886): Tone poem

described by Mussorgsky as

My St. John's Night on the Bare Mountain (a far better title than The Witches) is,

in form and character, Russian and original; and I want to feel sure that it is

thoroughly in keeping with historic truth and Russian folk tradition —

otherwise it would not be good enough. I wrote it quickly, straight away in

full score without preliminary rough drafts, in twelve days. It seethed within

me, and I worked day and night, hardly knowing what was happening

within me. And now I see in my wicked prank an independent Russian

product, free from German profundity and routine, and, like my Savishna,

grown on our country's soil and nurtured on Russian bread." 18

The work’s programme was given in the 1886 score by Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov who

completed the orchestration for that edition:

“Subterranean sounds of unearthly voices. Appearance of the Spirits of

Darkness, followed by that of Chornobog. Glorification of Chornobog and

celebration of the Black Mass. Witches’ Sabbath. At the height of the orgy,

the bell of the little village church is heard from afar. The Spirits of

Darkness are dispersed. Daybreak.”

18 Calvocoressi and Abraham, Mussorgsky, 'Master Musicians' Series (London: J.M.Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1946/1974), p. 21.

123 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Romanticism in Music

189. Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881),, Pictures at an Exhibition [Pictures from an Exhibition – A

Remembrance of Viktor Hartmann] (1874): Mussorgsky wrote this 10 movements suite for

piano in less than two weeks following the sudden death of Russian nationalist artist

Viktor Hartmann. The piano work is a bravura showpiece for pianists, but the work is

best known in its arrangement for orchestra by the French composer Maurice Ravel

190. Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908), Svetliy prazdnik [Russian Easter Festival

Overture], Op. 36 (1888). The work draws on melodies and chants of the Russian

orthodox liturgy. It is dedicated to the memories of Modest Mussorgsky and Alexander

Borodin, two fellow members of Russia’s "Mighty Handful” or “Russian Five.”

191. [Wilhelm] Richard Wagner (1813-1883), Der Ring des Nibelungen (composed from 1849, first

produced in full 1876): a monumental cycle of four operas (music dramas) based upon

the Old Norse sagas –the Icelandic Völsunga saga, the Prose Edda, the Poetic Edda, the

Legend of Norna-Gest, and the chivalric Vilking [sic] Saga – and the Nibelungenlied, a Middle

High German epic poem on pre-Christian Germanic heroic motives. For the music

dramas of “The Ring,” as we are wont to call it in colloquial practice, Wagner wrote text

and music, and eventually arranged for the building of the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth,

Bavaria, GERMANY so that the works could be staged and produced exactly as he had

envisioned them. There is an extensive section on Wagner and his music in the

textbook.

“The Ring” is nearly 16 hours in total and traces an extremely complex plot line

involving numerous characters – god, demi-god, half-human, human, spirit, and races of

myth such as dwarves and giants – in complex, irrational, and often incestual

relationships. Literary themes frequently function only n the leve of metaphor and do

not gain by literal interpretation. The Los Angeles Times produced the following

interactive website to help direct patrons through the relationships of the convoluted

and disfunctional family in advance of the LA Opera production of “The Ring” in the

summer of 2010. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/arts/la-caringfamilytree-html,0,4574276.htmlstory

The great musical comedienne Anna Russell gives a virtually legendary analysis and

synopsis of the “Ring Cycle,” encapsulating the highlights in a 20-minute,

musicologically sound monologue viewable on YouTube. Don’t pass this up!

Das Rheingold [The Rhine Gold] (1869): Scene 1 – Rhine Maidens, Rhine Gold, and

Alberich.

Die Walküre [The Valkyrie] (1870): Act 3, Scene 1, “The Ride of the Valkyries”

124 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Siegfried (1876): Act 2, Scene 2 – “Siegfried’s Horn”

Romanticism in Music

Götterdömmerung [Twilight of the Gods] (1876): Act 3, Scene 2, “Funeral March”;

Act 3, Scene 3, “Brünnhilde’s Immolation”, and “Finale”.

192. [Wilhelm] Richard Wagner (1813-1883), Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg [The Mastersingers of

Nuremberg] (1868): using the historical setting of 16 th -century Nuremberg, Die

Meistersinger is not only Wanger’s only matur comedye, his only work not based on

legend or myth, the only work for which the story is entirely original to Wagner, the

opera holds the distinction of being virtually the longest single opera (at 4.5 hours)

which plays regularly in the operatic repertoire. Additionally, it is interesting to note that

for this opera, Wagner returned to the simpler form of opera, not composing this stage

work according to the principles of Music Drama.

Prelude

Act 2, Scene 6: Beckmesser’s Serenade

Act 3, Scene 5: The Feast of St. John, and the Singing Competition

193. [Wilhelm] Richard Wagner (1813-1883), Tristan und Isolde [Tristan and Isolda] (1865): This

Music Drama represents perhaps Wagner’s most advanced and supreme use of

chromaticism and harmonic suspension, whereby Wagner coils the tension tight and

refuses to let it relax for the full duration of the Music Drama until the final moment.

The Prelude includes a particular chord – now traditionally sounding to our ears – which

shocked audiences, musicians, and critics at the time for its unorthodox preparation and

resolution: we know this know at “The Tristan Chord.” For this Music Drama Wagner

chose the 12 th century chivalric romance (set in Scotland) of Tristan and Isolde – starcrossed

lovers ust like (but ante dating) Romeo and Juilliet.

Prelude

Act 3: Liebestod [“Love Death”]

.Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Nationalism

Art Music

Folk Music

Chromatic

Modulation

Gesamtkunstwerk

Music Drama

WoO

Op. post.

125 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


ROMANTICISM IN MUSIC

(1820-1900 CE)

PART 5: NEW EXPRESSIONS IN TRADITIONAL FORMS

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Modernity and New Music

194. Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (1813-1901), Macbeth (1846), on a libretto by by

Francesco Maria Piave and Andrea Maffei, adapted from Shakespeare's of the same

name. Ultimately it was the first of operas by Verdi to be based on the works of

Shakespeare. At this position in the first half of the 19 th century the dark and tragic

subject matter was unusual at the time. We will see this opera together as a class on

October 2: Class meets at Royal Theatre 6:30-6:40 for check-in prior to start of

opera at 7:00

195. Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (1813-1901), La Traviata [The Fallen Woman] (1853),

libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, adapted from a the La dame aux Camélias (1852), itself

adapted from the novel by Alexandre Dumas, fils. One of the most beloved operas of

all-times, by one of the most beloved opera composers of all time. While his operas are

far from realistic, none-the-less they somehow transcend the overt perkiness of the

much of the music to create entirely believable characters. As much as anything, Verdi

and his librettist Francesco Maria Piave were masters of dramatic development. Verdi

capped off the drama with an unfailing ability to set scenes of incredible intimacy –

monologue or not – with extraordinary sensitivity, as well as to create some of the

grandest chorusses of all operatic historic. A note of Verdi and his music may be found

in the textbook.

Act 1: Brindisi (The Toast): “Libiamo ne’lieti calici”

“Follie! Follie!”

196. Georges Bizet (1838-1875), Carmen (1875), a French opéra comique with libretto by Henri

Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on the short novel of the same title by Prosper

Mérimée from 1845. The novel bears strong resemblance to Alexander Pushkin’s poem

“The Gypsies” (1824) which was not only known in France, but translated into French

by Mérimée.

197. Pyotr Illyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893), The Nutcracker, ballet in 3 acts (1892), based upon

ETA Hoffmann’s The Nutcracker and the Mouse King.

126 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

198. Pyotr Illyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893), Romeo i Dzhulietta Fantaisie-Ouverture [Romeo and

Juliet] (1869). Otherwise better known as a composer of dance and music with a dance

flair, Tchaikovsky’s sense of narrative allows him to achieve some of his fullest moments

of sweeping melody in his concert overtures.

199. Pyotr Illyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893), Symphony no. 4 in f minor, op. 36 (1878): Mvt. 3

200. Pyotr Illyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893), Symphony no. 5 in e minor, op. 64 (1888): Like

Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique, Tchaikovsky’s 5 th is a cyclical symphony where a single

theme – taken from fellow composer Mikhail Glinka’s Life of the Tsar as setting for the

words, “turn not into sorrow” – is present in all four movements. Unlike Berlioz’s

symphony where the repeating theme is a tangible recollection, Tchaikovsky’s theme

undergoes intense and deliberate transformation from the distant and down-trodden

perspective of the opening to the triumphant march at the close of the symphony.

201. Pyotr Illyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893), Symphony no. 6 in b minor, op. 74 (1893):

Tchaikovsky’s last completed orchestral work, the premiere took place a mere 9 days

before Tchaikovsky’s death. A second performace of the work took place after his death

as a memorial service for the composer. Subtitled “Pathétique,” the work is often (yet

erroneously) considered to be the composer’s testiment to his own mortality. While the

title is Tchaikovsky’s, our understanding of the word as “pathetic or arousing pity” is not

what is meant by the original Russian Патетическая (Patetičeskaja) which means

something more akin to “passionate and emotional.”

202. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897), Piano Quintet in f minor, op, 34 (1864): Out of the

proliferation of overtly romantic, directly programmatic, predominatingly large scale

works emerges a renewed spirit of romantic neoclassicism as embodied in the music of

Johannes Brahms. Even in his lifetime, Brahms and his music were seen as such the

antithesis to Wagner and his music that composers worldwide began to philosophically

allign themselves as either “Brahmsian” or “Wagnerian.” A note regarding Brahms and

his music may be found in the textbook.

203. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897), Variations on a Theme by Haydn [St. Anthony Variations].

Op. 56b (1873).

204. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897), Piano Concerto no. 2, op. 83 (1881): throughout the

concerto the piano and orchestra engage in the most delightful conversation and

collaboration.

205. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897), Symphony no. 1 in c minor, op. 68 ([1854-]1876)

206. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897), Symphony no. 4 in e minor, op. 98 (1885)

127 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

207. Antonín Dvořak (1841-1904), Symphony no. 9 in e minor,op. 95, B. 178, “From the New

World” (1893): mvt. 2 and mvt. 4. This symphony, as a quirk of the Dvořak cataloguing

system was long known as the Symphony no. 5, and may still be found noted that way

today.

208. Antonín Dvořak (1841-1904), Concerto for Cello and Orchestra in B minor, Op. 104

(1895). Written for his friend and cellist Hanuš Wihan. Wihan, Dvořak had long refused

his friend’s request on the grounds that he felt celloa fine orchestral instrument but

completely insufficient for a solo concerto despite some earlier notable successes such as

the concerto by Schumann.

128 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MODERNITY AND NEW MUSIC

(1890 CE-PRESENT)

Modernity and New Music

PART 1:

REAL PEOPLE, HARD SUBJECTS, AND CRAZY CHARACTERS ON STAGE

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

209. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), Tosca (1900): based on the 1887 play La Tosca by French

playwrite Victorien Sardou for the actress Sarah Bernhardt., the libretto by Luigi Illica

and Giuseppe Giacosa for Puccini’s opera was four years in the making after nearly two

years attempting to get the rights to set the play. A small note on Puccini and his music

may be found in the textbook, pages 487-9.

Act 2, Tosca’s aria, “Visi d’arte”

Act 3, Cavaradossi’s aria, “O dolci mani” and closing scene

210. Alban Berg (1885-1935), Wozzeck, op. 7

(1914-1925): Considered the first opera

to be composed in the style of the 20 th -

century avant garde, Berg blends 20 th -

century atonality, Wagnerian leitmotivs,

and Baroque instrumental forms into a

shocking theatre piece dealing with the

brutal, compromised, and exploitive life

of “the poor.” Short for an opera a 1.5

hours, the violence of the work makes

that more than enough time for a full

experience! The opera now has an

established place in the repertoire. An

article about Berg and his music may be

found in the textbook.

Scene 4, with interlude

Scene 5

Tone Row Matrix, http://www.bearmccreary.com/images/concertmusic/12row1.jpg

129 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

211. Zoltán Kodály (1882-1967), Háry János kalandozásai Nagyabonytul a Burgváráig [János Háry:

his Adventures from Nagyabony to the Vienna Burg ](1926): a folk opera, typical of Hungary,

in the style of a singspiel on a Hungarian libretto by Béla Paulini and Zsolt Harsányi,

based on the comic tale Az obsitos [The Veteran] by János Garay.

212. Jerome Kern (188501945), Show Boat (1927): libretto by Oscar Hammerstein II based on

the 1926 novel of the same name by Edna Ferber. Show Boat is considered the first

musical play (piece of musical theatre by our common definition) as different from light

opera or operetta, musical comedy, review, or follies.

Act 1: Ol’ Man River

213. Alban Berg (1885-1935), Lulu (1935): The libretto was adapted by Berg himself from two

plays by Frank Wedekind Erdgeist (Earth Spirit, 1895) and Die Büchse der Pandora (Pandora's

Box, 1904). The opera was complete through Act 3, Scene 1 and in “short score” – or

music without full orchestration – to the end at the time of his death.

Act 2 Interlude (silent film)

214. George Gershwin (1898-1937), Porgy and Bess (1935), libretto by DuBose Heyward, lyrics

by Ira Gershwin: Gershwin conceived this as an “American Folk Opera.” He shocked

American audiences by casting the opera and its choir-master in its entirety with

European-trained African-American singer/actors. Unfortunately the opera was not

received in the United States as legitimate until staged by the Houston Opera in 1976,

even though, the opera had already had much success in Europe, opening at no less a

house than La Scala in Milan in 1953. Gershwin’s opera, however, has never been free

from concerns of racism, with musicians, audiences, and critics from all races noting that

it is difficult to speak with the voice of another culture as Gershwiin had prosumed to do

for the communities of South Carolina without falling into stereotypes and characatures.

Similarly, the presence of strong overtones of New York jazz and melodies which smack

of Jewish liturgical music are heard as suspect. A small note regarding Gershwin and his

music may be found in the texbook, pages 499-501

Act 1, Scene 1: Summertime (Bess)

Act 2, Scene 2: It ain’t necessarily so (Sportin’ Life)

215. Carl Orff (1895-1982), Carmina Burana: Cantiones profanæ cantoribus et choris cantandæ

comitantibus instrumentis atque imaginibus magicis [Songs of Beuern: Secular songs for singers and

choruses to be sung together with instruments and magic images] (1936): Today the work is treated

as a cantata setting of 24 poems from Carmina Burana, a medieval collection of very

130 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

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Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


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secular poems; however, Orff originally composed the work at a piece of what he called

“Teatrum Mundi” or theatre uniting music, movement, and word. The work is rarely

given today in choreographed, full-staged productions. A miniscule note regarding Orff

and his music may be found on page 499 of the textbook.

Opening and closing segments: Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi

LATIN original

O Fortuna

velut luna

statu variabilis,

semper crescis

aut decrescis;

vita detestabilis

nunc obdurat

et tunc curat

ludo mentis aciem,

egestatem,

potestatem

dissolvit ut glaciem.

Sors immanis

et inanis,

rota tu volubilis,

status malus,

vana salus

semper dissolubilis,

obumbrata

et velata

michi quoque niteris;

nunc per ludum

dorsum nudum

fero tui sceleris.

Sors salutis

et virtutis

michi nunc contraria,

est affectus

et defectus

semper in angaria.

Hac in hora

sine mora

corde pulsum tangite;

quod per sortem

sternit fortem,

mecum omnes plangite!

ENGLISH translation

O Fortune,

just as the moon

Stands constantly changing,

always increasing

or decreasing;

Detestable life

now difficult

and then easy

Deceptive sharp mind;

poverty

power

it melts them like ice.

Fate—monstrous

and empty,

you whirling wheel,

stand malevolent,

well-being is vain

and always fades to nothing,

shadowed

and veiled

you plague me too;

now through the game,

my bare back

I bring to your villainy.

Fate is against me

in health,

and virtue,

driven on

and weighted down,

always enslaved.

So at this hour

without delay

pluck the vibrating string;

since through Fate

strikes down the strong,

everyone weep with me!

131 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

216. Richard Rodgers (1902-1979), Oklahoma! (1943): libretto by Oscar Hammerstein II, based

on Lynn Riggs' 1931 play, Green Grow the Lilacs. Oklahoma! Was the first collaboration

between these two great artists and presents the beginning of one of the most fruitful

theatrical teams in history.

Act 1: Oh, What a Beautiful Morning

217. Richard Rodgers (1902-1979), South Pacific (1949): lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, book

by Hammerstein and Joshua Logan based on James A. Michener's Pulitzer Prize-winning

book Tales of the South Pacific.

Act 2: This Nearly Was Mine

218. Richard Rodgers (1902-1979), The King and I (1950): lyrics and book by Oscar

Hammerstein II, based on Margaret Landon’s 1944 novel Anna and the King of Siam itself

based upon the memoirs of Anna Leonowens.

Act 2: Something Wonderful

219. Frederick Loewe (1901-1988), My Fair Lady (1956): book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner,

based upon George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion, roles of many 20 th -century works become

indelibly linked to a specific performance or performer. Such is the case with Rex

Harrison’s role as Professor Henry Higgins. Harrison’s performances withstood both

stage and film as he famously spoke rather than sang the songs.

Act 1: Why Can’t the English

Act 1: On the Street Where You Live

Act 2: Why Can’t a Woman Be More Like a Man

220. Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990), Candide (1956 and 1974): the music for this charming

operetta based on Voltaire’s 18 th -century novelette by the same name is fully by Leonard

Bernstein, but like so many 20 th -century music stage works, Bernstein collaborated with

no fewer than six lyricists and “book-writers.” The “book” by Lillian Helman used for

the 1956 premiere was subsequently replaced by one by Hugh Wheeler, which is

considered to be closer to Voltaire’s novelette, in 1974.

Overture

Glitter and Be Gay (No. 15), Cunegonde’s aria:

Glitter and be gay,

That's the part I play:

Here I am in Paris, France,

Forced to bend my soul

To a sordid role,

Victimized by bitter, bitter circumstance.

