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<strong>GABRIEL</strong> <strong>SLAUGHTER</strong>, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong><br />

G OVERNOR <strong>OF</strong> <strong>KENTUCKY</strong>, 1816-1820<br />


Washington, D.C.<br />

A paper given before The Filson Club, April 4, 1966<br />

I<br />

Gabriel Slaughter, Lieutenant Governor and Acting Governor of the<br />

Commonwealth of Kentucky from 1816 until 1820, was born in Culpeper<br />

County, Virginia, on December 12, <strong>1767</strong>. He was the son of<br />

Robert and Susannah (Harrison) Slaughter.<br />

There were three generations of Robert Slaughters among Gabriel<br />

Slaughter's direct ancestors. The first of these arrived in Virginia in<br />

1686 as an indentured servant boy and subsequendy, having made his<br />

way in the new world, married Frances, daughter of Lt. Col. Cadwallader<br />

Jones of Rappahannock and Stafford counties, Virginia, who was<br />

Proprietary Governor of the Bahama Islands from 1689 to 1694. The<br />

second Robert Slaughter was a justice of Spotsylvania, Orange, and<br />

Culpeper counties, vestryman of Saint Mark's Parish, colonel of militia<br />

during the French and Indian War, and for a short time in 1742<br />

member of the House of Burgesses from Orange County. His wife,<br />

Mary Smith, was daughter of Major Augustine Smith, justice, surveyor,<br />

militia officer and member of the House of Burgesses, and granddaughter<br />

of Colonel Lawrence Smith of Gloucester County, member of<br />

the House of Burgesses and commander of loyal forces during Bacon's<br />

Rebellion. The third Robert Slaughter, Gabriel's father, was a planter<br />

in Fairfax and Culpeper counties, Virginia, and later in Mercer County,<br />

Kentucky, who never held public or military ofnces. His wife, Susannah<br />

Harrison, was descended from three generations of William Harrisons<br />

who had been planters and military officers of Stafford County, Virginia,<br />

and through her mother was a great-granddaughter of Captain<br />

Simon Miller, one of the rebel commanders during Bacon's Rebellion)<br />

Robert Slaughter, the Governor's father, was in Kentucky as early as<br />

1776.2 His brother, Colonel Thomas Slaughter, was Chairman of the<br />

House of Delegates of the Transylvania Colony the preceding year, and<br />

his brother, Lt. Col. George Slaughter, was commander of the troops at<br />

Louisville in 1780 and 1781. Robert Slaughter did not settle permanently<br />

in Kentucky until 1789, however, when he moved to Mercer<br />

County.2 He continued to reside there until his death in 1804.4<br />


1966] Gabriel Slaughter, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong> 339<br />

Of the early years and education of Gabriel Slaughter nothing is<br />

known. At about the age of nineteen he married his cousin Sarah<br />

Slaughter, daughter of Thomas and Mary (Buckner) Slaughter of<br />

Caroline County, Virginia. 5 Their elder child, Mary Buckner Slaughter,<br />

was born December 3, 1787, 0 and the younger, Susan Harrison Slaughter,<br />

was born about 1790-91. 7<br />

Soon after his father's departure for Mercer County, Kentucky,<br />

Gabriel also settled there. He sold his land in Culpeper County on<br />

September 8, 1791,s and was in Mercer County by 1792. In that year<br />

a school was conducted in the neighborhood by a Mr. Work. Robert<br />

B. McAfee, who boarded with the Slaughter family while attending the<br />

school, afterward stated that during this period Governor Slaughter<br />

treated him "... with the utmost kindness as much so as if I had been<br />

his own child... ,,o<br />

Almost immediately Slaughter began to take part in public affairs.<br />

On March 1, 1795, Governor Isaac Shelby appointed him a justice of<br />

the peace for Mercer County to continue in office until the end of the<br />

next session of the Assembly and in December, when it met, he was<br />

nominated as a justice by the Governor. °<br />

This same year he was tax commissioner for one district of Mercer<br />

County and himself was taxed for 238½ acres of first rate land, one<br />

white male over the age of twenty-one, six slaves, three of whom were<br />

over the age of sixteen, six horses, and fourteen head of cattle. 11<br />

His farm was located on the waters of Shawnee Run, north of Harrodsburg,<br />

and comprised one-half of 476V2 acres which he and his<br />

brother Augustine Smith Slaughter had probably purchased when they<br />

first arrived in Mercer County. 12 This home was described in later years<br />

by Mrs. Maria Thompson Daviess as a " . . . modest frame house embosomed<br />

in orchards and locust groves in the center of a farm lying<br />

on the east of the Lexington and Harrodsburg turnpike, midway between<br />

Harrodsburg and Pleasant Hill. '' 8 The house was torn down<br />

after his death and another more pretentious one was erected in its<br />

place by Major John Handy who later became owner of the property. 1<br />

Some time after coming to Kentucky, Sarah (Slaughter) Slaughter<br />

died, leaving two daughters. Gabriel Slaughter returned to Virginia<br />

and in 1797 in Caroline County married Sarah Hord, daughter of John<br />

and Annie (Peyton) Hord of that county. TM With his new bride he<br />

returned to Mercer County.<br />

Three children were born to Gabriel Slaughter's second wife, John<br />

Hord Slaughter (on September 9, 17991°), Frances Ann Hord<br />

Slaughter, 17 and Felix Grundy Slaughter. 18<br />

In 1797 Gabriel Slaughter was elected to the Legislature as one of<br />

the representatives from Mercer County. Early in the session he was

340 The Filson Club History Quarterly [Vol. 40<br />

named as one of the five members of the Committee of Enrollments and<br />

although his name appeared last in the listing in the ]ournal, he probably<br />

acted as its chairman since he made the reports of the Committee. TM<br />

During this session he supported a bill to reduce the price of ungranted<br />

land south of the Green River, a measure that failed. In connection<br />

with the agitation for a new Constitutional Convention and elimination<br />

of a written ballot, a bill was presented to require that in all elections<br />

the voter should hand his ballot to the sheriff who would publicly read<br />

the vote cast unless it was requested that it not be read. He voted<br />

against this measure but did support an amendment requiring that when<br />

an election ran for more than one day the ballots must be counted and<br />

the totals announced at the end of each day.s°<br />

In 1798 he either did not stand for re-election or was an unsuccessful<br />

candidate. The Legislature this year, however, incorporated Harrodsburg<br />

Academy and named Gabriel Slaughter as one of the trustees. *<br />

He was again elected to the House of Representatives in 1799. During<br />

this session he was a member of the joint committee to report on the<br />

state of the Auditor's, Treasurer's, and Register's offices; was a member<br />

of the Committee on Privileges and Elections; and was a member of the<br />

Committee of Enrollments (on which he had served two years earlier).<br />

He was named to a number of committees appointed to prepare bills for<br />

the consideration of the House and on November 25, 1799, when the<br />

House sat as a committee of the whole, Slaughter was in the chair.22<br />

He was re-elected to the House of Representatives in 1800.2s In<br />

1801 he was returned as the member of the Kentucky Senate from<br />

Mercer County and after serving out the four-year-term continued as a<br />

member of that body until 1808, and as Lieutenant Governor and its<br />

Speaker presided over the Senate until 1812.2'<br />

On December 19, 1801, the Kentucky River Company was chartered<br />

to improve navigation of rivers of the state and to clear out the obsrtuctions<br />

