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American Tewish Archives

d

Devoted to the preservation and study of American Jewish historical records

DIRECTOR: JACOB RADER MARCUS, PH.D.

Milton and Hattie Kutz Distinguished Service Professor

of American Jewish History

ASSISTANT DIRECTOR: STANLEY F. CHYET, ~H.D.

Associate Professor of American Jewish History

Published by THE AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES, CINCINNATI, OHIO 45220

on the Cincinnati campus of the HEBREW UNION COLLEGE- JEWISH INSTITUTE OF REL~GION

VOL. XVII NOVEMBER, 1965 NO. 2

In This Issue

Ludwig Lewisohn : In Memoriam 109

Ludwig Lewisohn was one of the greatest writers to emerge from the ranks

of American Jewry. His personality, says Dr. Lelyveld in this moving tribute,

was "distinctive to the point of uniqueness," and his Iife was one of "tri-

umphant self-mastery."

A Colony in Kansas - 1882 114

What was to be done with the masses of immigrants Aeeing from Czarist

assaults on the Jews of Eastern Europe? Cincinnati's Hebrew Union Agri-

cultural Society looked for a solution to settlement on the Western plains -

in colonies like Beersheba in Southwestern Kansas. Charles K. Davis' diary

describes the beginnings of the Beersheba venture.

Words and Phrases 140

The Image of America in Two East European

Hebrew Periodicals SANFORD RAGINS 143

During the I 8801s, finds Rabbi Ragins, Eastern European Hebrew-language

journals like Hamelitz and HatzJirah saw America as "a land of opportunity . . .

for those prepared to work, and work hard."


Reviews of Books

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem - A Report on the Banality of Evil.

Reviewed by Leon A. Jick 162

Mailer, Norman. The Presidential Papers.

Reviewed by Benjamin A. Sokoloff I 66

Rischin, Moses. The Promised City -New York's Jews, 1870-1914.

Reviewed by John J. Appel 167

A Word from Waco 169

Brief Notices I 70

"Holy Moses" BERYL BEARMAN GORDON I 79

The One Oasis LUDWIG LEWISOHN I 80

Index to Volume XVII 182

Illustrations

Ludwig Lewisohn, page I 2 3; Dodge City, Kansas, page 14 I; Front Street,

Dodge City, in the 18801s, page 142; New York City Market Scene, 1884,

page 159; A not altogether sympathetic view of Jewish immigrants, page 160;

Solomon B. Freehof, page I 77.

Patrons for 1965

THE NEUMANN MEMORIAL PUBLICATION FUND

AND

ARTHUR FRIEDMAN FT LEO FRIEDMAN ?t BERNARD STARKOFF

Published by THE AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES on the

Cincinnati campus of the HEBREW UNION COLLEGE - JEWISH IN-

STITUTE OF RELIGION

NELSON GLUECK Prrsidcnt


Ludwig Lewisohn: In Memoriam

December jz, z96f7 marks the tenth Jahrzeit of one of the most tonic

personalities ever to be produced by American Jewry. Ludwig Lewi-

sohn7s death at Miami Beach, Florida, ten years ago brought to a close an

intellectual and spiritual odyssey that had begun with a disdain for

Judaism as an "archaic Orientalism," but had progressed to the conviction

that "no Jew, as Maimonides wrote to the Yemenite, 'escapes this Torah.' "

Abandoning in middle age the assimilationist views of his youth and

early manhood - and also, incidentally, a brilliant career in American

letters - Geman-born, South Carolina-raised Lewisohn devoted his

extraordinary literary gifts to the cause of the Jewish faith and people.

During the late zgzo7s and the succeeding two decades, he became a leading

spokesman for a tradition-oriented Judaism and for Zionism. His advo-

cacy of what he called "the permanent and unique spirit of Judaism"

was nothing less than exemplary.

On February 14, z9f6, at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massa-

chusetts, where Lewisohn spent the last seven years of his life as Professor

of Comparative Literature, Dr. Arthur J. Lelyveld, then National

Director of the B'nai B7rith Hillel Foundations and now rabbi of

Fairnwunt Temple in Cleveland, Ohio, delivered the memorial address

published below.

Those of us who hold the memory of Ludwig Lewisohn in pro-

found affection need not be disturbed by the fact that he was not

always loved and not always understood. He would have rejected

popularity as evidence of the shallowness that was the target of his

unremitting attack, and he would have scorned being too easily

understood as he scorned the imprecise word and the easy half-

truth. The coherent and ultimately unitary message that he spoke

and wrote in incisive and ofien fiery words was, though lucidly

recorded, not a simple message. It was the creative end-product of

a life of baffling complexity and incomparable richness of knowledge

and experience. All this abundance was impressed into the service

of his ultimate mission, to illuminate it and to support it. For Ludwig

Lewisohn was a man with a mission -he was, in the best sense of

an abused term, a preacher -exhorting, correcting, berating "the

average intelligent American Jew," striving to awaken him to the


perplexities and crises of the times in a dimension equivalent to the

intensity of his own commitment.

The personality of Ludwig Lewisohn resists easy classification -

not because it was protean, but because it was sharply defined,

distinctive to the point of uniqueness. His sensitive and responsive

spirit was capable of deep tenderness and unmatched kindness, but

he was as harsh as the midat ha-din - divine judgment - in his

reactions to shoddiness, cheap rationalizations, and persistent error.

His attachment to his people was so fiercely proud as to verge upon

chauvinism, but his ahavat yisrael, his love of Israel, grew organically

out of that universal vision of his youth -which he never aban-

doned - of a world in which man's capacity for beauty would be

free to find fill expression, in which distinctiveness would be

cherished, in which the vulgar and the cruel would no longer

throttle the incipient good. He made of his life a compelling insistence

that only by being utterly and understandingly Jewish could the

Jew contribute to the emergence of that kind of world, and Israel

become the instrument for the redemption of mankind.

That such Jewish self-acceptance and self-knowledge could not

be sofify won, he knew out of his own pain. Even man's spiritual

bread is earned in the sweat of his brow -and the easily under-

standable, glib, and popular word is worth no more than the minimum

effort which it represents and the minimum effort which it elicits

from those who hear it. He brushed aside what he called "cowardly

considerateness." "We must master life or it will end by destroying

US," he wrote in the prologue to Upstream. "We can master it only

by understanding it and we can understand it only by telling each

other the quite naked and, if need be, the devastating truth."

And the people to whom he carried his devastating truths? They

wanted to be entertained, to "enjoy" their lecturers and writers, to

listen with the tops of their heads instead of with their viscera.

Ludwig Lewisohn took them by the ears and made rhem attend to

his words; he shocked them and at times even outraged them -

but they listened and grew excited about the deepest problems of

their beings - about ideas! "Werde der du bist" he told them in

the words of Nietzsche, "Become what you essentially are!"

Appropriate the best meanings of your own self.


LUDWIG LEWISOHN : IN MEMORIAM 111

His greatest frustration may well have been the fact that the

heights of his indignation were unequal to the enormity of the evil

that this world, our world, had done to the Jewish people - that

his abhorrence of the perpetrators of that unspeakable crime was,

in the inescapable presence of 6,000,ooo corpses, too frequently

unechoed -indeed, it was not even understood. When he called

the age in which we live "the foulest in human history," he offended

the facile Panglosses and the prissy souls, but his words were care-

fully chosen and supported by the ineradicable facts of twentieth-

century degradation: the mass exterminations, the calculating dis-

regard of sanctities, the ruthless destruction of inherited values. He

spoke the cold truth in words that will live long after those whom

they made uncomfortable will have been forgotten.

It is difficult, despite the help which he himself has given us, to

evoke the image of the child who was the "father" of this man -

the tot in Germany who waited with trembling delight for the

unveiling of his Christmas tree and found the synagogue which he

had momentarily visited on Yom Kippur impressive, but alien and

strange; the little boy trying desperately to feed his soul on the

astringent Protestantism of a small town in South Carolina; the

gifted young man suffering his first major rebuffs as a Jew and

turning rebelliously to the German culture on which he had been

nourished. (How justifiable was his sense of spiritual kinship to

Theodor Herzl, of whose early blind love for the cultural greatness

of Germany he wrote that it was "significant . . . of the tragically

false position of a Jew repudiated by the Germans, acting as their

defender"! He felt the dual irony of the picture: the fifteen-year-old

Herzl in Budapest writing verses on the deutscher Geist before Lewi-

sohn was born, and Lewisohn himself, during the First World War,

suffering for his attachment to the beauties of literature and music

that had come out of the land of his fathers' sojourning.)

Out of his intimate personal struggle he was able to write

accurately of the way in which "a whole generation of Jews forgot

that their ways were conformable to their character and that their

inherited wisdom might alone be redemptive for them" and of how

"a self-induced blindness smote them." He was himself a victim

of that blindness, but one who with rare courage and by a mag-


112 AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES, NOVEMBER, 1965

nificent act of will began in his maturity the process of his own

redemption, offering thereby his pre-eminent skills as a stylist and

his penetrating brilliance as a gifted scholar and critic to the cause of

his people's redemption. Then, how fortunate were his knowledge

of and his love for the German language! For he found not only the

pamphlets and speeches of early Zionism accessible to him; he found

Martin Buber and Franz Rosenzweig and the great German trans-

lations of the Jewish classics - his German was a key that unlocked

new treasure houses and, like Rosenzweig, he dug deeply for the

treasures stored in them - and found himself/

Let no one underestimate the agony of the psychic struggle that

conditioned and made possible the joy of that revelation or believe

that his Jovian judgments were lightly come by. For, like Akiba,

he was over forty when he began to acquire Hebrew and to master

the Jewish heritage. Worlds of disciplined effort and unparalleled

determination are compressed in the simple opening sentences of the

last chapter of Midchanml: "The great study has been the chief

intellectual experience of my recent years. I know as yet very little.

One needs to begin that study in youth . . . ." And, though he was

to achieve a knowledge of Judaism rare in its range and prohndity,

in the remarkably perceptive description of the Jewish heritage

which begins with those words, he wrote, in the warm morning

light of new discovery, an unsurpassed love song to Judaism - one

that will be read and reread, if our posterity is wise, for generations

to come.

The line of development from that moment of discovery was

straight and unflinchingly drawn, for here he found the path to

integrity and to meaningful distinctiveness. Out ofhis new knowledge

of his people's achievements and his increasing familiarity with his

people's trials, he fortified his hatred of mediocrity, of the prophets

of false humanitarianism, the pseudoscientific authoritarians, the

"sordid dreamers of sordid Utopias," the peddlers of "rubber

stamped verbiage." For now he came to understand the transcendent

uniqueness of Israel's history and to look with clear eyes on the

fact that he was the scion of a people whose lot and whose portion

had been separated from the multitude, that the obliteration of the

character and the quality of that people would be a tragedy for


LUDWIG LEWISOHN : IN MEMORIAM "3

mankind. So he took upon himself the lifelong duty "to defend and

vindicate the Jewish people as the incarnation of the experience at

the foot of Sinai" -for Israel and the faith of Israel and the Holy

One, Blessed be He, were one.

Early in his writing career he expressed his yearning to sur-

render to an Absolute - if not God, then a "permanent system of

values." Now he wanted, by affirmative acts, by his conduct in all

its details, to express his place in an eternal community. "The Jew

who has recovered his authenticity will spontaneously desire to

practice the mitzuot," he declared. "He will seek to reincarnate the

Torah by what he is." There was no falseness or self-deception in

the fact that the desire to practice did not always lead to consistent

practice. For "we are," he said, "imprisoned in a world of con-

tingency. The absolute answer to an absolute command is wholly

possible in the realm of the mind and of the spirit." Yet how yearn-

ingly he identified himself with that Jew whose education, formal

and environmental, had placed him fully within the four ells of

Israel's tradition! To him, "the earlocked Hasid on Avenue A

dancing with holy joy on Simchat Torah" was a free man, while

the Jew who was "just like everyone else" in his mimicry of a

non-Jewish environment was a slave. Lewisohn could not be the

"earlocked Hasid," but so deeply did he know the tradition that

he must have drawn comfort from the talmudic dictum - "Be-

makom she-baali teshuuah omedim, tsaddikim gemurim ham omedim":

those who have returned to Judaism find reserved for them a place

higher than that of those who have been consistently faithful. More

comforting must have been his knowledge that he had fulfilled in

his life the injunction Werde der du bist. His own summation: "I

am under no illusions as to what one man and his books can effect.

None. But having given what one has to give one's duty is accom-

plished and one's mind is at rest."

We cannot mourn a life of such triumphant self-mastery, a life

that had so great an impact on the hearts and minds of two generations

of Jews. We can only offer a prayer of thankfulness that there

walked among us a wise and whole man, a supremely gifted literary

craftsman, a dedicated Jew, possessed of a burning purpose on which

he lived and through which he has left an imperishable memorial.


A Colony in Kansas - 1882

When Alexander 111 became Czar of All the Russias in March, 2881,

he inherited the throne of a country threatened with social, political, and

economic collapse. A return to medieval despotism, it seemed to the new

Czar, might provide a remedy - a viewpoint which Alexander's teacher,

Constantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev, procurator of the Holy Synod and

champion of autocracy, was only too happy to endorse. That such an

undertaking would involve persecution of Russian minority groups -

and especially the Jews - was no obstacle at all to the Czar and his

ministers, and in due course there followed pogroms and the infamous

"May Laws" of May, 1882, designed to alleviate the Empire's diqi-

culties by undermining the socio-economic foundations of Jewish life

in Russia. Pobedonostsev reportedly summed up his government's policy

by declaring that one third of Russian Jewry would be driven to emi-

grate, another third compelled to accept baptism, and the remaining third

starved to death. The result was a huge wave of emigration to America,

a land ofering to Russian Jewry economic opportunities and a religious

and political freedom all but unimaginable in Czardom.

America's established Jewish community received the newcomers, for

the most part, with a decided lack of enthusiasm. The United Jewish

Charities of Rochester, N. Y., spoke for a regrettably large segment of

American Jewish opinion in 2893, when it denounced the immigrants

as "a bane to the country and a curse to the Jews." American Jewry, the

Rochesterians went on to say, had "earned an enviable reputation in the

United States, but this has been undermined by the influx of thousands

who are not ripe for the enjoyment of liberty and equal rights, and all

who mean well for the Jewish name should prevent them [as] much as

possible from coming" to these shores. In 2902, the B'nai B'rith leader

Simon Wolf assured the United States Congress that American Jews had

bb never . . . stimulated, encouraged, desired, or wished this wholesale

influx of their coreligionists," but "naturally preferred that they should

remain in the countries in which they had been born."


Coming from the precapitalist, still feudal society that was Eastern

Europe, the immigrants were simply too exotic for the comfortable,

well-integrated Jews of America, and even their defenders had perforce

to suppress a quiver of unease at their appearance. The columns of

Cincinnati's American Israelite often enough professed sympathy for

the "unfortunate exiles," but that did not prevent one of its writers

from worrying openly in June, 1882, lest the immigrants become "an

element of Jewish tramps and paupers, producing criminals, who will

disgrace the name of Israelite through the land."

What was to be done with the immigrants? This was a question to

which no one really knew the answer, but clearly, as Moritz Loth,

president of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, told his

executive board in January, 1882, it was "not for the best that the

refugees settle in the large cities, and live in crowded tenement houses

and eke out a bare existence in the lowest strata of commerce." Loth

proposed that "it would be far more beneficial to the race and to the

country to lead these refugees into agricultural pursuits, under the auspices

of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and the superintendence

of practical American fanners." Loth was not alone in his thinking, and

that year of 1882 saw a number of attempts to establish immigrant

fanning colonies in Louisiana, the Dakotas, Colorado, Oregon, Nm

Jersey, and Kansas.

It is the Kansas venture - Beersheba Colony, as it was called -

that claims our attention in the following pages. Like its counterparts

elsewhere, Beersheba was fated to fail, and fail it did. Inexperience and

insuflcient water saw to that. But, for a while, Cincinnati's Hebrew

Union Agricultural Society, which helped finance the colony, enjoyed

what its leaders took to be the taste of success.

Charles K. Davis, twenty-nine in 1882, was one of the Cincinnatians

who went out to Southwestern Kansas to help the colonists settle them-

selves. He was thoughtful enough to keep a diary, and excerpts from that

diary appear below through the courtesy of his daughter, Ella Davis

(Mrs. Nathan) Isaacs, of Brookline, Massachusetts.


[by ISAAC M. WISE]

The sacred cause of religion and humanity demands of us that

we do as much as may be in our power for the outraged Russian

Jews who seek in our country shelter, protection, bread, and the

rights of man. Much has been done and is being done now by the

Russian Emigrants' Aid Societies in New York, New Orleans,

and other large and small cities, which deserves the acknowledg-

ment and thanks of every philanthropist. Thousands have been

taken by the hand and placed where they might earn a livelihood

by honest labor in the various trades. Two agricultural colonies

have been established, one in [Sicily Island,] Louisiana and another

[Alliance] in [southern] New Jersey. The main enterprise, how-

ever, which enables immigrants in this country to become inde-

pendent men and to attract their friends and countrymen, has not

been attempted yet; and that main enterprise is, to settle upon

Government land and to become there thrifty farmers and free

holders of one hundred and sixty acres of land each. This is the

great wealth and inducement which our country offers to the tens

of thousands of people who seek annually these hospitable shores;

this is the great advantage which also the Russian Jews must em-

brace, if they want to live among us as useful citizens and work

for themselves and posterity, with an eye to unfailing success. Any

man twenty-one years old may claim one hundred and sixty acres

of Government land. He swears to his intention to become a citizen

of the United States, pays fifteen to eighteen dollars entrance fee,

takes possession of the land, builds a house on it, however small it

may be, cultivates part of the land, and after having lived on it

five years, he receives an unincurnbered title to that property and is

a citizen and a freeholder. The settler, to be sure, has to undergo

many hardships and do a good deal of heavy work; but he is sure

of success in the end, sure of a living for himself and family, and of

perfect independence.

The reason why this advantage has not been embraced yet by or


for the Russian Jews is not because the various committees are not

acquainted with it, although partly this may be the reason. The

main reason is because it is unknown to the Russians, and many of

them have a wrong idea of this enterprise.

In Cincinnati, however, twelve to twenty Russian families have

united themselves, by their own free will and choice, all healthy

and intelligent people; some of them practical farmers, all of them

knowing something about it, to go and claim Government land under

the Homestead Law [of 18621 and settle down on it. An enthusiastic

young man, Mr. Charles Davis, of this city, did all the corre-

spondence for them which was necessary. After the proper informa-

tion had been obtained, they appointed two of their men to seek and

inspect the land they might deem best for the purpose. These men

traveled as far as southwestern Kansas, where they selected and

entered, as far as they could, a tract of land on a stream twenty-two

miles from a railroad, sufficient for the whole colony, which is

now ready to start and take possession of it at once.

This matter was presented to the Russian Emigrants' Aid Society

in Cincinnati, and the following gentlemen, Abraham Trounstine,

Isaac M. Wise, and Joseph Abraham, were appointed a committee,

with hll power to act, to raise funds, and to give the necessary

assistance to the first colony of Russian Jews to be settled on Gov-

ernment land for their own benefit and on their own responsibility

exclusively. If this colony succeeds, the gates are ajar for all Russian

Jews coming to our country, who wish to work and become both

useful citizens and independent men.

We say these men must be supported. The experiment is too

valuable for us and for them to be neglected. They must be supported

to enable them to settle down on the land and protect their families

for eight or ten months till they can help themselves. Five thousand

to six thousand dollars will suffice to give them all the help they

need; and we say this sum must be raised and expended for this sole

purpose, under the supervision of the Russian Emigrants' Aid Society

of Cincinnati, as this business can not be attended to from two or

more different points.

And now in behalf of this first colony of Russian Jews on Gov-

ernment land, and in the name of the said Aid Society and the Com-


mittee mentioned above, we call on all men who have pity on those

maltreated and outraged Jews to send us at once as much money as

they might think proper to spend in this most charitable enterprise.

The money may be sent directly to us at this office, where account

will be kept of all moneys received and disbursed by the committee,

under the auspices and control of the said Aid Society. We urgently

request and beg all men who have the fear of the Lord and the love

of man in their hearts to attend at once to this business, as the men

of the colony, in order to secure the land, must move at once with

their families to Kansas. Delay, according to the laws of the United

States in this case, might cost them the title of the land which has

been secured for them. Go at once at this business, send your dona-

tion, go out, collect as much as you can get of either Jew or Gentile,

and send us at once the value of your sympathy and approbation in

hard cash or in what represents it. No words, no advices, no ifs

and no whens are wanted. This thing must be done and it must be

done at once. Those men must be supported. This experiment must

be tried. It must be done within two weeks. Every cent you send

us goes to that very purpose, pure and simple. No salaries are paid.

No printing or other incidental expenses are to be made. Come out,

ladies and gentlemen, with your dollars with a good grace. Come all

and come at once. Let us make as many Jewish free farmers as can

be made. Connect your benevolent names with the first attempt to

settle a colony of Russian Jews on Government land, as you well

understand the value and consequences of this enterprise if it suc-

ceeds. It will solve the problem what to do with the Russian immi-

grants, and be an honor to them and to us. You are all intelligent

men and women; we need not tell you more to enlist your syrn-

pathy. Let us see at once how much it is worth. Please remember

the address, Isaac M. Wise, 169 Elm Street, Cincinnati, Ohio. In

the name of God and humanity we ask your aid.

P. S. Exchange papers which copy this humble plea will confer

a lasting obligation on us.

[The American Israelite, June 30, I $821


Wednesday, July 26th, I 882

Leo Wise [Isaac M. Wise's son] and I left Cincinnati under the

most favorable auspices in charge of the Beer Seeba [sic] Colony,

consisting of about sixty souls in all of men, women, and children,

on the Big Four and Vandalia Line. Geo. A. Knight, the Vandalia

agent, accompanying us, we arrived at Indianapolis at midnight,

where the engine jumped the track before reaching the depot, and

at this place, owing to some misunderstanding, we had to change

cars. This was accomplished with little trouble, and soon [we] were

under way for St. Louis. . . .

Thursday, July 2 7 [I 88 z]

We arrived at St. Louis about 8:30 A. M., took our people

into [the] waiting room, fed them as we could, and then took [the]

C[hicago] & A[lton] train for Kansas City. . . . Before arriving at

K[ansas]. City, while Mr. Knight, Leo, and myself were taking

supper in the dining car, Leo asked Mr. Knight what he thought

about the lands we had decided to go to at Cimarron, and he expressed

himself in such a manner that we took alarm, and after arriving at

K. C., the local com[mittee]. deprecated our plan of going to that

locality - and after a hurried consultation we determined to hold

people over and for Leo to go on to Topeka and make inquiries

at [the] state agricultural department. Leo then left on [the] 10

o'clock train the same night. . . .

. . . when we came [to Kansas City], a brakeman at [the] depot

said that we would have to take the emigrant train, which naturally

made me indignant, as this was contrary to our agreement and con-

trary to inducements set forth by [the] A[tchison]. T[opeka]. &

S[anta]. F[e]. R. R. when soliciting business. We were promised

first class coaches with second class accommodations for them all.

After considerable trouble we had all our baggage held over. . . .

Friday, July 28 [I 8821

This morning I awoke early and was feeling very blue over the

situation. After breakfast I went around and looked after the people


and found them all happy excepting [Julius] Cohen and Goldfarb,

who also felt blue after learning the state of affairs.

I then telephoned up to Mr. [A. N.] Sadler [president of the

Kansas City Relief Committee], who came down to me in his

buggy, and we called on [the] propr[ietor]. of [the] Leland Hotel,

who did not wish to keep the people, but he was finally persuaded

to keep them.

Mr. Sadler then drove with me out to the stock yards in West

Kansas [City], where we consulted a number of cowboys and

others, who expressed very unfavorable opinions of the land selected

for agricultural purposes, although it was highly spoken of as a

stock country. But as yet we had no opinion of a single person that

had personally been on the grounds and inspected it. We consulted

many men today who said they heard so and so, but no one said he

had been there. At 5: 30 this evening Leo and Knight returned from

Topeka and brought statistical reports of rainfall throughout Kansas,

and Cimarron was located in [the] western part of the third belt

and on high grounds, and the statistics also showed that the rainfall

was steadily on the increase throughout Kansas every year. On

the whole, we decided not to go as yet. . . .

Saturday, July 29 [I 8821

I awoke at 5 and was out on the street a quarter past five, and I

found none of my men out except Cohen, and he told me that some

of them refused to get up. I then went around and got them all out

on the street at 6: 15, as they were very slow and some of them

may have had scruples about doing any manual [labor] today as it is

(Shabas [Sabbath]) Saturday. . . .

. . . Leo and I went to breakfast with Mr. Knight, and after

that we called on Mr. Gilmour, the Union Pacific R. R. land agent,

whom we found to be a very agreeable gentleman, and told him the

circumstances and also requested him to suggest some of the best

lands that he had for sale for our purposes. Here I must add that it

seems that a strange impression has gained ground that these Russian

refugees are a lot of beggars and paupers whom the Relief Com-

mittee of Cincinnati are trying to get rid of, and we learn[ed] that

the A. T. & S. F. R. R. are under that impression [also] and don't


want the people located on their road, and this in my opinion is the

reason why none of their officials met us at the depot, which is

customary when such a large party arrives, and also why they wanted

to put us through on an emigrant train. We explained the whole

matter thoroughly to Mr. Gilmour, who admitted that he also had

formed such an impression, but that it was now entirely eradicated

from his mind. He then recommended some lands in Ellsworth and

Rice counties, which are situated in the centre of the middle rain

belt and lay between the U[nion] . P[acific] . and A. T. & S. F. R. R.

He furnished Leo with transportation for two to Ellsworth City -

and return and a letter to his agent there, who will show him the

lands. I trust these lands will sit, as it is only a distance of about

250 miles from here and near the r[ail]road.

Today we also received and sent many telegrams, and at 9:30

Leo and Cohen, our head man, started for Ellsworth. Cohen told

me before leaving that the lands near Cimarron that he and Goldfarb

had selected were good lands, and he is satisfied that no better lands

can be found any place. . . .

Monday, July 3 I st [I 88 2 ]

This morning, as I usually do every morning and evening, [I]

went to the rooms of the different people and made them clean up.

This is a regular thing twice a day, as I don't want the landlords to

make any remarks about their habits.

Today Chole Gedanski7s wife complained of her breasts aching

and I sent Liebersohn's wife to attend her, and she reported to me

that it was nothing serious. They come to me each one with his or

her troubles and in this act like a lot of children, and at such times

I feel as though the responsibility was too great for a young man.

