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IN A STATE OF UNCERTAINTY

IN A STATE OF UNCERTAINTY

Colophon IKV Pax Christi

Colophon IKV Pax Christi works for peace, reconciliation and justice in the world. We join with people in conflict areas to work for a peaceful and democratic society. We enlist the aid of people in the Netherlands who, like IKV Pax Christi, want to work for political solutions to crises and armed conflicts. IKV Pax Christi combines knowledge, energy and people to attain one single objective: there must be peace! Address: Postal Address: Godebaldkwartier 74 PO Box 19318 3511 DZ Utrecht 3501 DH Utrecht The Netherlands The Netherlands ISBN: 978-90-70443-28-3 January 2013 If you have questions, remarks or comments on this report you can send them to info@ikvpaxchristi.nl. See also www.ikvpaxchristi.nl The digital version of this report is available on: www.ikvpaxchristi.nl/media/files/in-a-state-of-uncertainty.pdf Author: Wim Zwijnenburg Contributors: Mohamed Ghalaieny (Toxic Remnants of War Project) and Doug Weir (International Coalition to Ban Uranium Weapons). Editor: Doug Weir. Cover: IRAQ, Baghdad : An Iraqi boy swings on the gun of a destroyed Iraqi tank in Dura on the southern outskirts of Baghdad, as his friend looks on 24 June 2003. The tanks were destroyed by US forces during their invasion of Iraq which began in March. AFP PHOTO/Ramzi Haidar. I would like to thank the following people for their feedback and help: Rajaa Shakarchi, Edouard Beau, Wilbert van der Zeijden, Kadhim Al-Muqdadi, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Pat Sanchez, Thirsa de Vries, Hanaa Edwar. This report was financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2 ikv pax christi In a state of uncertainty

Index Executive summary 4 Recommendations 5 1. Background 7 Depleted uranium: a short introduction 8 2. Use of depleted uranium in Iraq 13 Operation Iraqi Freedom 2003 18 Use of DU in Basrah Province 18 Other areas where DU is known or suspected to be used 20 Nasiriyah 20 Al Samawah 21 Najaf 22 The road to Baghdad 23 Inside Baghdad 24 Fallujah 25 Conclusion 25 3. The aftermath: clearance and decontamination efforts 26 Scrap metal 30 Procedures 35 Awareness raising 37 Other toxic remnants of war 38 Contaminants detected in the Iraqi environment and their sources 40 Contamination and exposure in urban areas from military activities 40 4. Reported health problems 43 Cancers 45 Birth defects 47 Other voices of concern 47 Psycho-social impact 49 5. Conclusion 51 Key findings 63 3 ikv pax christi In a state of uncertainty

IN A STATE OF UNCERTAINTY
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