in the Kentucky River from its mouth to the mouth of is<br />

south fork. Ten thousand dollars in capital stock was provided, with<br />

shares at fifty dollars each. For Mercer County the commissioners were<br />

Gabriel Slaughter, James Birney, and James Moore, who were assigned<br />

to sell twenty-two shares.2<br />

During the session of 1803 he opposed a bill to change the method<br />

of choosing the electors to elect the President and Vice-President of<br />

the United States. When it was defeated by the close vote of twelve<br />

to eleven, he brought in another bill to take its place but it was too late<br />

in the .session for action to be taken on his proposal.2e He supported<br />

a resolution calling the poll tax unequal and inconsistent with a republican<br />

government, but found himself with the minority on this<br />

question.27 His last action in the session of 1803-04 was to report that

1966] Gabriel Slaughter, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong> 341<br />

he and David Flournoy had waited on the Governor and informed him<br />

that the Senate was about to adjourn sine die.2s<br />

On December 24, 1803, Gabriel Slaughter was commissioned Lieutenant<br />

Colonel of the Fifth Regiment, Eighth Brigade, Kentucky Militia,<br />

which comprised men from Mercer County.29<br />

At the beginning of the legislative session of 1804 he was one of the<br />

committee named by the Senate to prepare an address to the Governor<br />

in reply to his speech on the state of the Commonwealth. On November<br />

10, 1804, it was he who informed the Senate of the death of the<br />

Lieutenant Governor. In the ensuing election of a Speaker pro tempore<br />

of the Senate, he was one of the nominees for that position. Thomas<br />

Posey and Green Clay were more popular candidates, however, and<br />

Posey was elected on the second ballot,s°<br />

When in 1805 there was an election by the Senate to fill out the<br />

unexpired term in the United States Senate, Slaughter supported General<br />

John Adair, who was to succeed him as governor of the state, in<br />

opposition to John Pope, who was later to be his close associate,sl<br />

The next year, 1806, following General Adair's resignation, Henry<br />

Clay and George M. Bibb were nominees to fill the unexpired term.<br />

Clay won by 68 votes to 10. Slaughter was one of his supporters,m<br />

During the session of 1807-08, he was one of the five members of<br />

the Committee of Propositions and Grievances and was apparently its<br />

chairman since he usually made its reports. On the first day of the<br />

session he moved the appointment of a joint committee to wait on the<br />

Governor to inform him the General Assembly was ready to receive his<br />

message in the House chamber and, with Green Clay and Philip Buckner,<br />

was named to it. Among his stands on issues before the Senate<br />

was his support of an Act to suspend the sale of lands for debts due the<br />

state and his opposition to one designed to prevent the future migration<br />

of mulattoes and free Negroes into Kentucky.83<br />

II<br />

In 1808 Gabriel Slaughter stood for election to the office of Lieutenant<br />

Governor. He received a majority of the votes cast for the four<br />

candidates in the race and more than three times as many as his nearest<br />

opponent.8' Early in that year, prior to his election, he had endorsed<br />

the candidacy of James Madison for President of the United States.<br />

Following the signatures of the Governor, Secretary of State, and speakers<br />

of the House and Senate, his name appeared first among a large<br />

number of prominent Republicans.8s<br />

During the next four years he presided over the Senate and executed<br />

the other limited duties of that office.

342 The Filson Club History Quarterly [Vol. 40<br />

Although his early training had certainly been in the Church of<br />

England, Slaughter had been a member of the Baptist Church for many<br />

years and was a very early member of the congregation at Shawnee Run<br />

in Mercer County. 3 In 1808 he was clerk of the South District Association<br />

of Baptists which met at Shawnee Runa and in 1809 held the<br />

same office when they also met in Mercer County.3s He was a messenger<br />

from his church to the several associations with which it was connected<br />

for more than thirty years and was moderator of the South<br />

District Association for nine years.89<br />

Sarah (Hord) Slaughter probably died before her husband became<br />

Lieutenant Governor. On October 3, 1811, Gabriel Slaughter married<br />

a third time, to Mrs. Elizabeth (Thomson) Rhodes of Scott County,4°<br />

widow of Waller Rhodes and daughter of William and Ann (Rhodes)<br />

Thomson.<br />

Since the Constitution did not permit the re-election of the Governor<br />

and Lieutenant Governor, Gabriel Slaughter retired in 1812. He had<br />

hoped to be nominated as Governor by the Republicans, but Isaac Shelby<br />

was again elected Governor of Kentucky41 and Richard Hickman<br />

succeeded to Slaughter's office.<br />

In 1813 the Kentucky Bible Society was founded at Lexington.<br />

Among the founders and active managers and supporters were many<br />

clergymen and public officials including Gabriel Slaughter. 2<br />

During the two years following his retirement from public office,<br />

Slaughter engaged in farming. But when on October 20, 1814, Govenor<br />

Shelby issued a call for men for the New Orleans campaign he<br />

immediately answered. Three regiments were raised on November 10<br />

under the command of Slaughter, Presley Gray, and William Mitchusson.48<br />

The troops suffered difficulties from the beginning. Their boats had<br />

to be procured privately. They were refused the promised supplies by<br />

the United States Quartermaster and, having expected them, few had<br />

necessary clothing for the campaign. The long-delayed Kentucky<br />

militia finally reached New Orleans on January 4, 1815. In speaking<br />

of the condition of the Kentucky troops on their arrival, General Jackson<br />

said in an official report: "Not one man in ten was well armed, and<br />

only one man in three had any arms at all. ''44 Those they had were<br />

their own, for the government supplies did not arrive until long after<br />

the battle. The citizens of New Orleans contributed enough to arm<br />

Slaughter's regiment of about seven hundred and Major Reuben Harrison's<br />

battalion of Mitchusson's regiment of 305 men. Jackson's total<br />

strength was 6,504 men, all but 884 of them raw militia. Opposed to<br />

them were nearly 18,000 men, nearly all regulars.<br />

In the battle which, although fought after the peace treaty was signed,

1966] Gabriel Slaughter, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong> 343<br />