Alas for me! Had I remained

Beside my lady mother

132 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


My virtue had remained unstained

Until my maiden hand was gained

By some Grand Duke or other.

Ah, 'twas not to be;

Harsh necessity

Brought me to this gilded cage.

Born to higher things,

Here I droop my wings,

Ah! Singing of a sorrow nothing can

assuage.

And yet of course I rather like to revel,

ha ha!

I have no strong objection to champagne,

ha ha!

My wardrobe is expensive as the devil,

ha ha!

Perhaps it is ignoble to complain...

Enough, enough

Of being basely tearful!

I'll show my noble stuffBy being bright and

cheerful!

Ha ha ha ha ha! Ha!

Pearls and ruby rings...

Ah, how can worldly things

Take the place of honor lost?

Can they compensate

Modernity and New Music

For my fallen state,

Purchased as they were at such an awful

cost?

Bracelets... lavalieres...

Can they dry my tears?

Can they blind my eyes to shame?

Can the brightest brooch

Shield me from reproach?

Can the purest diamond purify my name?

And yet of course these trinkets are

endearing,

ha ha!

I'm oh, so glad my sapphire is a star,

ha ha!

I rather like a twenty-carat earring,

ha ha!

If I'm not pure, at least my jewels are!

Enough! Enough!

I'll take their diamond necklace

And show my noble stuff

By being gay and reckless!

Ha ha ha ha ha! Ha!

Observe how bravely I conceal

The dreadful, dreadful shame I feel.

Ha ha ha ha!

221. Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990), West Side Story (1957): this book musical is based on

William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet set in immigrant neighbourhoods of New York

City – music by Bernstein, song lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and book by Arthur

Laurents. Bernstein, along with with assistance from Sid Ramin and Irwin Kostal,

orchestrated the full broadway score of 75 instrumental parts to be covered by no more

than 31 players: wind players and percussionists being responsible for more than one

instrument – there are 27 percussion instruments to be played! While critical reception

of the musical was focussed on Jerome Robinson’s choreography, critics identified

Bernstein’s scores as “…fascinatingly tricky and melodically beguiling, and it marks the

progression of an admirable composer” (John Chapman, New York Daily News, 27

September 1957).

Act 1: Prologue (Instrumental)

Act 1: Marie (Tony)

Act 1: America (Puerto Rican Women)

Act 2: A Boy Like That/ I Have a Love (Anita and Maria)

222. Richard Rodgers (1902-1979), The Sound of Music (1959): lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II,

book by Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse, based on the memoir of Maria von Trapp,

The Story of the Trapp Family Singers.

133 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Act 1: Climb Every Mountain

Modernity and New Music

223. Benjamin Britten, A Midsummer Night's Dream (1960), libretto adapted by the composer and

Peter Pears from A Midsummer Night's Dream by William Shakespeare.

224. Frederick Loewe (1901-1988), Camelot (1960): book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and

Moss Hart, based upon T.H. White’s Once and Future King. For no direct reason other

than timing and a certain enchanted quality, the musical became linked to the Kennedy

White House.

Act 1: The Lusty Month of May

225. Stephen Sondheim (b. 1930), Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (1979):

music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, libretto by Hugh Wheeler, based on the 1973

play by the same name by Christopher Bond. Sweeney Todd as a character descends

from Victorian-period penny Romances.

Act 2: Not While I’m Around

226. Sir Andrew Lloyd Webber, the Baron Lloyd-Webber (b. 1948), Phantom of the Opera (1986),

lyrics by Charles Hart based on the 1909 French novel Le Fantôme de l'Opéra by Gaston

Leroux. Considered to be a fully flegded musical, the work demands fully operatic

performances by several of the characters, imbeds a number of brilliantly conceived

parody operas, and packs in a number of ensembles of the kind of complexity (although

not quality) seen only in Mozart.

Act 1: Notes/Prima Donna (Firmin, André, Raoul, Carlotta, Madame Giry, Meg,

Piangi, and Phantom)

Act 1: Poor Fool, He Makes Me Laugh (Il Muto) (Carlotta and Company)

Act 1: Think of Me (Carlotta, Christine)

227. R(aymond) Murray Schafer (b. 1933), Patria (1966-1990). Over the years of this

composition, Schafer has modified the scope of the work several times, moving from

opera to 12 sectioned staged music event: prologue, epilogue, and 10 intermediate

sections for differing ensemble combinations of voices and instruments.

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Verismo

Operetta

Book Musical

Libretto

Second Viennese School

Dodecaphony or Twelve-Tone

134 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MODERNITY AND NEW MUSIC

(1890 CE-PRESENT)

Modernity and New Music

PART 2:

NEW, OLD, IDEALISED, AND FANTASY WORLDS ON STAGE

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

228. Claude-Achille Debussy [pronounce DEh-bus-ee] (1862-1918), La flûte de Pan: Syrinx

(1907): this little gem of the flute repertoire originated as incidental music for a long lost

play Psyché by Gabriel Mourey. An article regarding Debussy and his music may be

found in the textbook.

229. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), L’Oiseau de feu [The Firebird] (1910): This is the full ballet score

written specifically for a production organized by the impressario Serge Diagalev and his

troupe the Ballet Russe. The Ballet Russe becam a fixture on the Parisian arts scene for

several decades, and ultimately participated in some of the most astonishing and

noteworthy collaborations and productions of the 20 th century, if not of all time. The

dancers of the Ballet Russe were often exiles in Paris from St. Petersberg as a result of

the political tensions in Russia. An article on Stravinsky and his music may be found in

the textbook.

Closing dances:

No. 18 – Infernal Dance of All Kashchei's Subjects

No. 19 – Lullaby

No. 20 – Kashchei's Awakening

No. 21 – Kashchei's Death

2nd Tableau: No. 23 – Disappearance of Kashchei's Palace and Magical Creations, Return

to Life of the Petrified Knights, General Rejoicing

230. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Petruchka (1911): The story of Petruchka is something of a

Pinocchio type story, with Petruchka being a puppet at the Shrovetide Fair who

subsequently comes to life along will his fellow puppets of a ballerina (whom he loves

deeply, but who rejects him) and a Moor (who steals the love of the ballerina). After the

sumptuous music of The Firebird, the brittleness and harshness of this score offended

135 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

audiences as did its non-classical choreography (by Mikhail Fokine and The Ballet Russe)

which included gymnastics and exercises in addition to more traditional gestures. It is

said that at an open rehearsal a critic approached Diagalev with, "And it was to hear this

that you invited us?" to which Diaghilev succinctly replied, "Exactly."

Part I: The Shrovetide Fair

Introduction (at the Shrovetide Fair)

The Charlatan's Booth

Russian Dance

231. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), Daphnes et Chloë (1912): Again composed for the Ballet Russe

their impressario Serge Diagalev. The scenario was adapted by the great choreographer

Michel Fokine to be danced by Vassily Nijinsky the 2 nd century Greek romance by one

Longus. The huge orchestra Ravel used is almost unmatched in size and colour –

including among other forces a textless part for full choir (on and off-stage) – anywhere

in the orchestra repertoire. The size of the orchestra and the length of the ballet make

the ework virtually impossible to produce in a fully-staged format; however, the music

remains a staple of the orchestral repertoire through two suites, the second of which

giving the music of the ballet’s final scenes is the more popular of the two. An article on

Ravel and his music may be found in the textbook.

Closing scenes (Suite no. 2)

Lever du jour

Pantomime

Danse générale

232. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Le sacre du printemps [The Rite of Spring] (1913): Another Ballet

Russe production. Now with increased confidence following a string of reasonable

successes all collaborators set out to create something very special, something very

shocking.

Part 1: A Kiss of the Earth (L'adoration de la Terre)

Introduction

The Augurs of Spring: Dances of the Young Girls (Les Augures Printaniers:

Danses des Adolescentes)

Part 2: The Exalted Sacrifice (Le Sacrifice)

Sacrificial Dance (The Chosen One) (Danse Sacrale (L'Élue))

233. Erik Satie (1866-1925), Parade (1917): this one-act ballet on a scenario by Jean Cocteau

was yet another collaboration hosted by Serge Diaghilev for his Ballets Russes. The

ballet itself is yet another circus-themed ballet, although Satie’s music is far from the folk

traditions of Stravinsky.

136 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

234. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), L’Histoire du Soldat [A Soldier’s Tale] (1918): a theatre piece to

be read, played, and danced by a small ensemble of instrumental septet (violin, double

bass, clarinet, bassoon, cornet / trumpet), trombone, and percussion), three actors (the

soldier, the devil, and narrator, who also takes on the roles of minor characters) and a

single dancer playing the non-speaking role of the princess (in some productions there

may also be additional ensemble dancers).

235. Darius Milhaud (1892-1974), Le boeuf sur le toit, Op. 58 [The Ox on the Roof] (1920): a ballet

by the most successful composer from the group Les Six, named after the bar where

Milhaud would soon become a common fixture. The ballet is really a ballet about

nothing, but rather a series of scenes inspired by Brazil. It is rumoured that the work

originated as the film score for a Charlie Chaplin silent film.

236. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Pulcinella [pronounced PULL-chin-ella] (1920):

Commissioned by Serge Diaghilev and the Ballet Russe, this ballet proved the

collaboration between some of the great artists of the day: The dancer Léonide Massine

created both the libretto and choreography, Pablo Picasso designed the original

costumes and sets, in addition to Stravinsky providing the score. Like Petruchka nearly a

decade earlier, Pulcinella drew on the commedia dell’arte tradition, this time “properly” that

of 18 th -century Italy. For the ballet Stravinsky reworked music thought at that time to be

by Giovanni Battiste Pergolesi (1710-1736), one of the great tragic figures of the early

age and mover within the earlier gallant style.

No. 1 – Overture ([1] Sinfonia in Suite)

No. 14 – Tarantella ([4] in Suite)

No. 17 – Gavotta con due variatione ([6] in Suite)

237. Darius Milhaud (1892-1974), La création du Monde [Creation of the World], op. 81a (1924]:

Ballet in six sections. Here the story of the creation is told through African folktales and

uses elements of African-influenced American jazz. A tiny note on Milhaud and his

music may be found in the textbook, pages 496-8

(1) Overture

238. Béla Bartók (1881-1945), A csodálatos mandarin [Der Wunderbare Mandarin, The Miraculous

Mandarin or The Wonderful Mandarin] (1924) is a one-act pantomime ballet based on the

story by Melchior Lengyel. The popular concert suite comporises about two-thirds of the

original ballet's music.

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Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

239. Aaron Copland [pronounced COPE-lund] (1900-1990), Quiet City for trumpet, cor anglais, and

string orchestra (1940/41). Copland’s work began life as incidental music for the play Quiet

City by Irwin Shaw. While Copland’s original music was written to parallel the life and

attitutdes of the lead character, Copland himself later conceded that the concert version

had takenits rightful place as its own composition.

240. Aaron Copland (1900-1990), Rodeo: the Courting at Burnt Ranch [pronounced roe-DAYoh](1942):

This second “cowboy ballet” by the established and experiences American

composer Aaron Copland was commissioned by the great American choreographer

Anges de Mille, at this time very early in her career, herself commissioned to create the

ballet by the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo (the reminants of Serge Diagilev’s troupe now

exiled in the US by the War in Europe). An article regarding Copland and his music may

be found in the textbook.

Scene 4: Saturday Night Waltz

Scene 5: Hoe-Down

241. Aaron Copland (1900-1990), Appalachian Spring (1944): This ballet, set to Copland’s

fabulously evocative music, was a collaboration between Copland and one of America’s

most respected dancer/choreographers, Martha Graham. The work was complete and

choreographed before it received the title Appalachian Spring – Copland had always

called it simply “Martha’s Ballet.” Martha finally suggested the title after a line in Hart

Crane’s poem, “The Bridge” (below). True, the ballet was set in springtime on a farm

Pennsylvania, and so “Appalachian Spring” seems absolutely perfect; however, the

“spring” of Crane’s poem actually refers to a fountain or water spring, and a farm most

definitely would not be found on the Appalachian ridge – a conundrum which bemused

Copland throughout his life.

‘O Appalachian Spring! I gained the ledge;

Steep, inaccessible smile that eastward bends

And northward reaches in that violet wedge

Of Adirondacks!”

Scene 7: Variations on “Simple Gifts”

242. Stomp Dance Troupe, Stomp Out Loud! (HBO, 1997)

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Scenario

Polytonality (Bitonality)

Polyrhythm

Impressionism

Primitivism

Jazz

Ballet Russe

Sergei Diaghilev

138 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

The most percussive and the most liquid capabilities of orchestral instruments are well demonstrated

through these pieces

139 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MODERNITY AND NEW MUSIC

(1890 CE-PRESENT)

PART 3:

NEW VIRTUOSITY FOR OLD INSTRUMENTS

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Modernity and New Music

243. Serge Prokofiev (1891-1953), Piano Concerto no. 3 n C major, Op. 26 (1921): A virtuosic

piano concerto by one of the most esteemed pianists of the early 20 th century. An article

on Prokofiev and his music may be found in the textbook.

244. George Gershwin (1898-1937), Rhapsody in Blue (1924): One of the earliest compositions

to be considered “cross-over” between jazz and classical, its jazz elements tended to be

rejected by traditional jazz musicians as charactures and not authentic enough.

245. Sergei [Vasilievich] Rachmaninov [pronounced Rock-MAN-in-off] (1873-1943), Rhapsody

on a Theme by Paganini, op. 43 (1934): The Caprice no. 24 in a minor, op. 1 for Violin by

the 19th-century violinist Nicolò Paganini (1782-1840) has been a favourite subject for

sets of variations by numerous composers. Here Rachmaninov fashions a set of 24

variations (the “usual” number) for piano and orchestra to take the shape of a traditional

three-movement concerto. A very small note on Rachmaninov and his music may be

found in the textbook, pages 492-3.

246. Alban Berg (1885-1935), Violin Concerto (1935): This beautifully constructed monument

of the 20 th -century violin repertoire capably combines 12-tone compositional technique

wth episodes of traditional tonality. The tone row itself is packed with tonal elements.

G, B♭, D, F♯, A, C, E, G♯, B, C♯, E♭, F

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Berg_vn_conc_tone_row.png

140 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

247. Aaron Copland (1900-1990), Fanfare for the Common Man (1942). This famous work

was composed for the Cincinnati Symphony and was inspired by a then-recent speech by

the US Vice President, Henry Wallace. It was only much later adopted for use in popular

media as the TV opener for sporting events for many decades.

248. Béla [Viktor János] Bartók (1881-1945), Concerto for Orchestra, Sz. 116, BB 123 (1943):

This fabulous showpiece for orchestra could just as well been called a symphony (even

with its five movements); however, Bartók preferred the term concerto because he wrote

for each instrument and instrument family in a virtuoso solo style. An article regarding

Bartók and his music may be found in the textbook.

Mvt. 2 – Game of Pairs, or Presentation of the Couples

Mvt. 3 – Elegia

Mvt. 4 – Intermezzo

249. Samuel Barber (1910-1981), Piano Concerto, op. 38 (1962): The broadly lyrical concerto

is a full-blooded example of post-romanticism, full of arching melodies, dense by warm

harmonies, and all the energy expected from a solo concerto. A note regarding Barber

and his music may be found on pages 404 and 405 of your text book

Mvt. 2: Canzone: Moderato

Mvt. 3: Allegro molto

250. Nina Rota (1911-1979), Concerto per Trombone (1966)

251. Sofia Gubaidulina (b. 1931), Offertorium, Concerto for Violin (1980), relatively sparse and

spare, still there is an underlying romanticism and expressiveness from both soloist and

orchestra.

252. Sofia Gubaidulina (b. 1931), Glorious Percussion (2008) is a large-scale concerto grosso

for percussion and orchestra. Here Gubaidulina traces the history of percussion in a 40

minute romp.

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Polytonality

Atonality

Serialism

Dodecaphony or Twelve-Tone

Music

Post-Romanticism

141 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MODERNITY AND NEW MUSIC

(1890 CE-PRESENT)

PART 4:

CONTINUING VALIDITY FOR THE SYMPHONY

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Modernity and New Music

253. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Symphony no. 4 (1901): Movement 4. An article regarding

Mahler and his music may be found in the textbook.

Das himmlische Leben

(aus Des Knaben Wunderhorn)

Wir genießen die himmlischen Freuden,

D'rum tun wir das Irdische meiden.

Kein weltlich' Getümmel

Hört man nicht im Himmel!

Lebt alles in sanftester Ruh'.

Wir führen ein englisches Leben,

Sind dennoch ganz lustig daneben;

Wir tanzen und springen,

Wir hüpfen und singen,

Sanct Peter im Himmel sieht zu.

Johannes das Lämmlein auslasset,

Der Metzger Herodes d'rauf passet.

Wir führen ein geduldig's,

Unschuldig's, geduldig's,

Ein liebliches Lämmlein zu Tod.

Sanct Lucas den Ochsen tät schlachten

Ohn' einig's Bedenken und Achten.

Der Wein kost' kein Heller

Im himmlischen Keller;

Die Englein, die backen das Brot.

Gut' Kräuter von allerhand Arten,

Die wachsen im himmlischen Garten,

Gut' Spargel, Fisolen

Und was wir nur wollen.

Ganze Schüsseln voll sind uns bereit!

Gut' Äpfel, gut' Birn' und gut' Trauben;

Die Gärtner, die alles erlauben.

Willst Rehbock, willst Hasen,

Auf offener Straßen

Sie laufen herbei!

Sollt' ein Fasttag etwa kommen,

Alle Fische gleich mit Freuden angeschwommen!

Heaven's Life

(From Des Knaben Wunderhorn)

We enjoy heavenly pleasures

and therefore avoid earthly ones.

No worldly tumult

is to be heard in heaven.

