3G & 4G Mobile Communication Systems - Chapter I

ant.uni.bremen.de

3G & 4G Mobile Communication Systems - Chapter I

3G/4G Mobile Communications Systems

Dr. Stefan Brück

Qualcomm Corporate R&D Center Germany


2

Chapter I: History of Mobile Communications

and Standardization

Slide 2


History of Mobile Communications and Standarization

History of Wireless/Mobile Communications

History of Standardization

Evolution of Mobile Communcation Systems

Service/Network Evolution

Mobile Communication Roadmaps (A look into the future)

3 Slide 3


4

History - Definition of Wireless and Mobile

Wireless

Communication without wires, can either be mobile or fixed

Mobile

Portable devices (laptops, notebooks etc.) connected at different location

to wired networks (e.g. LAN )

Portable devices (phones, notebooks, PDAs etc.) connected to wireless

networks (UMTS, GSM, WLAN….)

Slide 4


5

History – Wireless Communications I

Many people in history used light for communication

Heliographs, flags („semaphore“), ...

China, Han-Dynasty (206 BC – 24 AC)

signalling towers

150 BC smoke signals for communication;

(Polybius, Greece)

1794, optical telegraph, Claude Chappe

Beginning of communications with electromagnetic waves

1831 Faraday demonstrates electromagnetic induction

J. Maxwell (1831-79): theory of electromagnetic

fields, wave equations (1864)

1876 telephone, Alexander Graham Bell

H. Hertz (1857-94): demonstrates

the wave character of electrical transmission

through space (1888, in Karlsruhe)

Slide 5


6

History - Wireless Communication II

1895 Guglielmo Marconi

First demonstration of wireless

telegraphy (digital!)

Long wave transmission, high

transmission power necessary (> 200kw)

1907 Commercial transatlantic connections

Huge base stations (30m-100m high antennas)

1915 Wireless voice transmission New York - San Francisco

1920 Discovery of short waves by Marconi

Reflection at the ionosphere

Smaller sender and receiver, possible due to the invention of the

vacuum tube (1906, Lee DeForest and Robert von Lieben)

Slide 6


7

History - Mobile Communications

1911 mobile transmitter on Zeppelin

1926 train (Hamburg – Berlin)

1927 first commercial car radio (receive only)

First Mobile Communication Systems started in the 40s in the US and in the

50s in Europe

CONCEPTS:

1924

Large Areas per Transmitter

Mobiles“ large, high power

consumption

Systems low capacity,

interference-prone

Expensive !!!

Slide 7


8

History - 1st Generation Systems

High transmitter power

(≥ 20 W) in base- and mobilestation

Large cells with wide range

(radius ca. 150 km)

Low infrastructure-cost

Low subscriber-capacity

Low frequency economy

Slide 8


9

History - A/B-Netz in Germany

A-Netz (1958-1977)

160 MHz

1971 80% Coverage

11000 Subscriber

B-Netz (1972-1994),

Der Abschied von ABC- Eine Zeitreise zu den wichtigsten

Stationen, Broschüre der T-Mobil, www.handy-sammler.de

Germany, Austria, Luxemburg

1979 13 000 Subscriber, heavy „Mobiles“ mainly in cars

Beginning of the 80s < 1 Mio. Subscribers worldwide

Slide 9


10

History- Cellular Communication Networks

Rapid semi-conductor and microprocessor development

Bell Labs: Patent for cellular networks, 1972

Small coverage areas with variable cell radius

Less transmitter power

Frequency reuse, clustering

Hand-over

Smaller and cheaper user equipment

Higher network capacity

High costs for infrastructure

Typical networks:

• NMT in Scandinavia (1979)

• AMPS in the US (1983)

• C-Netz in D, A, CH (1985-2000)

1990 ca. 20 million subscriber

world-wide

Quelle: B. Walke, M.P. Althoff, P.Seidenberg, UMTS – Ein

Kurs, Weil der Stadt 2001, Figure 2.2 , p. 15

Ericsson Hotline 900

630 gr !NMT-900, 1987

Slide 10


11

History – 2nd Generation Mobile Systems

Requirement: Higher system capacity, higher data rates

Digital Transmission to improve system capacity, coverage and QoS

International Roaming

Voice is the dominating application but systems are capable of fax,

data, SMS, MMS, …

Typical Networks (since 1990):