was to be one of our great victories, Slaughter, Harrison, and Carroll's<br />

Tennesseeans occupied the center and left center of the long American<br />

line and bore the brunt of the British attacks.45 Slaughter and the troops<br />

remained in New Orleans for several months. His tour of service<br />

ended May 10, 1815.4e<br />

III<br />

As the elections of 1816 approached there was a shifting in Kentucky<br />

politics. The Republicans were divided into two wings, pro- and<br />

anti-Clay. The Federalists had never had strength sufficient to elect a<br />

governor but they did control many votes.<br />

In this realignment John Pope was the leader of the anti-Clay forces.<br />

He had made himself unpopular with the dominant part of the Republican<br />

Party in Kentucky by his vote against war in 1812 while a<br />

member of the United States Senate. The next year he had not been<br />

re-elected by the Legislature and since then had been in private law<br />

practice in Lexington. He now sought a means of returning to political<br />

power through a combination of the anti-Clay and anti-war Republicans<br />

and the Federalists.*T<br />

This combination concerned itself primarily with the congressional<br />

races and Pope ran again st Clay in their home district. In the gubernatorial<br />

race the Republicans nominated Major George Madison, a veteran<br />

of the War of 1812. Colonel James Johnson, who announced as the<br />

Federalist opponent, soon retired stating it was impossible for him or<br />

anyone else to run against a man so universally popular and beloved as<br />

Madison. s The candidates for Lieutenant Governor were Gabriel<br />

Slaughter, Richard Hickman, and James Garrard.<br />

When Slaughter informed Pope early in 1816 of his intention to<br />

stand for Lieutenant Governor there seems to have evolved an understanding<br />

between them regarding the powers and opportunities accruing<br />

to that office. 49 Because of many Republicans' aversion to Pope he<br />

made no public display of his preference for Slaughter, although their<br />

friendship was known. Through the coalition, Pope was able to secure<br />

secret Federalist support of the candidacy as well.a9<br />

In favor with all sides, since he was himself a Republican and his<br />

war record was pleasing to that party, Slaughter had little difficulty in<br />

securing the election. The vote was 11,731 for Hickman and 7,723 for<br />

Garrard to Slaughter's 26,688, far more than the others combined. 5<br />

Madison, virtually unopposed, won the governorship.<br />

Hardly were the August elections over, however, when on October<br />

14, 1816, Governor Madison died. On the twenty-first Gabriel

344 The Filson Club History Quarwdy [Vol. 40<br />

Slaughter arrived in Frankfort from Mercer County m assume his duties<br />

as governorJz<br />

The first major action which Slaughter took after his arrival brought<br />

on the most bitter political disturbance the state had seen. Governor<br />

Madison had appointed as his Secretary of State Charles S. Todd.<br />

Realizing that his office was most closely associated with the governorship<br />

and that the holders of the two ought to be in complete sympathy,<br />

Todd wrote Slaughter stating he would offer no obstruction if the<br />

Governor wanted to make a different appointment. The letter was not<br />

one of resignation, however, even stating he wanted it distinctly understood<br />

he had no objection to cooperating with Slanghter. To Todd's<br />

very great surprise, the Governor replied politely accepting his resignation.<br />

a<br />

The reasons for SIaughter's hasty action puzzled many of his contemporaries<br />

and they are not entirely clear in retrospect. It is evident,<br />

however, that Pope in his haste to regain political power urged no delay<br />

with formalities and Slaughter, suddenly thrust into a position of leadership<br />

which he had not anticipated or planned for, sought the council of<br />

his friends. In addition, Charles S. Todd was Isaac Shelby's son-in-law<br />

and it is quite possible that Slaughter had not forgiven his loss of the<br />

gubernatorial nomination to Shelby four years earlier.<br />

The storm of controversy broke in great fury and attacks came from<br />

all sides. Pope was still anathema to the majority of Kentuckians and<br />

anyone connected with him was drawn in as being like him. The<br />

invective of the newspapers was especially bitter. The Frankfort Argus<br />

of Western America said:<br />

It is a proverb, that "misfortune seldom cortes done." The death of the<br />

beloved and lamented Madison -- your succession to the office of Governor,<br />

and your appointment of Mr. lohn Pops as Secretary of State,<br />

are to the patriotic melancholy confirmations of this grey adage?*<br />

The Lexington Reporter added:<br />

But for [the death of Madison] you would have attracted, as you deserved,<br />

but little of [the people's] notice and occupied but few of the columns<br />

of their newspapers. For it is a fact, not to be concealed, that but too<br />

little interest is at any time excited, as to who shaft fill the office of Lieutenant<br />

Governor. -- You, it seems, will have deserved this credit, that you<br />

will have taught them the wisdom, not to be unconcerned about it hereafter;<br />

-- the only good, which seems likely to grow out of your administration.B5<br />

James T. Morehead, who was later to serve as Governor, was one of<br />

those most active in denouncing the actions of Slaughter. But he was<br />

forced to acknowledge the integrity of the Governor:

1966] Gabriel Slaughter, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong> 345<br />

From the conspicuous part you acted in the late war, and from the correct<br />

and unexceptionable course pursued by you, whilst during a former period,<br />

you occupied the place of Lieut. Governor of Kenmck'y, the people were<br />

flattered into the opinion, that you were in heart and in sentiment, a<br />

true republican; stedfastly attached to the measles of the present administration,<br />

and that you looked forward to the promotion of the Public<br />

Good, as the proudest aim of your ambition. 6<br />

The Republicans had won the election but they saw their government<br />

in the hands of the men they opposed. They declared they would fight<br />

the Governor in the Legislature and secure his removal by legislative<br />

enactment authorizing a special election.<br />

Slaughter next heaped coals upon the fire by appointing General<br />

Martin D. Hardin to fill out the term of William Taylor Barry in the<br />

United States Senate until the next session of the Legislature could elect<br />

his successor.57 Hardin was considered a Federalist by many Kentuckians.<br />

Hoping to allay some of the storm, Governor Slaughter visited the<br />

newspaper offices in Frankfort and requested the editors to refrain from<br />

discussing the subject.5s This suggestion was very naturally disregarded.<br />

By December, when the Legislature met, the anti-administration<br />

forces were ready. Had not the bitterness reached such a peak, the<br />

Governor's message should have won him friends; instead, it only laid<br />

him open to further criticism. The message was prefaced with this<br />

statement:<br />

Conscious that I am unequal to the high and important duties of Chief<br />

Magistrate of this commonwealth, I would cheerfully have declined the<br />

post which the coustitution has assigned me, had this deplorable visitation<br />

of Providence and the partiality of my countrymen left me this alternative.<br />