All live in greatest peace.

We lead angelic lives,

yet have a merry time of it besides.

We dance and we spring,

We skip and we sing.

Saint Peter in heaven looks on.

John lets the lambkin out,

and Herod the Butcher lies in wait for it.

We lead a patient,

an innocent, patient,

dear little lamb to its death.

Saint Luke slaughters the ox

without any thought or concern.

Wine doesn't cost a penny

in the heavenly cellars;

The angels bake the bread.

Good greens of every sort

grow in the heavenly vegetable patch,

good asparagus, string beans,

and whatever we want.

Whole dishfuls are set for us!

Good apples, good pears and good grapes,

and gardeners who allow everything!

If you want roebuck or hare,

on the public streets

they come running right up.

Should a fast day come along,

all the fishes at once come swimming with joy.

142 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Dort läuft schon Sanct Peter

Mit Netz und mit Köder

Zum himmlischen Weiher hinein.

Sanct Martha die Köchin muß sein.

Kein' Musik ist ja nicht auf Erden,

Die unsrer verglichen kann werden.

Elftausend Jungfrauen

Zu tanzen sich trauen.

Sanct Ursula selbst dazu lacht.

Kein' Musik ist ja nicht auf Erden,

Die unsrer verglichen kann werden.

Cäcilia mit ihren Verwandten

Sind treffliche Hofmusikanten!

Die englischen Stimmen

Modernity and New Music

There goes Saint Peter running

with his net and his bait Ermuntern die Sinnen,

Daß alles für Freuden erwacht.

to the heavenly pond.

Saint Martha must be the cook.

There is just no music on earth

that can compare to ours.

Even the eleven thousand virgins

venture to dance,

and Saint Ursula herself has to laugh.

There is just no music on earth

that can compare to ours.

Cecilia and all her relations

make excellent court musicians.

The angelic voices

gladden our senses,

so that all awaken for joy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphony_No._4_%28Mahler%29 , accessed 2 August 2010

254. Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), Symphony no. 2 in D major, op. 43 (1902): mvt. 3 and mvt. 4.

An article regarding Sibelius and his music may be found in the textbook.

255. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Symphony no. 5 (1902)

Mvt. 4, Adagietto

256. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911), Das Lied von der Erde [The Song of the Earth] (1909)

Mvt 1: Das Trinklied vom Jammer der Erde [The Drinking Song of Earth's Misery],

Original poem by Li Po, "Bei Ge Xing" (Chinese:悲歌行) [A Pathetic Song]:

"The wine in the golden cup calls us, but first let me sing you a song of sorrow which

shall ring laughingly in your soul. When sorrow comes the gardens of the soul lie waste,

joy and song fade and die: Dark is life, dark is death. Master of this house! Your cellar is

full of golden wine! This lyre I shall call mine, for emptying the glass and sounding the

lyre are things that go together. A full beaker of wine at the right time is worth more

than all the riches of this world: Dark is life, dark is death. The sky is endlessly blue,

and the earth will long remain, and bloom in Spring. But you, Man, how long will you

remain? Not even a hundred years shall you enjoy all the mouldering trinkets of this

earth! A wild, ghostly figure crouches in the moonlight on the tombs - it is an Ape!

Listen, its howling cuts through the sweet scent of Life. Now, drink the wine! Now is

the time, comrades! Empty your golden cups to the lees! Dark is life, dark is death."

Mvt. 6: Der Abschied [The Farewell]

"The sun sinks beyond the hills, evening descends into the valleys with its cooling

shade. See, like a silver boat the moon sails up into the lake of the sky. I sense a soft

wind blowing beyond the dark fir-trees. The brook sings melodiously through the

dark. The flowers grow pale in the twilight. The earth breathes a deep draught of rest

143 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

and sleep. All longing now will dream: tired people go homewards, so that they can

learn forgotten joy and youth again in sleep! Birds sit motionless on their branches.

The world is slumbering! It grows cool in the shade of my fir-trees. I stand and await

my friend, I wait for him for our last farewell. O friend, I long to share the beauty of

this evening at your side. Where do you linger? Long you leave me alone! I wander

here and there with my lyre on soft grassy paths. O Beauty! O endless love-lifedrunken

world!

He dismounted from the horse and handed to him the drink of farewell. He asked

him where he was bound and why it must be so. He spoke, and his voice was muffled:

'You, my friend, Fortune was not kind to me in this world! Where do I go? I am

departing, I wander in the mountains. I am seeking rest for my lonely heart. I am

making my way to my home, my abode. I shall never stray far away. My heart is still

and awaits its moment.'

The beloved Earth blooms forth everywhere in Spring, and becomes green anew!

Everywhere and endlessly blue shines the horizon! Endless... endless..."

257. Serge Prokofiev (1891-1953), Symphony no. 1 in D major, op. 25 (1917): mvt. 2 and mvt.

4

258. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (1906-1975), Symphony no. 1 in f minor, op. 10 (1925):

mvt. 1. An article on Shostakovich and his music may be found in the textbook.

259. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (1906-1975), Symphony no. 5 in d minor, op. 47 (1937):

complete

260. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (1906-1975), Symphony no. 15 in A major, op. 47

(1971): mvt. 4

261. Serge Prokofiev (1891-1953), Symphony no. 5 in B-flat major, op. 100 (1944): mvt. 1 and

mvt. 4

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Polytonality

Atonality

Serialism

Dodecaphony or Twelve-Tone Music

Post-Romanticism

144 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MODERNITY AND NEW MUSIC

(1890 CE-PRESENT)

Modernity and New Music

PART 5:

DEMANDS AND POSSIBILITY FOR CHAMBER MUSICIANS AND SOLOISTS

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

262. Joseph-Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), Pavane pour l’enfante défunte [Pavane for a Dead

Spanish Princess] (1899) : solo piano, later for orchestra

263. Claude-Achille Debussy (1862-1918), Preludes (Book 1, 1909 ; Book 2 1910)

La fille aux cheveus de lin, Book 1 no. 8

Brouillards [Mists], Book 2, no. 1

264. Albert Edwin “Eddie” Condon (1905-1973), Wolverine Blues (1920s)

265. Béla Bartók (1881-1945), Mikrokosmos, Sz. 107, BB 105 (1926-1939), an expansive and

musically challenging set of 153 progressive piano pieces in six volumes. The set was

intended to be an instructional for even the most beginner players, but now forms a part

of the professional concert repertoire.

266. Louis Armstrong (1901-1971), West End Blues (1928)

267. Benny Goodman (1909-1986), Body and Soul (1935)

268. John Birks “Dizzy” Gillespie (1917-1993), I Can’t Get Started (1936)

269. Samuel Barber (1910-1981), String Quartet, op. 11 (1936): Mvt. 2, Adagio

145 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

270. Olivier Messiaen [pronounced MESSy-ann] (1908-1992), Quatuor pour la fin du temps [Quartet

for the End of Time] (1941): Quartet for violin, cello, clarinet, piano. A small note on

Messiaen and his music may be found on pages 508 and 509 of the textbook.

271. John Milton Cage, Jr. (1912-1992), 3 rd construction for 4 percussionists (1941)

Player I: North West Indian rattle (wooden), 5 graduated tin cans, 3 graduated

drums (tom toms), claves, large Chinese cymbal (suspended), maracas, teponaztli

Player II: 3 graduated drums (tom toms), 5 graduated tin cans, claves, 2 cowbells,

Indo-Chinese rattle (wooden, with many separate chambers), lion's roar

Player III: 3 graduated drums (tom toms), tambourine, 5 graduated tin cans,

quijadas, claves, cricket callers (split bamboo), conch shell

Player IV: tin can with tacks (rattle), 5 graduated tin cans, claves, maracas, 3

graduated drums (tom toms), wooden ratchet, bass drum roar

272. John Milton Cage, Jr. (1912-1992), Primitive for String Piano (1942): prepared piano. A small

note on Cage and his music may be found in the textbook, pages 506-8.

273. Béla Bartók (1881-1945), Sonata for Solo Violin Sz. 117, BB 124 (1944) mvt. 1, Tempo di

Ciaccona. This late work was commissioned by the violinist Yehudi Menhuin. Bartok

responded with a gem full of Hungarian melodies, rhythms, and harmonies.

274. Charlie “Yardbird” Parker (1920-1955), Oh, Lady Be Good (1944)

275. Isao Matsuhita, Kochi (Eastwind) for 3 clarinets (1951)

276. Benjamin Britten (1913-1976), Metamorphoses after Ovid for oboe alone (1951): also performed

by other melody instruments

277. John Milton Cage, Jr. (1912-1992), 4’33” (1952): for any instrumental combination

278. John Milton Cage, Jr. (1912-1992), In the Name of the Holocaust (1942): prepared piano

279. Paule Maurice (1910-67), Tableau de Provence for Saxophone (1954-9)

146 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


280. Marcel Grandjany (1891-1975), Fantasy on a Theme of Haydn, op. 31(1958)

281. Ray Charles (1930-2004), What’d I Say (1959)

282. John Leslie “Wes” Montgomery (1923-1968), West Coast Blues (1960)

Modernity and New Music

283. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (1906-1975), String Quartet no. 8 in c minor, op. 110

(1960)

284. George Crumb (b. 1929), Five Pieces (senza misura) for Piano (1962): prepared piano

285. John Coltrane (1926-1967), Alabama (1963)

286. Luciano Berio (1925-2003), Sequenza V for Trombone (1965)

287. Malcolm Arnold (1921-2006), Fantasy for Horn (1966)

288. Zdenek Sestak (b. 1925), Five Virtuoso Inventions for Bassoon (1966). The composer is deeply

involved with study of 18 th -century music from his native Bohemia. These inventions

for solo instrument, while being in a toally different musical language, for a logical

continuum in the line of works for solo instrument from that time.

