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Gkuthaarn, Kukatj and Kurtijar Peoples - National Native Title Tribunal

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Research Report Bibliography<br />

5/2006<br />

<strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong><br />

<strong>Peoples</strong><br />

May 2006<br />

Research Unit<br />

Queensl<strong>and</strong>


Note: This bibliographic series is produced for general library viewing from<br />

reports prepared by the <strong>Tribunal</strong> for parties to native title mediations. The<br />

bibliographies are also reproduced on the <strong>Tribunal</strong>’s website:<br />

www.nntt.gov.au<br />

© Commonwealth of Australia 2006<br />

This work is copyright. It may be reproduced in whole or in part for study or<br />

training purposes if an acknowledgment of the source is included. Such use<br />

must not be for the purposes of sale or commercial exploitation.<br />

Subject to the Copyright Act, reproduction, storage in a retrieval system or<br />

transmission in any form by any means of any part of the work other than for<br />

the purposes above is not permitted without written permission.<br />

Information about this report <strong>and</strong> requests <strong>and</strong> inquiries concerning<br />

reproduction should be addressed to, Manager, Research Unit, <strong>National</strong><br />

<strong>Native</strong> <strong>Title</strong> <strong>Tribunal</strong>, GPO Box 9973, Perth WA 6484.<br />

Editor of the Research Report Series: Research Unit<br />

Assistance is also acknowledged from NNTT Library Services, AIATSIS<br />

Library <strong>and</strong> the Research Unit’s Production Team.<br />

Telephone: (08) 9268 7272<br />

Facsimile: (08) 9268 7299<br />

E-mail: reports@nntt.gov.au<br />

Web site: www.nntt.gov.au<br />

ISSN: 1448-983X<br />

TITLE: Research Report Bibliographies


Bibliography <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong><br />

Introduction<br />

The <strong>Tribunal</strong>’s Research Unit prepares bibliographies as a ready<br />

reference for anyone wanting to locate readily available, published<br />

material about Indigenous Australian people within a particular<br />

region or locality. The bibliographies are produced for general library<br />

use from reports prepared by the <strong>Tribunal</strong> for parties to native title<br />

mediations. The bibliographies are not exhaustive reference lists<br />

about any particular Indigenous group, nor is the published material<br />

necessarily an accurate or insightful report of Indigenous society. The<br />

Research Unit may update bibliographies from time to time, usually<br />

because a new research report has been reproduced for parties to<br />

mediation.<br />

It should be noted that the contents <strong>and</strong> production of these reports<br />

are governed by time <strong>and</strong> resource constraints. They are often<br />

prepared in four to eight weeks by a single research officer with some<br />

input from a research assistant <strong>and</strong> <strong>Tribunal</strong> librarian. Generally<br />

most of the references sought for these reports are available only from<br />

the AIATSIS library, which in turn has limited resources available to<br />

supply material. Therefore care is taken to request only that material<br />

which appears relevant to the scope of a particular report.<br />

Disclaimer: The bibliographies are a list of materials that have been<br />

used by the Research Unit of the <strong>Tribunal</strong> to provide background<br />

information for native title mediations. The <strong>Tribunal</strong> forms no view<br />

on the accuracy, completeness, or relevance of the reference material<br />

cited in these bibliographies. Most of this material is held at libraries<br />

<strong>and</strong> is available to the public. The <strong>Tribunal</strong> library may be able to<br />

assist in locating items.<br />

- 1 -


Bibliography <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong><br />

<strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong> Report<br />

This report was prepared by staff of the Research Unit of the <strong>National</strong><br />

<strong>Native</strong> <strong>Title</strong> <strong>Tribunal</strong>, in order to provide research assistance to the<br />

Carpentaria L<strong>and</strong> Council, with the specific purpose of making<br />

available basic research materials for a prospective native title claim<br />

by the coastal <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> people of the southwestern<br />

Carpentaria region. There are many different language<br />

names <strong>and</strong> tribal names identified by anthropologists, linguists,<br />

missionaries, other observers <strong>and</strong> Indigenous people for the groups in<br />

the area under study. However, for organisational purposes<br />

particular attention has been paid to Tindale's 1974 variations for<br />

these groups: Kalibamu, Marrago, <strong>Kukatj</strong>a, Kareldi <strong>and</strong> Kunggara<br />

(<strong>and</strong>/or alternatives names).<br />

To date, the groups have made no native title claims in the region.<br />

However, based on the areas most commonly identified by the<br />

literature in this report, the country of interest lies within a general<br />

area defined broadly by the following points:<br />

• on the western border by a line running from the mouth of the<br />

Leichhardt River south to Augustus Downs Station;<br />

• on the eastern border by a line running from the Staaten River<br />

east to Dorunda Station;<br />

• on the southern border by a line running through Vanrook <strong>and</strong><br />

