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The effectiveness of contextual cues in encouraging stair use

The effectiveness of contextual cues in encouraging stair use

The effectiveness of contextual cues in encouraging stair

1 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONTEXTUAL CUES IN ENCOURAGING STAIR USE by ELLINOR K OLANDER A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY School of Sport and Exercise Sciences The University of Birmingham December 2009

  • Page 2 and 3: University of Birmingham Research A
  • Page 4 and 5: 3 Acknowledgements First and foremo
  • Page 6 and 7: Table of contents Page Chapter one:
  • Page 8 and 9: Table of contents continued Page -
  • Page 10 and 11: List of tables Page 1.1 The five mo
  • Page 12 and 13: 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
  • Page 14 and 15: 3 Whilst the human body can cope wi
  • Page 16 and 17: Men Women Barrier (Percentage agree
  • Page 18 and 19: egular stair climbing over a prolon
  • Page 20 and 21: stair height, with higher stairs ex
  • Page 22 and 23: 11 that very few individuals (
  • Page 24 and 25: 13 Determinants of stair, escalator
  • Page 26 and 27: Stair and building height 15 Resear
  • Page 28 and 29: Lift/escalator availability Accordi
  • Page 30 and 31: 19 more time pressure in train stat
  • Page 32 and 33: 21 Boutelle et al., 2001; Eves et a
  • Page 34 and 35: the cue that triggers lift usage. I
  • Page 36 and 37: 25 they can interrupt the environme
  • Page 38 and 39: 27 escalator and lift settings are
  • Page 40 and 41: 29 baseline, five weeks (Webb & Eve
  • Page 42 and 43: Hong Kong, where the climate is hot
  • Page 44 and 45: Author, year (country) Eves et al.,
  • Page 46 and 47: 35 Interestingly, both studies by E
  • Page 48 and 49: Author, year (country) Adams & Whit
  • Page 50 and 51: Author , year (country) Author, yea
  • Page 52 and 53:

    41 (Webb & Eves, 2007b). Based on t

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    mean stair trips per building occup

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    ii) Evaluate the effect and cost of

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    47 vi) General discussion and concl

  • Page 60 and 61:

    Bassett, D. R., Vachon, J. A., Kirk

  • Page 62 and 63:

    51 Coleman, K. J., & Gonzalez, E. C

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    53 Eves, F. F., & Webb, O. J. (2006

  • Page 66 and 67:

    55 Kayser, B. (2005). Environment,

  • Page 68 and 69:

    Lorentzen, C., Ommundsen, Y., Jenum

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    59 Health and Nutrition Examination

  • Page 72 and 73:

    61 Van Houten, R., Nau, P. A., & Me

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    63 CHAPTER 2 PROMOTING STAIR CLIMBI

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    65 Introduction Stair climbing has

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    67 Results A total of 36,239 pedest

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    69 Analyses of the interviews revea

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    cannot be accurately measured. One

  • Page 84 and 85:

    Kerr J, Eves F, Carroll D, 2001b. G

  • Page 86 and 87:

    Purpose 75 Abstract Different inexp

  • Page 88 and 89:

    77 Purpose Most adults spend half t

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    point-of-choice prompts change atti

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    Design 81 Methods A quasi-experimen

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    83 only information obtained. After

  • Page 97 and 98:

    Workplace Wellbeing Point-of-choice

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    88 effects resulted from intentions

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    90 The Workplace Wellbeing Day was

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    92 References 1. Dishman RK, Oldenb

  • Page 105 and 106:

    12. Eves FF, Webb OJ, Mutrie N. A w

  • Page 107 and 108:

    24. Marshall AL, Bauman AE, Patch C

  • Page 109 and 110:

    98 37. Harden A, Peersman G, Oliver

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    100 Abstract Consistent success in

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    102 magnitude of the effects of con

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    104 take the stairs. Although the l

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    106 correlations, r (321)= .932 and

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    108 Results Figure 4.1 depicts the

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    Variable 3>4 elevator availability

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    112 Consistent with this, ascent in

  • Page 125 and 126:

    114 mean of these studies is a mode

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    116 References Adams, M. A., Hovell

  • Page 129 and 130:

    118 Kerr, J., Eves, F. & Carroll, D

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    120 CHAPTER 5 LIKENING THE STAIRS I

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    122 Introduction Physical activity

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    124 Despite the apparent popularity

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    126 17.0% non-Caucasians. From stag

  • Page 139 and 140:

    128 and adding the result to those

  • Page 141 and 142:

    130 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs)=

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    132 Discussion Pre-testing, using s

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    134 almost twice whereas the interv

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    136 rather regulated automatically

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    Conclusion 138 In summary, the curr

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    140 7. Teh KC, Aziz AR. Heart rate,

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    142 20. Webb OJ, Eves FF. Promoting

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    144 CHAPTER 6 GETTING MORE EMPLOYEE

  • Page 157 and 158:

    146 message, beliefs that stair cli

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    148 Previous evaluations of this me

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    150 The correlations between direct

  • Page 163 and 164:

    152 One week after the intervention

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    154 a) Mt. Everest vs. main calorif

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    Follow-up questionnaire 156 Disappo

  • Page 169 and 170:

    158 employees reported being more m

  • Page 171 and 172:

    160 reported data must be interpret

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    162 7. Kennedy RA, Boreham CA, Murp

  • Page 175 and 176:

    164 19. Kerr J, Eves F, Carroll D.

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    166 In summary, the most important

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    168 activity and obesity (for examp

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    170 widely held belief - that point

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    172 encourage individuals to choose

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    174 Importantly, due to pedestrian

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    176 0.82-0.98, p

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    178 The main limitation of this the

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    180 can be calculated at a minute l

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    182 encouraged to choose the stairs

  • Page 195 and 196:

    184 Cheung, C. Y., & Lam, W. H. K.

  • Page 197 and 198:

    186 Kerr, J., Eves, F. F., & Carrol

  • Page 199:

    188 Van Houten, R., Nau, P. A., & M

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