• . . Bat duty commanded me to meet the respousibility thus devolved;<br />

from which, relying for support on a kind Providence, I could not, I will<br />

not shrink. Ardently devoted from my youth to the great and essential<br />

principles of liberty, as recognized and established by the tenth article of<br />

the constitution of this state.., my best exertions through life shall be<br />

made to perpetuate this best of governments to the latest posterity....<br />

I commence my executive duties fully persuaded that I shall frequently err<br />

from want of information and defect of judgment; and that my conduct,<br />

when correct, will be often censured from prejudice and mistake. To you,<br />

however, and my constituents who have given me so many proofs of their<br />

confidence and affection, I pledge myself fairly and faithfully to administer<br />

the government according to the republican spirit and principles of our<br />

free constimtiun. s<br />

Following this a constructive program for the state was presented. He<br />

advocated the proper training and arming of the militia; stated he had

346 The Filson Club History Quarterly [Vol. 40<br />

strong doubts about the change made in the circuit court system at the<br />

last session but since it was sanctioned by a majority of the reptesentafives<br />

he would give it a fair experiment; recommended a revision of the<br />

laws against selling offices and the enactment of penalties for violation;<br />

and discussed the improvement of navigation in the streams of the state<br />

and cooperation with others on the Ohio River. 8°<br />

In regard to the state penitentiary in Frankfort, which two years before<br />

had been called "... an honor to mankind... ,01 he pointed out<br />

the necessity of repairing and enlarging the building.62<br />

His stand on education, which was close to his heart, was particularly<br />

bold and noteworthy. He called for the endowing of colleges and universifies<br />

and also the making of county seminaries and schools free to<br />

poor children. He stated that he believed funds were within reach to<br />

establish throughout the state a system of education and urged action<br />

along that line. "Every child born in the state should be considered a<br />

child of the republic, and educated at the public expense, where the<br />

parents are unable to do it.''°s<br />

To secure swift action on these proposals so necessary for the progress<br />

of the Commonwealth, he called for united efforts for the public good<br />

and stated he would discourage party spirit. °4 In this the opponents of<br />

the administration found new fuel for their attack, stating he was<br />

seeking to do away with parties only to keep himself in o ce.<br />

The first test of strength in the Legislature was the election of United<br />

States Senator. Martin D. Hardin, who had been appointed ad interim,<br />

stood for the remainder of the term, along with Samuel H. Woodson,<br />

Norborne B. Beall, and Matthew Lyon. On the first ballot the administration<br />

showed its strength and Hardin was elected, seventy-four votes<br />

to a combined forty-five for the others.°"<br />

Five days later on December 10, 1816, in the election for Senator<br />

for a full term, however, the administration forces supporting General<br />

John Adair were defeated on the second ballot by their foes who<br />

favored John J. Crittenden.66<br />

The third and final test concerned the right of Slaughter to occupy<br />

the governorship. On January 21, 1817, Benjamin Mills moved a<br />

resolution in the House of Representatives that a committee be appointed<br />

to inquire into the constitutionality of authorizing by law an<br />

election for Governor at the next annual election. It was defeated, but<br />

on the twenty-seventh John C. Breckinridge read a resolution that<br />

•.. the general assembly of the commonwealth of Kentucky, provide<br />

by law for electing a overnor to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death<br />

of our late governor. ,0r On the twenty-eighth the House resolved itself<br />

into a committee of the whole where supporters of a new election were<br />

unable to muster a majority. The next day it was reported that a substi-

1966] Gabriel Slaughter, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong> 347<br />

tute had been adopted. After a number of arguments regarding the<br />

phrasing of the Constitution, the new resolution concluded that the<br />

Constitution stated<br />

•..the governor shall be elected at the end of every four years; can we<br />

elect one in the intermediate space of time? The successor of the governor<br />

is pointed out, and even the successor of that successor; can we substitute<br />

another successor unknown to the constitution? The officer assigned<br />

to fill the place of the governor, must be elected simultaneously<br />

with him; can be create one that is not elected with him? Such a conclu.<br />

sion must not only be preposterous, but subversive of the instrument<br />

which we ought to support.... Without, therefore, further reasoning<br />

on this subject, this legislature does not hesitate to declare that the present<br />

lieutenant governor now acting as governor, is the constitutional incumbent<br />

of that office, until the next revolving period of four years has<br />

elapsed, when the right of free suffrage again will recur . . .6s<br />

The question was postponed until the elections of August, 1817,<br />

when the anti-administration forces, still bitter, brought forth candidates<br />

in almost every county. The refusal of the Governor to submit to a new<br />

election to determine his status was decried as proof that he recognized<br />

he was in the wrong. If he were the choice of the people, would he<br />

lose by a new election? e9<br />

A majority of those returned to the House were in favor of a new<br />

election, but the margin in the Senate was very close. The Governor's<br />

annual message was an exceptional one, "... a document far above the<br />

average for the governors of American states.''7° He reiterated his<br />

previous recommendations for the development of the Commonwealth,<br />

especially the importance of building up a school system. Calling<br />

attention to the balanced arrangement of the three branches of government,<br />

he said:<br />

Every man who will examine himself, must confess that he is often led by<br />

passion and prejudice into errors the most gross and extravagant; we acknowledge<br />

too that neighborhoods, counties, and nations are liable to err<br />

for a moment, from the same muse. If every impulse of any community<br />

was to be carried into full effect, there would be in such a state, neither<br />

confidence nor safety.71<br />

And he went on to intimate that the present uproar among the people<br />

resulted in part from their inability or refusal to understand the principles<br />

on which American liberties were based. From this his recommendations<br />

for a school system followed:<br />

When we reflect how much the very existence of our government depends<br />

on the virtue and intelligence of the people, and for how many ages the<br />

friends of freedom, and human happiness have been struggling to devise<br />

some form of government alike secure against tyranny and anarchy, how

348 The Filson Club History Quarterly [Vol. 40<br />

indispensable it is to di/Tuse information, and qualify those who are to succced<br />

us, to understand the plan and principles of government, furnished us<br />

by our revolutionary sages. Without intelligence the people never can<br />

be safe against the delusions to which they me exposed from the violence<br />

of party spkit, and the arts and intrigues of designing ambition.TM<br />

Mindful of the Era of Good Feeling that was apparent in President<br />

Monroe's administration, he again called for the cessation of party<br />

spirit. TM And as before he was charged with seeking only to allay<br />

criticism.<br />

One of the first actions of the House of Representatives when it met<br />

was to appoint a select committee to prepare a bill for a new election. 4<br />

After a number of days of delaying tactics by the friends of the administration<br />