Glencoe Stations to Maggieville Station south to Normanton,<br />

then south to the Norman River south of Milgarra Station, <strong>and</strong><br />

further south to Donors Hill Station <strong>and</strong> finally west to<br />

Augustus Downs Station; <strong>and</strong><br />

• On the north by the coastline of the Gulf of Carpentaria.<br />

Towns within the area include Bourketown, Normanton <strong>and</strong><br />

Karumba. Major rivers include the Leichhardt, Norman, Cloncurry,<br />

Flinders, Smithburne, Gilbert <strong>and</strong> Staaten, <strong>and</strong> important creeks<br />

mentioned in the literature include the Spear, Vanrook, Forest <strong>and</strong><br />

Belmore.<br />

- 2 -


Bibliography <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong><br />

This report is based on publicly <strong>and</strong> readily available information that<br />

describes the location of the Kuthant/<strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong>a <strong>and</strong> Kurtjar<br />

people (including common alternative names) <strong>and</strong> the various<br />

locations that form part of their territory, as indicated by the sources.<br />

Research Method<br />

This report contains summaries of information that is publicly<br />

available <strong>and</strong> relevant to the traditional location of groups within the<br />

region (the study area). It should be noted that the contents <strong>and</strong><br />

production of these reports are governed by time <strong>and</strong> resource<br />

constraints. They are usually prepared in six weeks by a single<br />

research officer with some input from a research assistant <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Tribunal</strong> librarian. Many of the references sought for these reports<br />

are available only from the AIATSIS library which has limited<br />

resources available to supply material. Therefore care is taken to<br />

request only that material which appears relevant to the scope of a<br />

particular report.<br />

A search was made of the AIATSIS library catalogue, MURA, for<br />

references which applied to the geographical area. The material<br />

generated by the AIATSIS search was supplemented by relevant<br />

references found in Tindale's (1974) Aboriginal Tribes of Australia. The<br />

following general references were also used:<br />

• Capell, 1963, Linguistic Survey of Australia;<br />

• Davidson, 1938a, A Preliminary Register of Australian Tribes <strong>and</strong><br />

Hordes;<br />

• Davis, 1993, Australia's Extant <strong>and</strong> Imputed Traditional Aboriginal<br />

Territories;<br />

• Horton, 1994, The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia;<br />

• Oates <strong>and</strong> Oates, 1970, A Revised Linguistic Survey of Australia; <strong>and</strong><br />

• Tindale, 1940, 'Distribution of Australian Aboriginal tribes: a field<br />

survey';<br />

• Greenway, 1963, Bibliography of the Australian Aborigines <strong>and</strong> the<br />

natives of Torres Strait to 1959.<br />

- 3 -


Bibliography <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong><br />

The research material used for this report is based largely on a search<br />

of the AIATSIS on-line catalogue. As well as using the terms '<strong>Kukatj</strong>a<br />

(G28)', 'Kuthant/<strong>Gkuthaarn</strong> (G31)' <strong>and</strong> 'Kurtjar (G33)' in the language<br />

field, the catalogue was searched using the following 1:250 000 survey<br />

map sheet numbers corresponding to the study area: Galbraith<br />

(SE54-3), Burketown (SE54-6), Normanton (SE54-7), <strong>and</strong> Donors Hill<br />

(SE54-10). Additionally, the alternative Tindale terms 'Kalibamu',<br />

Marrago', <strong>Kukatj</strong>a', 'Kareldi', <strong>and</strong> 'Kunggara' were searched. A search<br />

was also made according to the names of prominent towns, rivers <strong>and</strong><br />

mountain ranges within the study area. Each record was examined to<br />

determine its likely relevance or usefulness. Materials with access or<br />

reproduction restrictions were omitted, as were foreign language<br />

materials, obvious duplications, apparent cataloguing errors,<br />

microforms, audio material <strong>and</strong> material that appeared to deal with<br />

technical aspects of language or education curricula. Materials<br />

relating to places or areas clearly outside of the study region were<br />

also omitted.<br />

The result of these searches is set out below<br />

Map Sheet No. Result After filtering<br />

Galbraith SE54-3 61 10<br />

Burketown SE54-6 138 24<br />

Normanton SE54-7 99 63<br />

Donors Hill SE54-<br />

10<br />

68 32<br />

Total 366 129<br />

The searches of prominent l<strong>and</strong>marks, rivers <strong>and</strong> towns ultimately<br />

identified the same works as the map sheet search. It is also noted<br />

that not all potentially useful items listed in the MURA search were<br />

available for examination at the time of the research. Some works<br />

found are also duplicated across a number of map-sheet areas.<br />

- 4 -


Bibliography <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong><br />

The <strong>Tribunal</strong>'s library holdings were also examined for material<br />

relevant to language/tribal group in the region. The <strong>Tribunal</strong>'s<br />