289. Julien-François Zbinden (b. 1917), Hommage à J.-S. Bach, op. 44 (1969). This work

brilliantly combines the style of J.S.Bach’s unaccompanied cello suites with a thematic

substructure using the pitches B-flat, A, C, B … or in German nomenclature B-A-C-H.

290. George Crumb (b. 1929), Vox Balaenae [Voice of the Whale] (1971): trio for electric flute,

electric cello, and electric piano

291. George Crumb (b. 1929), Makrokosmos (1972-1979) is a series of four volumes of works for

piano alluding to, if not modeled upon the Mikrokosmos by Bela Bartok from earlier in

147 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

the century. Of the full set, the first two volumes, each containing 12 works inspired by

signs of the zodiac, are by far the most popular. While complete perforamnces of the

one of the first two books, and even the first two volumes together, are common, it is

rare for the full set of four to be performed.

292. Ryo Noda (b. 1948), Improvisation III for Saxophone (1974): Here the Japanese-born

composer draws on the style of traditional shakuhachi performance abd casts it for

saxophone.

293. Miton Babbitt (b. 1916), My Ends are My Beginnings for solo clarinet (1978)

294. Fisher Aubrey Tull (1934-1994), Eight Profiles for Trumpet Solo (1980). Born, raised, trained,

and careered in Texas, as a trumpeter Tull brings deep and personal understanding to

these Profiles for Trumpet.

295. Milton Babbitt (b. 1916), Solo e Duettini for 2 Guitars (1989)

296. Ian Clarke (b. 1964), The Great Train Race : The Flute As You Don’t Usually Hear It Played

(2002)

297. Milton Babbitt (b. 1916), Swan Song no. 1 for flute, oboe, violin, cello, and two guitars

(2003)

298. George Hamilton Green and Bob Becker (Nexus), Triplets (c. 2005)

299. George Hamilton Green and Bob Becker (Nexus) , Amazing Space (c. 2005)

300. Vitaly Buyanovsky, Four Inpressions from Travelling for Horn, Espana (2007)

301. Margot Leverett, Doina (2007 in traditional style): This music is from the Ashkenazi Jewish

traditions of Eastern Europe. Here the artist records a traditional Doina, a melancholictype

improvisational work typical to Rumania and later associated with the Roma: it is

sometimes called a Rumanian Blues. These works are recorded on Art of Klezmer Clarinet

(2007)

148 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

302. William Cahn (b. 1946), Nara for solo percussion (c. 2009) I- Todaiji-The Hall of the Great

Buddha

303. William Cahn (b. 1946), The Birds for Percussion (c. 2009)

304. Gabriel Pierne (1863-1937), Impromptu-Caprice in Ab major for harp, op. 9

305. Joaquin Turina (1882-1948), Fandanguillo, op. 36

306. Federico Torroba (1891-1982), Suite castellana for guitar

307. John D. White (1910-1949), Recitative and Presto for Saxophone Alone

308. Tom Bergeron, Saxalone 3, “Rubber Waltz” for Solo Saxophone

309. Roger Bobo (b. 1938), Capriccio for Solo Tuba

310. Sofia Gubaidulina (b. 1931), Chaconne for solo piano (1962)

311. R(aymond) Murray Schafer (b. 1933), Wolf Project (on-going)

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Atonality

Post-Romanticism

Neoclassicism

Inspressionism

Symbolism.

Aleatoricism

Environmental Music

Extended Technique

Prepared Piano

149 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MODERNITY AND NEW MUSIC

(1890 CE-PRESENT)

Modernity and New Music

PART 6:

ABSOLUTE AND PROGRAMMATIC CHALLENGES FOR THE ORCHESTRA

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

312. Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Tod und Verklärung [Death and Transfiguration], Op. 24 (1888–

89). An article regarding Strauss and his music may be found in the textbook.

313. Claude Debussy (1860-1918), Prelude á “L’Après-midi d’un faune” [Prelude to “An Afternoon

of a Faune”] (music 1894; ballet production 1913): Inspired by Stephane Mallarmé’s

exotic and intoxicating poem, this scrumptuous orchestral piece – nearly a tone poem,

but not so literally descriptive – for full orchestra is often considered by musicologists to

mark the beginning of modernism in music: "the flute of the faun brought new breath

to the art of music” (conductor Pierre Boulez). It is reported that Mallarmé, however,

was not pleased with his poem being translated into music feeling his own “music” to be

sufficeint, “that even with the best intentions in the world, it was a veritable crime as far

as poetry was concerned to juxtapose poetry and music, even if it were the finest music

there is" (Paul Valéry).

These nymphs I would perpetuate.

So clear

Their light carnation, that it floats in the air

Heavy with tufted slumbers.

Was it a dream I loved?

My doubt, a heap of ancient night, is finishing

In many a subtle branch, which, left the true

Wood itself, proves, alas! that all alone I gave

Myself for triumph the ideal sin of roses.

Let me reflect

. . .if the girls of which you tell

Figure a wish of your fabulous senses!

Faun, the illusion escapes from the blue eyes

And cold, like a spring in tears, of the chaster one:

But, the other, all sighs, do you say she contrasts

Like a breeze of hot day in your fleece!

But no! through the still, weary faintness

Choking with heat the fresh morn if it strives,

No water murmurs but what my flute pours

On the chord sprinkled thicket; and the sole wind

Prompt to exhale from my two pipes, before

It scatters the sound in a waterless shower,

Is, on the horizon's unwrinkled space,

The visible serene artificial breath

Of inspiration, which regains the sky.

Oh you, Sicilian shores of a calm marsh

That more than the suns my vanity havocs,

Silent beneath the flowers of sparks, RELATE

"That here I was cutting the hollow reeds tamed

By talent, when on the dull gold of the distant

Verdures dedicating their vines to the springs,

There waves an animal whiteness at rest:

And that to the prelude where the pipes first stir

This flight of swans, no! Naiads, flies

Or plunges . . ."

Inert, all burns in the fierce hour

Nor marks by what art all at once bolted

Too much hymen desired by who seeks the Ia:

Then shall I awake to the primitive fervour,

Straight and alone, 'neath antique floods of light,

Lilies and one of you all through my ingenuousness.

As well as this sweet nothing their lips purr,

The kiss, which a hush assures of the perfid ones,

My breast, though proofless, still attests a bite

Mysterious, due to some august tooth;

But enough! for confidant such mystery chose

The great double reed which one plays 'neath the blue:

Which, the cheek's trouble turning to itself

Dreams, in a solo long, we might amuse

Surrounding beauties by confusions false

Between themselves and our credulous song;

And to make, just as high as love modulates,

150 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Die out of the everyday dream of a back

Or a pure flank followed by my curtained eyes,

An empty, sonorous, monotonous line.

Try then, instrument of flights, oh malign

Syrinx, to reflower by the lakes where you wait for me!

I, proud of my rumour, for long I will talk

Of goddesses; and by picturings idolatrous,

From their shades unloose yet more of their girdles:

So when of grapes the clearness I've sucked,

To banish regret by my ruse disavowed,

Laughing, I lift the empty bunch to the sky,

Blowing into its luminous skins and athirst

To be drunk, till the evening I keep looking through.

Oh nymphs, we diverse MEMORIES refill.

"My eye, piercing the reeds, shot at each immortal

Neck, which drowned its burning in the wave

With a cry of rage to the forest sky;

And the splendid bath of their hair disappears

In the shimmer and shuddering, oh diamonds!

I run, when, there at my feet, enlaced. Lie (hurt by the languor they

taste to be two)

Girls sleeping amid their own casual arms; them I seize, and not

disentangling them, fly

To this thicket, hated by the frivilous shade,

Of roses drying up their scent in the sun

Where our delight may be like the day sun-consumed."

I adore it, the anger of virgins, the wild

Delight of the sacred nude burden which slips

To escape from my hot lips drinking, as lightning

Flashes! the secret terror of the flesh:

From the feet of the cruel one to the heart of the timid

Who together lose an innocence, humid

Translation from French by Roger Fry

http://www.angelfire.com/art/doit/mallarme.html, accessed 2 August 2010

Modernity and New Music

With wild tears or less sorrowful vapours.