IS-95 (US), D-AMPS (US), PDC (Japan) and GSM

Motorola International 1000

www.handy-sammler.de/Museum/13.html

Slide 11


12

History- Systems of the 2nd Generation

IS-54 (D-AMPS)

Follower of the analog AMPS in America

Timeslot structure

IS-136 (Digital PCS)

Further development of IS-54

IS-95 and IS-95b (cdmaOne)

based on N-CDMA (1.23MHz Bandwidth)

first commercial CDMA-Net

PDC (Personal Digital Cellular)

particularly in Japan broadened

Slide 12


13

History of GSM

1982: The main governing body of the European PTTs (CEPT) set up a

committee known as Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) to define a

digital mobil cellular system that could be introduced across

Europe by the 1990s.

PTT: Post, Telegraph and Telephone Administrations

CEPT: European Conference of Postal Telecommunications Administrations

The CEPT allocated the neccesary duplex radio frequency in the 900 MHz region.

1987: The main transmission techniques are chosen based on prototype

evaluation

1990: The Phase 1 GSM900 specifications are frozen, DCS1800

adaptation begins

1992: GSM (renamed Global System for Mobile Communications) went

operational in various European countries

Today: Around 1 billion subscribers in more than 200 countries use

GSM-based systems

Slide 13


14

The Creation of 3GPP

Mid to end of the nineties the standardization of 3 rd generation mobile

communications systems took place in several regions around the world

Common to all of them was the focus on CDMA based technologies

To ensure equipment compatibility and to increase working efficiency,

initiatives were made to create a single forum for WCDMA standardization

These initiatives resulted in the creation of the 3 rd Generation Partnership

Project (3GPP) in December 1998

Standardization organizations firstly involved were ARIB (Japan), ETSI (Europe),

TTA (Korea), TTC (Japan) and T1P1 (USA)

In 1999, also CWTS (China) joined 3GPP

The detailed technical work in 3GPP was started early 1999 with the aim of

having a common specification ready by the end of 1999

Slide 14


15

What is 3GPP?

3GPP stands for 3 rd Generation Partnership Project

3GPP is a collaboration agreement, established in December 1998, to ensure

a worldwide acceptance of 3G W-CDMA/UMTS standards

It is a partnership of 6 regional SDOs (standard development organization)

Europe

China

S.Korea

Japan

USA

These SDOs take 3GPP specifications and transpose

them to regional (Europe, North America, Korea, Japan, China) standards

ITU references the regional standards “IMT-2000”, “IMT-Advanced”

see: www.3gpp.org

Slide 15


16

3GPP Members

Organizational Members:

ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan

ATIS Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions, USA

CCSA China Communications Standards Association, China

ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute, EU (France)

TTA Telecommunications Technology Association, South Korea

TTC The Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan

Slide 16


3GPP Specification Groups

This lecture focuses on Radio Access Network Aspects

17 Slide 17


3G Evolution – Radio Technologies

18 Slide 18


19

What is 3G or IMT-2000

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) defined the key

requirements for International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 services

more commonly known as

3G requirements

Improved system capacity, backward compatibility with 2G, multimedia

support and high speed packet data meeting the following criteria

2 Mbps in fixed or in-building environments

384 kbps in pedestrian or urban environments

144 kbps in wide area mobile environments

Variable data rates in large geographic area systems (satellite)

Slide 19


20

IMT-Advanced and 4G Wireless Standards

IMT-Advanced Requirements

Based on an all-IP packet switched network

Peak data rates of up to approximately 100 Mbit/s and up to approximately 1 Gbit/s

for low mobility

Scalable channel bandwidth, between 5 and 20 MHz, optionally up to 40 MHz

Peak link spectral efficiency of 15 bit/s/Hz in the downlink, and 6.75 bit/s/Hz in the

uplink

System spectral efficiency of up to 3 bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlink and 2.25

bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor usage

Smooth handovers across heterogeneous networks.

Ability to offer high quality of service for next generation multimedia support.

Typically, IMT-Advanced and 4G are used synonymously

IMT-Advanced Technologies are

LTE-Advanced (specified by 3GPP)

WiMax – 802.16m (specified by IEEE)

WirelessMAN-Advanced, Mobile WiMax Release 2

http://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2012/02.aspx

Slide 20


3G = CDMA2000 and UMTS/WCDMA

21 Slide 21


Where are the 3G Standards?