Research Reports on native title applications in the region were also<br />

examined for material relevant to the present report.<br />

- 5 -


Bibliography <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong><br />

Bibliography<br />

Bannister, Dennis D. 1977, 'Australian Aboriginal Vocabularies<br />

Collected by Archibald Meston 1870-1904' in Papers on the<br />

Aboriginal Languages of Queensl<strong>and</strong>, AIATSIS document<br />

MS2171<br />

Black, P. 1975a, 'Language research in Normanton', Normanton<br />

Chronicle, November/December, Issue no.7, pages 1-2<br />

Black, Paul 1975b, '<strong>Kukatj</strong>: final report [to A.I.A.S.]', AIATSIS<br />

document MS686<br />

Black, P. 1975-1977, [Reports to A.I.A.S. on Normanton research, 1974-<br />

7]' including (1, a-c) Draft fieldwork reports <strong>and</strong> preliminary<br />

notes on Kurtjar kinship <strong>and</strong> marriage, January 1975; (2) Midyear<br />

report on fieldwork in the Normanton area, 1974-5, March<br />

1975; (3) Kurtjar <strong>and</strong> Kuthant interim report, May 1975; (4)<br />

Final report on research fellowships of 1974-7, September 1977,<br />

AIATSIS document PMS1524<br />

Black, P. 1977, 'Section terms <strong>and</strong> totemism in the Normanton area',<br />

AIATSIS document MS462<br />

Black, P. 1978, 'The Kurtjar in recent times', Australian Institute of<br />

Aboriginal Studies, Newsletter, n.s.9, pages 54-57.<br />

Black, Paul 1974, 'Normanton research fieldbooks, Normanton,<br />

Queensl<strong>and</strong>', 18 volumes, AIATSIS document MS465<br />

Black, P. <strong>and</strong> R. Gilbert March 1986, (draft) 'Kurtjar dictionary',<br />

reproduced at the School of Australian Linguistics, Darwin<br />

Institute of Technology, Darwin<br />

Breen, G. 1972, 'Report on field trip to western Queensl<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong><br />

adjacent areas, April-July 1972', AIATSIS document MS159(8)<br />

Breen, G. 1992, 'Some problems of <strong>Kukatj</strong> phononology', AIATSIS<br />

document PMS3021.<br />

- 6 -


Bibliography <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong><br />

Breen, G. 1981, The Mayi languages of the Queensl<strong>and</strong> Gulf country,<br />

Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.<br />

Breen, G. 1992, 'Some problems of <strong>Kukatj</strong> phononology', Australian<br />

Journal of Linguistics, vol.12, pages 1-43.<br />

Bulleta (pseud.) 1897, 'Aborigines of the Gulf', Queensl<strong>and</strong>er, January<br />

23, 1897, vol.51, p. 183.<br />

Bynoe, C. 1992, Memories of Normanton: An Aboriginal perspective,<br />

Normanton State School, Normanton.<br />

Capell, A. 1963, Linguistic Survey of Australia, Australian Institute of<br />

Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.<br />

Curr, E. M. 1887, The Australian Race: its origin, languages, customs, place<br />

of l<strong>and</strong>ing in Australia <strong>and</strong> the routes by which it spread itself over<br />

that continent, in four volumes, Government Printer, Melbourne.<br />

Davidson, D.S. 1938a, A Preliminary Register of Australian Tribes <strong>and</strong><br />

Hordes, The American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.<br />

Davidson, D.S. 1938b, 'An Ethnic Map of Australia', Proceedings of the<br />

American Philosophical Society, vol. 79, no. 4.<br />

Donner, F. 1900, 'Aboriginal traditions <strong>and</strong> rock carvings', Science of<br />

Man, vol.3 (7), pages 115-116.<br />

Keen, S. 1970. '[Transcript of tapes A1150-A1156]', AIATSIS document<br />

MS247<br />

Mathews, R. H. 1899, 'Divisions of some Aboriginal tribes,<br />

Queensl<strong>and</strong>', Votes <strong>and</strong> Proceedings of the Royal Society of New<br />

South Wales, vol. 33, pp.108-114.<br />

Mathews, R.H., 1900a, 'The Origin, Organization <strong>and</strong> Ceremonies of<br />

the Australian Aborigines', American Philosophical Society, Vol.<br />

39, No. 164, pp. 556-578.<br />

- 7 -


Bibliography <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong><br />

Mathews, R.H. 1900b, 'Some Tribes of Cape York Peninsular' in Votes<br />

<strong>and</strong> Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, vol. 34,<br />