Leo has got the worst part of [the] business to attend to in looking

up the lands, but he is well fitted for roughing it, and he is disposed

to not let any matter ruffle his temper, and he is the best traveling

companion I ever had. . . . When we lefi home, Mrs. [Rosa] Sachs

and my mother [Mrs. A. Davis] were kind enough to prepare among

others a basket of lunch for us, and among other things they put in

some wine and liquors. These things we did not touch and intended

to keep until1 we got settled, know& that we would need them then


I f f AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES, NOVEMBER, 1965

the most. This basket with contents was stolen by Boxer, Sussman,

Skwerski, Roseman, and Breslawski and Sasewitz. They made

[alway with everything and they were kind enough to return the

candles, soap, and matches. The canned goods, wines, etc., they,

of course, appropriated.

I am having a great deal of trouble with these boys daily and

have been out looking for employment for them. Two of them,

Skwerski and Roseman, obtained employment in a furniture factory

and go to work Wednesday morning.

Tuesday, Aug. r st, 1882

Today I hit upon a plan to curtail expenses. I bought six mattresses

and pillows which I knew the boys would need when we arrived at

our destination, had them put in the cellar where we kept our

baggage, and informed the boys that hereafter until1 we lefi they

should sleep there, and to this they made no objection, of which I

was very glad.

Today we discovered on opening the cases to air the provisions,

also to repack them more secure, that there was quite a number of

boxes of sardines that had disappeared, and at first, of course, no one

knew anything about it, but finally some of the boys made a clean

breast of it and said they had taken them out of the case last Saturday

while on watch. Of course, I was very angry, but could do nothing.

The boys who owned up to having pilfered the goods were Bres-

lawski, Sczernes, Sussman, Skwerski, Roseman, Schleier, and Boxer,

Breslawski alone having acknowledged taking twelve to nineteen

boxes, but he seems to be only a tool for Sussman and Boxer. These

two latter are developing into first class rascals. They seem to be

the ringleaders and lead the others into all kinds of mischief, and

my talking don't seem to have any effect on them. They almost

worry me to death, as I want to hide their conduct from the people

of Kansas City, especially the Gentiles, who have never seen

Russians before, because I don't want them to form a poor opinion

of our people, as I don't think the innocent should suffer with the

guilty. I made extra efforts today to secure work for them, but

without success. . . .


Reproduced f?o,n Brandeis Unlvers~ty Year Book. 1952

Ludwig Lewisohn

"One's mind is at rest"

(see p. I 09)


Wednesday, Aug. znd, I 882

This morning I went to their quarters as usual and made them

clean up, also gave them meal tickets. All are well. On arriving at

our reception room in the basement, I was astounded to learn that

someone had stolen a pocketbook containing twelve dollars - f I z -

from Schleier. The poor fellow was heartbroken over his loss. He

told me that with this money he expected to make a start in the

stock business by buying a calf, etc. I asked him if he had any

suspicion who did it and also asked all about it. This morning

Roseman and Skwerski went to work and got up about five o'clock,

according to what Goldman says, who also slept in there to protect

things and to maintain order. All were asleep when they left and

everything in order. Afterwards, Schleier says that his bed-fellow

Sussman woke him, saying it was time to get up. This was about

five. Boxer was also awake at [the] same time. Schleier, in looking

for his trousers, which he had laid under his pillow, found them

lying in the middle of the floor instead. From all the circumstances,

and knowing Sussman to be a rascal, I suspect him, but said nothing.

I asked everyone how much money they had, and he said he had

only three dollars. I appointed Goldman to watch him and see how

much money he spent, and as soon as we get settled I will take his

case in hand, and if he is proven guilty, he will be invited to depart,

as I think we can dispense with his valuable services under such

circumstances. . . .

Thursday, Aug. 3rd [I 8821

This morning at about 9 o'clock I rec[eive]d a telegram from

Leo at Dodge City, saying he had found the land at Cimmarron was

much better than he expected and telling me to bring [the] people

down at once, also that he had been out [to] the Fort and seen the

commandant about our tents, of which they knew nothing. After

receiving this message I was somewhat in doubt as to whether I

would go, but in an hour Iater I rec[eive]d a telegram from Mr.

[Moritz] Loth [of the Cincinnati Relief Committee] ordering me

on to Cimmarron at once that same day. First, I telegraphed on for

the men I had sent out last night, next, to [the] Cin[cinna]ti [Relief

Committee] about the renewal of our tickets, also requesting them


to secure us a special car on [an] express train, as it was a run of

about 400 miles. In a short time, [I.] got answers saying that the

superintendant of [the] A. T. & S. F. R. R. at Topeka had been

wired and that everything was satisfactorily arranged. Then I called

on Mr. H. E. Moss, the agent at Kansas City, and asked about it,

and he said that as yet he had no instructions from Topeka. Next,

I went around with Mr. Sadler and paid all lodging and meal bills.

I used all the money I had - took considerable money of Mr.

A. N. Sadler, for which I gave him a drafi on Mr. Loth, chairman.

Our expense at Kansas City was enormous. Every hotel keeper

seemed to want all the money we had and overcharged us in every

instance, and we had no alternative but to pay. . . .

At about six I moved all our baggage and checked it at [the]

depot for Cimarron, then ordered all our people to be in [the]

waiting room at [the] depot. Also gave them money to buy provisions

for the journey, and all was ready waiting on [the] Santa Fee R. R.

agent. Up to 9 o'clock at night he said he had no orders from head-

quarters, and then I made up my mind that he was going to send

us on an emigrant train, and shortly after he said that he got a

telegram to send us on the emigrant train. This was in spite of the

fact that our tickets entitled us to travel on express trains. After

considerable argument, which did not move him, I consented to

send [the] people on the emigrant train, which is nothing more or

less than a freight travelling from nine to twelve miles per hour.

In the meantime, the express train had gone, and he led us into

[the] depot and put our people in a special car, which I afterwards

learned was there since seven o'clock for our especial benefit, thus

showing that they acted rascally. The last thing Moss, the agent,

said to me was that he was sorry for us, that the people would

starve there, etc. I told Fim] that our people never starved. They

were always willing to work and could make a living any place.

. . . [I] go on [the] Cannon Ball train at 10 tomorrow. Then [I]

wired Mr. Loth, Knight, and Leo of all that occurred. [The] emi-

grant train left at I z midnight. I waited to see them off, then retired

to [the] hotel at about I A. M.

Was tired and worn out with worry, work, and excitement,

and could not sleep until1 daybreak, and then I was called up at 6.


Friday, August 4th [I 88 t]

Left Kansas City 10 A. M., overtook [the] emigrant train, on

which [the] people left last night, near Holstead, Kas. This was

five o'clock. They had been on the road seventeen hours, while

we were only seven hours coming [the] same distance, and at

eight P. M. I arrived at Larned, where I was met by Leo . . . [who]

then partially explained why they [there] were so few settlers there

at Cimarron and why the R. R. discouraged emigration to this section

and also why they spread bad reports broadcast to the effect that

it is only a sandy desert, etc. In the first place, these western counties

are new, have no settlers, and also are not organized, and as long

as a county is not organized, the R. R. pays no taxes on its lands,

and they own, for twenty miles on either side of the road, every

alternate section. It is to their interest, then, to keep the emigration

East, where the counties are organized and they are paying taxes.

Secondly, it is to protect the interests of stock men. Cattle are

run up in droves of from one to ten thousand (or even more) head

from Texas and elsewhere and are run up what is called the trail

(or regular road that they have had for years). These cattle graze

on all lands they travel over and spread out for great distances, and

wherever a farmer settles in this country, it, of course, takes away

so much free grazing ground, and furthermore, the owners of herds

are responsible for all damages that they may do any farmer, and

as people don't have fences out here, it is no easy job to keep the

cattle from running over and destroying crops, etc.

Also all Texas cattle have what they term Texas fever, and

whenever they go near where domestic cattle are, these become

infected with the disease and die, and for this also the owners of

said herds are responsible and must pay all damages and losses.

For the latter reason, both the stock men in this section and else-

where, and also the cowboys who drive the wild cattle over this

trail, oppose and discourage emigration. Every settler narrows the

trail, and finally they dare drive no cattle through the country, and

consequently they have to ship their cattle from a point farther

west, which causes greater expense, etc. There may be other reasons,

which I shall endeavor to learn.

Leo and I stayed up till 2 A. M., when our people arrived, and


we took off Terte, [Lipe] Goldman, Nusiach, Zuckerwasser,

[Moses] Edelhertz, Liebersohn, Billy Schwartzman, and one more

to enter their lands here. The rest went on to Cimmarron and were

due there next day at 10. The best place we could find for our men

was a hay loft over a stable. We put them in, and we went to our

hotel, which was overcrowded already.

Saturday, August 5 [188z]

This morning I took the ten men up to the U. S. Land Office

and had them sworn and had their entries made for Gov[ernmen]t

lands here. We encountered a difficulty which I never thought of.

When it came to signing their names, they refused to do so because

it was Sabbath, but finally I explained the necessity of doing [so]

as it would be too much expense to keep them over Sunday. Then

seven signed; two made their marks. Edelherts (the Schochet [ritual

slaughterer]) refused flatly and said he would rather not have the

land than compromise his conscience.

Then came the most trying part of the entire business: namely,

buying supplies, implements, stock, etc. Leo as well as myself were

green. The merchants knew it, and we were at their mercy. . . .

Now it came to mules, horses, etc. This we knew less of than any-

thing else. They held them very high, and we found we could not

buy, as only a few persons had a little for sale. Finally we bought

a pair of mules six and eight y[ea]rs old, for which we paid the

enormous price of $200. This was the cheapest pair we could get;

others asked as high as $275 a pair, and there were few for sale

even at these figures, but we were compelled to buy one pair to

haul our wagons, of which we bought two fine, new 3% in[ch?]

Beau's [bows?], and as it would cost about $30 freight to send them

to Cimarron, we concluded - after taking everything into con-

sideration, also the fact that there were no horses or mules for sale

where we were going - that the best thing to do was to buy the

mules, fill the wagons, take several men, and go overland by the

trail to where we intended to locate.

Here we realized the fact that the appropriation of the committee

was inadequate - our expenses had been enormous for feeding and

lodging the people, also for traveling, and now we had almost


expended our money and not bought near what we actually needed:

sheep, milk cows, and other cattle beside implements, lumber, and a

thousand and one things that at present we could not think, neither

had we time to think of them, as we wanted to get them out [of]

the towns and settled as quick as possible. I must also add that we

got very little information as to what we should buy, as the imple-

ments in this country were entirely new to them, and when we

bought the Buckeye mower, they acted like a lot of children while

inspecting it. The whole affair looked to me like a little girl enjoying

herself with handling her first large doll, and they had to be cautioned

many times to be carehl or they might lose their fingers or get

cut in some way. We were not very anxious to have any sick people

on our hands. So far all are well. . . . At 8 o'clock at night [when it

was no longer Sabbath], Capt. Morris, the U. S. Land Register, was

kind enough to swear Edelhertz whom I told him was a

Rabbai [sic] . . . .

Sunday, Aug. 6th [188r]

. . . . At 9: 30, we arrived at Cimarron, and once more we were

almost all together. Expense going on, of course. When I arrived

there, I found this to be a small station and only about 150 in-

habitants in [the] entire county, of which about IOO live in town

here.

All the farmers were in and received me kindly, offered every

encouragement to me in the shape of their teams for ourselves and

freight, free of charge, and also offering to do our teaming per-

sonally, and offered to show us what to do and how to do it. [They]

also told us that they made slow progress and some of them total

failures the first year, only owing to the fact that they did not know

how to handle a prairie farm that had never been broken and did

not know what to sow. They told me that our colony should profit

by their experience. They would show us everything and lend us

all the aid in their power, because they said our coming would drive

the stock men off this trail and make them go to the state line,

that is, the Colorado border about loo miles west.

The farmers and the stock men are antagonistic, because their

interests differ. The farmers want more land broken and thus in-


crease the rain fall. They also want neighbors to be a power, as it

were, to keep the stock men with their herd[s] away, because as

long as these herds graze by the thousands with wild Texas cattle,

they eat off the grass that retains the moisture in the soil, and

nothing but short, coarse buffalo grass will grow. This is detri-

mental to the soil for farming purposes.

The sections we are going on to are located right on the fresh

cattle trail, and today I learn[ed] that a stock man said that he will

give $200 in cash to any man who will exert enough influence to

keep us from settling here by discouraging us. This was said to

Mr. Sewel Mason, who is one of our staunchest friends and our

neighbor out there. Some of the people here in town are interested

in stock and, of course, don't wish to see us settle there. They are

even sowing discord among our young men by telling them that

they are wasting their lives by going into that section, that it never

rains there, that the ground will produce nothing, etc.

The other party are receiving us, as it were, with open arms.

We are also told that the A. T. & S. F. R. R. will hamper us as

much as possible by detaining our freight, as they are in leag[u]e

with the stock men because it [is] to their interests at present

settlement, on account of taxes, etc., as heretofore mentioned. This

I can already see cropping out, since as yet we have no information

about our freight, which should have been here. The town is situated

on the Arkansas River, and here, from my stopping place, which is

an empty house of Mr. Peters [a local surveyor] situated on a

small elevation (the prairie here is somewhat rolling), I can see for

miles on all sides, and within sight there are great herds of Texas

cattle grazing. These are attended by cowboys who are principally

men of nerve and daring and will be crossed by no one. Every one

carries a belt with a couple of 44 calibre long range revolvers, and

the cartridges -probably a hundred - are encased separately in a

little belt of leather and all attached to the large belt in full view and

easily handled, but they must weigh several pounds, no doubt. They

came in here for dinner today and seem to be all right. Every man

almost in this section carries his shoot iron, as they call it, and many

of them lay down to sleep at night on the floor with all these little

trinkets on their persons. Taking off clothing is out of the question,


and I understand they can sleep as well and snore as loud as Eastern

people. Altogether I am favorably impressed with the country. . . .

Monday, Aug. 7th [I 8821

This morning Cohen, Peters, and I got up at a quarter of four

o'clock and made arrangements to get our baggage . . . and by eight

o'clock we had all our people and their baggage loaded and on the

way, the several farmers agreeing to house them for a time or until1

our freight arrived. I also bought flour, salt, and such things, bread

also, which they needed on the way. We also loaded water in every

wagon, as there is no house for twenty-five miles. Cohen and I

remained here to receive goods shipped from Larned. These [we]

will load on the teams that will return tomorrow, and we must also

get definite information about our h[ouse]. h[old]. goods and provi-

sions shipped from Cin[cinnati]. We have a whole house to our-

selves, however, and the air here is fine, hot in the day, but cold at

night. No need of going to the Highland House [a celebrated Cin-

cinnati "pleasure dome"] here for fresh air. There is plenty of it,

and in my opinion this is a good, healthy climate. The people here

are all a good, healthy looking set of men, and I have already become

infected with the Kansas Fever (as Leo calls it) in the shape of a

ravenous appetite. Of course, you can't get what you want, but I

don't mind a little thing like that - oh no. Today I asked [a] man

whom I stopped with (since he has some chickens) if he wouldn't

be kind enough to give me a couple of eggs for dinner as they had no

fresh meat; so he went out and after considerable trouble they found

one egg for me.

Nothing for me to do the balance of the day but write and worry

about that car load of h. h. goods, etc., as well as the tents.

I forgot to mention yesterday that, in order to be in style here,

I put on my old blue suit, a blue flannel shirt, a broad brimmed

straw hat, and have dispensed with both coat and vest and - to-

gether with the fact that I have not been shaved since last Wednes-

day - I think I compare favorably with the natives, excepting that

I am afraid I can't get used to carrying my pistol around all the time.

It's too heavy, and besides, I am afraid they might criticize it, as it

is only a 38 calibre, while a 44 is regulation out here.


This evening I went out to a place in company with Cohen and

Paul Herzog, a resident here, to see how fire hedges, or fire guards,

should be built to protect one's property from the prairie fires which

sweep over the country every fall. It is necessary to plow up a

space of sixteen feet all around one's place, and this is called a

fire guard.

I also saw a prairie dog town this evening. There are thousands

of them just across the R. R. track.

Tuesday, Aug. 8th [I 8821

I could get no reply to messages sent to Mr. Loth last Sunday

and yesterday about [the] freight and tents, and as it was very dull

here at Cimarron, I thought I would go to Dodge City and find out

what I could learn about the country, its people, and their general

occupation. Went to Dodge on [the] six P. M. train, arrived at 7: 30

and went to Dr. S. Galland, who had invited me to visit him. Wired

Mr. Loth about [the] freight and tents.

Wednesday, Aug. 9th [1882]

Rec[eive]d answer from Mr. Loth, but nothing satisfactory, and

wired him again.

Was introduced to Mr. Collar today, who is an enterprising

merchant and owns the finest home and grounds in this vicinity. He

took me to his place and showed what could be done in the way of

agriculture and forestry in what is called the Great American

Desert. The grounds are laid out beautifully, with a flower garden

in front of the house at the end of a long, wide drive. He was the

first man that attempted to grow trees in this section, and what I

have seen on his place proves conclusively that with care, attention,

and labor this country will grow almost anything that is grown in

this whole country. . . .

This is a regular frontier town, and sights are seen here that

would shock the nerves of many timid persons from the East, who

would be surprised to know that such things are countenanced in

any community. There are probably over a dozen saloons on the

main street, in each of which they entertain their patrons with


music from a piano and violin, and sometimes the cowboys are

regaled with a vile song by an abandoned woman.

Gambling is done openly, the doors being wide open in these

saloons, where they have far0 tables, rouge et noir, chuck a luck,

Spanish monte, and many other games of chance, where, in many

cases, women preside over them, and the roll, or money, of the bank

is displayed in stacks of gold and large notes in front of the dealer,

and then there is a dance-house here as well, and in all of these

places the cowboy in all his verdancy spends his hard earned

money in a few days and nights, then contendedly [contentedly]

goes out on the trail again for five or six months.

Made it my business to see quite a number of farmers today to

learn what is raised most successfully here, and find quite a number

of them to be doing very well, but they all advise keeping a little

stock, as the increase is a sure source of profit.

Thursday, Aug. 10th [1882]

Rec [eive] d telegram about [the] tents today, and this evening

went back to Cimarron and found our provisions had been shipped

over, and other goods were lying at the depot.

Friday, Aug. I I th [I 88 21

Started for our settlement on the Pawnee before daylight this

morning and found our camp in good order, as Leo had arranged it

when he came.

I found that he and Mr. Peter [s], the surveyor, were out surveying

the land. I then took two of our men and started out, and after a

tramp of six miles found them and sent our men back to camp.

Then Mr. Peter[s], Leo, and I started for Mr. Parker's house, two

miles distant, at which place Mr. P[eters]. said he had business

and also held forth the inducement that when we got there we would

get our dinner and some water, both of which we stood in need of.

Upon arriving at the house, we found it unoccupied, with the well

in ruins. Imagine our feelings, tired, hungry, and thirsty, and eight

miles across the prairies to our camp, with the thermometer at

about I 10. While [we were] studying over the situation, a cowboy


ode up and told us his camp was two miles away and there we could

[get] some chuck, as he called it. 1 was almost fagged out before

we got to his camp, but we finally got there, almost worn out after

tramping ten miles or more in the hot sun. The camp consisted of a

tent, adjoining a corrall, into which the stock was driven at night.

We found a man in charge, who got us up a dinner of coffee, antelope

steak, onions, and bread. Although the dust and grass was [were]

flying all over what we ate, I never enjoyed a meal so much in my life.

BEERSHEBA COLONY - AN ASSURED SUCCESS

Report of M. H. Marks, Esq., to the Hebrew

Union Agricultural Society

M[oritz] . Loth, Esq., President, Hebrew Union Agricultural Society:

Dear Sir: -

Having offered my services to visit Beersheba Colony in order

to ascertain what probable chances of becoming successful farmers

these people have, and having returned from my trip two days ago,

I beg leave herewith to present my report.

I wish to state, although I am an enthusiast on the subject of

colonizing our poor Jewish brethren, still, owing to the many

discouraging reports, and the evil influence of so many disparaging

letters and editorials of some of the great and wise heads of Israel,

I started on this trip firmly convinced that all the money expended

for these people had been thrown away, and all the labor performed

in their behalf was "love's labor lost." In company with Mr. Max

Isaacs, of this city, I started on my mission. We left here on the

eve of July 5th [I 88 31, arriving in Kansas City, Mo., the next night

at I I o'clock. We were met at the depot by one of those men (of

whom, alas! there are too many) who disparage all laudable enter-

prises, and who immediately volunteered the information that the

colony was a failure, that nothing could be raised where they were

located, and that they were all running off and becoming a burden

to Kansas City. Mr. Isaacs not wishing to travel on the Sabbath,

we laid over that day, visiting Messrs. [A. N.] Sadler and [L. Y.]

Lieberman, two gentlemen who are doing everything they possibly


A COLONY IN KANSAS - I 8 8 2 I35

can to ameliorate the condition of the poor Russian refugees, as well

as the condition of their own poor,and from the geographical location

of Kansas City, this must be a herculean task indeed. Mr. [B. A.]

Feineman, who is the third parmer in this worthy trio, was absent,

having gone to the Cincinnati Convention [of the Union of American

Hebrew Congregations]. Calling also upon the gentleman who, so

to say, had put a damper on our enthusiasm on our arrival in Kansas

City, we met in his store three of the families from the colony, who,

having heard of our arrival, were looking for us. These were Messrs.

Zuckenvasser, Liebersohn, and Mr. and Mrs. Gidanzki, all of them

anxious to return to the colony. Mrs. Gidanzki begged us, with

tears streaming down her cheeks, to take them along, all claiming

that they left through a misunderstanding. Our Board having pre-

viously taken action on these deserters, we, of course, left them as

we found them, but it is my opinion they will eventually all return

and reclaim their land, and become farmers without our assistance.

Having had a good day's rest, we started on the Atchison,

Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad at 9 o'clock Saturday night, arriving

at Cimrnaron, Kan., Sunday afternoon at 4 o'clock. We immediately

hired a team to drive us to the colony, a distance of twenty-six miles.

Before starting we met young Cohn, son of one of the colonists,

who, although only eighteen years old, works on the Santa Fe

Railroad, receiving one dollar and thirty cents per day, and whose

ambition is to save money enough to buy five cows to start a cattle

ranche on a small scale. That young man's success is assured. After a

very tedious drive of four hours over a very dusty prairie, we arrived

at our destination, and surprised our worthy superintendent, Mr.

Baum, and his estimable wife, by suddenly landing in his camp, and

had the pleasure, for the first time, to lodge in a Western settler's

mansion - a dugout.

I do not intend this report to be a descriptive one, but merely

one of facts, otherwise it may become too lengthy. I therefore refer

you for description of scenery, Western life, etc., to my friend,

Mr. Isaacs, who, no doubt, will report in fill. After a good night's

rest we proceeded to make a thorough investigation, and what we

report is what we saw, and that which we know to be facts, and

not merely information.


The colony consists of eleven families, fifty-nine persons in all,

of which thirty-six are children, and one a single, or rather, un-

married young man. Each family owns one hundred and sixty acres

of land, upon which they have built a dwelling (dugout). The

majority are now building additions, such as kitchens, alcoves, etc.

Each house has a well with good water. The houses are kept clean,

and are all nicely whitened or whitewashed, some even making

attempts to decorate the interior with bric-a-brac and such fixings

as only ladies know the names of - I don't.

The eleven families live on an area of land covering six miles,

that is, the first settler lives six miles from the last, the first being

Mr. David Klein, of this city, with his happy family of six children.

The last settler is Mr. Schwartzman, a Russian refugee with five

children. One of Mr. Schwartzman's daughters was married to the

son of Mr. Cohn (not the one previously mentioned). This was the

first wedding in the colony. But I digress. The best building in the

settlement is the school-house, intended for both school-house and

synagogue. Much as they are desirous to have their children in-

structed in the English language, they have no teacher, and it will

be the duty of our Board to provide one.

Many were the inquiries for Mrs. Rosa Sachs and her able corps

of teachers. Could she not detail one of them as a missionary during

the summer months? It would be quite a delightful change from

Saratoga. Services are held every Saturday and holidays under the

ministration of Mr. Edelhertz, who acts as Chasan [cantor], Shochet

[ritual slaughterer], no doubt, to their entire satisfaction, but this

office is no sinecure, as at the same time he is a first-class farmer.

I wish to state in this connection that the Sabbath here is strictly

observed, and no labor is performed by either man or beast.

The colonists have, in addition to building their houses, school-

house, and digging wells, plowed three hundred and fifty acres of

land, two hundred of which are planted with sorgum, which is in a

fine condition, and will, in addition to several acres of kitchen vege-

tables planted, produce sufficient to bridge them over until next

year's harvest, as all the men will be able, and are willing, to earn

their living by working on the adjoining railroad when they are

not needed on their farms. Preparations are now being made to


A COLONY IN KANSAS - 1882 1 37

thus dispose of part of the men after harvest. The working force of

the colony consists, in addition to the men, of five yoke of oxen, a

team ofmules, a team of horses, six plows, and five wagons. Domestic

stock, twenty-three cows, twenty-two calves, and no end of chickens,

all of which are the finest stock to be had in the State of Kansas,

and far superior to any owned by any of the older settlers in this

part of the country. In addition to this they own the various imple-

ments necessary for so distant a settlement, such as a full set of

blacksmith's tools, planting and harvesting machinery, etc.

The health of the colony is excellent, not a single case of sickness.

True, there was one death, that of Mrs. Weiser, but she was sick

when she left Cincinnati for the colony, and although advised at

the time to stay behind, she would go. She now sleeps on a gentle

slope of the prairie set apart by these people for a cemetery.

There are several Americans settled in the immediate neighbor-

hood of our colony, a Mr. Gordon, who came from Ohio three

years ago; Mr. Mason, who came from Illinois; and a Mr. Parks,

who came from Iowa five years ago. All of these are thrifty farmers,

being engaged in both farming and stock raising. These gentlemen,

and, in fact, all with whom we conversed, speak of our colonists in

terms of highest praise as an industrious and frugal people who

have the ability and determination to make it a success. These

neighbors, I am glad to say, have always done all in their power to

assist them with their advice.