the bill to amend the existing election laws to provide for a<br />

gubernatorial election the following October passed. s But in the Senate<br />

it was defeated on the question of a second reading.TM Thus the movement<br />

collapsed and no further efforts were attempted to unseat Slaughter,<br />

although he was never recognized by his foes as more than Lieutenant<br />

Governor and Acting Governor, with which title he signed all official<br />

papers.<br />

IV<br />

The governorship was not to become a position of ease, however.<br />

The financial panic of 1818-20 was beginning and by the fall of 1818<br />

it had reached the point of a considerable clamor for some sort of relief.<br />

The Legislature which met in the winter of 1816-17 prohibit "d the circulation<br />

of shinplasters and private notes, 7 but the next Legislature was<br />

to succumb to the clamor for a less restricted supply of money.<br />

On January 26, 1818, forty independent banks were chartered. They<br />

were located throughout the state, some in communities of less than one<br />

hundvM persons. The aggregate capital provided by law was<br />

$8,720,000. TM These banks immediately began to issue paper redeemable<br />

not in specie but in notes of the Bank of Kentucky (which had<br />

resumed specie payments) or in United Statm Bank notes. °<br />

The speculation which followed quickly brought distressed times.<br />

Calls were made upon the public officials for relief. The feeling was<br />

rather general that a special session of the Legislature would pass laws<br />

giving relief. Those most seriously affected began to implore Governor<br />

Slaughter to convene a special session,s° But Slaughter refused on the<br />

grounds that the additional expense and drain on the treasury would be<br />

improvident,sz Instead, he preferred to wait until December when the<br />

regular session would meet.

1966] Gabriel Slaughter, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong> 349<br />

Blame for the crisis was placed according to one's political partisanship<br />

for the most part, Slaughter and Pope being called either merciless<br />

tyrants who refused m give aid to their distressed fellowmen or as levelheaded<br />

off'rials who with deliberation rather than rashness were seeking<br />

to avert further ills.<br />

The Governor's message to the Legislature which met in December,<br />

1818, dealt at length with the problem of the banks as it was by far the<br />

most pressing, although he clearly showed it was not the only one<br />

which should receive their attention. It began:<br />

I regret, that owing m the declining health of an affectionate and promising<br />

son, for some months past, I am unable to give you so full. a view of<br />

the state of the commonwealth as I could wish to communicate,m<br />

He followed this immediately by calling their attention to the problem<br />

of the State Penitentiary, stating that a report on the condition of the<br />

buildings and pecuniary affairs would be laid before them. He spoke of<br />

the lack of authorization for the keeper to furnish those discharged<br />

even a "small pittance" to defray expenses until they could engage in<br />

honest employment or to supply them with clothing. He thanked the<br />

Kentucky Auxiliary Bible Society and the Lexington Independent Bible<br />

Society for Bibles furnished the penitentiary,ss<br />

To better the condition of the public roads, Governor Slaughter suggested<br />

that there be a levy for the purpose, allowing each person to pay<br />

in work on the road for which he would be taxed, and that sign posts<br />

be erected for the aid of travellers and militia companies,s4<br />

In regard to education he stated he would add nothing to his last<br />

message. At that time he had suggested the division of the state into<br />

school districts, but the Legislature " ... seem to have thought it better<br />

to accommodate the country with a number of banks, than good<br />

schools.''sB He further recommended the founding of a state library at<br />

the seat of government.as<br />

The finandal question first concerned the refusal of the Bank of the<br />

United States to pay the tax imposed on its branches in Kentucky.<br />

While he was not prompted by hostility to the bank, he recommended<br />

that the situation be looked into to see if the state had the right to levy<br />

such a tax, and if it did that every effort be made to collect it.87 He expressed<br />

his own feelings:<br />

I am indeed, ready to confess, that my sentiments or perhaps prejudices,<br />

ever have been, and still are strongly against the banking system. Time<br />

and experience instead of conquering these prejudices, have tended to<br />

confirm them. I have ever viewed these monied corporations with jealousy.<br />

I consider the corporate powers and privileges conferred on them,<br />

as so much taken from the power of the people, and a contrivance to rear<br />

up in our country, a monied aristocracy. Money is a power in whatever

35O The Filson Club History Quarterly [Vol. 40<br />

hands it is placed; but it is less dangerous when divided amongst individuals,<br />

than when combined and organized in the form of banks....<br />

Instead of having our national and state legishrures filled with men representing<br />

the feelings and interest ot the great agricultural class of the com.<br />

munity, I fear we shall see the towns through the country, with the aid<br />

of those banking aristocracies greatly preponderate on the legislative floor.<br />

I must ever be opposed to any system of policy, which independent of its<br />

peraicious and corrupting influence in other respects, tends to diminish, if<br />

not destroy the weight and influence of the farming interest, upon whose<br />

virtue and independence the duration of out free institutions so essentially<br />

depends,ss<br />

He then called for some cooperative plan to rid the state of the evil of<br />

the paper system, s°<br />

On November 20, 1818, the Bank of Kentucky and other banks in<br />

the state had suspended specie payment because of pressure from the<br />

United States Bank. In January, 1819, a series of resolutions was introduced<br />

which stated that banks in which individuals had an interest were<br />

monied monopolies and ought not to be tolerated. Instead, all paper<br />

money should emanate from the national and state governments,s°<br />

Governor Slaughter had gone further in advocating an amendment to<br />

the United States Constitution making it unlawful for any incorporated<br />

bank to exist within the nation's limits. 1<br />

This Legislature extended the charter of the Bank of Kentucky until<br />

1841, however, because although it had been forced to suspend specie<br />

payments for a while, it had been managed with care. 2<br />

The Governor's final message in 1819 contained the same appeals he<br />

had made when he first took office, nothing having been done about<br />

most of them. The jail and penitentiary was in a dilapidated state,<br />

unfit for its purposes, and "...hastening to ruin. ''°8 It had to be either<br />

repaired and enlarged or a new one built. He pointed out the necessity<br />

for adequate and proper prison facilities. "'To reclaim and reform our<br />

frail and misled fellow-mortals from the inveteracy of vicious habits<br />

• . . " was, he said, more in the spirit of the country than sanguinary<br />

methods.9.<br />

Ever searching for some way which might succeed in helping education,<br />

he suggested the use of the western lands recently acquired by<br />

treaty with the Indians to form a fund, or the use of fines and forfeitures<br />

to the state for the same purpose. It seems evident that from many<br />

suggestions he hoped the legislators would see fit to choose one. He<br />

spoke of aiding the extension of Transylvania University and of endowng<br />

several colleges.°"<br />

He called their attention to the report of the Commissioners determining<br />

the site of a canal at the falls of the Ohio (Louisville) and the<br />

preference they gave to the Kentucky shore.°e

1966] Gabriel Slaughter, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong> 351<br />