"My crime is that I, gay at conquering the treacherous

Fears, the dishevelled tangle divided

Of kisses, the gods kept so well commingled;

For before I could stifle my fiery laughter

In the happy recesses of one (while I kept

With a finger alone, that her feathery whiteness

Should be dyed by her sister's kindling desire,

The younger one, naive and without a blush)

When from my arms, undone by vague failing,

This pities the sob wherewith I was still drunk."

Ah well, towards happiness others will lead me

With their tresses knotted to the horns of my brow:

You know, my passion, that purple and just ripe,

The pomegranates burst and murmur with bees;

And our blood, aflame for her who will take it,

Flows for all the eternal swarm of desire.

At the hour when this wood's dyed with gold and with ashes

A festival glows in the leafage extinguished:

Etna! 'tis amid you, visited by Venus

On your lava fields placing her candid feet,

When a sad stillness thunders wherein the flame dies.

I hold the queen!

O penalty sure . . .

No, but the soul

Void of word and my body weighed down

Succumb in the end to midday's proud silence:

No more, I must sleep, forgetting the outrage,

On the thirsty sand lying, and as I delight

Open my mouth to wine's potent star!

Adieu, both! I shall see the shade you became

314. Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Till Eulenspiegels lustige Streiche [Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks],

Op. 28 (1895)

315. Richard Strauss (1864-1949), Also sprach Zarathustra [Thus Spoke Zarathustra], Op. 30 (1896)

316. Claude-Achilles Debussy (1862-1918), La mer, trois esquisses symphoniques pour orchestre [The

sea, three symphonic sketches for orchestra] (1905)

(3) Dialogue du vent et de la mer [Dialogue between the wind and the waves]

317. Sergei [Vasilievich] Rachmaninov (1873-1943), Isle of the Dead, op. 29 (1908).

Eventhough written in the 20th century by a fairly young Rachmaninov on a progressive

topic, the work is viewed more as a work of late romanticism than a work of the modern

era. Rachmaninov was inspired by Arnold Böcklin's painting of the same name which he

had seen displayed at the salons in Paris the previous year,

318. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), Fünf Orchesterstücke [5 Pieces for Orchestra], Op. 16 (1909)

(3) "Farben", Mässig. [Colors, moderate]

151 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

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Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

319. Charles Ives (1874-1954), Three Places in New England, Orchestral Suite no. 1 (1914). An

article on Ives and his music may be found in the textbook.

II. Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticutt

320. Gustav Holst (1874-1934), The Planets Suite, op. 32 (1916)

321. Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), La valse, un poème chorégraphique (1920)

322. Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936), Fontane di Roma [Fountains of Rome] (1916)

323. Arthur Honegger (1892-1955), Pacific 231 (1923): a tone poem, the first of a series of

three Mouvements symphoniques, depicts the action of a Pacific 462 locomotive steam

engine travelling between stations. In 1949 the tone poem was used as the backdrop for

an otherwise silent film, a film which was highly acclaimed for its amazing footage of the

locomotive engine in action.

324. Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936), Pini di Roma [Pines of Rome] (1924)

(4) Pini di Via Appia (Pines of the Appian Way)

325. Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936), Trittico Botticelliano (1927)

326. George Gershwin (1898-1937), An American in Paris (1928)

327. Anton Webern (1883-1945), 6 Pieces for Large Orchestra (1928). An article regarding Webern

and his music may be found in the textbook

328. Sergei [Vasilievich] Rachmaninov (1873-1943), Symphonic Dances, op, 45 (1940)

329. John Milton Cage, Jr. (1912-1992), Atlas Eclipticalis (1961): the score for this full

orchestral work was created by overlaying a large sheet of staff paper with a star atlas

from the work of Czech astronomer Antonín Bečvář. Various views of the night sky

across the equator are rendered in sound by full orchestra in untimed performances.

152 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

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Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

330. Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990), Halil, nocturne for Solo Flute, Piccolo, Alto Flute, Percussion,

Harp and Strings (1981). The criticially acclaimed work by Bernstein speaks of the

destruction of the 1973 Yom Kippur War.

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Atonality

Post-Romanticism

Neoclassicism

Inspressionism

Symbolism.

Aleatoricism

Environmental Music

Extended Technique

Prepared Piano

Polytonality

Klangfarbenmelodie

Pointillism

153 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MODERNITY AND NEW MUSIC

(1890 CE-PRESENT)

PART 7:

CONTEMPORARY VOICE FOR MODERN SONG

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Modernity and New Music

331. Gustav Mahler, Lieder aus “Das Knaben Wunderhorn” [Songs from “The Youth’s Magic Horn”

(cornucopia)] (1899): a collection (not a cycle) of twelve settings for voice and orchestra

of poems from the poetic collection by the same name of German folk poems edited by

Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano (1805-1808).

(1) Der Schildwache Nachtlied [The Sentinel's Nightsong]

(5) Das irdische Leben [The Earthly Life]

(6) Des Antonius von Padua Fischpredigt [St. Anthony of Padua's Sermon to the Fish]

332. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), Dreimal sieben Gedichte aus Albert Girauds 'Pierrot lunaire',

[Three Times Seven Poems from Albert Giraud's 'Pierrot lunaire'], op. 21 (1912): Melodrama in

21 movements on selected poems from Otto Erich Hartleben's German translation of

Albert Giraud's cycle of French poems of the same name for flute, clarinet, violin, cello,

piano, and singer. The poems are half narrated, half sung using Sprechtstimme.

(1) Mondestrunken (Moon-drunk)

Den Wein, den man mit Augen trinkt,

Gießt Nachts der Mond in Wogen nieder,

Und eine Springflut überschwemmt

Den stillen Horizont.

Gelüste schauerlich und süß,

Durchschwimmen ohne Zahl die Fluten!

Den Wein, den man mit Augen trinkt,

The wine we drink through the eyes

The moon pours down at night in waves,

And a flood tide overflows

The silent horizon.

Longings beyond number, gruesome sweet

frissons, Swim through the flood.

The wine we drink through the eyes

154 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Gießt Nachts der Mond in Wogen nieder.

Der Dichter, den die Andacht treibt,

Berauscht sich an dem heilgen Tranke,

Gen Himmel wendet er verzückt

Das Haupt und taumelnd saugt und schlürft er

Den Wein, den man mit Augen trinkt.

(7) Der kranke Mond (The Sick Moon)

Du nächtig todeskranker Mond

Dort auf des Himmels schwarzem Pfühl,

Dein Blick, so fiebernd übergroß,

Bannt mich wie fremde Melodie.

An unstillbarem Liebesleid

Stirbst du, an Sehnsucht, tief erstickt,

Du nächtig todeskranker Mond

Dort auf des Himmels schwarzem Pfühl.

Den Liebsten, der im Sinnenrausch

Gedankenlos zur Liebsten schleicht,

Belustigt deiner Strahlen Spiel -

Dein bleiches, qualgebornes Blut,

Du nächtig todeskranker Mond.

(19) Der Mondfleck (The Moonfleck)

Einen weißen Fleck des hellen Mondes

Auf dem Rücken seines schwarzen Rockes,

So spaziert Pierrot im lauen Abend,

Aufzusuchen Glück und Abenteuer.

Plötzlich stört ihn was an seinem Anzug,

Er beschaut sich rings und findet richtig -

Einen weißen Fleck des hellen Mondes

Auf dem Rücken seines schwarzen Rockes.

Warte! denkt er: das ist so ein Gipsleck!

Wischt und wischt, doch - bringt ihn nicht herunter!

Und so geht er, giftgeschwollen, weiter,

Reibt und reibt bis an den frühen Morgen -

Einen weißen Fleck des hellen Mondes.

Modernity and New Music

The moon pours down at night in waves.

The poet, slave to devotion,

Drunk on the sacred liquor,

Enraptured, turns his face to Heaven

And staggering sucks and slurps

The wine we drink through the eyes.

You dark moon, deathly ill,

Laid over heaven's sable pillow,

Your fever-swollen gaze

Enchants me like alien melody.

You die of insatiable pangs of love,

Suffocated in longing,

You dark moon, deathly ill,

Laid over heaven's sable pillow.

The hotblooded lover

Slinking heedless to the tryst

You hearten with your play of light,

Your pale blood wrung from torment,

You dark moon, deathly ill.

A white fleck of bright moon

On the back of his black coat,

Pierrot sets off one balmy evening,

To seek his fortune.

Suddenly something's awry in his toilette;

He casts about until he finds it-

A white fleck of bright moon

On the back of his black coat.

Drat! he thinks: a fleck of plaster!

Wipes and wipes, but-can't get it off!

So on he goes, his pleasure poisoned,

Till break of day, rubbing and rbbing

A white fleck of bright moon.

http://www.recmusic.org/lieder/get_text.html?TextId=19386 , accessed 2 August 2010

155 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


333. Bessie Smith (1894-1937), St. Louis Blues (1925)

Modernity and New Music

334. Samuel Barber (1910-1981), Knoxville: Summer of 1915 (1947): A solo cantata for singer

(usually soprano but may also be tenor) and orchestra setting a portion of two texts by

James Agee: his essay "Knoxville" and the introduction to his Pulitzer Prize-winning

posthumous novel, A Death in the Family.

335. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), A Survivor from Warsaw, op. 46 (1947): A singlemovement

work for narrator, men’s chorus, and orchestra no commemorate the Jewish

victims of the Holocaust

Shema Yisrael Adonai Eloheinu Adonai Echad (Hear, O Israel: the Lord is our God, the Lord is One)

Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when

you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. (Deuteronomy 6:7)

336. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (1906-1975), From Jewish Folk Poetry, opus 79 (1948), a

song cycle for soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor and piano setting poetic texts – but not

melodies – in a collection of Jewish folk songs compiled by I. Dobrushin and A.

Yupoeticditsky, edited by Y. M. Sokolov (Goslitizdat, 1947). Due to Shostakovich’s

recent sensorship by soviet authorities, the premier was delayed until 1955 and was

controversial at that time.

337. Aaron Copland (1900-1990), Old American Songs (1952): Two sets of traditional folk songs

(five songs each) set for baritone and piano, later voice and orchestra

“I Bought Me a Cat”

338. Billie Holiday (1915-1959), The Lady Sings the Blues (1956, Clef MGC 721 / Verve MV

1947): the last of her recorded songs which she also wrote

339. John Lennon (1940-1980), A Hard Day’s Night (1964, for soundtrack of movie A Hard

Day’s Night)

340. Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (b. 1942), Yesterday (1965, Help!)

156 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


Modernity and New Music

341. Jimi Hendrix (1942-1970), Purple Haze (1966/67 by The Jimi Hendrix Project, solo release)

342. Lucius Venable “Lucky” Milinder (1910-1966), Trouble In Mind (1941)

343. The Marcels [Cornelius Harp, Fred Johnson, Gene Bricker, Ron Mundy, and Richard

Knauss], Blue Moon (1961)

344. Aretha Franklin (b. 1942), Respect (1967)

345. George Crumb (b. 1929), Ancient Voices of Children: A Cycle of Songs on Texts by Federico García

Lorca (1970): song cycle for mezzo-soprano who in addition to traditional singing aslos

sings purely phonetic sounds into an amplified piano where the piano’s string

reverberate sympathetically with the singer, boy soprano moving from off- to on-stage,

oboe, mandolin, harp, amplified piano (and toy piano), and percussion (three players)

including prayer stones, Japanese temple bells, and a musical saw, All the performers

are also asked to speak, whisper, or yell at times.

(1) El Niño Busca Su Voz

346. Bob Marley (1945-1981), Is This Love ? (1978, Kaya, with The Wailers)

347. Joseph Schwantner (b. 1943), Black Anemones (1980): A setting for soprano and piano of

one of two poems by the Colombian-American surrealist poet Agueda Pizarro in English

translation by Barbara Stoler Miller.

348. Eric B [Eric Barrier] (b. 1965)., Rakim Allah [William Michael Griffin, Jr.] (b. 1968), Follow

the Leader (1988)

349. Kurt Cobain (1967-1994), Lithium (1991, Nevermind, Nirvana)

Musical Terms in association with this time period:

Expressionism

Sprechstimme

157 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MODERNITY AND NEW MUSIC

(1890 CE-PRESENT)

PART 8:

ELECTRONIC REVOLUTION

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Modernity and New Music

350. Bülent Arel (1919-1990), Music for a Sacred Service: Postlude (1961): originally for

composed for electronic tones on magnetic tape.

351. Daria Semegen (b. 1946), Electronic Composition No. 1 (1971): considered by the composer

to have been “realized” rather than “composed” despite the title.

352. Alan Lamb (b. 1944), Journey on the Winds of Time (1987/8): here the composer creates a

work of music from prerecorded sound. The recorded sounds are those of wind singing

through abandoned telegraph wires in the Australian Outback. The original recordings

caught the interest of the sound engenieers completing the soundtrack of the original

Star Wars movie.

353. Hildegard Westerkamp (b. 1946): Gently Penetrating Beneath the Sounding Surfaces of Another

Place (1997) for two-channel tape. The work is both composition and documentary

employing recorded sounds from New Delhi in 1992.

158 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


MODERNITY AND NEW MUSIC

(1890 CE-PRESENT)

PART 9:

MUSIC FOR MEDIA

Music heard in class is drawn from the following:

Modernity and New Music

354. George Antheil (1900-1959), Ballet Mécanique (1924): a collaborative film project from the

filmmakers Fernand Léger and Dudley Murphy. The use of the score to accompany the

film was never realized in the composer’s life time. It was not unil 1990 when the two

works, film and score, were experienced together. The ballet of the film was of

mechanical instruments and for this Antheil included parts for player pianos, airplane

propellers, and electric bells. The instrumentation is used to produce a dramatic,

futuristic, percussive score.

355. Harold Arlen (1905-1986), Wizard of Oz (1939)

356. Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990), On the Waterfront (1954)

357. Jerry Bock (b. 1928) and John Williams (b. 1932), Fiddler on the Roof (film 1971)

358. John Williams (b. 1932), Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977)

359. John Williams (b. 1932), Star Wars Double Trilogy (1977-1983, 1999-2005)

360. John Williams (b. 1932), Indiana Jones Tetrology (1981, 1984, 1989, 2008)

361. Alan Menken (b. 1949) and Howard Ashman(1950-1991), Beauty and the Beast (1991)

362. Alan Menken (b. 1949) and Stephen Schwartz (b. 1948), Pocahontas (1995)

363. Hans Zimmer (b. 1957), Gladiator (2000)

364. John Williams (b. 1932), Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone (2001)

365. Howard Shore (b. 1946), Lord of the Rings Trilogy (2001-2003)

366. Hans Zimmer (b. 1957), Pirates of the Caribean: The Curse of the Back Pearl (2003)

367. Hans Zimmer (b. 1957), Last Samurai (2003)

368. Harry Gregson-Williams (b. 1961), Kingdon of Heaven (2005)

369. Patick Doyle (b. 1953), Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire (2005)

370. Hans Zimmer (b. 1957), Angels and Demons (2009)

371. John Williams (b. 1932), War Horse (2012)

159 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


EXAM REVIEW

MUS 115

Exam Review …

Your best course of action regarding review for the exams is to stay on top of the listening

throughout the term and to take fastidious notes while (or immediately after) your listening – I’ll be

specific in a moment. Likewise – and I really can’t say this enough – your review for the exams (and

your success on the exams) will be much greater if you are attending class regularly, and really doing

all it takes to stay engaged with the class discussion – again, I’ll explain why in a moment!

SEE PAGE 8 FOR DETAILS AND CONTENT OF EXAMINATIONS

The majority of the exam will be based on listening. Here is an example of the listening-type

questions you might expect to see on the final exam.

~ The following work is composed of parallel harmonies and “watercolour” timbres.

This work might be said to belong to which arts-related OR literary movement? _________

For extra marks give the composer and/or title of the work: ________________________

~ The following work is in a style popular in Venice in the early Baroque period.

Which most accurately describes the style of this work:

monophony, homophony, or antiphony? (please circle)

Name the family of instruments featured in this work: _____________________________

For extra marks give the composer and/or title of the work: ________________________

What you would expect for each of these questions, 1-3 minutes of music would be played – the

musical example will always be a work we have discussed in class or based on your weekly study at

home – and from that musical excerpt you would answer the questions. Additionally, if you can give

the exact name of the work played or its composer, you would be awarded one bonus point each.

As you can see you will need to have given careful consideration of the many aspects of each piece

heard in class in order to be very successful on these types of questions.

160 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


My recommendation is thus:

Take careful notes on any work discussed in class.

Exam Review …

Listen to any work that is easily found on-line (not all can be found) again at home in the

first few days after class.

Now … I would use index cards, but how you do this is up to you … when you listen to

each work, jot down what you notice about the piece – the kinds of instruments, the type of

motion, the sense of the harmony, the emotion, any special technique you think might be

ging on. After listening, put down a few notes about the composer, the time period, the

style, any related arts movements – this might be the “book learning” and “lecture notes”

from class. Make sure you include a note about where you found the piece (the website) so

you can get back there easily. Keep these notes all together for easy review later on – this is

why I LOVE index cards!

Try to listen to each work a second time later in the week so that you can become even more

familiar with it.

I will do my level-best not to throw any curve balls.

We won’t listen to every work on this list in class, so at the end of each section, I will tell you

that you can disregard certain numbers for the purposes of the final exam (I won’t, however,

repeat this information at later classes, so you have to be there when I give that information

to get it – or buy a friend coffee in exchange for the information).

If I say that you will want to know “this” for the final exam, I mean it and you should take

good notes on that at the time (again, I won’t be repeating that information at a later class,

so again you need to be there to get it).

161 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music


… Wokring Chart of Eras and Epochs

Chart of Major Epochs, Eras, and Periods of Western Music

Approximate

Date Range Known as ⁄ Submovements,

Common Practice Period

Representative Composers, Styles,

Instruments, and Locations

162 MUS 115, Course Handout, Fall 2012

Mary C. J. Byrne, Ph. D.

Camosun College/Victoria Conservatory of Music

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