The work our colonists have now on hand is to lay in their

supply of fuel for the coming winter, which (as you may not be

aware of the fact) consists in stacking up piles of cattle refuse

obtained from the great Texas cattle trail close by. There is no

wood to be had in this part of the country, as there is no timber

within hundreds of miles of any quantity, and although coal may be

had, transportation is so high as to make it an article of luxury out of

question for new settlers. This refuse, however, furnishes a good

article of fuel, answering every purpose for cooking and heating,

and, as stated before, they are engaged in laying in their winter

supply just as we do our coal. The climate is excellent, and they

have but little snow, enabling the stock to subsist on the rich prairie

grass the year around without one cent of expense. There has been


considerable said and written about this colony being located in a

belt which has but little or no rain. It is strange, therefore, to relate

that they had all the rain they needed this season, nor have we got

any information from any of the olders settlers that they have ever

suffered severely from the want of sufficient rain more than in other

section [s] of the country occasionally.

I am not prepared to say that the land here is as fertile as any

other land, but from careful investigation I do find that after several

years tilling of the soil any grain, such as wheat, corn, oats, in

addition to sorghum, rice and broomcorn, can be successful[ly]

raised. Still, the great force of this country consists in stock raising,

which can be made more profitable than any other branch of

agriculture.

But the great question in which we all take such a lively in-

terest - "Can Jews become successful farmers?" - is virtually

solved by Beersheba Colony, and that Jews, as well as our Gentile

friends, can become successful tillers of the soil, and that the Jewish

race can become again that which, according to tradition, they have

been before, an agricultural people, is established beyond any reason-

able doubt. There may have been failures of other colonies, but has it

ever been properly investigated whether the failure was due more

to the originators or to the farmer? I am inclined to believe that

most of the failures are due to theoretical farming, in which I take

but little stock. I am a firm believer in practical farming. I venture

the assertion that, out of every hundred of our successful farmers in

this country, not one ever heard of an agricultural school, and my

idea of making farmers is to send them on a farm and let them learn

by experience. It may be a rude notion, not consistent with present

ideas, but I believe it will pan out as much to the dollar as any

modern way. I do not pretend to say that our society has made no

mistakes in starting this colony, for it has, and plenty of them. It

would have been wonderful if we had not, but we have the satisfac-

tion of knowing that our colony is a grand success, and an honor

and glory to our cause, fully demonstrating the fact that, as usual,

Cincinnati is bound to succeed in what she undertakes.

Looking over our accounts, I find, with what will be yet re-

quired to put them in an independent position (which, by the way,


will be very little), that they have cost our society on the average

of one thousand dollars per family. I will be prepared, at the next

meeting of our board, to lay facts and figures before you, showing

that five hundred dollars is the outside figure required, with our

present experience, to locate heads of families with from two to five

children on Government land, provided not less than two families

are clubbed together. It would cost more, however, to locate single

families. This sum also includes their support until they are able to

make their first crop. If you desire to place any more colonists in

this section - and there is room for thousands of families - I have

the assurance of our colonists, as well as their Christian neighbors,

that they will do all in their power to assist them.

I can not close this report without again referring to the condition

of our colony. Eleven happier and more independent families would

be hard to find, and I doubt if any reasonable sum of money could

induce any of them to leave their land and return to this city. I

trust you will be enabled to transfer any number of families from the

misery of tenemenr houses to God's pure air on Government land,

and thus virtually solve the question to which you have given so

much of your rime, talent, and energy - that Jews can become suc-

cessful farmers.

Trusting you will pardon this lengthy report, I am

Respectfully yours,

M. H. MARKS

July 15, 1883

[The American Israelite, July 20, I 8831


Words and Phrases

Everybody had their hands and hearts full.

Levi Shefiall, diary entry on the American Revolution

The first and principal thing is to have a good heart, to perform the operation

with courage, intermixed with tenderness.

Abraham I. Abrahams, on circumcision, New York, 1772

A cynical definition of an anti-Semite: One who hates Jews more than is really

necessary.

I got a lusty boy; jumpt into the world the night before last.

Samuel Jacobs, Canada, I 77 2

Civil peace may be maintained amidst diversity of opinions.

Fundamental Constitution of Carolina, I 669

You cannot know what a wonderful country this is for the common man.

Rebecca Samuel, Petersburg, Va., I 791

You know I love to be in the way of adding to my stock of ideas upon all subjects.

Benjamin Rush, 1787

He who hates another man for not being a Christian, is himself not a Christian.

Christianity breathes love, peace, and good-will to man. The Jews have had a

considerable share in our late Revolution. They have behaved well throughout.

Let our government invite the Jews to our State and promise them a settlement

in it. It will be a wise and a politic stroke, and give a place of rest at last to the tribe

of Israel.

South Carolina Gazette and General Advertiser, August 30, 1783

Midway in the play, Zousse Massinca, 82, playing Macbeth, turned to Lady

Macbeth, played by Bessie Estrich, and lamented: "A king I had to be? a 15-room

castle wasn't good enough for you?"

New York Times, July 10, 1964

"Never to admit any performance calculated to injure virtue, religion, or other

public happiness, to wound a neighbour's reputation, or to raise a blush in the face

of virgin innocence."

Editorial policy of James Rivington, I 77 3


s'ogg I a.qj u! XI!^ a%poa 'laa~ls

IUOJ~

(+I I .d aas)


The Image America Two East European

Hebrew Periodicals

SANFORD RAGlNS

During the early years of the 1880's East European Jewry entered

a period marked by persecutions, pogroms, and imperial ukases of

an oppressive nature. It was during these years of great suffering

that the mass immigration of Russian-Polish Jews to the United

States began. The eyes of those who remained behind in the "old

country" followed their brethren across the sea and noted with

interest the problems and promises that life in the New World

brought for the newcomers. The growing interest of East European

Jewry in the happenings and conditions of Jewish life in America

was reflected in the Russo-Polish Jewish press of the day. In the

pages that follow, however, our discussion of the image of America

and American Judaism will be confined to their reflection in two

Hebrew-language periodicals: Hamelitz, published at St. Petersburg,

Russia, for the year I 883; and Hatzfirah, published at Warsaw,

Poland, for the year I 884.

A careful reading of these journals for the years 1883-1884

reveals two interesting facts which deserve mention at the outset.

First of all, neither of the periodicals presents, or attempts to present,

an "objective" or "scientifically true" image of America and her

Jews. The United States and American Jewry are viewed through

East European eyes; concern for Orthodoxy and for Hebrew educa-

tion, antipathy to Reform and to German Jews, and an attachment

to Zion - all left their imprint on, and added a Tendenz to, the

Hebrew journalism of Eastern Europe. Probably one vital concern

above all others colored the accounts that were printed and guided

the correspondents who wrote them: hundreds and thousands of

those who remained in Europe were interested in America because,

Rabbi Sanford Ragins, Assistant Rabbi of Leo Baeck Temple in Los Angeles, Calif.,

is a candidate for a Ph.D. degree in the History of Ideas program at Brandeis University.


as history was to show, they were beginning to consider their own

immigration. For the student of history the fact that the Jews of

Russia and Poland had a "distorted" view of America and her

Jewish life is irrelevant; it was the image or conception of America

that was held -rather than the actual reality that was America -

which operated as a factor in the growing mass immigration.

Secondly, it must be remembered that America was definitely

not a leading contender for the attention of these periodicals at this

time. In Hatzjrah, for example, only twenty-nine out of fifty issues

contained any reference to the United States, and in most of these

cases only a brief mention was made. Less than 50 percent of the

IOO issues of Hamelitz contain articles on American life.* The

primary interest of both these journals becomes apparent when one

considers that practically every issue dealt at length with the inter-

national politics of Europe; America was clearly secondary for

these Hebrew journalists who were so intensely concerned with

developments on the Continent. But while on the periphery of their

vision, America was certainly not ignored.

With these two points in mind, let us examine the image of

America and American Judaism in some detail.

America has been called the "land of opportunity," and this is

the way she appeared in Hamelitz and Hatzjrah. The correspondent

of Hamelitz, reporting from Chicago in 1883, painted a picture of

an expanding city with fine buildings, well-paved streets, and an

energetic population. In his own words, "The spirit of commerce

seizes them [the inhabitants] and the spirit of the activity of life

causes every difference and division to be forgot ten."^ America was

* Though America is considered less frequently in Hamclitz than in Hatzfi~ah, the former

is much more valuable (for these years at least) as a source. The articles in Hamelitz

tend to be fuller and longer, there is more attention to detail, and more of the articles are

first-hand accounts and letters rather than translations from other publications.

Note: All citations from Hamclitz are for the year 1883 (vol. ~g), while those from

Hatzfi~ah are for I 884 (vol. I I).

I Hamelitz, XIX, 54.


THE IMAGE OF AMERICA IN TWO EAST EUROPEAN HEBREW PERIODICALS 14.5

described as having an active economic life with abundant produc-

tivity, and in commenting on her need for developing foreign mar-

kets, one article reported:

This matter [the developing of commerce with Mexico] has much good

implicit within it, not only for America, but also for other nations. For

America is still spacious enough [to be able] to gather together within her

thousands and thousands of immigrants drawn from all the ends of the earth,

and with the flourishing of commerce and national wealth in America,

salvation shall go out from her to all the world.2

The axiom that America possessed abundant opportunity for all,

without distinction as to race or creed, implied two corollaries:

America was a land of freedom and a land of work. Thus a colony

in North Dakota wrote:

. . . . It is our strong hope that in the course of some years we will be able

to support our families honorably and comfortably and not with trouble,

and we will be citizens of this free state which is the most fortunate of all

lands.3

The freedom of America was, however, seen as a mixed blessing.

On the one hand, the background of persecution in Europe made the

liberty of America seem most desirable:

. . . in a new motherland . . . they [the newcomers] will go out to freedom

from laws of iniquity and oppression to live as citizens in a free country

and to find sustenance in it.4

On the other hand, the new liberty was considered an inducement

to the breaking of traditional bonds and a threat to religion. Hence,

in connection with the famous "shrimp cocktail" served at a Hebrew

Union College banquet, one correspondent wrote:

The abundant freedom which is practiced in America, the land of freedom,

can sometimes be like an ever swelling breach in the wall of religion

[which] destroys its foundations.5

Ibid., p. 237.

3 Ibid,, p. loo.

4 Hatzfirah, XI, 263.

Hamelitz, XIX, I z z 3 ; David Philipson, My Life as an American Jew (Cincinnati, I g41),

p. 2 3, gives an account of "the tereja banquet."


If America was a land of opportunity, she was so only for those

prepared to work, and work hard.6 Conditions for earning a living

were not easy,? and a newcomer wrote from Pittsburgh that "in

America one will not find bread with folded hands."* In appealing

to European charitable organizations not to send the sick, old, and

infirm across the ocean, the New York Jewish organizations warned:

"There is no land which devours its lazy inhabitants and those not suited

to physical labor like the land of Arnerica."g

In a similar vein, a letter from Scranton, Pennsylvania, cautioned:

. . . if all the inhabitants of Russia were to come here, even then there

would be sufficient work to support them, but not for people pampered

from youth, who believe that not concerning them was it written, "With

the sweat of thy brow thou shalt eat bread." The work here is oppressive

for them.lo

Although the general impression given was one of a land with

employment for all willing to work, the depression at the end of

1884 was noted carefully, and reports describing bankruptcy and

unemployment were printed: "It is a time of trouble in America.

Everyday the confusion increases; workmen by the thousands go

about the city seeking work, but there is none."IX

Even though no articles appeared on Americans as people, occa-

sional references to them tended to paint a favorable picture. Thus,

for example, the American farmers and small-town folk are called

"lovers of man."" Americans are depicted as taking the stated

ideals of their land seriously. When several immigrant women were

faced with difficult harvest work in the colony where they had been

settled, they demanded that they be returned to Russia where life

had been easier for them. In court the judge told them that it was a

6 Harnelitz, XIX, r 36.

7 Hatzjirah, XI, r 67.

Hmelitz, XIX, I I 5 5.

9 Hatzjirah, XI, 279.

I0 Hmlitz, XIX, 361-62.

I' Hatzjirah, XI, 4x0.

81 Hmnelitz, XIX, r 37.


THE IMAGE OF AMERICA IN TWO EAST EUROPEAN HEBREW PERIODICALS I47

shame for such strong and healthy women not to work.13 On another

occasion, a Russian Jew was imprisoned for stealing a watch; when

it was explained that he had done so because it was Passover and his

wife and five children had nothing to eat, the judge released the

prisoner and gave his family five dollars. The correspondent com-

mented that the judges of America were "not only judges of justice

but also seekers of mercy and charity."14

Because Americans believed in equality and tolerance, there was

no religious instruction in the public schools. Nevertheless, they

tended to be "orthodox" (fundamentalistic?) in their religion and

were devoted to their Christian faith.15 One report even noted a

plan by a group of rich Americans to rebuild Solomon's Temple in

Jeru~alem!~~

No incidents of anti-Semitism were reported from America -

and this at a time when the columns of Hamelitz and HatzJirah were

filled with reports of European blood libel trials and restrictive

decrees. Nonetheless, Americans were not described as immune to

either violence or antipathy to foreigners. The lynch justice of the

South was mentioned, and a long article described an attempted

lynching and the ensuing bloody riot that took place at Cincinnati

in 1884.~7. The Christian reaction to the threat of cheap Chinese

labor is also described, in this highly rhetorical style: "They arose

together against them, to kill them and destroy them, and to obliter-

ate them from under the skies of Ameri~a."~~

Generally, the attitude of the population and especially of its

leadership was represented as favorable to the Jews. When the

cornerstone of an "Orphan Home for Hebrew Children" was laid

in New York, leading Christians took part in the ceremonies. A

prominent citizen spoke on that occasion, praised the Jews as "faith-

ful sons of the lands of their birth in whatever place they are," and

'3 Ibid., p. 1072.

'4 Ibid., p. 745.

Is Ibid., pp. 409-10.

16 Hatzfirah, XI, 43.

'1 Ibid., pp. I 28-29.

a8 Hamclitz, XIX, I 363 (footnote).


14~

AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES, NOVEMBER, 1965

dwelt at length on their many virtues.'g No less a worthy than

President Chester A. Arthur accepted membership on a committee

planning the celebration of Sir Moses Montefiore's ~entennial.~~ One

report predicted that Presidential candidate James G. Blaine would

receive the support of most of the Jews of America because he had

worked for the good of their brothers before the governments of

Russia and Roumania.'I It was noted that Blaine had even written

a letter to Great Britain, urging her to join hands with America in

putting an end to European anti-Semitism "so that it may not destroy

the rule of enlightenment and toleran~e."~~

The manner in which the Lasker affair was described is an excellent

example of how a liberal image of America was presented to

East European Jewry. In 1884, Eduard Lasker, a notable Jewish

member of the German Reichstag, died while on a trip to America.

Great honor was tendered to his memory in New York."3 Congress

sent a letter of condolence to the Reichstag, but Lasker's antagonist,

Reichs Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, refused to transmit the message."4

The "enlightened" in America were aroused, and Bismarck's

intentions were challenged from the floor of congress."^ When

Bismarck attacked the American ambassador in Berlin, the latter was

publicly supported by his g~vernrnent."~ American cities began to

name streets after Lasker,"~ and many congressmen stated that they

were in favor of changing the name of Bismarck, North Dakota,

to Lasker City." The Jews of Russia and Poland could not but

have been moved by seeing America defend the honor of one of

I9 Ibid., pp. 726-27.

I0 HatzJi~ah, XI, 101.

l1 Ibid., p. z 24.

Ibid., p. 365.

23 Ibid., pp. 10-1 I.

04 Ibid., p. 42.

1s Ibid., p. 5 I.

16 Ibid., p. 82.

17 Ibid., p. 133.

a8 Ibid., p. 93.


THE IMAGE OF AMERICA IN TWO EAST EUROPEAN HEBREW PERIODICALS 149

their coreligionists against the enmity of the mighty "Iron

Chancellor."

Much concern was aroused when a formerly unenforced law

against pauperism was invoked to restrict immigration and, as a

result, a group of Roumanian Jews was returned to Europe. But the

correspondent reporting the incident noted that the liberal press had

come to the aid of the unfort~nates,~Q while the editor of the New

York Herald had even put out a special edition on their behalf.30

The Herald argued that in the light of the sufferings which they had

undergone in Europe the Jews were not to be included under the

pauperism legislation.3' Hatzjirah's correspondent was quick to point

out that the enforcement of the law did not imply the closing of the

gates to all immigration "for such as this has not happened and

perhaps will not happen."3Vurthermore, it was emphasized that

the law was by no means discriminatory, or directed against Jews

in particular; it was enforced against all indigents, of whatever

background.

Let it be far from us to say that the American soul has become disgusted

with the people of Israel. The gates of the land are open wide to any

healthy person who loves work and hates the bread of laziness.33

That relations with all Americans were not perfect is implied in

a report on the attitude of non-Jewish German immigrants toward

the East European Jews: "The Germans hate us here even more than

in their land, and despise the Jewish peddlers."34 But even as the

antipathy of the Germans is reported, the same article reinforces the

predominant image of America with the hope that "Israel will dwell

securely in the land of freedom and liberty."35

$9 Ibid., p. 257.

so Ibid., p. 262.

3' Ibid., p. 3 17.

Ibid., pp. 308-9,

33 Ibid.

34 Ibid., p. 2 10.

3s Ibid.


Most of what we have learned so far about the image of America

as a whole has been gleaned from the many reports about the Jews

of America; the correspondents of Hamelitz and Hatzfirah were

more interested in the Jews of the New World than they were in

America qua America. They were extremely curious about the

Jews of America, the way they made their living, their social

groupings and conflicts, and their religious practices and leadership.

The 1880's in Eastern Europe saw the growth of interest in agri-

cultural settlement as a possible solution to the "Jewish problem."

The doings of the Bilu pioneers who founded colonies in Palestine

were followed closely by the Hebrew press, and great attention was

paid also to the dozens of agricultural communities founded by

Russian and Polish immigrants in America. The progress and

problems of colonies in North Dak0ta,3~ New Jersey,37 Louisiana,38

Kansas,39 Arkansas,40 and Colorado4' were reported on ofien and

in great detail. There is much unevenness in the tone of the articles

and the image they present. Many describe the progress being made

in glowing terms:

All that is needed for the days of the winter we have made ready for our-

selves abundantly and not in restricted measure, and all from our own

funds and from the fruit of our toil and lab0r.4~

It was reported of the colonists in North Dakota that they "also

are doing well and their situation continually improves."43 The

latest reports on colonization in general are summed up as "very

l6 Homclit2, XIX, 99-100.

37 Ibid., pp. 1442-45.

38 Ibid., pp. I 324-25,

39 Ibid., p. 164.

40 Ibid., p. 995.

Ibid., pp. 18-24.

Ibid., pp. 163-64.

43 Ibid., p. 701.


THE IMAGE OF AMERICA IN TWO EAST EUROPEAN HEBREW PERIODICALS IS 1

good."44 One article notes of the settlement at Vineland, New

Jersey, that despite some difficulties, "in general most of the colonists

are happy and they do not intend to return."45 The Jews of Czarist

Russia could not but have been impressed by the report that, under

the Homestead Act, Jews were actually given free land by the

government .46

In contrast to these favorable reports, other more sober and

even pessimistic voices were heard. The failure of the first colony

at Sicily Island, Louisiana, brought much comment. The difficulties

and evils of the place were described in full; the colonists had been

promised a garden of Eden, but "of all that was in Eden we had only

the snake."47 Much of the blame for the failure of Sicily Island was

laid at the feet of the German Jewish organizers and administrators

of the financial support for the col0ny.4~ The Agudat Achim colony

in North Dakota, otherwise described as prosperous, was hampered

by the insensitivity of the German Jewish philanthropists:

But to their [the colonists'] misfortune forgetfulness ruled in the charity

societies in America, and they forgot these colonists. It is now several

months that they have not received financial support -not even a penny.49

The well-to-do German Jews are blamed for sending the immigrants

off to

. . .deserts from whence they return in despair to the cities . . . [the]

mercifulness [of the German Jews] was turned into cruelty because of

their diligence only to decrease the number of immigrants and to send them

far off very quickly . . . without paying attention to their latter end.so

Sober voices cautioned that it was too early to tell if those who

were settled on the land had succeeded.a By the end of 1883 an

44 Hatzji~ah, XI, I r I.

4s Ibid., p. 296.

46 Hamclitz, XIX, I 8-23.

47 Ibid., p. 1363.

4B Ibid., p. I 379.

49 Hutzfiruh, XI, 22.

so Hamclitz, XIX, 1287.

sx Ibid., p. I 249.


article appeared noting that while optimistic reports about the

North Dakota colony were being circulated, the author had received

private letters from colonists telling of great hardship. At this time

it was reported that only one colony of all that had been founded was

still hnctioning well, the rest having failed.sz

Although Jewish agriculture received wide coverage in the press,

it was noted that most of the immigrants turned either to peddling

or to factory labor for earning their living.53 The hard and degrading

life of the peddler was described in detail and summed up in these

words :

This is the lot of the Hebrew peddlers, wanderers from Russia: toil of

flesh and weariness of soul. They are sated with shame and disgrace, and

hunger for bread.54

Life was made more difficult for the peddler due to the conflict

between Sunday and the Sabbath as days of rest as well as to his

ignorance of the language of the land.55 The hard work and long

hours left little time for leisure. The children of the poor especially

suffered because they had to work with their fathers, or else would

associate "with wayward youngsters and . . . learn . . . to know evil

while yet in the spring of their days."s6

A frustrated chazan (cantor) sent this bitter warning to his

colleagues who thought of coming to America and making a living

with their liturgical skills:

Consider well three things, and you will not come to America: know

from whence you came, and whither you go, and before whom you will

have to give account in the future. From whence you came? From the land

of Lithuania and Poland. And whither you go? To [congregations of]

Poland and Lithuania. And before whom you will have to give account in

the future? Before the men of Lithuania and Poland.57

51 Zbid., pp. 1442-45.

53 Hatzfirah, XI, 308.

54 Hamelitz, XIX, 361.

55 Zbid.

56 Zbid., pp. 49 1-93.

57 Zbid., p. 912.


THE IMAGE OF AMERICA IN TWO EAST EUROPEAN HEBREW PERIODICALS 153

On the basis of his own unhappy experience with congregational

politics he concluded that it was impossible to make a living as a

chazan in America and that those who came would have to turn to

the hard life of peddling.

One correspondent from Louisville even went so far as to speak

out against continued mass immigration:

General immigration to this country is not suited for the Russian Jews;

the conditions of its life require other men. Any attempt at mass immigra-

tion will be in vain - it will not succeed. Only a few in number, a chosen

few, who have decided to seek and attain success by means of their own

strength . . . a chosen few like these, after their struggling with tremendous

difficulties, will find a way to hold up the banner of this country on which

is written the great principle : Help Yourself !ss

If the economic activities of the American Jews could have been

summed up in the phrase "very hard work," the essence of American

Jewish communal affairs might have been characterized as "full of

strife and tension." The cultural differences between West and East

European Jews were deepened in America - largely because the

German Jews had already been in the land for some time. Now the

raw, poor, Yiddish-speaking immigrant arrived. If there was

antipathy between German Jew and Russian Jew in Berlin, how

much the more would it exist in New York or Chicago! The intra-

Jewish stratification and tension were caused, the readers of Ha-

melitz were told, because the Russians felt that the Germans had

left the Torah, while the Germans could not understand why the

Russians did not follow the spirit of the time. There was no social

mixing between the two groups; each had its own synagogues, its

own rabbis and customs.sg But that the strife did not lead to absolute

disunity is shown by the report that, when one Jew was in distress

or gained prominence, all would cry out or take pride. They united

on every matter concerning them before their Christian neighbors,

and if there was no great love between German and Russian Jews,

the former did band together in charitable associations for the welfare

of the latter. The East European HatzJirah noted with evident pride

s8 Ibid., p. 543.

" Ibid., pp. 53-54.


that the German Jew Jesse Seligman was being considered for the

post of Secretary of C~mmerce.~~

The gap between the German and the Russian Jews appeared

most clearIy in matters of religion, and the periodicals under discussion

delighted in sarcastic descriptions of Reform Judaism.

Readers were told that the Reform temples in Chicago were full on

the High Holydays and empty the rest of the year,61 and that in

Chicago's Temple Sinai only the kaddish yatom, or mourner's prayer,

had remained holy to the w~rshippers.~~ Rabbi Solomon H.

Sonneschein, of St. Louis, was said to have denied the existence of

God and to have preached that there was no difference between

Judaism and Unitariani~m.~3 In New York, the religious schools,

"attached to the rich synagogues in the upper part of the city,"

closed for the ~ummer.~4

The rabbinical leadership of the Reform temples was singled out

for special criticism by the correspondents. Rabbi Samuel Hirsch,

of Philadelphia, officiated at the marriage of a Gentile boy and a

Jewish girl, an incident described so as to imply that the motive of

the rabbi was financial gaim6S To the correspondent of Hatzfirah,

it appeared that the only qualifications for holding a rabbinical post

were the ability to preach in a "loud" and "clear" voice and to read

Hebrew. The rabbi, cantor, and choir prayed in place of the congregation,

and the presence of a mixed Gentile choir in the synagogue

was noted with an exclamation point.66 One writer, who signed his

articles "Ha-Gershoni," claimed to have known Reform rabbis

who not only did not know how to read Hebrew, but who even

boasted, "I prefer to concern myself with living literature rather

than to study a dead While "Ha-Gershoni" described

so Hatzfirah, XI, 323.

61 Hamelitz, XIX, 55.

61 Ibid., p. I I 5.

6' Ibid., p. 376.

64 Ibid., p. 896.

65 Ibid., p. 1073.

Hatzfirah, XI, 3 7 2.

67 Hamelitz, XIX, 492.


THE IMAGE OF AMERICA IN TWO EAST EUROPEAN HEBREW PERIODICALS 155

two Orthodox rabbis as "marvelous am-haratzim (ignoram~ses),"~~

he wrote that the Reform rabbis despised Jewish tradition and

literature, and misled their c~ngregations.~g

In his polemic against the Reform rabbinate, "Ha-Gershoni"

claimed that the Reform rabbis formed cliques; he also extended

his attack to the American Jewish press, which he called unreliable

and a mere instrument of self-glorification for those who controlled

it:

The great majority of the Jewish periodicals are merely instruments in

the hands of their editors to magnify their koved [prestige] and that of their

friends who help them . . . [these periodicals] always respect whoever is

in agreement with them and ignore his sins, [and] even fabricate matters

which are not so concerning their opponents. And the best of them which

do not wish to enter into controversy amuse themselves with trivial

affairs. They fill their issues now with predictions which cannot be investi-

gated, and now with rumors which have no foundation, to capture the

hearts of the readers and no more.rO

In particular, he attacked Isaac M. Wise, who was both a Reform

rabbi and an editor in Cincinnati. It was the manner of editors like

Wise, he claimed, "to praise themselves . . . and to cover all those

who oppose them with dirt."?= He wrote at length about Wise's

"clique" and depicted those writing for his periodicals, The Israelite

and Deborah, as "half-baked youngsters" who would "write what-

ever they are asked to in order to get money and a rabbinical

~ertificate."?~ While "Ha-Gershoni" painted a black picture of

rabbinical leadership in America, he excluded from his condemnation

the bulk of the Jewish laity:

Most of our brothers in the United States do indeed hold to the measure of

mercy and lovingkindness and they are to be counted with those who do

righteousness. 73

6' Ibid., p. 59 I .