131-135.<br />

Memmott, P. & G. Channells 2004, Living on saltwater country:<br />

Southern Gulf of Carpentaria sea country management, needs <strong>and</strong><br />

issues, <strong>National</strong> Oceans Office, Canberra.<br />

Oates, W.J. <strong>and</strong> L. Oates 1970, A Revised Linguistic Survey of Australia,<br />

Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.<br />

Oates, L. 1975, 1973 Supplement to 'A Revised Linguistic Survey of<br />

Australia', Armidale Christian Book Centre, Armidale.<br />

O'Grady, G.N., Wurm, S.A. <strong>and</strong> K. L. Hale 1966, Aboriginal Languages<br />

of Australia (map resource). Department of Linguistics,<br />

University of Victoria, British Columbia, Victoria.<br />

O’Grady, G.N. Voeglin, C. F. & Voeglin, F. M. 1966, 'Languages of the<br />

World; Indo-Pacific fascicle six', Anthropological Linguistics,<br />

8(2):1-97, University of Indiana.<br />

Memmott, P. <strong>and</strong> Peter Kelleher 1995, Social impact study of the<br />

proposed Century Project on the Aboriginal people of Normanton <strong>and</strong><br />

surrounds, a study carried out for the Bynoe Community<br />

Advancement Co-operative Society Ltd., unpublished.<br />

Memmott, P. 2004, Living on saltwater country: Southern Gulf of<br />

Carpentaria sea country management, needs <strong>and</strong> issues, Consultation<br />

Report, <strong>National</strong> Oceans Office, Canberra.<br />

Palmer, Edward 1883, 'Notes on some Australian tribes' in Journal of<br />

Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain, vol.VIII, pp. 276-<br />

347.<br />

Parry-Okeden, W. E. 1897, Report on the North Queensl<strong>and</strong> Aborigines<br />

<strong>and</strong> the <strong>Native</strong> Police, with appendices, Government Printer,<br />

Brisbane.<br />

- 8 -


Bibliography <strong>Gkuthaarn</strong>, <strong>Kukatj</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Kurtijar</strong> <strong>Peoples</strong><br />

Roth, W. E. 1901-1910 (1984 facsimile edition), The Queensl<strong>and</strong><br />

Aborigines, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park.<br />

Sharp, R.L. 1939, 'Tribes <strong>and</strong> totemism in north-east Australia' in<br />

Oceania, vol.9, pp.254-275, 439-461.<br />

Sommer B.A. 1972a, 'Report on Field Trip to Cape York Peninsula',<br />

AIATSIS document PMS 1623.<br />

Sutton, P. 1970, 'Preliminary report of field survey of north-east<br />

Queensl<strong>and</strong> 1970', AIATSIS document PMS1780.<br />

Tindale, N. B. 1940, 'Distribution of Australian Aboriginal Tribes: A<br />

Field Survey', Royal Society of South Australia, 64(1).<br />

Tindale, N. B. 1974, Aboriginal Tribes of Australia: Their Terrain,<br />

Environmental Controls, Distribution, Limits, <strong>and</strong> Proper Names,<br />

University of California Press, Berkeley.<br />

Turnbull, W. [alias W.T.]1896, 'Lower Leichhardt River <strong>and</strong> coast<br />

dialect of Mikadoon tribe' <strong>and</strong> 'On the sea coast <strong>and</strong> the estuary<br />

of Leichhardt Minkin tribe' [wordlists], Australian<br />

Anthropological Journal, no.2, pages 22-23.<br />

Turnbull, W. 1903, [Letter to Editor], Science of Man, vol.6 (1), pp.9-11.<br />

Turnbull, W. 1911, [Letters to A. Carroll: Investigations in Minikin<br />

<strong>and</strong> Mikadoon tribes], Science of Man, vol.13, no.2, pp.39-41;<br />

no.3, pp.59-61; no.4, pp.79-80.<br />

Wurm S. A., <strong>and</strong> Hattori, S. 1981, Language atlas of the Pacific area,<br />

Australian Academy of the Humanities in collaboration with<br />

the Japan Academy, Canberra.<br />

- 9 -


For more information about native title<br />

<strong>and</strong> services of the <strong>Tribunal</strong>, please contact<br />

the <strong>National</strong> <strong>Native</strong> <strong>Title</strong> <strong>Tribunal</strong><br />

GPO Box 9973 in your capital city on<br />

Freecall 1800 640 501. A wide variety of<br />

information is also available online at<br />

www.nntt.gov.au<br />

The <strong>National</strong> <strong>Native</strong> <strong>Title</strong> <strong>Tribunal</strong> has<br />

offices in Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin,<br />

Melbourne, Perth <strong>and</strong> Sydney.

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