Finally, he spoke of the failure of many banks to redeem their paper<br />

and of the national bank offices in Kentucky having caused much of the<br />

finandal troubles3 He recommended a law making the directors and<br />

stockholders of banks individually responsible for the redemption of<br />

their notes3s<br />

Feeling had become strong throughout the state, and the Legislature,<br />

rather than considering any revisions, repealed the law creating the independent<br />

banks. 8<br />

The election of 1819 had centered around the enactment of replevin<br />

laws and one of the first actions of the new Legislature was to pass a<br />

stay of sixty days on all executions. Governor Slaughter vetoed the<br />

bill, but it was passed again. His reason for this was that the permanent<br />

welfare of the state would be endangered by the delay or denial of complete<br />

justice. °° The day after the independent banks had been<br />

destroyed (February 11, 1820), the replevin law was enacted providing<br />

a twelve months stay if the plaintiff would agree to accept notes of the<br />

Bank of Kentucky, but two years stay otherwise. TM This was to result<br />

in events which shook the political and economic foundations of the<br />

state a few years later.<br />

Not only the penitentiary but also other government buildings had<br />

fallen into disrepair and during Governor Slaughter's administration<br />

steps were taken to remedy the situation of the latter. In 1817 the<br />

sum of two thousand dollars was appropriated for the repair of the<br />

Governor's mansion. 1°2 The state house was also rebuilt at a cost of<br />

forty thousand dollars, being completed early in the year 1820.I°8<br />

One of Governor Slaughter's most frequent reasons for vetoing bills<br />

was their authorization of a lottery to raise money. At the beginning<br />

of his administration he expressed his views on the subject.<br />

I take this early opportunity of protesting against this mode of raising<br />

money. A lottery has ever been deemed a species of gaming, and if<br />

not so in the ordinary sense of the term, it awakens and generates a spirit<br />

of gambling, which public sentiment and public good require the legislature<br />

to control, and if practicable, suppress. All private lotteries have<br />

in civilized countries been held and declared to be public nuisances;...lo4<br />

Through his four years the Legislature continued to pass such bills, and<br />

he to veto them. z°5<br />

In August, 1820, the elections for Governor and new stare officials<br />

occurred. John Adair won over William Logan by about five hundred<br />

votes in a four-way contest. William T. Barry was elected Lieutenant<br />

Governor.<br />

The final portion of Governor Slaughter's message to the Legislature<br />

the December previous was his farewell.

352 The Filson Club History Quarterly [V'ol. 40<br />

Gandemen, the period during which it devolved on me ... to administer<br />

the government, is about to expire. At the commencement of tl t period,<br />

I solicited most earnesdy the aid and the forbearance of my fellow<br />

citizens, thinking both alike necessary to the just and satisfactory dis.<br />

charge of the high duties assigned me. I have to regret, that owing to<br />

some unhappy fervours to which our frail natures are but too incident, I<br />

did not experience either the assistance or the forbearance which I had<br />

hoped, and which I so much needed. To administer the government upon<br />

principles beneficial to all, and not according to the inclination of an excited<br />

portion of the community, was no less my inclination than my duty.<br />

It corresponded, moreover, with the anterior habits of my public life.<br />

Ambitious from my first entrance upon the public theater, of public approbation,<br />

I settled it with myself, that the best way to secure it, was to<br />

endeavor to deserve it. Upon that principle I have endeavored to act in<br />

every posture in which I have been pheed -- how far I have succeeded,<br />

it is not for me to say. I have much cause of gratitude to heaven, for<br />

sustaining me in the trying occurrences to which I have just alluded,<br />

and for enabling me to maintain the even tenor of my way thus far,<br />

without being seduced by the alhicements of apparent friendship, or<br />

driven by the menaces of apparent'enemies from the course which I had<br />

prescribed to myself. These matters are mentioned, not in a spirit of<br />

acrimony, but of amity and the view of soliciting for my successor, whoever<br />

he may be, the united support of all.<br />

Gentlemen, I invoke the blessing of Heaven upon your labors for the<br />

common good, and tender you the assurance of my prompt and cordial<br />

concurrence in every labour of that character.100<br />

V<br />

At the end of his term of office Governor Slaughter returned to<br />

Mercer County. He had failed to realize many of his dreams for progress<br />

in Kentucky but he did not retire from politics. In 1823 he stood<br />

for election to the Kentucky House of Representatives from Mercer<br />

County and was returned with George C. Thompson and Samuel<br />

Daviess. 1°7<br />

The House convened on November 3, 1823, and the Journal for the<br />

next day shows that he arrived late. °s The part he played in the<br />

ensuing session was an active one, but rather as an elder statesman than<br />

as a leader of any group. It was he who moved that the portions of the<br />

Governor's message relating to various items be referred to committees<br />

to study them and he was named to one of these to consider that portion<br />

relating to the Bank of the Commonwealth. 1°9<br />

Always interested in furthering the educational advantages of Kenmckians,<br />

Slaughter devoted attention to such measure which came before<br />

the House. He voted to ask Congress for aid for the Deaf and<br />

Dumb School and to raise the Commonwealth's support to $150 for

1966] Gabriel Slaughter, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong> 353<br />

each indigent pupil,n° When a bill was introduced to take from<br />

"Seminaries of Learning" the fines and forfeitures which they had been<br />

receiving, giving them to the state treasury, he opposed it.tn<br />

At this time there was confusion in the handling of the state appropriations<br />

by Transylvania. A joint committee of the two houses of the<br />

Legislature was appointed to examine the condition of the University and<br />

Gabriel Slaughter was one of the four members from the House of<br />

Representatives.lm<br />

This was Gabriel Slaughter's last office as an elected ofl dal. During<br />

his later years he continued as a farmer in Mercer County. Before becoming<br />

Governor he had owned over a thousand acres in Ohio but he<br />

sold this land about 1819. He also owned 850 acres in Clark County<br />

for a short while, tl" His slaves numbered about sixteen dur'mg the<br />

years following his governorship, but in 1816 he had been taxed for<br />

thirty-two. From 1822 to 1826 he was taxed for a four-wheeled carriage.<br />

At the time of his death the inventory of his estate included sixty-six<br />

fat hogs, two yoke of oxen, eleven grown cows and seven young steers<br />

with a considerable supply of farm implements. Nine beds were included<br />

among the household furniture. In addition, he possessed a<br />

surveyor's compass and instruments, ten volumes of American State<br />

Papers (valued at ten dollars) and one lot of books (valued at five<br />

dollars). His fourteen silver tablespoons and thirty-one silver teaspoons<br />

were valued at fifty dollars, n4<br />

Throughout his later years he continued his interest in furthering the<br />

educational opportunities of Kentuckians. In the Act of the Legislature<br />

creating Georgetown College, January 15, 1829, he was named as one<br />

of the trustees,nB<br />

Late in 1829 he began the final settlement of his affairs, writing his<br />

will.ne Less than a year later, on September 19, <strong>1830</strong>, he died and<br />

was buried in the graveyard in Mercer County where others of his family<br />

also reposed. Over his grave is erected a monument bearing the inscription:<br />