69 Ibid., pp. 578-80.

70 Ibid., p. 590.

Ibid.

7' Ibid.

1s Ibid.


"Ha-Gershoni" 's attack did not go unanswered, and one Mor-

decai Petrikovski, writing fiom Louisville, came to the defense of

Wise. He called him "a wise and learned man, great and respected

in the eyes of all who know him; Jews and Christians alike honor

his name." Wise was the leader of "one of the greatest and most

respected congregations in the new land," and the Hebrew Union

College founded by him was a "praiseworthy school."74 Petrikovski

criticized "Ha-Gershoni" for making false charges against worthy

individuals.15 The editor of Hamelitz added a note which can only

have increased the conhsion in the reader's mind:

Also in [Isaac M. Wise's German-language] Die Deborah and in Jewish

World [possibly of London?] we read that our correspondent ["Ha-

Gershoni"] exaggerated beyond measure in his setting honest and honored

men as a target for the arrows of his tongue. As for us -what can we

know at such a great distance as this; and how shall we not believe in the

words of a correspondent who has been known to us these fifteen years? l6

A third writer, who called himself "Ish Yemini," tried to draw

a balanced picture between the two extremes presented by "Ha-

Gershoni" and Petrikovski. He castigated both Wise and his

attackers for generalizing about each other and wrote:

There are rabbis in this country who have done much good for their people,

even if they have not been great in acuteness and in pilpul [talmudic dia-

lectics] of the Torah . . . have they not done wonderfully in setting up

temples for prayer and religious schools for the children of Israel, hospitals

and shelters for the old and for orphans in which many of the children of

Russia and Poland are gathered . . . ? 77

Hatzfirah and Hamelitz were indeed quite concerned with the

charitable activities of the American Jewish community, but these

German-dominated organizations were described ambivalently. "Ha-

Gershoni" rather consistently attacked the philanthropic activities

of the German Jews. According to him, "radicalism'' -Reform

Judaism - ruled the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago where no

74 Ibid., p. 848.

75 Ibid., p. 849.

76 Ibid.; positive identification of the periodical called Jewish World has not been possible.

77 Ibid., pp. 880-8 I .


THE IMAGE OF AMERICA IN TWO EAST EUROPEAN HEBREW PERIODICALS I57

kosher food was available and the chief of staff discriminated against

Russian Jews. He came to the conclusion that organizations founded

on behalf of Russian Jews had done more harm than go0d,7~ and

attacked the United Hebrew Relief Association, of Chicago, its

prejudiced director, and its cumbersome aid distribution procedures.

He hrther noted that the power of the Chicago Jewish community

was concentrated in the hands of a small number of wealthy and


B'rith ofst. Louis for its inattention to matters of faith and religi0n,~4

and a letter from Pittsburgh commented that, if a child acquired the

ability to read the prayers mechanically, it was a big achievement.

The same letter ascribed the poor state of Jewish education to the

fact that the children attended public school daily until four o'clock

and had little time left for further study. The writer asked soberly:

"Will not they [the children] forget in a little while that they are

descendants of Judah?"

In addition to the friction between German and Russian Jews,

there seem to have been frequent tensions and even open strife

within the Yiddish-speaking community itself. Thus, for example,

an intrasynagogue fight was brought before a local judge in Balti-

more.s6 A letter from Scranton describes the condition of Orthodoxy

there in these terms:

They have no synagogue, they have no shochet [ritual slaughterer of ani-

mals and fowl] and neither look for one nor seek one, they do not teach

their children Torah, and with neither Torah [religious learning] nor derech

eretz [good manners] they are growing up wild. How the quarrels increase

from day to day!

Noting that feuding between Jews was reported in the English-

language press, the writer commented:

. . . the name of Israel is engraved for shame and abhorrence, and it will

become a by-word and a taunt in the mouths of the inhabitants of the land.$$

Another letter, from Trenton, New Jersey, complained against the

Russian and Polish Jews who publicly profaned the Sabbath by

keeping their stores open on Saturday:

Behold, they have a separate synagogue and don't want to pray together

with the Germans because they [the latter] won't permit them to raise

their voices on high when they stand before God, and why then do they

84 Ibid., p. 375.

'5 Ibid., pp. I I 55-56.

86 Ibid., pp. 1073-4.

'7 Ibid., p. I 236.

8Vbid.


gather together to walk in the path of the Germans in profaning the Sab-

bath? . . . [Why should it become a slogan?] Who is the man who wants

to be free of the commandments of God? - let him go to America, a land

which collects all those who forget God and abandon religion, a land which

devours the faith of its inhabitants -for in truth it is not ~ 0 . ~ 9

On the whole, America must have looked very enticing to the

East European Jew of the 1880's. On page I of his copy of Ha-

melitz, he might have read of the latest decree by the Czar, and page 4

would have had a detailed description of the new blood libel trial

in Hungary. But page 5 might have contained a brief article about

the freedom of America, a land where Jews were free to work, pray,

and fight among themselves as they saw fit. His paper told him that

the work was very difficult, that there was a good chance that he

would be led to pray less often, and that the squabbles between

German and Russian or between Russian and Russian would consume

much of his energies.

As he pondered his paper, he might have flipped the pages casually

and compared the reports from Europe with those from the New

World. And ultimately he and thousands like him would be led to

answer that little advertisement on the last page: "Bank-Wechsel

und Passage-Ge~chaft."9~

sa Hatzfi~ah, XI, 24; "Bank-Wechsel und Passage-Geschaft" means "Money Exchange

and Steamship Passage Office."


Reviews of Books

ARENDT, HANNAH. Eichmann in Jerusalem - A Report on the Banality of

Evil. New York: Viking Press. 1963. 275 pp. $5.50

Since so much has already been written about Hannah Arendt's Eichmann

in Jerusalem, there is only one justification for further discussion. It is

that Miss Arendt's book purports to teach us not only about "Eichmann

in Jerusalem," but also about many other far more significant subjects,

including the meaning of the Nazi holocaust, the response of a people to

disaster, and the nature of "evil" itself. These matters are of enduring

consequence. They are crucial to our understanding of our times: what

has been and what shall be. Such subject matter bears repeated exarnina-

tion, especially when the presentation at hand is an unfortunate distortion.

Miss Arendt's credentials are those of a social scientist from whom

one might have expected a dispassionate, sober, perhaps even profound,

analysis of all the issues raised by the Eichmann trial and the events and

issues surrounding it. Instead, we are presented with a flashy, bias-filled

piece of journalism striving for cleverness and effect - from the eupho-

nious and absurd subtitle ("A Report on the Banality of Evil") to the

pretentiously clever "verdict" ("No member of the human race can be

expected to want to share the earth with you. This is the reason, and

the only reason, you must hang." But the scoundrels of history, including

Eichmann, have never had any problem finding other scoundrels willing

to share the earth with them. On the basis of this logic, only the Elijahs

of history, whose passion left them totally isolated from their contempo-

raries, would be candidates for hanging.).

The author's vicious anti-Zionist bias is far from her most serious

failing, but it is her most obvious one. It becomes evident on the first

page. Miss Arendt is contemptuous of almost everyone, but her contempt

for the prosecutor, Gideon Hausner, and for David Ben Gurion ("the

invisible stage manager") is unrelieved.

Zionism is continuously equated by the author with Nazism. Eichmann

is described as "converted immediately and forever to Zionism" by his

reading of Theodor Herzl's Judenstaat. Nazi expulsion schemes are con-

tinuously equated with the aim of building a Jewish homeland. The Jewish

Agency is a partner with the Nazis in "highly satisfactory agreements."

Zionist leaders are ~rivileged collaborators with Nazis. When Eichmann


REVIEWS OF BOOKS 1 ~ 3

asks Reinhard Heydrich for a dumping place for Jewish expellees, the

author snorts in parentheses: "A Jewish homeland, a gathering in of the

exiles of the Diaspora."

We might expect to encounter this kind of polemical vulgarity in a

work on the New Deal written by Westbrook Pegler - but not in a

book with scholarly pretensions; not from an author with claims to pro-

fundity. Miss Arendt is entitled to her view of Zionism, Israel, Ben Gurion,

Hausner, and the Jewish Agency. She might attack any and all of these on

many grounds. But, as Marie Syrkin has pointed out, the persistent parallel

between Eichmann's "dream" of a Devil's Island and Herzl's vision of a

Jewish state is a smear of the type that students of Nazi technique will

readily recognize. More unfortunate than her smear of Zionists and Zion-

ism is her disservice in blurring our understanding of Nazis and Nazism.

Her worst distortion is her indictment of Jewish leaders of all kinds

as accomplices in mass murder.

In reviewing Miss Arendt's book for the Book of the Month Club,

Gilbert Highet wrote: "One aspect of the Eichmann trial which dawned

on me for the first time as I read her book and which I still hope I may

have misapprehended, was that the extermination of the Jews of Europe,

though directed by a group of ruthless Germans, was nevertheless partici-

pated in by a number of Jewish officials. . . . whether this is in fact the

truth or not I cannot tell. When I attended the trial of the Nazis who

ran the Belsen concentration camp, I heard no such implication made

even indirectly."

That which was not even implied indirectly in the Belsen trial is boldly

expounded by Hannah Arendt. Not only did "Jewish leaders" participate,

but "this role of Jewish leaders in the destruction of their own people is

undoubtedly the darkest chapter of the whole dark story. . . ."

Is this really the darkest chapter? Were Jews really guilty of will-

fully sending their fellows to death?

Only an observer of incredible ill will could equate what Jewish leaders

did during Nazi times with a free decision on their part. Only one blinded

by malice could pass so lightly over the terrible dilemmas, the pathetic

alternatives, the crushing dehumanization, the vicious deceptions, the

agonizing choices faced by leaders in this dreadful time.

Hannah Arendt, rich with the wisdom of hindsight, passes over these

men and their agonies with a few brief and vicious strokes: "Wherever

Jews lived there were recognized leaders and this leadership, almost

without exception, cooperated in one way or another, for one reason or

another with the Nazis."


6 6 . . . in one way or another, for one reason or another. . . ." Is it as

simple as that? The "ways" and the "reason" apparently merit neither

analysis nor interpretation. Miss Arendt contents herself with a few brief

comments, lumping together scoundrels and saints, twisting and torturing

quotations. Her distorted halfquote from Leo Baeck (she eliminates the

half in which Baeck explains his action) and her designation of Baeck as

"the Jewish Fuehrer," obvious slanders which have drawn wide con-

demnation and refutation, are characteristic.

The continuous, if pathetic, attempts at rescue, the numerous instances

of resistance, are passed over without comment. So, too, is the clear evi-

dence which refutes her contention that "if the Jewish people had been

unorganized and leaderless . . . the total number of victims would hardly

have been between four and a half and six million people."

We need only recall the fate of leaderless and unorganized Soviet

Jewry in occupied Russia to demonstrate that her thesis is untenable. In

Belgium, where Jews fared somewhat better, she tells us that there was

no Jewish Council when in fact there was. In France, where Jews fared

better, she ignores the existence of a Jewish Council altogether.

Clearly, the character and circumstances of Nazi occupation, the aims

of the Nazis at the time of occupation (the extermination policy was not

instituted until after the invasion of Russia in June, 1941), and the attitude

of the general population were the key factors in determining the extent

to which the extermination policy succeeded. Obviously, Miss Arendt

has missed the mark. That she maligns all Jewish leadership in the process

is painful. That she obscures the real nature of the Nazi extermination

effort is unforgivable.

Within this context, Miss Arendt's indictments of the Christian com-

munity of Europe for its lack of response and of the German people for

their lack of remorse lose the edge which they might have had. They are

submerged in a shrill deluge of contempt without focus.

Only in her treatment of Eichrnann himself does Miss Arendt's skill

in analysis reveal itself. Her conclusion is that he is banal. And he ob-

viously is -not as banal, perhaps, as he and Miss Arendt would have us

believe, but he is basically a nonentity. Unfortunately, her treatment makes

him the center and focus of attention. Her emphasis in scope contradicts

her conclusion. If she had indeed contented herself with a book about

Eichrnann in Jerusalem, such emphasis would make sense. In a work

which glosses so lightly over so many crucial concerns, the preoccupa-

tion with Eichrnann's thoughts, attitudes, and psychology gives him pre-

cisely the importance which the author tells us he does not deserve.


REVIEWS OF BOOKS 165

When it suits her purposes, Miss Arendt does not hesitate to deal

with material which was not considered at the Eichmann Trial. "This

chapter must be included. . ." she says of her version of the action of

Jewish communal leaders (snickering all the while "that the prosecution

would avoid bringing this chapter into the open was to be expected. . . ."

The material is, of course, totally irrelevant to the trial of Eichrnann).

But she does not give us any information which would help us understand

the motivations of the extermination policy. She describes the way the

extermination policy worked, but fails to discuss possible reasons why

such a policy was undertaken, who was responsible for the inception of

the policy, what alternatives were considered, and what goals were served.

She details the demoralization of victim and bystander, but fails to give

us any insight into the nature of the totalitarian terror which effected

this collapse of response.

Miss Arendt has apparently forgotten what she herself taught us fifteen

years ago. At that time she wrote (Partisan Review, July, 1948): "Today

with population almost everywhere on the increase, masses of people are

continually being rendered superfluous by political, social and economic

events. At such a time, the instruments devised for making human beings

superfluous are bound to offer a great temptation: why not use these

same institutions to liquidate human beings who have already become

superfluous? . . . The Nazis knew exactly what they were doing when . . .

they set up those factories of annihilation which demonstrated the swiftest

possible solution to the problem of superfluous human masses. There is no

doubt that this solution will from now on occur to millions of people

whenever it seems impossible to alleviate social, political, or economic

misery in a manner worthy of man."

This understanding of motivation and universal relevance is the great

and terrible Truth about the holocaust which needs to be explored, ex-

panded, and expounded. This threat of potential repetition, this dreadful

shadow which the events of the recent past cast upon the future, needs to

be explained and exposed.

Eichmann in Jerusalem is, by Miss Arendt's earlier testimony, an irre-

levant and distorted distraction. Let us cast it aside and get on with the

task of striving to understand the great evil of our times and its con-

sequences for mankind.

Mmnt Vemn, New York LEON A. JICK

Rabbi Leon A. Jick is the spiritual leader of the Free Synagogue of Westchester, in

Mount Vernon, N. Y.


I 66 AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES, NOVEMBER, 1965

MAILER, NORMAN. The Presidential Papers. New York: G. P. Putnarn's

Sons. 1963. 310 pp. $5.00

There is no doubt that Norman Mailer is an outstanding writer and that

he is moved to write, in many instances, by an intense moral concern

not shared by too many human beings. But whether he is a thinker who

enlightens and liberates is another question. I think that he is an out-

standing writer in spite of what might be called "near misses" at great-

ness. There is the response of reservation shared by many - the feeling

that the novels do not come off and that the shorter pieces, including

this collection of essays, although very well written, travel overfamiliar

paths. 1 respect and share Mailer's moral concern with juvenile delin-

quency, the nuclear arms race, totalitarianism, and the status of minori-

ties - all treated in this most recent volume - but I do not find in his

writing the calm, sensible pathbreaking of a Bruno Bettelheim or of a

Leo Szilard.

The Presidential Papers is a miscellany of essays on topics ranging from

"existential legislation" to the Griffith-Paret and first Patterson-Liston

prizefights to responses to Martin Buber's collection of Hasidic tales. At

times Mailer's responses remind me of what Albert Einstein said about

a Franz Kafka novel he had attempted to read: "Nothing could be that

complicated!" And Mailer's responses also suggest Isaac Loeb Peretz's

"if not higherv in their relation to the originals. "An Impolite Interview"

(with Paul Krassner) takes us through "Pacifism, the FBI, the sexual

revolution, birth control, literary style, totalitarianism, the new revolu-

tionary, the aesthetics of bombing, masturbation, heterosexual sex, adoles-

cent sex, sexual selection, homosexual sex, the sex of the upper class, and

Negro sex [different from White sex?]." Mailer adds, "Considerately,

the last round is devoted to mysticism."

The reader of this review may be startled to learn that Mailer's col-

lection takes its title from the fact that it was intended as "advice" for

the late President John F. Kennedy. Chutzpah? Perhaps. The idea itself

might not be intrinsically offensive, but the tongue-in-cheek and self-

congratulating tone (though subtle) may irritate more than a few readers.

Who has appointed Mailer to be court jester of our American democracy?

He is self-appointed.

The best and most moving writing in the Papers may be his reports

on the Griffith-Paret and Patterson-Liston fights. This may represent the

triumph of the concrete over the abstract in Mailer. I am reminded that

Leslie Fiedler, that extraordinary writer and critic, in some ways like


REVIEWS OF BOOKS 167

Mailer, has said that Mailer's most successful piece of fiction is "The

Time of Her Time," found in Advertisements for Myself- authentic

erotic existentialism become literary success. The erotic and the existential

life are passions with Mailer.

Praised highly by Alfred Kazin and Diana Trilling, Mailer cannot and

should not be denied his share of recognition as a writer and as a genuine

(though limited) "secular prophet." Not greatly original or helpful in

teaching us how to live, he somehow engages the attention of the serious,

the alert, and the committed. Difficult to assess, Mailer is a proof of the

risks which the critic runs and of the occupational hazards involved.

Cincinnati, Ohio BENJAMIN A. SOKOLOFF

Dr. Sokoloff is Assistant Professor of English at the University of Cincinnati.

RECHIN, MOSES. The Promised City. New York's Jews, 1870-1914. Cam-

bridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1962. xi, 342 pp.

57.50

The Promised City belongs to that "new" kind of American Jewish history

which has supplanted - for the good, many will say - the older variety

that fussed over colonial ancestors and the "contributions" of outstanding

Jews. A fusion of the techniques of history and sociology, this new approach

seems to be especially useful for the study of the immigrant experience in

America. It owes much to the teaching and writing of Harvard Univer-

sity's Professor Oscar Handlin, to whom the book is dedicated.

Moses Rischin sees the Jews of New York City (an estimated 80,000

in I 870, grown to about I ,400,000 by 191 5) living on a kind of turbulent

urban frontier. He does not forget the leaders who helped to direct social

change, but he is less concerned with prominent men than with the daily

life, group consciousness, institutions, and adjustment to the metropolis, of

these masses of Jews, largely East European in origin and background.

"Uptown" Jews are not overlooked but are seen mainly as aiding or,

sometimes, resenting the "Russians" downtown.

The first chapter of Part One of Rischin's book - there are four

major subdivisions -deals with the rise of New York City to cornmer-

cia1 and financial pre-eminence as the major center for the making and

selling of consumer goods, its big business politics, ethnic groups, and

cultural life. Then follow two compressed, informative chapters describ-


ing Jewish life in Eastern Europe up to the era of the great exodus of more

than a third of the Jews of Russia, Galicia, and Roumania.

The remaining nine chapters deal in scholarly fashion with a wealth of

data under two major headings: the influence of the East European Jews

on New York City; and the reciprocal interaction of the big city environ-

ment on the newcomers. The over-all theme of the book is the "search

for community" among New York's Jews. By "community," of course,

Rischin no longer means the European kahal, but the accommodation of

Jewish values, institutions, and identity to American city life.

He begins his examination of this process in Part Two of his study

with a survey of the differences between the middle-class Central European

Jews of New York and their East European coreligionists and the eventual

reduction of the tensions between the two groups. He then takes the

reader on a fascinating tour of "the fervent commercial life" and the

tenements of the Lower East Side inhabited by "five major varieties of

Jews."

The third division of the book consists of surveys - in effect, first-

rate bibliographical essays and mines of suggestions for future researchers

-of the Yiddish press, periodical literature, theatre, music, the "Jewish

saloon" (coffee house), and the rise of Jewish secular (socialist, anarchist,

and labor) movements.

In the fourth division Rischin examines Jewish labor unions, the im-

pact of municipal reform, politics, education, and the arts in the Jewish

districts, and, finally, the rise of the strong needle trades unions. In an

"epilogue," he weighs the effect of anti-Semitic, racialist, and nationalist

prejudice on New York Jewry. The book ends with the hope that the

Jews of New York City, "heirs" of Haskalah, migration, and Jewish re-

ligious ideals adapted to secular uses, will keep alive the sense of the

possibilities of "democratic community" which enabled them to help turn

New York into "the most American and the most European of the nation's

cities."

Because Rischin emphasizes the impact of the metropolis on the lives

of the immigrants, the decline of their folk religion, and their social ad-

justments under the pressures of this new mode of existence, readers with

special interests in American Hebrew culture, Zionist beginnings, or the

synagogue life of New York's Jews may discover that not every favorite

leader or group among the many who might have qualified for inclusion is

there. Still, even those who will hunt in vain for an omitted name or in-

stitution should be willing to admit that the author has fashioned a pro-

digious amount of research into a compact, impressively documented book


REVIEWS OF BOOKS 169

whose subject is as important for the student of American history as for

the specialist in Jewish Americana.

Besides the text, there are statistical tables; a long, critical bibliographical

note; diagrams of a so-called "dumbbell" tenement and tenement

block; and a map showing the boundaries of subethnic districts and the

locations of theatres, schools, yeshivot, settlement houses, and other landmarks

of the Lower East Side. Fourteen cartoons, drawings, and photos

provide a gallery of Jewish faces, occupations, and interests, and re-create

the hustle of the pushcart market on Hester Street and the look of typical

tenements and sweatshops.

East Lansing, Mich. JOHN J. APPEL

Dr. Appel, Assistant Professor of American Thought and Language at Michigan State

University in East Lansing, has published a number of studies dealing with immigrant

history and historiography.

A Word from Waco

Waco, Texas, October z, 1876

Messrs. Editors :

It may be hardly known to you that there is such a place as Waco.

But there is, and it is a thriving little city, situated on the banks of the

Brazos. It is the educational center of the great state of Texas, and has a

population of about 8,000 souls, probably one fiftieth of which is Jewish.

New Year (one day) and Day of Atonement were quite zealously observed

by our Hebrew brethren here. They are, alas! votaries of the lucre seaking

sect, an attribute generally smothered under the more popular title of

"Reform." One family, alone, is orthodox. The rest consider Moses and

his dietary laws entirely too antiquated to deserve modern observance.

The Benai Berith is in a tolerable flourishing condition in our midst; and

likewise the H[ebrew]. B[enevolent]. S[ociety]. Our co-religionists are

particularized for their charitablness, and those here are not exception.

Every benevolent, religious, and educational institution in our city owes

its prosperity in no small degree to its Jewish benefactors. A neat "Hebrew

Rest" [cemetery], which we possess, Providence be praised, is seldom

needed. Until lately, we had a "Shochet," but feeling himself out of his

element "he hath departed."

Respectfully, A Word From Waco.

[The Jewish Messenger (New York City), October I 3, I 8761


Brief Notices

JACOB, WALTER; FREDERICK C. SCHWARTZ; and VIGDOR W. KAVALER, Edited by.

Essays in Honor of Solmnon B. Freehof. Pittsburgh: Rodef Shalom Congregation. 1964.

x. 333PP.

Dedicated to the illustrious rabbi of Pittsburgh's Rodef Shalom Congregation on

the occasion of his seventieth birthday (August 8, 1962), this handsome Festschrift

is divided into three sections, one dealing with Dr. Solomon B. Freehof s writings,

another with his personal impact on his colleagues and associates, and a third with

various aspects &f Jewish history and literature. Among the contributors to the

Festschrift are Bernard J. Bamberger, Roland B. Gittelsohn, Ely E. Pilchik, Jacob K.

~hankrnin, William G. Braude, Maurice N. Eisendrath, ~elsbn Glueck, Alexander

Guttmann, Solomon Grayzel, Abraham A. Neuman, Jakob J. Petuchowski, Abba

Hillel Silver, Herbert C. Zafren, and Andre Zaoui. Theodore Wiener and Lillian

Freehof have assembled an extensive bibliography of Dr. Freehof s writings.

KAGE, JOSEPH. With Faith and Thanksgiving. Montreal: Eagle Publishing Co., Ltd.

1962. xiv, 288 pp.

Dr. Joseph Kage, National Executive Director of JIAS, the Jewish Immigrant Aid

Services of Canada, chronicles in this well-written, carefully documented work "the

story of two hundred years of Jewish immigration and immigrant aid effort in Canada

(1760-1960)." The book, which is a noteworthy contribution to Canadian - and

North American- Jewish history, includes statistical tables, an extensive bibliog-

raphy, and an index, as well as a foreword by Lavy M. Becker, Vice-President of the

Canadian Jewish Congress.

LANDON, MAXWELL. Masters of Stupidity. New York: Vantage Press. 1964. 280 pp.

$4.95

In this autobiography, Boston-born Maxwell Landon, who lived for many years in

Texas and now makes his home in California, records his encounters with Communist

sympathizers, and expresses his admiration for the House Un-American Activities

Committee.

LEFT~CH, JOSEPH, Edited by. Yisriiel: The First Jewish Omnibus. Revised Edition.

New York and London: Thomas Yoseloff. 1963. 823 pp. $6.95

Published originally in 1933, and then again in 1952, Yisroel, its editor tells us, "is

not a collection, but a selection" of significant Jewish short stories. Like its predecessors,

this latest edition includes stories originally written in English (on both sides of

the Atlantic), German, Yiddish, Hebrew, French, Russian, and Dutch. Added since

1952 are English writers Arthur Koestler, Wolf Mankowirz, Alexander Baron, Dan

Jacobson, and Nadine Gordimer; American English-language writers Charles Angoff,

Howard Fast, Meyer Levin, and Bernard Malamud; and American Yiddish writers

Isaac Bashevis Singer, Shaie Miller, Rachmil Bryks, Moshe Dluznovsky, S. Tenenbaum,

Samuel Izban, Zanvel Diamant, Itzik Manger, and Shlomo Rosenberg.

LEVITAN, TINA.

Islands of Compassiun. New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc. 1964.