3GPP (for GSM, UMTS, LTE)

www.3gpp.org

3GPP2 (for CDMA2000)

www.3gpp2.org

22 Slide 22


WCDMA – Data Services

23 Slide 23


3GPP Mobile Broadband Evolution Path

24 Slide 24


The Evolution Beyond 2011

25 Slide 25


26

3GPP Standard Releases – Rel99 to Rel10

Version Released Info

Release 99 2000 Q1 Specified the first UMTS 3G networks, incorporating a

CDMA air interface

Release 4 2001 Q2 Originally called the Release 2000 , introduced all-IP Core

Network

Release 5 2002 Q1 Introduced IMS and HSDPA

Release 6 2004 Q4 Integrated operation with Wireless LAN networks and adds

HSUPA, MBMS, enhancements to IMS

Release 7 2007 Q4 Focuses on decreasing latency, improvements to QoS and

real-time applications such as VoIP. This specification also

focuses on HSPA+

Release 8 2008 Q4 First LTE release. All-IP Network (SAE). New OFDMA, and

MIMO based radio interface, not backwards compatible with

previous CDMA interfaces. Dual-Cell HSDPA.

Release 9 2009 Q4 SAES Enhancements, WiMAX and LTE/UMTS Inter

operability. Dual-Cell HSDPA with MIMO, Dual-Cell HSUPA.

Release 10 2011 Q1 LTE Advanced fulfilling IMT Advanced 4G requirements.

Backwards compatible with Release 8 (LTE). Multi-Cell

HSDPA (4 carriers).

Slide 26


3GPP Standard Releases – Rel11 to Rel12

Version Released Info

Release 11 In progress Further enhancements for heterogeneous networks for LTE

(FeICIC), Downlink Cooperative Multipoint in LTE (CoMP),

Eight carrier HSDPA, 4x4 HSDPA MIMO, 64QAM 2x2

HSUPA MIMO

Release 12 Not started Discussions are ongoing what to include

27 Slide 27


The 3GPP History of a Decade

28 Slide 28


Facts and Numbers (Source: 4G Americas)

423 HSPA networks are in service in 160 countries in February 2012

373 HSPA networks are in service in 150 countries in December 2010

184 HSPA+ networks are in service in 94 countries in February 2012

97 HSPA+ networks are in service in 52 countries in December 2010

55 LTE networks are in service in 34 countries in February 2012

14 LTE networks are in service in 10 countries in December 2010

Market Share and Forecast to 2016

29 Slide 29


Total Mobile Network Data Traffic Forecast

30 Slide 30


31

PPT Figures


R99

The 3GPP History of a Decade

DL/UL CDMA

Dedicated Channel

DL QPSK

UL BPSK

Turbo Codes

5 MHz Frequency

Spectrum

R4

R5

HS DL Shared

Channel

DL 16QAM

DL AMC

DL HARQ

DL Node B Scheduling

IMS

DL Shared

Channel

DL RNC

Scheduling

All-IP Core

UMTS R4

R6

R7

DL 2x2 MIMO

DL 64QAM

UL 16QAM

DL L2 Enhancements

Enh. Ded. Channel

UL QPSK

UL AMC

UL HARQ

UL Node B Scheduling

MBMS

R8

DL OFDM

UL SC-FDMA

DL 4x4 MIMO

UL MU-MIMO

UL Shared Channel

Frequency-Selective Scheduling

Flexible Frequency Spectrum

Enhanced RAN/Core Architecture

R8

DL 2-Carrier

SIMO

UL L2

Enhancements

UMTS R99 HSDPA HSUPA HSPA+

R9

R9

DL Dual Layer

Beam Forming

DL 2-Carrier

MIMO

UL 2-Carrier

SIMO

R10

R10

DL 4-Carrier

SIMO

UL TD

DL 8x8 MIMO

UL 2x4 MIMO

eICIC

HSPA+ HSPA+

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

UMTS R99 HSDPA HSUPA R7 HSPA+

EDGE

First Deployments

HSPA+

LTE LTE-A

R8 LTE

32 Slide 32

LTE

R8 HSPA+

R11

FeICIC

CoMP

LTE

HSPA+

2011 2012

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