<strong>GABRIEL</strong> <strong>SLAUGHTER</strong><br />

FORMER ACTING GOVERNOR <strong>OF</strong>'<br />

<strong>KENTUCKY</strong><br />

He departed this life September 19, <strong>1830</strong>, aged 64<br />

years.<br />

The State erects this tomb to tell the inquirer in<br />

after times where repose the remains of a soldier<br />

and patriot,nT

354 The Filson Club History Quarterly [Vol. 40<br />


a John Slaughter Carpenter, "Slaughter Family," The Vir&inia Magazina of Histoey and<br />

Biography, v. 21, pp. 306-10, 427-30, v. 22, pp. 99-102, 208-11, 319-22; Robert. M.<br />

Torrence, Torreuu and Allkd Families (Philadelphia, 1938), p. 301; George Harrison<br />

Sanford King, The Register o[ Overwhwrton Palish, Stal ord County, Virginia, 1723-<br />

1758 (Fredericksburg, Va., 1961), p. 50.<br />

2Register ol the Kentucky Historical Society, v. 21, p. 182. He rlaimed 400 a tes and<br />

pre-emption of 1,000 acres for raising a crop of corn in that year.<br />

3 Culpeper Co., Va., Deed Book P, p. 360. On 24 Oct. 1789 he gave a power of<br />

attorney to his son Gabriel, stating that he was about to remove to the Western WaEers.<br />

4 Mercer Co., Ky., Chancery suit, Benjamin Fisher vs. Robert Sl,a,ug hter's heirs, 1814.<br />

William Buckner McGroarty, "William Buckner of Caroline,' Tykr' Qu rwrly Hirtofical<br />

and Genealogical Magazir , v. 21, p. 177; Virginia Hcraid, Fredetickshnrg, Va.,<br />

SeI t. 21, 1816.<br />

John Wesley Gart and John. Calhnun Garr, Genealogy of tho De:cend nt: o/ Jol n<br />

Garr (Cincinnati, 1894), p. 72. She married Jeremiah Fisher of Boyle Co., Ky., and left<br />

de/cendants.<br />

7 Her gravestone in the Irvine and Caldwell graveyard in Boyle Co., Ky., states she died<br />

in July, 1825, aged 34 years. She married James Caldweil and left descendants.<br />

sCuipeper Co., Va., Deed Book R, pp. 1-2. He had acquired this tract of 118 acres in<br />

1786 (Culpeper Co., Vs., Land tax book, 1786) although he did not receive a deed lot<br />

it until 1789 (Culpeper Co., Va., Deed Book P, pp. 70-71). He was given 400 acres by<br />

his father in 1789 but sold that tract the next year (/bid., pp. 360-62, 520-22).<br />

Robert B. McAfee, "The Life and Times of Robert B. McAfee and His Family Connections,"<br />

Register o/the Kantucky Historical Society, v. 25, p. 123.<br />

0 "Excerpts from the Executive Journal of Governor Isaac Shelby," Re&i t o] th8 Kentucky<br />

Hi:torica2 Society, v. 28, pp. 203, 208.<br />

z* Mercer CO.. Ky., Tax lists, 1795.<br />

lz Mercer CO., Ky., Quar r Sessions Deed Book 4, p. 128. On Feb. 24, 1796, they were<br />

deeded 426 acres by George Thompson, and on April 6, 1802 Thompson and Samuel<br />

McDoweil, Jr., con6tmed to them the 476 , acres on which they then lived, there having<br />

been a suit concerning the title to the land in 1796 (/bid., Deed Book 4, p. 341). On<br />

Jan. 9, 1801, William StarLing sold him 60 acres and he purchased another 30 acres from<br />

Starling on Aug. 13, 1813 (/bid., pp. 176-77; Deed Book 8, p. 451). He entered into<br />

deeds of division with A dn S. Slaughter on April 24, 1819 (/bid., Deed Book 11, pp.<br />

192-94). The title was probably still not dear, however, for in 1822 both Starling and<br />

McDoweil conveyed to him 286 acres on which he lived (/bid., Deed Book 12, pp.<br />

400-02 ).<br />

lSMarla Thompson Daviess, Hi tory of Mercer and Boyle Countles (l-[arrodiburg. Ky.,<br />

1924), p. 59.<br />

14 lbi<br />

Carollne Co., Va., Marriage ret-arns, no. 2; Arnold Harris Hotd, The Hord Famibl<br />

o Virginia (n.p., 1915), p. 90.<br />

*eNotation William A. Slaughter Papers, Alderman IAbrary, University of Virginia.<br />

He married first Mary Belle Weisiger and second Mrs. Sarah Pleasants (Webster) Railey<br />

and left descendants by his second wife.<br />

17 Ruth Lawrence, ed., Colonial Pa nilies of Am ,ica (New York, n.d.) v. 5, pp. 292-<br />

93. She married The Rev. John trolley Worthington and left descendants.<br />

*sWestem Monitor, Lexington, Ky., Dec. 26, 1818. He died on Dec. 22, 1818.<br />

10 Kentucky House of Repsesentatives, Journal, 1797-98 (Frankfort, 1798), pp. 8, 10.11.<br />

2°lbid., pp. 21, 27, 60.<br />

* William Lircell, The Statute Law o Kentucky (Frankfort, 1810), v. 2, p. 240.<br />

*Kentudry House of Representatives, Journal, 1799 (Frankfort, 1800), pp. 6, 26, 32,<br />

60.<br />

ss Lewis Collins and Richard FL Collins, Hi:toLv'o] Kentuck (Louisville, 1924), v. 2,<br />

p. 604.<br />

Ibid., p. 603.<br />

Z lbid., v. l,p. 543.<br />

* Kentucky Senate, ]ournd, 1803 (Frankfort, 1804), pp. 14, 79, 82.<br />

* Ibid., p. 26.<br />

*e Ibld., p. 124. . '

1966] Gabdel S ughtw, <strong>1767</strong>-<strong>1830</strong> 355<br />

e°G. Glenn Clih The "Corn Stalk" Militia of Kentucky, 1792-1811 (Frankffort, Ky.,<br />

1957), p. 130- He had previously been commissioned major of the First Battalion on<br />

December 17, 1802.<br />

S°Kentuck Senate, Journal, 1804 (Frankfort, 1804), pp. 9, 11.<br />

a3 Kentucky Senate, ]ournM, 1807 (Frankfort, 1808), pp. 4-6, 14, 141.<br />

s* G. Glenn (:lift, Governors o Kentucky, 1792-1942 (Cynthiano, Ky., 1942), p. 20.<br />