304 pp. $5.00

Subtitled "A History of the Jewish Hospitals of New York," this volume offers an


BRIEF NOTICES I7I

interesting account of thirteen Jewish hospitals in Greater New York: Mount Sinai,

Montefiore, Beth Israel, Lebanon, Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn, Hospital for Joint

Diseases, Jewish Memorial, Beth-El, Bronx, Hillside, Jewish Chronic Disease,

Mairnonides, and Long Island Jewish - all of them, as Miss Levitan says, "nationally

and internationally recognized among the most renowned hospitals in the United

States." Well illustrated, the book is provided also with a bibliography and an index.

LIEBMAN, SEYMOUR B., Selected, Compiled, and Translated by. A Guide to Jewish

References in the Mexican Colonial Era, 1521-1821. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania

Press. 1964. 134 pp, $8.00

"Colonial Mexico," writes Seymour B. Liebman in this valuable work, "harbored

a thriving Jewish colony which constituted an integral part of the territory's life."

The history of Colonial Mexican Jewry - whose presence was illegal and whose

position was consequently tenuous - is "fascinating, exciting, and at times almost

fantastic." It is also deplorably little known- despite an abundance of sources,

particularly the 1,553 volumes of Mexican Inquisitional documents for the years

I 52 I to 182 3 at the Archivo General de la Naci6n in Mexico City. These Inquisitional

records are supplemented by a fifteen-volume index, the Indice del Ramo de Inquisicidn,

consisting of over 3,000 single-spaced typewritten pages, and what Mr. Liebman,

a native New Yorker, now resident in Mexico, has done is to prepare a guide to all

the Jewish material in the Indice. He has amplified his work with data from other

authoritative sources, and the result is a most notable effort of painstaking scholarship.

A lecturer in history and Judaism at the Universidad Ibero-Americana and the University

of the Americas, Mr. Liebman has enhanced the value of his Guide by providing

an inuoduction, a number of appendices, a sizeable bibliography, and an index.

Researchers in Latin American Jewish history will find this pioneering work indispensable.

LOTAN, YAEL. Mangrove Town. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Company, Inc. 1964.

302 pp. 54.95

The author, the daughter of a former Israeli Consul General to the United States,

now makes her home in Kingston, Jamaica. Her novel deals with the often troubled

emergence of Caribbean nationalism.

MANDELBAUM, BERNARD. The Wisdom of Solomon Schchter. New York: Burning Bush

Press. 1963. 137 pp. $1.75

Rabbi Bernard Mandelbaum, Provost of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Arnerica,

offers here a compendium of passages from the writings of the great scholar who

was president of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America from 1901 to 1915 and

an outstanding builder of Conservative Judaism. The work is divided into six sections

covering such topics as human relations, theology, liturgy, Zionism, Conservative

Judaism, and American life. Rabbi Mandelbaum's introduction makes use of unpublished

correspondence.

MENKVS, BELDEN, with ARTHUR GILBERT, Compiled and Edited by. Meet the American

Jew. Nashville, Tenn.: Broadrnan Press. 1963. 164 pp. $3.75

Belden Menkus, former records management analyst for the Sunday School Board

of the Southern Baptist Convention, and Rabbi Arthur Gilbert, of the National Conference

of Christians and Jews, have collaborated in a book "written and compiled


primarily to introduce the American Jew to the average Christian church member."

The book consists of eleven chapters: Joseph R. Rosenbloom on "The American

Jewish Community," Oscar Z. Fasman on "Orthodox Judaism," Alvin J. Reines on

"Reform Judaism," Mordecai Waxman on "Conservative Judaism," Ira Eisenstein

on "Reconstructionism," Arthur Hertzberg on "Zionism," C. Bezalel Sherman on

"The Unaffiliated Jew," Manheim S. Shapiro on "The Sociology of Jewish Life,"

Albert Vorspan on "Jews and Social Justice," Benjamin Kaplan on "Jews and Social

Equality," and Philip Jacobson on "Judaism and Church-State Relations."

MILLER, MILTON G., and SYLVAN D. SCHWARTZMAN. Our Religion and Our Neighbors.

New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations. 1963. xiv, 297 pp. $3.95

In an editorial introduction to this handsome volume, Rabbi Eugene B. Borowitz

writes that "my neighbor is different from me, and just because he is different I must

come to see that he is yet like me and thus love him." The authors -the late Rabbi

Miller served Temple Beth El in Elizabeth, N. J., and Dr. Schwartzman is Professor

of Jewish Religious Education at the Hebrew Union College - Jewish Institute of

Religion in Cincinnati-prepared this text on comparative religions for modem

American youth. While emphasis is placed on the Western religions - Judaism,

Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism - there are chapters also on Islam, Hinduism,

Buddhism, and Confucianism. The volume contains a bibliography, a glossary, and

an index, and is effectively illustrated by William Steinel.

MONSMA, JOHN CLOVER, Edited by. Religion and Birth Cmtml. Garden City, N. Y.:

Doubleday & Company. 1963. xvii, 198 pp. $3.95

The editor, a Protestant clergyman, undertakes in this volume to deal with a

delicate and controversial question. He has the help of twenty-one specialists in

andriatics, gynecology, and obstetrics, among them "professors of medicine, heads of

clinics and hospital departments, and capable practicing physicians," all "men who

recognize and honor the spiritual nature of man." Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, of New

York City's Mount Sinai Hospital, is the only Jewish physician among them. He

takes account of Jewish attitudes in his chapter on "Contraception Past and Present."

I. Judah Benjamin. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company. 1963. 220 pp.

NEIMAN, SIMON

$3.95

Otto Eisenschiml, who was a leading Civil War authority, wrote in his foreword to

this work that "the complete history of the Confederacy was buried with Judah P.

Benjamin," who had served Jefferson Davis as attorney general, secretary of war,

and secretary of state. Undaunted by the fact that Benjamin did his best to leave no

papers behind for the scrutiny of biographers, Iowa-born Simon I. Neiman, now of

Chicago, offers this interesting and somewhat novelistic biography as his contribution

to the literature on the man whom Jefferson Davis himself characterized as "a master

of law and the most accomplished statesman I have ever known."

NEMEROV, HOWARD. The Next Room of the Dream: Poems and Two Plays. Chicago:

University of Chicago Press -Phoenix Books. 1962. ix, 143 pp. $2.45

. New & Selected Poems. Chicago: University of Chicago Press -

Phoenix Books. 1963. vi, I 16 pp. $1.95

Elegance, dexterity of diction, wit, irony, deep feeling, high intelligence - such

are the qualities which Howard Nemerov displays abundantly in these two volumes.


BRIEF NOTICES I73

Among the items of particular Jewish interest in The Nert Room of the Dream are the

two one-act dramas "Endor" and "Cain" and the wry verses of "Debate with the

Rabbi"; in New e5 Selected Poms, "Runes," "The Scales of the Eyes," and "Deep

Woods." Taken together, these two paperbacks constitute an excellent introduction

to the oeuvre of one of America's most notable poets.

OAKS, DALLIN H., Edited by. The Wall between Church and State. Chicago: University of

Chicago Press - Phoenix Books. I 963. 179 pp. $1.95

Resulting from a Conference on Church and State, sponsored by the Law School of

the University of Chicago, this volume, says Professor Dallin H. Oaks, is intended to

meet the need for "more dialogue, less diatribe" on problems of church-state relationships.

The dialogue is carried on by Robert M. Hutchins, in whose opinion "the wall

has no future"; Harold E. Fey, who argues that "only when the institutions, including

the financial institutions, of church and state are -kept scrupulously separated.. .

civil as well as religious liberty is secure"; William Gorman, who offers "a Catholic

view" that "our constitutional doctrine has deficiencies that hurt civic friendship and

aggravate conflicts about just policies"; Robert F. Drinan, S.J., who espouses "the

constitutionality of public aid to parochial schools"; Murray A. Gordon, who defends

"the unconstitutionality of public aid to parochial schools"; Professor Paul G. Kauper,

whose expectation it is that "the Supreme Court, if and when it definitively faces the

question of tax exemptions for churches and religious purposes, will not find them

unconstitutional"; Professor Monrad G. Paulsen, who discusses "constitutional

problems of utilizing a religious factor in adoptions and placements of children";

and Professor Philip B. Kurland, whose survey of the Supreme Court's recent prayer

cases leads him to conclude that the Court's decisions require only that "the states

may not prescribe the conduct of religious ceremonies in their public schools" and

that "to read more into the opinions . . . to see the opinions as destructive of religious

life in the United States, is so patently absurd as to deserve to be ignored."

PILCH, JUDAH. Fate and Faith: The Coninnpora~y Jewish Scene. New York: American

Association for Jewish Education. 1963. 206 pp.

In this volume, a supplement to Dr. Judah Pilch's Jewish Life in OUT Times (1943)~

the author sets out to evaluate for teen-agers and young adults "major aspects of

Jewish life - demographic, political, economic and religio-cultural." The book is

well documented and includes a bibliography and an index.

RAAB, EARL, Edited by. Religious Conjict in America: Studies of the Problm Beyond

Bigotry. Garden City, N. Y.: Anchor Books. 1964. viii, 23 I pp. $1.25

"Religious bigotry," writes the editor of this timely volume, "is no longer the hard

core of interreligious conflict, which has become bound to a series of related issues

comprising 'the religious conflict' in America." These issues are explored by Mr. Raab

himself in an illuminating introduction, and by the other contributors, luminaries like

Gerhard Lenski, Clark E. Vincent, Seymour Martin Lipset, James S. Coleman, Will

Herberg, Jaroslav Pelikan, Gustave Weigel, Emil L. Fackenheim, Sidney Hook, Leo

Pfeffer, Wilber G. Katz, and John Courtney Murray. The editor is Associate Director

of San Francisco's Jewish Community Relations Council.

REICHERT, VICMR E. Tower of David 1964. Middlebury, Vt.: Vermont Books. 1964.

xi, 68 pp. $4.00

Tower of David first appeared in 1946. This new edition, much expanded, is pnb-


lished "in affectionate remembrance of Robert Frost," long Dr. Victor E. Reichert's

summer neighbor in Ripton, Vermont. Dr. Reichert, Rabbi Emeritus of Cincinnati's

Rockdale Avenue Temple, offers in Tower of David 1964 fifty-nine poems, including

"A Fantasy: Robert Frost and King Solomon Match Wits Before God."

REZNIKOFF, SARAH, NATHAN, and CHARLES. Family Chrmicle. New York: Charles

Reznikoff. 1963. 3 I I pp.

Family Chronicle constitutes an informal history of the Reznikoffs, Nathan and

Sarah, and their son, the distinguished poet and novelist Charles Reznikoff. Brought

together between the covers of one book are Sarah Reznikoff's "Early History of a

Seamstress," first published in 1929; Nathan Reznikoff's "Early History of a Sewing-

Machine Operator," which first appeared in 1936; and Charles Reznikoffs "Needle

Trade," partially published under the title "The Beginnings of the Family Fortune"

in the November, 195 I, issue of Commmtary.

ROOT, JONATHAN. The Betrayers: The Rosmberg Case- A Reappraisal of an American

Crisis. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc. 1963. 305 pp. $5.00

According to the author, a reporter for the Sun Francisco Chronicle, Julius and Ethel

Rosenberg, executed as atomic spies in 1953, were "engaged in a private war against"

American society. Their guilt - which the author does not doubt - "was revealed

not so much by the orderly operations of the law, but by the behavior of the Rosenbergs

themselves to whom the issue of guilt or innocence was one with which they

never concerned themselves."

ROSENBERG, STUART E. America Is Differmt: The Search for Jewish Idmity. New York:

Thomas Nelson & Sons. 1964. xiv, 274 pp. $4.50

Dr. Stuart E. Rosenberg, rabbi of Toronto's Beth Tzedec Synagogue, undertakes in

this stimulating work "to understand the Zeitgeist of our own day, and to locate more

accurately the place of Jews and Judaism on the spiritual and cultural map of contemporary

America." His book, which includes a foreword by Professor Salo W. Baron,

a selected bibliography, and an index, is divided into four parts - "The Shaping of

American Character," "Patterns of Jewish Culture," "Jews and the Non-Jewish

World," and "Patterns of Jewish Religion," plus an epilogue.

. Edited by. A Humane Society. Toronto: University of Toronto

Press. 1962. xviii, 167 pp. $4.00

Edited and introduced by Dr. Rosenberg, with a foreword by Dr. Louis Finkelstein,

Cheancellor of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, this volume contains

twelve essays based on lectures delivered during 1961 at Beth Tzedec's First Annual

Institute of Ethics and Sixth Annual Institute of Religion. Among the contributors

are Dr. Brock Chisholm, Senator Paul H. Douglas, Dr. Simon Greenberg, and Dr.

Bernard Mandelbaum. The lectures "are offered here in printed form," writes

Dr. Rosenberg, "in the hope that they may become part of the current literature of

ethical concern."

TARR, HERBERT. Thc Cmversim of - Chaplain - Cohm. New York: Bernard Geis Associates.

1963. 341 pp. $4.95

It is not a daily occurrence for a rabbi to become a successful novelist; it is even

more remarkable when the novel on which his fame rests deals with a Jewish Air

Force chaplain. Brooklyn-born Rabbi Herbert Tarr himself served as an Air Force

chaplain in Texas, Louisiana, and Labrador. The Conversion of Chaplain Cohcn is his

first novel.


BRIEF NOTICES I75

TCHERIKOWER, ELIAS, Edited by. The Early Jewish Labor Movement in the United States.

New York: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. 1961. viii, 379 pp.

Originally prepared as a two-volume work in Yiddish by Elias Tcherikower, a

YIVO founder who died in 1943, the present version was translated and revised by

Aaron Antonovsky. This highly detailed, well-documented volume covers the subject

up to about 1900, and is divided into three parts - "European Background and

Migration," "The American Context," and "The Pioneer Period." There are also

statistical appendices and indices of subjects and of names.

TYLER, PARKER. Florine Stettheimer: A Life in Art. New York: Farrar, Straus and

Company. 1963. xiv, 194 pp. $15.00

Commissioned by the Estate of Ettie Stettheimer, this beautifully and elegantly

produced volume deals with Ettie's sister Florine, whose salm was a meeting place

for artists like Virgil Thomson, Marsden Hartley, Marcel Duchamp, Elie Nadelman,

Alfred Stieglitz, and Carl Van Vechten during the 1920's and 1930's. Florine was

herself a gifted artist and, as stage designer for the opera Four Saints in Three Acts,

she collaborated with Gertrude Stein and Virgil Thomson. The Museum of Modern

Art honored her posthumously in 1944 with a retrospective show of her paintings,

several of which - some in color -are reproduced in Parker Tyler's book. Carl

Van Vechten wrote a prelude to the biography.

VRBA, RUDOLF, and ALAN BESTIC. I Cannot Forgive. New York: Grove Press, Inc.

1964. 281 pp. $5.00

Czech-born Dr. Rudolf Vrba, a distinguished neurochemist, bears on his arm the

tattoo "44070" as an everlasting memento of the two frightful years he endured

at Auschwitz, from which he escaped in April, 1944. His book, written in collaboration

with Alan Bestic, will serve as a companion volume to Rolf Hochhuth's The Deputy

and also to Hannah Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem.

WEIL, HERMAN.

The Wisconsin Society for Jewish Learning. Milwaukee. 1963. 36 pp.

Dedicated to the memory of Rabbi Joseph L. Baron, one of the Society's founders

and its honorary president, this monograph describes the history and activities of the

Wisconsin Society for Jewish Learning, "an exciting venture of Jewish culture in

Wisconsin." The Society began in 1953, when the Milwaukee Chapter of the Amer-

ican Jewish Committee contemplated the tercentenary anniversary of Jewish settle-

ment in America and decided to observe the occasion by launching a program of

Jewish scholarship. The program was to begin with the establishment of a Hebrew

Chaiu at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. In the summer of 1955, having

fulfilled its temporary purpose, the Tercentenary Committee was transformed into

the Wisconsin Society for Jewish Learning.

In September, the Department if Hebrew Studies was inaugurated at the

University of Wisconsin, with Professor Menahem Mansoor as its chairman and

fifty students enrolled in its program. The growth of the Department was such

that within five years, its original enrollment had trebled. In addition, on April 13,

1960, a similar Department of Hebrew Studies was established on the Milwaukee

campus of the University, with Dr. Jacob Neusner appointed its chairman.

Simultaneously with the establishment of the Hebrew Department on the Madison

campus, the Society founded the Wisconsin Jewish Archives, a collection which,

housed in the State Library of the State Historical Society, consists of more than

25,000 pages of manuscripts, including correspondence, memoranda, reports, minute

books, printed materials, and newspaper clippings. Among its most significant corpora


are the Rabbi Joseph L. Baron Papers, the Lizzie Kander Papers, the Hadassah Fond

du Lac Paoers. and the Wisconsin Tewish Communitv Paoers.

1 , 1

There can be no question that the author has spoken justly in his statement that the

Wisconsin Society for Jewish Learning "has left its imprint upon hundreds of individuals

throughout the State of Wisconsin and beyond its borders" in the decade

since its founding.

WEINBERG, ARTHUR and LILA, Edited by. Instcad of Violence: Writings by the Great

Advocates of Peace and Nonviolence Thrmghout Histozy. New York: Grossman Publishers.

1963. xxiv, 486 pp. $7.50

Beginning with Pope John XXIII's encyclical Paccm in Terris in April, 1963, and

going back to Lao-Tse's Tao Ti Ching in sixth-century B. C. E. China, this new

anthology by the Weinbergs seeks "to present a full spectrum of representative

thinking on the questions of peace, nonviolence, civil disobedience, and passive

resistance!' Each selection has been edited and supplied with notes and an introduction

by the Weinbergs, who have provided the book also with a useful selected bibliography

and a list of sources. Jewish thinkers and others of Jewish origin are well

represented - among them, Leo Szilard, Jerome N. Frank, Erich Fromm, Abraham

Cronbach, Martin Buber, Norbert Wiener, Albert Einstein, Milton S. Mayer, Ernst

Toller, Simone Weil, Stephen S. Wise, Sigmund Freud, Rosika Schwimmer, Judah

L. Magnes, Meyer London, Alfred H. Fried, Emma Goldman, Jean de Bloch, Herod

Agrippa, and biblical writers.

WERNER, ALFRED. Tully Filmus. Cleveland and New York: World Publishing Company.

[1963.] 47 pp. plus 81 plates. $12.50

Russian-born Tully Filmus, says Dr. Alfred Werner in his inuoduction to this

impressive volume, "belongs in the proud tradition of American Realism," but is

"a man who, while he can hardly be called a neophyte - he has been a professional

painter for more than thirry years - is not so widely known to the America of the

1960's as he should be." Rich with lovely reproductions, many in full color, Tully

Filmus should do much to gain for its subject the attention and recognition which he

deserves. Paintings like "The Teacher," "The Hora," "Reading Room," "Chassidic

Dance," "Patriarch," "Preserving the Torah," "The Klezmer," and "Old Scholar,"

all beautifully reproduced, are of particular Jewish interest. The book's value is

enhanced by a comprehensive list of Filmus' paintings.

WIEDFX, ARNOLD

A. The Early Jmish Community of Boston's North End. Waltham,

Mass.: Brandeis University. 1962. loo pp. $3.50

Aptly subtitled "A Sociologically Oriented Study of an Eastern European Jewish

Immigrant Community in an American Big-City Neighborhood between 1870 and

1900," Dr. Arnold A. Wider's monograph has emerged from a research project

underwritten by the Ethel Bresloff Fund. Its focus is "upon the social tendencies and

religioaltural attitudes prevailing among the immigrants" in fin-dc-siicle Boston's

North End, an enclave largely Litvak in character, but with a sizeable admixture of

Russishe and Oriental Sephardic Jews. Professor Jerome Himelhoch, of Goddard

College in Plainfield, Vermont, has written an introduction to the book, which also

includes articles about the North End by Aaron Pinkney and Joseph I. Gorfinkle.

reprinted from Boston's Jewish Advocate.


Solomon B. Freehof

Fifty years a Rabbi

Paliner Studio, Pittsburgh. Pa.


"Holy Moses"

My grandfather, Moses Menahem Zieve, came to this country in the

early 1880's from Lithuania where he had been a shochet, a ritual

slaughterer. He left behind, to follow him some six years later, his wife

and four children: three boys and one girl, my Mother.

After living in America for six years, he decided against pursuing his

profession of shechitah. His visits to slaughtering establishments in New

York, Chicago, and Los Angeles led him to the conclusion that his American

coreligionists - he considered them "goyim," non-Jews, by comparison

with what he had known in Europe - would not or could not appreciate

his meticulousness nor accept his high standards. He settled in Minneapolis

and, for a livelihood, turned to peddling.

Grandfather's "territory" was the area out of Northfield, Minnesota,

forty miles south of Minneapolis. When he set out on his trips he carried

with him on his wagon, in addition to his goods for sale, his own utensils

for preparing meals in accordance with the requirements of Kashruth,

ritual purity. Many week-ends he could not return to Minneapolis and

spent the Sabbath in the home of a friendly farmer in Northfield. He

would arrive at the farmer's house on Friday- or possibly Thursday

night - in time to slaughter a chicken, do his Sabbath cooking, and make

his personal preparations for the Sabbath. In the farmer's home, from

sundown on Friday until dark on Saturday evening, he observed the

Sabbath in the traditional manner. At twilight on Saturday a child in the

family would go outside to watch for three stars and then come in to

advise him: "You can smoke now, Moses."

The German immigrants who settled the area around Northfield wor-

shipped together in a community church. For lack of funds, they had no

regular preacher. On Sunday mornings, then, in this community church,

my grandfather occupied the pulpit and preached to this German-speaking

congregation. His language? A carefully selected non-Hebraic Yiddish.

JXs subjects? -fie Torah portion of the week. And in serving this Christian

community over many months, he won their gratitude - and an affectionate

but reverent title. They called him "Holy Moses."

The author - Mrs. Theodore H. Gordon - makes her home in Merion Station, Pa.

I79


The One Oasis

One of the tragedies of the Jewish intellectual scene in America is

the fact that the Menorah Jmml was unable to survive the death of its

gifted founder-editor Henry Hurwitz in 1961. During the forty-six years

of its existence, the magazine, which Hurwitz began publishing in January,

191 5 - nine years after he established the Menorah Association - fea-

tured work by an astonishing number of the most outstanding personalities

in American Jewish life and won for itself, as the distinguished literary

critic George Hellrnan said, "a place second to none in the magazine

world." Ludwig Lewisohn did not always find himself in agreement with

Hurwitz' editorial policies, particularly where Zionism was concerned,

for he adopted a far less critical view of Zionism than Hurwitz did. In

1929, however, when the Menorah Journal seemed on the verge of collapse,

Lewisohn addressed an outspoken defense of the periodical to Elliot E.

Cohen, who between 1925 and 1931 served as managing editor of the

Menorah Journal and later gained great fame as the editor of Commentary

magazine. The letter, reproduced below, is from the Menorah Association

papers desposited in the American Jewish Archives.

Dear Mr. Cohen:

Paris, December zz, 1929

Your letter reached me last night. I hasten to answer it at once.

The possibility of the disappearance of the Menorah Journal shocks me

profoundly. It is profoundly shocking. For if there is one thing that is a

disgrace to American Jewry, that is its English language press. When I

consider the German language press of a far smaller number of our people,

then it becomes clear to me why the Jews of the world think of us solely

in terms of the dollars we can furnish. One of the noblest minds of world

Jewry, contemplating our press, except the Menorah Journal, said to me

at my table here not long ago: "In Arnerika verdurnmen wohl sogar die

Juden!" [In America even the Jews are sinking into ignorance!] In this

unbelievable desert the Menorah Journal is the one oasis - the one fact

from which one can infer that American Jewry has such a thing as a mind.

You asked me to be frank. I am being frank. As you can well imagine,

I get dozens and hundreds of letters from young people in all parts of the


THE ONE OASIS 181

U.S.A. asking me: How can we be Jews? How can we establish contact

with Jewish culture? And all, as a rule, that I can tell them is: Read the

Menorah Joztrnal. Not only should and must the Journal continue. Its price

should be reduced; a national propaganda for it should be paid for; it

should establish and publish a series of Jewish books on the essentials of

our history and culture. Of what good are all our efforts if we lose the

minds and souls of the new generations? If we have minds willing to be

Jewish, anxious to be Jewish, and nothing Jewish with which to fill their

minds except the news that Miss Sadie Gumpelstein gave a pink tea on

Erev Chanukah at which angel cake was served or that - Enough! I

honor the social-mindedness of the ladies and gentlemen who support the

Menorah movement. But if they don't feed the minds and consciousnesses

of their Jews, they will one fine day have no Jews to be social-minded

about. Those are the cold and pitiless facts, the practical facts which are

often overlooked by your so-called practical men who are, in their omission

of certain factors of life, often far more romantic than we so-called

intellectuals.

You are free to use this statement in any way you like.

Very cordially yours,

Between you and me and Hurwitz and God: offer to cut out the "art";

promise to be a little less cute and clever and more informative, solid,

fervid, Jewish; less detached, serene, above the battle; a little more two-

fisted, without any sacrifice of either artistic form or intellectual honesty.

NOTICE TO RESEARCHERS

THE AMERICAN JEWISH ARCHIVES announces with pleasure

the completion of concordance-type indices to Israels Herold

(New York City, 1849), Sinai (Baltimore and Philadelphia,

I 8 56- I 863), The Occident and American Jewish Advocate

(Philadelphia, I 843-1 869), and The Menorah (a B'nai B'rith

publication, I 8861907).


AARONSOHN, DORA,

102

ABEL (family), 87, tor; JACOB W., 87;

MRS. JOSEPH, 101; JOSEPH B., 87

Abolitionism, abolitionists, 35, 62

ABRAHAM, CHAPMAN, 84

ABRAHAM, JOSEPH, I I7

Abraham Lodge No. 89, B'nai B'rith,

Bridgeport, Conn., 83

ABRAHAMS, ABRAHAM I., 140

ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL, IOZ

Academies, 41, 67

Acculturation, 75

Actors and actresses, 24, 35-36, 38

Adath Jeshumn Congregation, Philadelphia,

Pa., 92

Addresses, 82, 87-88, roz; see also Lecturers,

Sermons, Speeches

ADLER, DELLA RUBENSTEIN, 99; SELIG, 99

ADLER, EMMA BLUM, 87; HENRY, 87

ADLER, HENRIETTA, 97

ADLER, LIEBMANN, 87; ZERLINA, 87

ADLER, MISS PAT, 97

ADLER, SAMUEL, 99

Admirals, 60

Adolescents, I 66

Adoption of children, 173

Adult education, 44

Adults, young; see Young adults

Advertisements, 7 2-73

Adve7tisements for Myself, I 67

Aged, homes for; see Homes for the aged

Aged, the, 146; see also Homes for the

aged

Agriculture, 31, 115, 120, 132, 138, 150,

I 52 ; see also Farmers

Agudat Achim Colony, North Dakota,

151-52

AGUILAR. GRACE, 18

Ahavath .sholom.congregation, Bluefield,

W. Va.. 81

AIKEN, MRS. MIRIAM, 99

Air Force; see United States

Alabama, 62; see also Mobile

Alaska, 83,87-88, loo; see also Anchorage,

Fairbanks

Albany, Ga., 90

Index

Albany, N. Y., 35

Albany, Ore., loo; Albany City Directory,

loo; Albany Greater Oregm, roo

Albuquerque, N. Mex., loo

Alcan Military Highway, Alaska and

Canada, 88

ALEXANDER 111, I 14

ALEXANDER, COSMUS, 87

ALEXANDER, DAVID, 82

Alexandria, Egypt, 90

Allemania Society, Cincinnati, Ohio, 55

ALLEN, A. C., Savannah, Ga., 55

Alliance, N. J., I 16

Alliance Isratlite Universelle, Paris,

France, 87

Alsatian Jews, 68

Ambassadors, 148

America, American life, American people,

Americans, 3, 7, I I, 17, 27-33, 40-41,

43-44, 65-66, 70, 74-75, 80, 89, 92-93?

977 103-4, 107, 114-157 1379 143-509

152-53, 155, 157, 161, 166-68, 170-76;

see also Colonies, American; Union

(American), North America, United

States

America Is Diffe~cnt: The Sea7ch fo7 Jewish

Identity, I 74

"America, 1785, A Description of," 27-33

"America, The English in," 75

American Indians; see Indians (American)

American Freedom and Catholic Power, 80

American Israelite (Cincinnati) ; see Israelite

(Cincinnati)

"American Jew, The Face of the," 17

American Jewish Committee, 88, 175

American Jewish Conference, 87

American Jewish Historical Society, New

York City, 92, 98

American Jewish history; see History

American Jewish press; see Journals,

Newspapers, Periodicals

American Jewry, American Jews, Amer-

ican Jewish community, American Ju-

daism, 16-17, 28, 41, 43-46, 55, 74-75,

88, 107, 109, I 14-15, 143-44, 148, 1509

153, 156, 167, 169, 171-72, 179-81

American Jewry and th~ Civil War, 52

American Judaism; see American Jewry


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII 183

Atchison County, Mo., 86

Atchison, Topeka, & Santa Fe Railroad,

119-21, 126, 130, 135

Atheism, atheists, 17

Atlanta Constitution (Atlanta, Ga.), 7

Atlantic Ocean, 23, 170; see also North

Atlantic Ocean

Attorneys; see Lawyers

Auschwitz (Nazi concentration camp), 175

Austria; see Polish Austria

Authoritarians, I I z

Authority, 76

Authors, 163; scc also Writers

Autobiographies, 80, 99-100, 170

Autocracy, I 14

American Nazi Party, 102

American Red Cross, 56, 98, 103

American Shulchan Aruch (proposed), 96

American Society for the Prevention of

Cruelty to Animals (A. S. P. C. A.), I 5

Americanism, Americanization, 3, I I, 65,

75

AMHERST, JEFFREY, 85, 9 I

Amsterdam, Holland, 10 1-2

Anarchism, 168

Anchorage, Alaska, 8 I

Andersonville, Ga., 39

Andover Newton Theological School, 103

Angels, 78

Anglo-Jewish Lcttc~s, 28

Anglo-Jewry, Anglo-Jews, Anglo-Jewish

history, I, 27-28

ANGOFF, CHARLES, 170

Anthologies, 176

BADEAU, ADAM, 14

Anti-Defamation League, 6

BAECK, LEO, 87, 164

Anti-Jewish prejudice; scc Anti-Semitism, Balboa, Panama Canal Zone, 105

Religious prejudice

Balls; scc Dancing

Antiquaries, 27

Baltimore, Md., 35, 50, 63, 67, 81, 84,

Anti-Semitism, antisemites, I, 3, 6-8, loo, 158

15-16, 68, 87, 102, 104-5, 114, 140, Baltimore County, Md., 86

147-48, 168; scc also Religious prejudice BAMBERGER, BERNARD J., 170

Anti-Zionism, 162

Bancroft Library, Berkeley, Calif., 97, to5

ANTONOVSKY, AARON, I 75

Bankers, banking, 104

APPEL, JOHN J., 169; review of Thc Bankruptcy, bankrupts, 102, 146

P~mniscd City. Ncw Yo~k's Jews, 1870- Baptism, I 14

1914, 167-69

Bar Mitzvah, 87

Appomattox Court House, Va., 66 Barbados, British West Indies, 106

Archaeology, 27

BARON, ALEXANDER, 170

Archives, 87, 97, 102, 175

BARON, JOSEPH L., 88, 175; MRS. JOSEPH

ARENDT, HANNAH. Eichmann in Jerusalem L., 88; RACHEL, 87; Rabbi Joseph L.

(review), 162-65, 175

Baron Papers, 176

Argentina, 87, 100; Consistoire, 87 BARON, SALO W., 174

Ark, 46, 64

Baseball, 23

Arkansas, 106, 150; see also Little Rock BASINSKI, JULIUS, 99

Arkansas River, I 30

Bass. MEYER, 101

Army, 3-5, 10, 62, 86; purveyors, 85-86, Bath, England, 91

9 I; see also Military service, Militia, BAUM, MR., of Beersheba Colony, Kans.,

Soldiers, War

135

Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Bazaars, 56

Lisbon, Portugal, 104

BAZELL, LEONARD, 8 I

Art, the arts, artists, 26, 168, 175, 181; Because I Was Flesh, 80

collections, 97; see also Painters BECKER, ARIE, 90

ARTHUR, CHESTER A., 148

BECKER, LAW M., 170

Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, England, 32 BEER, A. ROBERT, 101

ASSENHEIM, ARTHUR, 9 I

Beersheba Colony, Kans., 107, I 15, I 19,

Assimilation, assimilationists, 109, 169, 134-39

I79

Belg~um, 164

Associated Jewish Philanthropies, Boston, Bellefaire, Jewish Orphan Home, Cleve-

Mass., 83

land, Ohio, 83


Belsen (Nazi concentration camp), I 63

BEN GURION, DAVID, 162-63

Benevolence; see Philanthropy

BENJAMIN, ISRAEL JOSEPH ("Benjamin

II"), 409 43

BENJAMIN, JUDAH P., 84, 88, 172

BERGH, HARRY, I 5

Berlin, Germany, 148, I 5 3

BERNSTEIN, PHILIP S., 88, 98

BERNSTEIN, SIMON GERSON, 95

BESTIC, ALAN, and RUDOLF VRBA, I

Cannot Forgive, 175

Beth El Congregation, Detroit, Mich., 94

Beth-El Hospital, New York City, 171

Beth Elohim Congregation, Charleston,

S. C., 81 ; Beth Elohim Unveh Shallom

Congregation, Charleston, S. C., 77

Beth Emet, The Free Synagogue, Evanston,

Ill., 82

Beth Israel Congregation, Plattsburgh,

N. Y., 104

Beth Israel Hospital, New York City, r7 I

Beth Moshav Zekeinim, Chicago, Ill., 83

Beth Sholom Congregation, Anchorage,

Alaska, 8 I

Beth Tzedec Synagogue, Toronto, Canada,

174

Betrayers, The: The Rosenbcrg Cast - A

Rcappraisd, I 74

BETTELHEIM, BRUNO, I 66

BETTELHEIM, REBEKAH, 65

BETTMAN, ADALBERT G., 99

BETTMAN, IPHIGENE (Mrs. Gilbert), 98

Bible, biblical (Old Testament) references,

biblical literature, 12, 37, 41, 43-44, 80,

89, 98, 103, 176; see also Pentateuch,

Torah

Biblical and Archaeological School, He-

brew Union College - Jewish Institute

of Religion, Jerusalem, Israel, 92

Bibliography, bibliographies, 80, 87, 168-

74, 176

Big Four and Vandalia Railroad, I 19

Bigotry; see Anti-Semitism, Religious

prejudice

Bilu pioneers, I 50

Binghamton, N. Y., 83

Biographies, biographers, biography, 68,

859 87, 919 99-1019 103, 1727 '75

BIRNBAUM, NATHAN, I 05

Birth control, 166, 172

Bismarck, N. Dak., 148

BISMARCK, OTTO VON, 148-49

BLAINE, JAMES G., 148

BLAIR, FRANCIS PRESTON, JR., 60

BLANK, SHELDON H., 88, 106; SOL, 88

BLANSHARD, PAUL, Religion and the Schols,

80

BLAUSTEIN, JACOB, 20

BLOCH, HENRY F., 84, 99

BLOCH, JEAN DE, 176

Blood libel; see Ritual murder libel

BLOOM, JACOB, 90

BLOOM, JESSIE S. (Mrs. Robert), 87-88;

ROBERT, 87-88

Bluefield, W. Va., 81

BLUMENTHAL, MRS. L., East Liverpool,

Ohio, 82

B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundations, 109

B'nai B'rith, Independent Order of, 6, r 14,

169; Abraham Lodge No. 89, Bridgeport,

Conn., 83; District Grand Lodge

No. 2, Cincinnati, Ohio, 83; Euphrates

Lodge No. 35, Memphis, Tenn., 84;

St. Louis B'nai B'rith, 157-58; Solomon

Lodge No. r 6, Cleveland, Ohio, 89

B'nai Israel Congregation, Charleston,

W. Va., 81; East Liverpool, Ohio,

81-82; Monroe, La., 82

B'nai Jacob Congregation, East Liverpool,

Ohio, 81-82

Boardinghouses, 38

BOLTZIUS, JOHANN MARTIN, 76

Bombing, 166

BONDY, JOSEPH, 97

Book of the Month Club, 163

Books, 42, 67, 80, 97-98, 105, 110, I 12,

162-76

BOOTH, JOHN WILKES, 64

Border States (Civil War), 62

BOROWITZ, EUGENE B., 17 2

BOSKOWITZ, ANSELM, 99

Boston, Mass., 37, 80-81, 83, 96, 170,

176; North End, 176

BOUDINOT, ELIAS, 92

BOUQUET, HENRY, 9 1

BOXER, MR., of Beersheba Colony, Kans.,

122, 125

BOYD, STEPHEN, 84

BRANDEIS, MRS. ADOLPH (n&e Fredericka

Dembia), 43; LOUIS D., 17, 43, 88

Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass.,

1099 '43

BRANDES, GEORG, 88

Brandy Station, Va., 35

BRAUDE, WILLIAM G., 170

BRAV, STANLEY R., 90, 92; "The Jewish

Woman, 1861-1865," 34-75


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII

Brazil, 87; Portuguese Brazil, 104 "Candidate Grant and the Jews," by

Brazos River, 169

Joakim Isaacs, 3-16

Bremerhaven, Germany, loo

Cantor; see Chazan

BRENNER, FANNIE, 100; LILLIE, 100

BRESLAWSKI, of Beersheba Colony, Kans.,

I22

Bresloff, Ethel, Fund; see Ethel Bresloff

Fund

Bribery, 4

Bridgeport, Conn., 83

Brigade of Volunteers, Pennsylvania, 94

British, British government; see England,

Great Britain

British Museum, London, England, 27-28,

81,86

BRITT, MAY (May Britt Wilkens), 89

Broadway Synagogue, Cincinnati, Ohio, 55

BRODY, AL, 97

BRODY, ALEXANDER, 102

Bronx Hospital, New York City, 171

Bronx, The, N. Y., 8 I

BROOKE, ROBERT, 95

Brookline, Mass., 8 I

Brooklyn, N. Y., zz, 174

CARDOZO, BENJAMIN N., 88

CARDOZO, JACOB NEWTON, IOZ

Caribbean Sea, Caribbean area, 98, 171

Carolina, Carolinas, Carolinians, 28, 63,

76, 140; Constitution, 140; see also

North Carolina, South Carol~na

CARROLL, WILLIAM THOMAS, 84

Cartoons, I 69

Casares, Argentina, 87

Catholicism, Catholics, 80, 89, 172; see also

Christianity

Cattle, 127, 129-30, 135, 137

Caucasians, I 7

Cemeteries, 64-65, 8 I, 83, 95, 97. 103

Cenual Conference of American Rabbis.

88, 96; Journal, 98

Central European Jews, 168

Ceremonies; see Religious observance

Chaplains, chaplaincy, 55, 87, 94, 102, 174

Charity; see Philanthropy

Charleston, S. C., 28, 33, 35, 39, 58-59.

Broomcorn, I 38

BROWN AND IVES, 86

BROWN, NICHOLAS, & COMPANY, 95

BRUCE, ROBERT V., 3

BRYKS, RACHMIL, 170

BUBER, MARTIN, I 12, 166, 176

63, 777 81, 899 95

Charleston, W. Va., 8 I

Chasidim; see Hasidim

Chazan, 92, 136, 152, 154

Chevra Bikur Cholum, Seattle, Wash., 88

Chicago, Ill., 10, 56-57, 83, 88, 91,

BUCKNER, SIMON S., 62

Buda esr, Hungary, I I I

BuddRism, 172

96-97, 10%. 103? 144. !53-54, 156-57,

172, 179; Hlstor~cal Souety, 88, 97, 103

Chicago & Alton Railroad, I 19

Buenos Aires, Argentina, roo

Children, 40-42. 44-46, 52, 55, 59, 69,

Buffalo, N. Y., 99

74, 89, 106, 119, 136, 139, 147, 152,

Burials; see Funerals

Burying grounds; see Cemeteries

Business, businessmen, 8, 16, 27, 36;

see also Economic life, Merchants, Storekeepers,

Trade

BUTLER, BENJAMIN F., 36, 60

BUTTENWIESER, LAEMMLEIN, I 5

156-58, 173

Chile, 87

Chimborazo Hospital, Richmond, Va., 36

China, Chinese, 147, 176

CHIPMAN, J. LOGAN, 104

CHISHOLM, BROCK, I 74

Choir, 46, I 54

CHRIST, JESUS; see Jesus of Nazareth

Christianity, Christians, 10, 34-35, 66-68,

89,98, 100, I 13, 139-40, 147, 149, 153,

Cabinet members, 92

156, 164, 172, 174, 179; see also Catho-

CAHANA, MOSHE, 90

California, 68, 76, 91, 170; see also Fresno,

Jackson, Los Angeles, Pomona, San

Diego, San Francisco, San Joaquin,

Stockton

Canada, I 70, 174; see also Montreal, Public

Archives of Canada, Quebec, Toronto

licism, Protestantism, Unitarianism

Christmas, I I I

Church and state, 80, 172-73

Church of Christ in Jerusalem, Jerusalem,

Israel, 89

Churches, 17 3

Cimarron, Kans., I 19-2 I, I 25-29, 132-33,

Canadian Jewish Congress, 170

135


Cincinnati, Ohio, 8, 10, 36, 41, 45, 50,

52-53? 55, 66, 68, 72, 83-84, 86, 90,

101-2, 107, 115, 117-20, 131, 135, 137-

38, 147, 155, 174; Commercial, 11; En-

quirer, 19; Labor Zionist Organization

of America, Cincinnati Branch, 102 ; Post

and Times-Star, roz ; Superior Court,

8-9; Times-star, 104

Circumcision, circumcisers, 83, I40

Cities; see Urban areas

Citizens, citizenship, civic life, 7-8, 1 I, I 3,

86, 93, 104, 116-17, 145, 147, 169, 173

City Point, Va., 35

Civic life; see Citizens

Civil disobedience, I 76

Civil freedom; see Freedom

Civil rights, civil liberties, 88, 91, 173

Civil War (United States), I, 3, 8, 10, 13,

34-37? 39-40? 48, 50, 52-53, 55-65, 709

74-75, 82, 89, 979 172

Civilians, 4

Civilization, 76

Clarksburg, W. Va., 97

Classes, the; see Labor; Masses; Middle

class; Upper class; Workers

Classics, Jewish, I I 2

CLAY, HENRY, 92

CLEARWATER, A. J., error for Alphonso T.

Clearwater, 88

CLEARWATER, ALPHONSO T.; see Clearwater,

A. J.

Clergy, clergymen, 90, 98, 172

Cleveland, Ohio, 77, 83, 89, 95, 103, 109;

Plain Dealer, 66

Clinics, I 72

Clothing business; see Garment industry

Coal, 137

Coffee houses, 168

GGDELL, GASTON D., 89, 102

COHEN, ELEANOR H., 35, 40, 59, 63-64;

PHILIP MELVIN, 63

C~HEN, ELLIOT E., 180-8 r

COHEN, G. M., Cleveland, Ohio, 67

COHEN, HENRY^, 89; HENRY^ (grandson),

89

&HEN, JACOB, 85

COHEN, JULIUS, I 20-2 I, I 3 1-32

COHEN, MATILDA SAMUEL (Mrs. Henry),

5 7

COHEN, MRS. MIRIAM ("Mem"), 53

COHEN, MIRIAM MOSES, 61

C~HEN, MOSES, 77-79

COHEN, WILLIAM H., 89

COHN (family), of Beersheba Colony,

Kans., I 35-36

COHN, FRANKLIN, 89,9 3

COHN, HILLEL, 104

C~HON, SAMUEL S.. IOZ

COLEBROOK, GEORGE, 85

COLEBROOKE, JAMES, 8 5

COLEMAN, JAMES S., 17 3

COLLAR, MR., Kansas merchant, I 32

College Hill, Cincinnati, Ohio, 41

Colleges, 41, 176; see also Universities

COLLIS, CHARLES H. T., 61, 63; MRS.

CHARLES H. T. (Septima), 35, 40, 61,

63-64, 66, 68

C~LMAN (KALAMAN), LOEB, 89

Colombia, 87

Colonies, agriculnlral; colonists; coloniza-

tion, 107, I 14-zz, 125-39, 145-46,

150-52

Colonies, American (Colonial period).

colonials, 65. 104, 167; Mexican colonial

era, 171

"Colony in Kansas - 1882, A," I 14-22,

125-39

Colorado, I I 5, I 29, 150; see also Denver,

Pueblo

Columbia, S. C., 34, 53, 59

Combined Jewish Appeal, Boston, Mass.,

83

Combined Jewish Philanthropies of Greater

Boston, Inc., Boston, Mass., 83

Commandments, I 6 I

Commentary (New York City), 174, 180

Commerce, commercial life; see Economic

life

Committee on Un-American Activities;

see House Un-American Activities Com-

mittee, House of Representatives (of

the United States)

Commodores, 57

Common Law (of England), 74

Communism, Communists, I 70

Community, Jewish; see Jewish commu-

nity

Community relations, community service,

communal life, 20, 75, 97, 153; see also

Jewish community

Comparative religions, I 7 z

Concentration camps, 105; see also Ausch-

witz, Belsen

Conchology, z 7

Confederacy (Southern), Confederate

States ofAmerica, 14,39,63, 172; Army,

soldiers, 35, 53, 86; Confederate Me-

morial Day, 65

Confirmation, 45

Conjimatim (sh~p), 85


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII 187

Confucianism, I 72

Congregations, 44, 46-47, 50, 55-56, 64,

74. 77. 81-82, 92-94. 98, 102-3, 143.

152-56, 165, 172, 174; scc also Synagogues

Congress (of the United States), Congressmen,

6, 62, 87, 91, 96, 104, 114, 148;

scc also House of Representatives (of the

COSTA, EMANUEL MENDES DA; scc da

Costa, Emanuel Mendes

Cotton, 3-5, 7-8, 15-16

Counsel; scc Lawyers

Cuuricr, 10

Court of Appeals, New York (State),

88

Courts, 8-9, 74, 82, 84-86, 88, 90-91,

I 04, r47 ; scc also Court of Appeals, New

York (State); Probate courts; Superior

Court, Cincinnati, Ohio; Supreme Court

(of Missouri); Supreme Court (of the

United States)

Cowboys, 120, 127, 130, 133-34

Craven County, S. C., 86

Creed, 145

Creve Coeur, Mo., 82

CR~VECOEUR, MICHEL-GUILLAUME JEAN

DE, 76

Criminality, criminals, 1 I 5

Critics, 80, I I 2, 166-67

CRONBACH, ABRAHAM, 92, 98, 176

Culture, cultural life, 17, 67, 74, 89, I I I,

r53, 167-68, 174-75, 180-81

Curasao, Netherlands West Indies, 102

Curtain (for the Ark) ; scc Paroches

Customs; scc Religious observance

Czarist Russia, Czars; see Russia

Czech Jews, 175

DA COSTA, BENJAMIN MENDES, 86;

EMANUEL MENDES, 2 7-3 3 ; JOSHUA

MENDES, 32, 86; JUDITH MENDES (Mrs.

Joshua), 29, 32-33; SOLOMON, 86

DAC~STA, ISAAC, 81, 89; JOSEPH, 81;

SAMUEL, 8 I

United States), . . Senate (of the United DAHLBERG, EDWARD, Bccw I Was Flcsh,

States)

80

Conservative Judaism, Conservative Jewry, Daily Princctonian (Princeton, N. J.), 102

82, 171-72

Dakotas, I 15; scc also North Dakota

CONSTEIN, MENAHEM, 85

Dancing, dancers, dances, 40, 45, 48-49.

CONSTZNE, LEWIS, 85

51, 66-67. 83, 133, 176

Constihltion (of the United States), 55, DANIELS, ABRAHAM G., 8 I

I73

DARROW, CLARENCE, 98

Consumer goods, 167

DAUB, MILTON, 8 r

Contraception, I 7 2

DAVID, PHOEBE SAMUEL (Mrs. Lazarus),

Conversion, converts, 39, 68, 89

90

Conversion of Chaplain Cohen, Thc, I 74 DAVIS, MRS. A,, Cincinnati, Ohio, 121;

COONS, ISIDOR, 85

CHARLES K., 107, 115, 117, 119-22,

Copenhagen, Denmark, 88

125-34

Copperheads, ro

DAVIS, JEFFERSON, 84, 172

Corn, 138

DAVIS, SAMMY, JR., 24, 89

C~RTISSOS, IMMANUEL, 8 I

Dawn or Dusk, 93

Day of Atonement; scc Yom Kippur

Day schools, 80

DE SADOWSKA, KATHERINE; scc Sadowska,

Katherine de

Dcarborn Independent (Dearborn, Mich.),

105

Deborah (Cincinnati, Ohio), 73, r 55-56

Dedham, Mass., 8 I

DEL BANCO, MIRIAM, 93

Delaware, I oz ; scc also Wilmingtoa

DELEON, EDWIN, 90

DEMBITZ, FREDERICKA, 43; LOUIS, 43

Democracy, I 66

Democratic Party, Democrats, 6-1 2, 62;

sce also Southern Democrats

Demography, 169, I 73

Denver, Colo., 93

Department of State (United States) ; see

State Department (United States)

Department of the Navy (United States) ;

see Navy Department (United States)

Department of War (United States); scc

War Department (United States)

Depressions, 146

Deputy, The, I 7 5

Derech eretz (good manners), I 58

"Description of America, 1785, A," 27-33

Desegregation, 90, 97

Despotism, I 14


Detroit, Mich., 84, 94

Eastern Europe, 107, 115, 143-58, 161,

DEUTSCH, BABETTE, Collected Poems, I9I9-

1962, 80

Dialectics, talmudic, 156

DIAMANT, ZANVEL, 170

Diaries, 40, 53, 59, 99-101, 107, I 19-22?

125-34, 140

Diaspora, I 63

168; Jews of, 143, 148-49, 153, 157,

161, 167-68, 176

Easton, Pa., 82, 92

EBAN, ABBA, 102

ECKSTEIN, DAVID, 16

Economic life, economics, 3, 102, 105,

114-15, 14-45, 153, 165, 167-68, 173,

DICKINSON, JONATHAN, 90

Dietary laws; see Kashruth

DILLON, JACOB LUTHER, 89

I79

EDELHERTZ, MOSES, I 28-29, I 36

EDEN, NAHUM, IOZ

DINKELSPIEL, MAX, 98

Diplomas, rabbinical; see Rabbinical di-

Editors, 8, 11, 38,54, 59,70,93, 149, 155,

I 80-8 I

plomas

Education, 40-43, 52, 65, 70, 74, 80, 89,

Disabilities, 88, 104, 147

97, 113, 143, 147, 157-58, 168; see also

Dispatch (New York City), 67

Adult education, Hebrew schools, High

Distillers, 105

schools, Public schools, Schools, Sunday

District Grand Lodge No. 2, B'nai B'rith, schools

Cincinnati, Ohio, 83

&AN, WILLIAM A., 87

Divine name; see God

EHRLICH, PAUL, 94

Divorce, 69

EHRLICH, ROSALIE K. (Mrs. Julian B.), 99

DLUZNOVSKY, MOSHE, 170

EICHMANN, ADOLF, I 62-65; Eichmann In

Documents, 84-87, 93, 17 r

Jerusalem - A Report an the Banality of

Dodge City, Kans., 125, 132, 141-42 Evil (review), 162-65, 175

Dolphin (ship), 92

EINHORN, DAVID, 98

Dominican Republic, 87

EINSTEIN, ALBERT, 17, 99, 166, 176

Donaldsonville, La., 94

EISBERG, CHARLES A., 93

Dos P~ssos, JOHN, 98

EISENDRATH, MAURICE N., 93, 170

Douglas-Keating Amendment, Mutual Se- EISENSCHIML, OTTO, I 7 2

curity Act, 93

EISENSTEIN, IRA, 103, 172; ISAAC, 103;

DOUGLAS, PAUL H., 98, 174

JUDAH DAVID, 102-3, 157

Dover, N. J., 81

El Paso, Tex., 93

Drama, 173

Ele Bene Ha-Neurim, 3 z

Drawings, 169

ELIAS, MRS. MIGUEL, 100

DRINAN, ROBERT F., 173

Elizabeth, N. J., 172

DRUMMOND, FRANKS, AND NESBITT, 91 ELLENBOGEN (family), to5

Du PONT DE NEMOURS COMPANY, ELLIOT, SIMON F., 82

E. I., 94

Ellsworth City, Ellsworth County, Kans.,

DUBOIS, JOHN V., 5

12 I

DUCHAMP, MARCEL, 175

Emancipation (of slaves), 62; Proclama-

DURANT, WILL, 97-98

tion, 62; (of women), 62, 75

Dutch, the, Dutch (language), 85, 170; EMANUEL, THE MISSES, 41

East India Company, 28

Emigrants, emigration; see Immigrants

DWORKIN, FREDERIC S., 97

EMMANUEL, ISAAC S., IOZ

Employment, 146

Encyclicals, 176

England, the English, 27-29, 32, 74-75,

Eagle, Wis., 59

Early Jewish Community of Bostan's North

End, The, I 7 6

Early Jewish Labor Movement in the United

States, The, I 7 5

East Liverpool, Ohio, 8 1-82

East, the; Easterners, I 27, 131-32

103 ; see also Great Britain

ENGLANDER, HENRY, 90, 105; MRS.