SZThe Western World, Frankfort, Ky., Feb. 25, 1808.<br />

S°John Henderson Spencer, A History o Kentucky Baptists From 1769 to 1885 (Cincinnati,<br />

1885), v. 2, p. 131<br />

m Douglm C. McMurtrie and Albert H. Allen, Check List o] Kentucky Imprints, 1811.<br />

1820 (American Imprints Inventory, no. 6; Louisville, 1939), p. 201. ' • " - ..<br />

as Minutes O/ the South District Association oJ Baptists -- Met at Union Meeting.<br />

House, in Mercer County, on the third Saturday in August, 1809, quoted iti ibid.<br />

a9 Spencer, lo¢. tit.<br />

•o Kentucky Gazette, Lexington, Ky., Oct. 15, 1811.<br />

4, The Reporter, Lexington, Ky., Nov. 6, 1816.<br />

42 Collins, op. tit., v. 1, p. 492.<br />

4a Anderson Chenault Quisenherry, Kentucky in the War of 1812 (Frankfort, .Ky.,<br />

1915), p. 134.<br />

,4 Ibid., p. 140. ." • " .<br />

• Ibld., pp. 139-41, 150. ., .<br />

deU.S. Adjutant General, *'Enlistments &c, U.S. Army, Prior to May 17, 1815," M$,<br />

v. 23, p. 229, National Archives; S. E. Hill, ed., Roster of the Volunteer Officers.and<br />

Soldiers/tom Kentucky in the War o/1812 (Frankfort, Ky., 1891), p. 285.<br />

47 Orval W. Baylor, John.Pope, Kentuckian (Cynthiana, Ky., 1943), p. 102.<br />

•s Ibid., p. 124.<br />

49 Ibid., p. 120.<br />

°Ibid., p. 125.<br />

z Nilas' Register, quoted in Charles Kerr, ed., History o Kentucky, by William Elsev<br />

Connelley and E. M. Coulter (Chicago and New York, 1922), v. 2, p. 583.<br />

5u Kerr, loc. cir.<br />

Ibid.<br />

54 Quoted in The Reporter, Lexington, Ky, Nov. 6, 1816.<br />

ZSThe RGporter, Nov. 27, 1816.<br />

Willard Rouse Jilison, ed., "Early Political Papers of Governor James Turner Morehead,'<br />

Regist of the Kentucky Historical Society, v. 22, p. 287.<br />

Kerr, op. cir., v. 2, pp. 583-84.<br />

5s Temple Bodley and Samuel M. Wilson, History of Kentucky (Chicago and Louisville,<br />

1928), v. 2, p. 101.<br />

Kentucky House of Representatives, Journal, 1816 (Frankfort, 1817i, pp. 14-15.<br />

e°Ibid., pp. 16, 18-19.<br />

et NilejJ Register, quoted in Baylor, op. dt., p. 101.<br />

e2 Kentucky House of Representatives, ]omwal, 1816, p. 19.<br />

eSlbid., p. 17.<br />

e*Ibid., pp. 15-16.<br />

e Ibid., p. 27; The Reporter, Lexington, Ky., Dec. 11, 1816.<br />

The Ro ort , Dec. 18, 1816.<br />

0 Kentucky House of Representatives, ]ourtud, 1816, p. 225.<br />

as Ibid., pp. 238-39.<br />

Baylor, op. tit., p. 141.<br />

o Kerr, op. €/t.,v. 2, p. 589.<br />

n Gabriel Slaughter, Executive Journal, 1816-17, MS, Kentucky Historical Society, p. 86.<br />

T= lhld., pp. 86-87.<br />

:s Ibld., p. 88.<br />

: Bodley and Wilson, op. €it.,v. 2, p. 103.<br />

u Kentucky House of Representatives, Journal, 1817 (Frankfort, 1817), pp. 32, 49-50,<br />

59.<br />

•u Kentucky Senate, Journal, 1817 (F mkfort, 1817), p. 59.<br />

Collins, op. cir., v. 1, p. 28.<br />

s Bodley and Wilson, op. cir., v. 2, p. 124.<br />

• Ibid.

356 The Filson Club History Quarterly [Vol. 40<br />

so Many letters making this request are filed with the stare papers of his administration<br />

at the Kentucky Historical Society.<br />

st Baylor, op. cir., p. 149.<br />

82 Kentucky Senate, ]ournal, 1818 (Frankfort, 1818), p. 8.<br />

s Ibid., p. 9.<br />

841bid., p. 10.<br />

ss Ibid., p. 11.<br />

s /bid.<br />

s7/bid.<br />

SSlbid., p. 12.<br />

Ibid.<br />

° Kerr, op. ¢/t., v. 2, p. 605.<br />

8t Publk Advertisar, Frankfort, Ky., Dec. 15, 1818.<br />

9- Colllns, o#. cir., v. 2, p. 29.<br />

°3 Kentocky Senate, Journal, 1819 (Frankfort, 1819), p. 15.<br />

94Ibid., p. 15.<br />

° lbid., p. 16.<br />

°°lbld., p. 18<br />

g7 Ibid., pp. 20-21.<br />

°Slbid., p. 17.<br />

Kerr, o0. c/t., v. 2, p. 606.<br />

xoo Ibid., p. 608.<br />

*ox Ibid.<br />

to2 Collins, op. ¢/t., v. 2, p. 28.<br />

lo* Ibid., p. 29.<br />

tO*Kentucky House of Representatives, Journal, 1816, p. 281.<br />

10s A number of such messages appear in the executive papers of his administration at<br />

the Kentuck Historical Society,<br />

l°e Kentucky Senate, ]ournal, 1819, pp. 22-23.<br />

o* Kentucky House of Representatives, ]ouenal, 1823 (Frankfort, 1823), p. 4.<br />

t Ibid., p. 8.<br />

lo Ibid., p. 39.<br />

11o Ibid , p. 273.<br />

1111bidl, p. 310.<br />

uz Kentucky Senate, lournal, 1823 (Frankfort, 1823), pp. 301-04.<br />

tla Mercer Co., Ky., Tax lists, 1795-<strong>1830</strong>, loc. c/t.<br />

1x4 Mercer Co., Ky., Will Book 9, pp. 397-400.<br />

ltSSpenc r, oP. eit., v. 1, p. 599. The purpose of this college was to obtaia a better<br />

educamd ministry for the Baptist Church.<br />

tta Mercer Co., Ky., Will Book 9, pp. 336-37.<br />

117 Register o[ the Kentucky Historical $odety, v. 1, no. 3, p. 31.

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