HENRY, 90

English (language), 29, 38, 42, 73, 77-78?

136, 152, 158, 170, 180-81

"English in America, The," 75

Enlightenment, 148


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII 189

Epidemics, 95

Epithalamia, 3 2

EPSTEIN, E., Washington, D. C., 103

EPSTEIN, MELECH, 99

Equality, 75, 114, 147; political, 88;

social, 172

127. 129-31, 133-34, 136-39. 146; see

also Agriculture

Farming colonies; see Colonies, agricultural

FASMAN, OSCAR Z., 172

FAST, HOWARD, 170

Fate and Faith: The Contemporary Jewish

Scene, I 7 3

ERNST, MORRIS L., 98

Eroticism, I 67

FECHHEIMER, CORA, 104; S. MARCUS, 95

Escaba (prayer), 77

Federal Bureau of Investigation (F. B. I.),

Escamoth (rules), I 02

I 66

Essays, essayists, 39, 102, 166, 168, 170, Federal government, 62; see also America,

'74

Union (American), United States

Essays and Portraits in Anglo-Jewish His- "Feenicks" (pseudonym), 54

tory, 2 7

FEIN, ISAAC M., 8 I

Essays in Hanor of Solomon B. F~eehof, I 70 FEINEMAN, B. A., Kansas City, Mo., 13s

ESTRICH, BESSIE, 140

FEINSILVER, ALEXANDER, 82

Ethel Bresloff Fund, 176

FELDMAN, ABRAHAM J., 88

Ethical letters, 88

FELSENTHAL, BERNHARD, 103

Ethics, 174

Ferdinand (ship), 99

Ethnic groups, 167

Festivals; see Jewish holidays

ETTING, ELIJAH, 103

Feudalism, I I 5

ETTING, THEODORE CHARLES, 60

FEY, HAROLD E., 173

Eugene, Ore., 99

Fiction, 167

Eulogies, 97, 106

FIEDLER, LESLIE, 166-67

Euphrates Lodge No. 35, B'nai B'rith, FIERMAN, FLOYD S., 96

Memphis, . . Tenn., . 84

Filson Club, Inc., Louisville, Ky., 104

.

Europe, 27, 30-31, 91, 99, 143-49, 161, Financiers, finance, 3, 28, 167

164, 168, 175; Jews of, 163; see also FINE, ALVIN I., 82

Central European Jews, Eastcrn Europe FINKELSTEIN, LOUIS, 174

Evacuation Day, 49

Finnish (language), 80

Evanston, Ill., 82

First Regiment Mississippi Cavalry, 86

Evansville, Ind., 32

First World War, I I 1

Evil, 111, 152, 162, 165

FISHER-HECHT (families), 90

EWELL, RICHARD STODDERT, 63

FISHER, JEANETTE, 90; SOLOMON, 90;

"Existential Icgislation," 166

WOLF, 90

Existentialism, 103, 167

Five Books of Moses; see Pentateuch

EYTINGE, ROSE, 36, 38

Flag (the American), 55, 57, 60; (the

EZEKIEL (family), I o I

Confcderatc), 63

EZEKIEL, JACOB, 90

FLETCHER, JOHN, 88

Florine Stettheimer: A Life in Art, I 75

Folk religion, Jewish, 168

Fond du Lac, Wis., 176

FORD, HENRY, 105

"Face of the American Jew, The," 17 Foreigners, 1 47

FACKENHEIM, EMIL L., 173

Forestry, I 3 2

Factories, 152

FORSBERG, ROBERT, 90

Fairbanks, Alaska, 83, 87-88

Fort Pirt, 9 I

Fairmount Temple, Cleveland, Ohio, 19 Four Saints in Three Acts, I 7 5

Fairs, 56

Fourth Onondaga Regiment, New York

Faith, 158

State (Civil War), 57

Family, 65, 69, 74-73; pews, 45-46 FRALEY, MOSES, I03

Family Chronicle, 174

France, 164

FARMER, MAJOR, 95

FRANCO, MOSES, 86

Farmers, farming, farms, 87, 98, I 15-18, FRANK, MRS. ISADORE, 100


FRANK, JEROME N., 176

Gates of Prayer Congregation, New

FRANKEL (family), 43

Orleans, La., 82

FRANKENSTEIN, MRS. VICTOR S., 91 GEDANSKI (GIDANZKI), MR., of Beersheba

FRANKS, BILHAH ABIGAIL LEVY, 76; Colony, Kans., 12 I, 135; MRS. CHOLE,

DAVID, 91-92; MOSES, 85

121, I35

FRANKS, INGLIS AND BARCLAY, 9 I

Genazim, Tel Aviv, Israel, 104

Frederick, Md., 3 5

Genealogv, genealogies, 90, 95, I o I

Free Synagogue of Westchester, Mount General Order No. I 1 (of Ulysses S.

Vernon, N. Y., 165

Grant), 1, 4-7, 9-10, 12-16, 89

Free thought, 35, 44

General Servlces Administration, St. Louis,

Freedom, 3: 12, 62, 75, 80, 114, 145, 149. Mo., 87; Washington, D. C., 85

161; polit~cal, 76, 114; religious, 3, 76, Generals, 5-7, 9-10, 53, 59-61, 63, 85,

114, 173

89-p1,96

FREEHOF, LILLIAN, 170; SOLOMON B., 97, Gent~les, 3, 6, 16, 46, 67, 118, 122, 138,

I 103, 17% 177

54; see a h Buddhism, Christianity,

Freeholders, I 16

Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam

Freemasonry; see Masonry

Georgia Legislarurc, 61

French, the, French (language), 42, 80, Germans, German (language), 70, 73, 80,

92, 106. 170

98, I 11-12, 149, 156, 163-64, 170,

French and Indian War, 92

179-80

Fresno, Calif., loo

Germany, 65, 97-98, 101, 111; Jews of,

FREUD, SIGMUND, 176

45,97, 109, 143, 151, 153-54, 156, 158,

FREUND, MIRIAM K., 99

161; Reichstag, 148

FRIED, ALFRED H., 176

GERSHWIN, GEORGE, 103

FRIEDHEIM, HATTIE; see Lemann, Harriet GERSON, MRS N., Fairbanks, Alaska, 83

Friedheim

GIDANZKI; see Gedanski

FRIEDLAENDER, ISRAEL, 103

GILBERT, ARTHUR, and BELDEN MENKUS,

FRIEDLANDER (family), 9 r ; ABRAHAM Meet the American Jew, 17 1-72

(ABRAM) S., 91; ISIDOR, 91; MRS. GILMOUR, MR., Kansas City, Mo., I 20-2 I

RAHLA, 91 ; S., San Joaquin, Calif., 9 I Girls; see Children

FRIEDMAN, AARON Z., I 5

GITELSON (family), 9 I; M. LEO, 9 I

FRIEDMAN, ARTHUR, 2, 108; LEO, 2, GITTELSOHN, ROLAND B., 103, I 70

I 08

Glen Manor, Jewish Home for the Aged,

FRISCH, EPHRAIM, 91; RUTH COHEN, 91 Cincinnari, Ohio, 83

"From a Barbadian Will - 1739,'' 106 GLICK, PETER, 82

FROMM, ERICH, 176

GLUECK, NELSON, 91, 93-94, toz, 170;

FRONTIER, 68

The River Jordan, 105

FROST, ROBERT, 103, 174

God, 11, 17, 34, 36. 41, 45. 497 697 8%

Fundamentalism, I47

103, 106, 113, 118, 154, 158, 161

Funerals, 51, 83, 106

God and Man in Washington, 80

Fiirth, Germany, 94

Goddard College, Plainfield, Vt., 176

Furure life, 29

GOHEEN, ROBERT A., 102

Gold, 3, 14; see also Money

GOLDBERG, ARTHUR J., 92

GOLDBURG, ROBERT E., 90

GAGE, THOMAS, 9 I

GOLDFARB, MR., of Beersheba Colony,

Galicia, 168; Jews of, 168

Kans., I 20-2 I

GALLAND, S., Dodge City, Kans., I 32 GOLDMAN, CHARLES J., 82

Galveston, Tex., 35, 51-52, 55

GOLDMAN, EMMA, 176

Gamblers, gambling, 69, 76, I 3 3

GOLDMAN, J. ALBERT, 102

GANZ, EMIL, 99

GOLDMAN, JOSEPH, 93

Garment industry, roz

GOLDMAN, LIPE, I 25, I 28

GARRISON, WILLIAM LLOYD, 3 5

GOLDMAN, SOLOMON, 76

GASTON, WILLIAM, 76

GOLDSCHWDT, ADOLF, 99


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII

GOLDSMID, ANNA MARIA, 38

GOLDSMITH, SOPHIA (SOPHIE) HELLER,

391 59

GOLDSTEIN, ALBERT S., 8 I

HAAS, OTTO, 94

GOLDSTEIN, FANNY, 96

HAAS, SOPHIE SPARKS (Mrs. Louis), 99

GOMEZ, DANIEL, 9 2

Hadassah Fond du Lac Papers, 176

GOODFRIEND, MRS. A. L.,Chicago, Ill., 105 Ha-Gershoni (pseudonym), 1 54-57

GOODRICH, MRS. RAY, 99

HAHN, AARON, 103

GORDIMER, NADINE, 170

HAHN, LEO, 100

GORDON, MR., of Kansas, I 37

Halachah (rabbinic law), 103

GORDON, BERYL BEARMAN (Mrs. Theo- HALFF, MAYER, 99

dore H.), 179

Hall of Records, Annapolis, Md., 86

GORDON, MURRAY A., 173

HALLECK, HENRY W., 5-6

GORENSTEIN, ARTHUR, 84

HALPERN, SEYMOUR, 9 I

GORFINKLE, JOSEPH I., 176

HALPHON, SAMUEL, 87

GORHAM, W. (United States consul), 90 Hamelitz (St. Petersburg, Russia), 107,

GORMAN, WILLIAM, I 7 3

143-44, 147, 150, 153,;56-57, 161

Gotham (New York City), 49

Hamlet, 67

GOTTHEIL, RICHARD J. H., 88

HAMMER. MISS. Cincinnati. Ohio. F4

GOULD, MORTON, I03

HAMMERSCHLAG, SARAH, 99-100

Government, American; see United States HANDLIN, OSCAR, 167

Government, Roumanian; see Roumania Hanover, Pa., 103; Herald, 103; Spectator,

Government, Russian; see Russia

'03

Governors, 7

Hanukkah, 49, 51

Graduate School for Jewish Social Work, Har Sinai Congregation, Baltimore, Md.,

New York City, IOI

98

GRAF, LEROY P., 93

HARBY, LEVY CHARLES, 85

GRANT, FREDERICK D., 15; JESSE, 8-9; HARDING, WARREN G., 95

ULYSSES S., I, 3-16, 89

HUTPET'S Weekly (New York City), 105

Grant v. Mack Brothers (lawsuit), 8-9 HARRISON, WILLIAM HENRY, 90

GRATZ (family), loo; BARNARD, 91; BEN, HART, ISAAC, 85; NAPHTALI, 85, 92

61 ; CARY, 60; REBECCA, 35-36, 39, 44, HART, JOSHUA, 8 I

47, 52. 60-61; SIMON, 92

HART, MYER, 92

GRAYZEL, SOLOMON, 170

HART, NAPHTALI, AND Co., 85, 92

Great American Desert, I 3 2

HARTLEY, MARSDEN, 175

Great Britain, 85, 9 I, 148; see also England Haward University, Cambridge, Mass.,

Great Sanitary Fair of Western Pennsyl- 'q7

vania, 56

Hasidim, Hasidism, 22, I 13, 166, 176

Greek (language), 80

Haskalah, 168

GREENBERG, SIMON, 174

Hatzfirah (Warsaw, Poland), 107, 143-44,

GREENEWALT, CRAWFORD H., 94

1477 149-509 153-54, 156-57

Griffith-Paret prizefight, 166

HAUPT, PAUL, 94

GROGHAN, GEORGE, 9 I

HAUSNER, GIDEON, I 61-63

Grombach, Germany, 10 i

Hawaii, 92, 100

GROSS, ALEXANDER, 92

HAYS, JUDITH, 86; MOSES MICHAEL, 86

GROSSMANN, LOUIS, I04

Hebraism, 103

Guide to Jewish References in the Mexican Hebrew (language and literature), 2, 38,

Colonial Era, 1.~zr-18z1, A, 171

42, 44, 77-79, 104, 107, 1129 143-587

Gulf of Mexico, 36

161, 168, 170, 175

GUTHEIM, JAMES K., 83

"Hebrew" (term), 7

GUTTERES, JACOB, 90

Hebrew Benevolent Association, Jeffer-

GUTTMACHER, ALAN F., 172

son, Tex., 83; Waco, Texas, 169

GUTTMANN, ALEXANDER, I 70

Hebrew Benevolent Society, Binghamton,

Gynecology, 172

N. Y., 83


Hebrew Benevolent Society of Los An-

geles, Los Angeles, Calif., 84

Hebrew Cemetery Company of Wake

County, N. C., 95

Hebrew Foreign Mission Society, New

Orleans, La., 52

Hebrew Immigrant Aid Societv. New

, .

York City,

Hebrew Ladies' Memorial Association.

Richmond, Va., 65

Hebrew Literary Union, New York City,

43

Hebrew press; see Hebrew (language and

literature), Journalism, Periodicals

"Hebrew race," 6-7

Hebrew schools, 44

Hebrew Sunday School, Hebrew Sunday

School Society, Philadelphia, Pa., 44

Hebrew Union Agricultural Society, Cin-

cinnati, Ohio, 107, I 15, I 34-39

Hebrew Union College Annual, 92

Hebrew Union College -Jewish Institute

of Religion, Cincinnati, Ohio, 3, 90, 92,

94, 96, 98, 102-5, 143, 145, 156, 172;

Los Angeles, 92; New York City, 92;

Alumni Association, 92-93; Biblical and

Archaeological School, Jerusalem, Israel,

102; Library, Cincinnati, Ohio, 92;

Klau Library, 92

Hebrew University Library, Jerusalem,

HICKS, BENJAMIN, 85

High Holy Days, 17, 62, 154

High schools, 42 Higher Destiny, A, 93

HIGHET, GILBERT, 163

Highland House, Cincinnati, Ohio, 13 I

Hillel Foundation, University of Missouri,

83

HILLSBERG, PHILIP, 97

Hillside Hospital, New York City, 17 I

HIMELHOCH, JEROME, I 76

Hinduism, I 7 2

Hingham, Mass., 143

HIRSCH, SAMUEL, I 54

HIRSCHBERG, BELLA COHEN (Mrs. Jacob),

5O

H~storical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia,

Pa., 87, 92

History, historians, 27, 73, 76, 97-98,

112, 144, 162, 167, 1697.1; Anglo-

Jewish history, 28; l~terary h~story, 28;

social history, 28

HOADLY, GEORGE, 8

HOBBY, ALFRED M., 35-36

HOCHHUTH, ROLF, The Deputy, I 75

HOFHEIMER, HENRY, 88

Holidays; see Jewish holidays

Holland, 102

Holly Springs, Miss., 4

Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Va., 65

Holstead. Kans., I 27

Holy Blossom Temple, Toronto, Canada.

93

"Holy Moses," 179

Holy Synod (Russia), I 14

Palestine, 95

Hebrew Women's Aid Societv. , Phila- ,

delphia, Pa., 55

Hebrews; see Jewry

HECHT (family) ; see Fisher-Hecht (families)

HOLMES, JOHN HAYNES, 97

HECHT, JACOB, 90; JEANETTE (Mrs. Jacob), Hmne Jmml (New York City), 67

90

Home, the, 44,46,49, 70, 74-75

HEDGES, HENRY P., 76

Homeland, political, for Jews; see Zion-

HEINE, HEINRICH, 92

ism

HELLER (family), 100-10 I ; ERNESTINE, Homes for the aged, 156

loo; IRVING K., IOI; ISAAC S., IOI; Homestead Law, Homestead Act (I 86z),

LOUISE, 100; MAX, 98, 100

117. 151

HELLER, BERNARD, 93

Homiletics, 103

HELLMAN, GEORGE, 180

Homosexuality, I 66

HERBERG, WILL, 103, 173

HOOK, SIDNEY, 17 3

HERMAN, FLOYD S., 98

HOPKINS, STEPHEN, 92

HERTZBERG, ARTHUR, 172

HOROWITZ, DAVID, 89

HERZL, THEODOR, 162-63

HERZOG, PAUL, I 3 2

Hester Street, New York City, 169

Heterosexuality, 166

Hevra Mazhire Shabbat, Montreal, Canada,

105

HEYDRICH, REINHARD, 163

Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York

City, 171

Hospitals, 36, 52-53, 55, 66, 156-57, 170-

7 2

Hotels, 120, 126

House of Representatives (of the United

States), 96; Committee on Foreign


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII

Affairs, 96; Committee on Un-American Immigrants, immigration, I, 3, 28, 65,

Activities, 102, 170; see also Congress (of

the United States)

73, 77, 84, 87, 92-93, 100-101, 106-7,

114-16, 118-19, IZI, 126, 137, 143-46,

House Un-American Activities Commit- 149-53, 157, 160, 167-68, 170. 175-76,

tee, 102, 170

Houston, Tex., 52

Hubert Howe Bancroft Library, San Francisco,

Calif., 97, 99

HUDDESFORD, W., Oxford, Eng., 32

Human relations, I 7 I

Human rights; scc Rights, human

Humanc Society, A, 174

Humanitarianism, humanity, I 12, I 16, I 18,

'74

Humor, 72

Hungary, 106, 161

HURWITZ, HENRY, 93, I 80-8 I

HURWOOD, DAVID, 93

HUTCHINS, ROBERT M., 173

HYMAN (family), 103-4

Hymns, hymn books, 38, 94; Hymn Bwk

for Jewish Worship, 94

HYNEMAN, REBEKAH GUMPERT (Mrs.

Benjamin), 39

'79

Immorality, 104

Import trade, 105

Indentures, 81, 84

Indepcndmt (New York City), 68

India, 98

Indian scouts, loo

Indiana, 10; scc also Evansville, Indianapolis

Indianapolis, Ind.. 38, I 19

Indians (American), 105

Indb dcl Ramo dc Inquisicidn, I 7 I

Indigents; sce Paupers; Poor, the

Indigo, 3 I

Individuals, 76

Industrialists, 20

Influenza epidemics, 95

INGLIS, JOHN, 91

I Ctnnot Forgivc, I 7 5

Idcal Synagoguc, The, 9 I

Identification, Jewish; sec Jewish identifi-

cation

Idiots, 74

Idishc Tsaitung, Di, 105

Illinois, 62, 137; Staatszeitung ((Chicago,

Ill.), I 2; Volunteers' Thirty-ninth Regi-

ment (Civil War), 62; scc also Chicago,

Evanston. Peoria, Quincy

Illusrrarions

Rlaustcin, Jacob, 20

Davis, Sammy, Jr., 24

Dodge City, Kansas, 1882, 141

Dodge City, Kansas, Front Street, in

the 188o's, 142

Freehof, Solomon B., 177

Hasidic Jew of Brooklyn, A, 22

Jewish Immigrants, an unsympathetic

view of, 160

Koufax, Sandy, 2 3

Lewisohn, Ludwig, I 23

New York City Market Scene, I 884,159

Peters, Roberta, ~y

Sabin, Albert, 2 I

Shahn, Ben, 26

Syrkin, Marie, 25

"Image of America in Two East European

Hebrew Periodicals, The," 143-58, 161

Inquisition, 104, 17 1 ; Mexican, 104

Instcad of Violcncc, I 76

Institute of Jewish Studies, Cleveland,

Ohio, 77

Insurance, 86

Intellectuals, I 80-8 I

Intercollegiate Menorah Association, 93

Interfaith relations, 68, 90, 179

Intermarriage, 67-68, 154

Iowa, 137, 172

Irish, the, 29

ISAACKS, JACOB, 85

ISAACS, ELLA DAVIS (Mrs. Nathan), 93,

98, 103, I 15; MAX, 134-35; NATHAN, 93

ISAACS, JOAKIM, 3; "Candidate Grant and

the Jews," 3-16

ISAACS, SAMUEL M., 12

"Ish Yemini" (pseudonym), I 56

Islam, I72

Island Record Office, Spanish Town,

Jamaica, B. W. I., IOI

Islands of Cmpassiun, I 70-7 I

Israel (name), 158

Israel (people), Israelites; scc Jewry

Israel (state), Israelis, 27, 89, 91, 93,

97-98, 102-3, 163; scc also Palestme

ISRAEL, MATTIE D., 95

ISRAEL, RICHARD J., 90

"Israelite" (term), 7, I I 5

Israclitc, Amcrican Israclitc (Cincinnati,

Ohio), 11, IS, 37, 7071, 73, 115, 118,

'393 '55

ISSERMAN, FERDINAND M., 82, 98


J

Jackson, Calif., 50

Jackson, Mich., 46

Jacob H. Schiff Foundation, 96

"Jew" (term), 7, 17

Jewish Advocate (Boston, Mass.), 176

Jewish Agency for Palestine, 162-63

Jewish centers, lor

Jewish-Christian relations; see Interfaith

relations

Jewish Chronic Diseases Hospital, New

York City, 17 I

Jewish community, 42, 44, 64, 66, 68,

74-75, I 14, 157, 165, 172, 176; see also

Community relations

Jewish Community Center of Wilmington,

Wilmington, Del., 102

Jewish Community Federation, Cleveland,

Ohio, 83

Jewish Community Relations Council,

San Francisco, Calif., 173

Jewish Council, Belgium, 164; France,

'64

Jewish education; see Education

Jewish Family and Children's Service of

Denver, Denver, Colo., 93

Jewish Federation of Delaware, Wilming-

ton, Del., 94

Jewish Foster Home, Philadelphia, Pa., 52

Jewish Historical Society of Maryland,

Baltimore, Md., 8 I ; of Michigan, 84

Jewish holidays, 12, 45, 48-49, 65, 87,

I 36; see also Hanukkah, Hrgh Holy Days,

New Year, Passover, Purim, Simchat

Torah, Yom Kippur

Jewish Home for the Aged; see Glen

Manor

Jewish homeland in Palestine, 162-63;

see also Zionism

Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn, New York

JACOB, WALTER, 92; WALTER JACOB, City, 171

FREDERICK C. SCHWARTZ, and VIGDOR

W. KAVALER, Essays in Hmor of Solomon

B. Frechof, 170

JACOBS, ISRAEL, 85

JACOBS, SAMUEL, I40

JACOBSON, DAN, I70

JACOBSON, PHILIP, I 7 2

Jamaica, British West Indies, 101, 104;

Journals of the Assembly, 104

Japan, Japanese (language), 80, 98

JAVITS, JACOB K., 98

Jefferson, Tex., 83

JEFFERSON, THOMAS, 80

JENKINS, CHARLES, 28

Jerusalem, Palestine and Israel, 89-0, 95,

102, 147, 162-65

JESUS OF NAZARETH, 6, 16, 29

Jewish identification, I 68, I 74; see also

Jewish life

Jewish Immigrant Aid Services of Canada

(JIAS), 170

Jewish labor movement, 168, 175

Jewish Ladies' Endeavor Society, Portland,

Ore., 84

Jewish leaders; see Leaders, Jewish

Jewish learning; see Learning, Jewish

Jewish life, Jewishness, 39, 77, I 10, I 14,

143-44, 157, 168, 172-73

Jewish Lift in Our Times, I 73

Jewish literature; see Literature, Jewish

Jewish Memorial Hospital, New York

City, 171

Jewish Messrngcr (New York City), I 2,

38? 43, 48: 56, 67. 71, 169

Jewrsh Natlonal and University Library,

Jerusalem, Israel, 85

Jewish nationalism; see Nationalism, Jew-

ish

Jewish Orphan Home; see Bellefaire

Jewish people; set Jewry

Jewish press; see Journalism, Newspapers,

Periodicals

"Jewish problem," I 50

"Jewish saloon," 168

Jewish secular movement; see Secularism

Jewish Sunday school movement, 3 5

Jewish Theological Seminary of America,

New York City, 171, 174

"Jewish vote," 6-7, lo, 16

Jewish Welfare Board, New York City,

87; Center, Balboa, Panama Canal Zone,

105

Jewish Welfare Federation, Cleveland,

Ohio, 83

Jewish Widows' and Orphans' Home,

New Orleans, La., 38

"Jewish Woman, The, 1861-1 865," 34-75

Jewish Women's League, Fairbanks,

Alaska, 83

Jewish World (London, England?), I 56

Jewry, Jews, 3-17, 22, 34-35r47-50r 55-

57, 61-67, 69-71, 73-76, 80, 87-89, 96,

98-100, 102-3, 105, 107, 109-14, 118,

134, 138-40, 147-499 1523 155-589 161,

163-65, 167-69, I 71-76, I 79-8 I; see also


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII I95

Alsatian Jews, American Jewry, Anglo-

Jewry, Central European Jews, Czech

Jews, Eastern Europe, Europe, Germany,

Litvaks, Mexico, Oriental Sephardic

Jews, Russia, Russian-Polish Jews, Se-

phardim, Soviet Russia, Spanish-Portu-

guese Jews, West European Jews

Jews' Hospital, New York City, 55

JICK, LEON A., 165; review of Eichmann in

Jemalm, I 62-65

KALAMAN, LOEB; see Colman, Loeb

KANDER, MRS. ALLEN, 90

Kander, Lizzie, Papers; see Lizzie Kander

Papers

Kansas, loo, 107, 114-22, 125-3?: 150;

"A Colony in Kansas - 1882, 107,

I 14-2 2, I 25-39; State Historical Soci-

ety, Topeka, Kans., Ior ; see also Cimar-

ron, Dodge City, Ellsworth, Holstead,

Larned, Leavenworth, Topeka, Wichita

Kansas City, Mo., 80, 119, 122, 126-27,

I 34-3 5 ; Relief Committee, I 20; Star,

JOHN XXIII (pope), 176

John Carter Brown Library, , . Providence,

R. I., 86, 95, 104

I01

Johns Hopkins University Library, Balti- KAPLAN, BENJAMIN, I 7 2

more, Md., 95

KARP, ABRAHAM J., 86

JOHNSON, ANDREW, 93; Papers, Library of Kashruth, 45, 48, 51, 169, 179; see also

Congress, Washington, D. C., 93 Kosher food

JONAS, MRS. ABRAHAM, 36

KASKEL, CEASER, 5

JONAS, ADOLPH, 100; HOMER, 100 KASSEL, ERIC, 87-88

JONAS, BENJAMIN F., 85

KATES, J. (physician), 73

Jordan River, 105

KATZ, MARCUS, I 04

Joseph Strauss (ship), 105

KATZ, MRS. ROSA, 59

JOSEPHSON, MANUEL, 76

KATZ, WILBER G., 173

JOST, ISAAC MARCUS, 98

Journalism, journalists, 9, 75, 143, 162

KATZENSTEIN, MARTIN E., 103

GUFMAN, MRS. JEANNE, 93

Journals, 7, 89, 10.7, 143, 150; see atso

Newspapers, Periodicals

KAUFMANN, ED., I03

KAUPER, PAUL G., I73

Judah Benjamin, 172

JUDAH, BERNARD S., 85

KAVALER, VIGDOR W.; WALTER JACOB;

and FREDERICK C. SCHWARTZ, Essays in

Judaism, 3, 12, 17, 29, 39, 42, 44, 48,

66-68, 73, 7576, 85, 89, 103. 105, 109,

112, 154, 168, 171-72, 174; see also

Hrmor of Sotomon B. Freehof, 170

KAYSERLING, MORITZ, 93

KAZIN, ALFRED, 167

Conservative Judaism, Orthodox Juda- KEATING, EDWARD M., 89

ism, Reconstructionism, Reform Juda- KEATING, KENNETH B., 87

ism, Religious observance

KEEGAN, C. M., Philadelphia, Pa., 94

Judaizing, 104

Kehillah, New York City, 84

Judenstaat, I 62

KEMPSTER, WALTER, 104

Judeophobia; see Anti-Semitism

KENNEDY, JOHN F., 80, 93, 166

Judges, justices, 8, 43, 88, 97-98, 146-47, Kentucky, 5; see atso Lexington, Louisville

158

Judith Montefiore Memorial, Ggland, 51

"Julius" (pseudonym), I I

Ketubot (marriage documents), 84-86,

97

KIEV, I. EDWARD, 86

Justice, 147

KING, MARTIN LUTHER, JR., 90

Juvenile delinquency, r 66

Kingston, Jamaica, I 7 I

KISCH, GUIDO, 84

Klau Library, Hebrew Union College,

Cincinnati, Ohio, 92

KABAKOFF, JACOB, "The Tombstone of the KLEIN, DAVID, 136

Reverend Moses Cohen," 7779

Kaddish Yatom (prayer), 154

KAFKA, FUNZ, I 66

KAGE, JOSEPH, With Faith and Thanksgiving,

170

KAHN, BERTRAND B., 85

KLEIN, JOSEPH, 98

KLEIN, MRS. JOSEPH J., 91

KLEIN, ROBERT H., 97

Klezmer, 176

KLURMAN, ABISH, 93

KNIGHT, GEORGE A., I 19-20, I 26


19~ AMERICA

KOESTLER, ARTHUR, 170

KOHLER (family), 9 3 ; KAUFMANN, 9 3-94;

Republic, Mexico, New Christians,

Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Venezuela

LILLI, 93; MAX J., 93-94

KOHN, AMY GERSON, 100

Latrun, Palestine, 105

LAUTERBACH, JACOB Z., 94

KOHUT, MRS. ALEXANDER, 65

KOMISARSKY, JOSEPH, 85

Kongelige Bibliotek, Det, Copenhagen,

Denmark, 88

KORN, BERTRAM W., 83, 97, 105; American

Jewry and the Civil War, 52, 56

Kosher food, I 57 ; see also Kashruth

Law, Lawyers, 74, 84-85, 93, 172, 174;

see also Halachah, Pentateuch, Scrolls of

the Law, Torah

Laws, anti-Jewish; see Anti-Semitism,

Disabilities, "May Laws"

Lawsuits, 8-9, 85, 105

Laymen, laity, I 55

Kour~x, SANDY, z 3

Kovno, Lithuania, 86

KRAMER, WILLIAM M., 89

KRANTZ, ABRAHAM, 103

LAZARON, MORRIS S., 94

LAZARUS, EMMA, 39, 64

Leaders, Jewish, 163-65, 167-68

Learning, Jewish, 44, 158, 175; see also

KRASSNER, PAUL, 166

KROHN, IRWIN M., 104

Scholars

Leases, 8 I

"Kiiche, Kinder und Kirche," 37

KURLAND, PHILIP B., 173

Leavenworth, Kans., 50

Lebanon Hospital, New York City, 171

KURTZIG, HEINRICH, 100

KUTZ, HATTIE (Mrs.

MILTON, 94

Milton), 94;

Lectern, 64

Lecturers, lectures, 96, 103-5, 171, 174;

see also Addresses, Readers, Sermons.

Speeches

LEE, SAMUEL PHILLIPS, 60

La Crosse Daily Democrat (La Crosse,

LEESER, ISAAC, 44

LEFTWICH, JOSEPH, Yisrael, 170

Wis.). 7

Legislation, 149

La ~ rige, Ga., 34

Legislature (Georgia), 61

LABATT, A. C., San Francisco, Calif., 82

Labor, labor movement, labor unions,

88, 116, 136, 145-47, 149-50, 152-537

161, 168; see also Jewish labor move-

Leland Hotel, Kansas City, Mo., 120

LELYVELD, ARTHUR J., "Ludwig Lewisohn

In Memoriam," 109-1 3

LEMANN (family), 94; BERNARD, 94; Harment,

Workers

riet (Hattie) Friedheim (Mrs. Bernard),

Labor Zionist Organization of America - 94; JACOB, 94; MONTE M., 94

Poale Zion, Inc., 84, loz

LENSKI, GERHARD, 173

Labrador, 174

LESSER, ABRAHAM JACOB GERSON, 86

Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society (so- LEVI, ABRAHAM, 100; C. G., Victoria,

cieties), 50, 52 ; Wooster St. Synagogue, Tex., 100; G. A., Victoria, Tex., IOO

New York City, SO-$1; Portsmouth, LEVIN, MEYER, 170

Ohio, 50

LEVINSON, ROBERT E., 84, 86, 99-100

Ladies' Hebrew Relief Sewing Associa- LEVITAN, TINA, Islands of Curnpassiun,

tion, Philadelphia, Pa., 53

LAMEGO, ISAAC, 90

170-7 I

LEVITAS, IRVING, 100

Land, landlords, landowners, 28, 59, 81, LEV~TON, RICHARD M., 104

84, 86,95, 103, I 16-18, 120-21, 128-29, Levittown, Pa., 89

133, 136, 138-39, 151

LANDON, MAXWELL, Masters of Stupidity,

170

LANDSBERG, MAX, 94

LANG, FRADEL (Fannie), 85

LEVY (family), 95; URIAH PHILLIPS, 57.94

LEVY, BENJAMIN, 100

LEVY, DAVID CARDOZA, 61; SEPTIMA

MARIA, 35, 63

LEVY, HOWARD S., 100; LIONEL F., 100

Larned, Kans., I 27, 13 I

Las Vegas, N. Mex., 82

LEVY, ISAAC, 86; JACOB, 86; MOSES ISAAC,

86

LASKER, EDWARD, 148

LEVY, J. LEONARD, 94

Latin America, 17 I; see also Argentina, LEVY, JACQUELINE, 59

Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican LEVY, LEVY A., 105


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII '97

LEVY, THEODORE S., 97

LEWIN, BOLESLAO, 100

LEWISOHN, LUDWIG, 101, 107, 109-1 3,

I 2 3, I 80-8 I ; "The English in America,"

7 5; Upstream, I I o; Midchannel, I I 2

LEWISSON & LEVY BANKING CO., I04

LEWY, HILDEGARD (Mrs. Julius), 94;

JULIUS, 94

Lexington, Ky., 61

Libby Prison, Richmond, Va., 59

Liberal Judaism; see Reform Judaism

Liberalism, liberals, I 2, 149

Libraries, librarians, 3, 85-86, 88-93,

95-977 997 104-5, '75

Library Company of Philadelphia, Philadelphia,

Pa., 90

Library of Congress, Washington, D. C.,

86, 88-90, 93,9536, 105

LIEBERMAN, L. Y., Kansas City, Mo.,

134-35

LIEBERSOHN, MR., of Beersheba Colony,

Kans., 121, 128, 135

LIEBMAN, JOSHUA LOTH, 104

LIEBMAN, SEYMOUR B., A Guide to Jewish

Refermces in the Mexican Colonial E7a,

1521-1821, 17 I

LONG, J. M., San Francisco, Calif., 97

LOPEZ, MOSES, 85

Lord's Prayer, 80

Los Angeles, Calif., 84, 179

LOTAN, YAEI., Mangrove Tow, 17 I

LOTH, MORITZ, 73, 115, 125-26, IJZ, 134

Louisiana, 62, 85, 115, 150, 174; Legislature,

84; see also Donaldsonville, Monroe,

New Orleans

Louisville, Ky., 43, 103-4, 153, 156

LOUSADA, EMANUEL BARUH, 86

Lower East Side, New York City, 168-69

LUBIN, HENRY, 104; JACOB, I04

"Ludwig Lewisohn In Memoriam,"

19-13

Lutheran Theological Seminary, Philadelphia,

Pa., 89

LUZ~ATTO, EPHRAIM, 3 2

Lynchings, 147

Lynn, Mass., 82

LYON AND COMPANY, 85-86

LYON, BENJAMIN, 86

LYONS, MAXWELL, I04

Lyric Circle, Baltimore, Md., 67

Life, 110, 144, 146, 152-53, IS?, 167,

17 I; religious, 173; see also Jewlsh life

"Life in Confederate Richmond," 40

LIGHT, LEWIS, 97; SOLOMON, 97

LIIJENTHAL, MAX, 96

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM, 4-8, 12, 36, 62-64,

I01

Linwood (Delaware County), Pa., 41

LIPPMANN, WALTER, 98

LIPSET, SEYMOUR MARTIN, I 73

Lisbon, Portugal, 28, 104

Literary Anecdotes, 27

Literary historians, literary history, 27-28

Literature, 65, 73-74, 1 I I, 154, 166, 170,

172; see also Hebrew (language and

literature); Literature, Jewish; Yiddish

Literature, Jewish, I 55

Lithuania, 152, 179; see also Litvaks

Litthateurs, literati; see Authors, Writers

Little Rock, Ark., 105-6

Liturgy, 38, 152, 171

Litvaks (Lithuanian Jews), 176

Livelihood, living, I 50, I 5 2-53

Lizzie Kander Papers, 176

London, England, 27-28, 3 I, 33, 77, 84,

877 92, 100, 156

LONDON, MEYER, 176

Long Island Jewish Hospital, New York

City, 171

MACARTHUR, DOUGLAS, 96

MACK BROTHERS, Cincinnati, Ohio, 8-9

MACK, MRS. JACOB W., 97; MRS. WIL-

LIAM J., 106

Madison, Wis., 175

Magidai Tehillim Society of Shomrai

Mishrnores Hakodesh, Baltimore, Md.,

8 I

MAGNES, JUDAH L., 176

MAGNIN, EDGAR F., 94

MAGRISH, MRS. JAMES, 104

MAIER, ISAAC, 86

MAILER, NORMAN, 98; The Presidential

Papers (review), 166-67

Maimonides Hospital, New York City,

171

MAIMONIDES, MOSES, 109

Maineck, Bavaria, 90

MAISEL, CYMA MININ (Mrs. Maurice

M.), loo; MAURICE M.; 100

MALAMUD, BERNARD, I 70

Man, mankind, 41, 80, 110, 113, 118,

165, 172; see also Rights, human

MANDEL, BABETTE FRANK (Mrs. Emanuel),

88

MANDELBAUM, BERNARD, 174; The Wisdom

qf Solomon Schechter, I 7 r

MANGER, ITZIK, 170


198 AMERICA

Mangrovc Town, I 7 I

Memorial services; scc Worship

MANKOWITZ, WOLF, 170

Memphis, Tenn., 13, 84

MANNER; see Mannheimer

MENDEZ, OPHELIA, 46

MANNHEIMER (family), 94; EDNA B. MENDLE, MRS. MORRIS, 100

(Manner), 94; EUGENE M., 94; JENNIE MENKEN (family), 68; ADAH ISMCS, 35,

(Jane Manner), 94; SIGMUND, 94 38, 62-63, 68

MANSOOR, MENAHEM, 175

MENKUS, BELDEN, with ARTHUR GILBERT,

Manuscripts, 94-95, 175

Meet the American Jew, r 7 172 MARCUS, JACOB RADER, 3, 83, 88, 91-92, Menorah Association, 180-81

97-98, 101, 103; MERLE JUDITH, 93 Menorah Educational Council, 93

MARKS, M. H., Cincinnati, Ohio, 134-39 Menorah Journal, 93, 180-81

MARKUS (MARQUEES), EMANUEL, 86 Menorah Society, University of Cincin-

Marranos, 103-4; see also New Christians nati, Cincinnati, Ohio, 88

Marriage, marriages, 32, 63, 67, 69, 74, Mental health, 105

86, 89, 95, 98, 101, 103-4, 136; sce also Merchants, 3, 36, 85, loo, 128, 132; see

Intermarriage, Ketubot

also Business, Storekeepers, Trade

MARSHALL, J. T., Alexandria, Egypt, 90 Mercy killing, 104

MARSHALL, LOUIS, 88; Louis Marshall MERZBACHER, LEO, 104

Papers, 96

MESSER, CHARLES M., 104

MARTON, NANDOR, 82

MASON, SEWEL, 130, 137

Masonic Order, Masonry, Masons, 81,9 I,

MESSER, FRANK, I04

Messiah, 98

Metropolitan Fair, New York City, 56-57

97; Supreme Council 33rd Degree of the

Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of

Freemasonry, 81

Masquerades, 48

Mass murder, 163

Massachusetts, 76; scc also Boston, Dedham,

Hingham, Lynn, Waltham

Masses, the, 167

MASSINCA, ZOUSSE, 140

Matters of Stgpidity, 170

Mexico, 87, 145, 171; Jews of, 171;

colonial period, 17 I ; Inquisition, I 04, I 7 1

MEYER, MARSHALL T., 100

Miami Beach, Fla., 109

MICHAEL (angel), 78

Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Ill.,

156-57

Michigan, 84; State University, East

Lansing, Mich., 169; scc also Detroit,

Jackson, Olivet

Masturbation, r 66

Mickveh Israel Synagogue, Philadelphia,

Mathematics, 99

Pa., 38

Matrons, 36, 38

Midchanncl, I I z

Matzoth; see Unleavened bread

Middle Ages; src Medieval Period

MAY, MRS. ALBERT J., 98

Middle class, 168

"May Laws" (Russia, May, 1882), I 14 Midrash, 43

MAYER, MILTON S., 176

Midwest, 52, 80

MCCLELLAN, ALEX, 95

Migration; see Immigrants

MCKINWEY, MR. (friend of Henry Clay), Military service, personnel, 4;

92

see also Army, Soc!:&r

Medicine, 95, I 72 ; scc also Physicians Militia, 58; sce also Soldiers

Medieval period, I 14

MILLER, GEORGE J., 85-86, 100-10 I, 103

MEDILL, JOSEPH, 9-1 o

MILLER, MATTHEW R., 98

Mediterranean Squadron, United States MILLER, MILTON G., and SYLVAN D.

Navy, 94

SCHWARTZMAN, Our Rcligian and Our

Mcc2 thc American Jew, I 7 17 2

Neighbors, I 7 2

MELTON, EDWARD M., 86

MILLER. SHAIE, 170

Memoirs, memoirists, 34-35, 39-40, 99- Milwaukee, Wis., 35, 39, 59, 175

I00

Mineralogy, 27

Memorial Day (Confederate), 65 Ministers; sce Clergy, Rabbis

Memorial lectures, memorial resolutions, Minneapolis, Minn., 179

memorials, 90, 102, 105, 109-13 Minnesota, 179


INDEX TO VOLUME XVlI

Minorities, minority groups, 1 14, 166

Minors, 74

Mints, 60

Minute-men, 58

Miracles, 49

Missionaries, 89

Mississippi. 86; see also Holly Springs,

Natchez

Missouri, roo; Supreme Court, 82; see also

Kansas City, St. Louis

Missouri Democ~at, I z

MITCHELL, MRS. JENNIE, 99

MITCHELL, MYRTILLA EUDORA HART

(Mrs. Allen), 38

Mitzvot, 47, I I 3

Mixed cholrs; see Choir

Mobile, Ala., 5 5

Modern period, modernism, I 7 z

Mourners, mourning, 64, 1 54

MULLIGAN, JOHN W., 85

MUMFORD, WILLIAM B., 60

Municipal reform; set Reform, municipal

Murfreesboro, Tenn., 61

MURRAY, JOHN COURTNEY, 173

Museum of Modern Art, New York City,

175

Music, musicians, 42, 46, 66-67, 71, 103,

111, 133, 168; seealso Opera

MUSMANNO, MICHAEL A., 98

Mutual Security Act, 93

My Five Angels, 106

MYERS (family), 95; LEVY, 95; SAMUEL,

867 9s

Mystlclsm, 166

MOISE, PENINA, 35,39,58-59; RACHEL, 59

Money. 3, 7, 3 1, 43; see also Gold

Monroe, La., 82

MONSANTO, MONSIEUR, 9435

MONSMA, JOHN CLOVER, Religiun and

Birth Cunt~ol, I 72

Montana, 99

Montefiore Hospital, New York City, 171

MONTEFIORE, MOSES, 148

Monthlies; see Periodicals

MONTOR, MRS. HENRY, 95

Montreal, Canada, 90, 105

Monuments, 65

MORAIS, SABATO, 38

Morality, 29, 43, 69, 104

MORDECAI, ALFRED, 60; EMMA, 35, 40

MORDECAI, MORDECAI M., 86

MORDECAY, JACOB, 9 I

MORNINGSTAR, JOSEPH, 95

MORRIS, CAPTAIN (United States Land

Register), I 29

MORRIS, ISAAC NEWTON, 14

MORSE, CHARLOTTE, 37

MOSER, MOSES, 92

MOSES, ADOLPH, 14-1 5

MOSES, ANNA DELEON, 53

MOSES, CLARA LOWENBURG, 39

Moss, CHARLES B., 95

Moss, ELEAZER LYONS, 57; JOHN, 57;

JOSEPHINE, 57; JULIA, 57; MISS M. J.,

NACHMAN, A., Baltimore, Md., 98

NADELMAN, ELIE, I 7 5

Nashville, Tenn., too

Nassau Community Temple, West Hemp.

stead, N. Y., 82

Natchez, Miss., 39

NATHAN (family), 95; HENRY, 95

NATHAN, MRS. BENJAMIN, 57

NATHAN, H. H., Claremont, Calif., 84

NATHANS, NATHAN, 102

National Archives, Washington, D. C., 94

National Conference of Christians and

Jews, 171

Natiml Geog~aphic Magazine (Washington,

D. C.), 88

Nationalism, 102, 171; Jewish, 17

Nationality, 7

Naturalists, 27

Naturalization, 90-91, 103

Navy De artment (United States), 85, 94

Nazism. Lads, 82, 93, 106, 16z-65

NEBEL, ABRAHAM L., 89, 101

Needle trade, 174; unions, 168

Negroes, 17,62, 90,166; seealsoSlave trade

NEIMAN, SIMON I ., Judah Benjamin, I 7 2

NEMEROV, HOWARD, The Next Room of the

Dream, I 7 2-7 3 ; New and Selected Poems,

172-73

Nw-fascists, 102

5 7

Moss, H. E., Kansas City, Mo., 126

Mount Sinai, I I 3

Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City,

55. 171-72

Mount Vernon, N. Y., 165

NESBITT, ARNOLD, 85

NEUMAN, ABRAHAM A., I 70

NEUMANN (family), roo

Neumann Memorial Publication Fund, 2,

1 08

NEUMANN, NORBERT, I 03


NEUMARK, DAVID, 95; MRS. DAVID, 95 North American Relief Society, 52

Neurochemists, 175

North Atlantic Ocean, 28; see also Atlantic

NEUSNER, JACOB, 175

NEUSTADT, NATHAN E., 59

New and Sel~cted Poems, I 7 1-7 3

Ocean

North Carolina. . oc: ,... see also Carolina.

Raleigh

New Christians, 104; see also Marranos North Dakota, 145, I 50-52; see also Bis-

"New Colossus, The," 39

marck

New Deal, 163

North End, Boston, Mass., 176

New Jersey, I 15, 150; see also Alliance, Northfield, Minn., 179

Dover, Elizabeth, Trenton, Vineland Novels, novelists, 69, 71, 80, 166, 171-72,

New Orleans, La., 36, 38, 50-52,

82, 94, 98, I 16; Mint, 60

62, 174

Nuclear weapons, 166

New World, 28, 143, 150, 161

NUNEZ, DAVID, 90

New Year (Rosh Hashanah), 104, 169 Nurses, nursing, 36, 38, 56

New York City, 38, 41, 43-45, 47-52, NUSIACH, MR., of Beersheba Colony,

55-57, 64, 66-67, 80, 84-85, 91-92,

98-99, 101, 104-5, 116, 146-48, 153-54,

157, 159, 167-72, 179; Downtown, 167;

"Uptown Jews," 167; Herald, 7, 149,

Kans., 128

NUSSBAUM, PERRY E., 90

157; Times, 140; World, 7; see also

Bronx, The; Brooklyn, Gotham, Hester OAKS, DALLIN H., The Wall between

Street, New York City; Lower East Church and Srate, 173

Side, New York City

Oakwood Cemetery, Raleigh, N. C., 95

New York (State), 7; Court of Appeals, Oaths, loo

88; New York Volunteers (Civil War), Oats, 138

97; Regents' Prayer, 80; see also Albany, Obstetrics, I 72

Binghamton; Bronx, The; Brooklyn, OCHS, ADOLPH S., 95,98

Buffalo, Mount Vernon, New York City, OCHS, IPHIGENE (EFFIGY) MIRIAM (Mrs.

Plattsburg, Rochester, Saratoga, Syracuse

Adol~h , S.). ,. 08 ,

Offerings (in the synagogue) ; see Mitzvot

New Zealand, 98

Newberry Library, Chicago, Ill., 91

NEWMAN, LAZARUS, 97

NEWMAN, LOUIS I., 98

OFSAYER, JORDAN, 90

Newport, R. I., 85, 92, 102,

torical Society, 105

105; His-

Newspapers, 6-14, 35, 39, 51, 89. 92,

94-96, 98,. lq.1-6, 149, 152, 158, 176;

scc also Periodicals

Next Room of the Dream, The, 172-73

Nicaragua, 87

NICHOLAS BROWN & COMPANY; see Brown,

Nicholas, 8i Company

NICHOLS, JOHN, 27

NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH, I 10

NIXON, RICEIARD M., 9 I

NIZER, LOUIS, 98

NOAH, MORDECAI M., 95

Non-Jews; see Gentiles, Indians (Amer-

ican)

Non-religionists, 17

Nonviolence, I 76

North (United States), Northerners, 3, 5,

10, 35-36,41, 60-65; Army, 63

North America, 85, 91, 102, 170

Ohio, I I, I 37; see also Cincinnati, Cleve-

land, East Liver ool, Portsmouth

Ohio Female $allege, College Hill,

Cincinnati, Ohio, 41

Oklahoma, roo

Oklahoma City, Okla., loo

OLAN, LEVI A., 89. I05

Old age; see Aged, the

Old age homes; see Homes for the aged

Oliver, Mich., 89

One Hundred Forty-ninth Regiment, New

York Volunteers, 97

One Hundred Forty-third Regiment of

Pennsylvania Volunteers, 85

One Oasis, The, I 80-8 I

Opera, 66, 175

Orators, 35

Order Kesher She1 Barzel, 84

Order No. I I ; see General Order No. I I

(of Ulysses S. Grant)

Oregon, 99-100, I IS; see also Albany,

Eugene, Portland

Oriental Sephardic Jews, 176

Orientalism, 109


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII

Orphan Home for Hebrew Children, People, Jewish; see Jewry

New York City, 147

Orphans, orphan asylums, 50-52, 83, 147,

Peoria, Ill., 50

PERETZ, ISAAC LOEB, I 66

I 56-57

PERILMAN, NATHAN, 105

Orthodox Jewish Home for the Aged, " .

Chicago, ill., 83

Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Jews, Ortho-

Periodicals, 37-39, 43-45, 49, 66, 69,

72-74? 93, 96, 143-58, 161, 168, 176,

180-8 r ; see also Journals, Newspapers

doxy, 44-45, 47, 80, 143, 145, 155. Persecution, religious and political, I 14,

157-58, 169, 172, 179

OSTERMAN, ROSANNA DYER (Mrs. Joseph),

I437 I45

Peru, 87

357 51-52

PETERS, MR. (Kansas surveyor), I 30-3 I,

OTTENHEIMER (family),

105; LESTER A., 105

I 05; DANIEL, '33

PETERS, ROBERTA, 19

Our Religiun and Our Neighbors, I 7 2

Out-marriages; see Intermarriage

Oxford University, England, 27

PETRIKOVSKI, MORDECAI, I 56

PETSCHOTSCH, AMALIA WEHLE, qj

PETUCHOWSKI, JAKOB J., 170

PFEFFER, LEO, 173

PFEIFER, ADELHEID, 84

Philadelphia, Pa., 36, 38, 41, 44, 51-53,

Pacifism, 166

Painters, painting, 175-76; see also Art,

55, 57, 61, 63, 87, 91-92! 100, 105, 154

Philanthropy, philanthropists, 17, 20, 48-

Artists

Palestine, 87, 98, 103, 150; see also Israel

(state), Jerusalem

57,61,65, 74,83,96-97, 114, 116, 118,

146-47, 151, !53, 156-57, 169

PHILLIPS (family). 95; EUGENIA LEVY

Panama, 87, 105

Paris, France, 46, 101, 180

PARKER, MR., of Kansas, I 33

Parkersburg, W. Va., roo

(Mrs. Philip), 35-36, 40-41, 60, 62;

JOSEPHINE, 64; NAPHTALI, 64; PHILIP.

62 ; Phillips-Myers Papers, 95

PHILO, ISADOR E., 82

PARKS, MR., of Kansas, 137

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal

Parliament (English), 103

Society, England, 29

Paroches, 46

"Phoebe" (pseudonym), 39, 7 I

Parochial schools, I 73

Partisan Rcuiew, I 65

Passive resistance, I 76

Phoenix Society, Cincinnati, Ohio, 55

Photographs, 89,91,95,97, 169

Phrases; see "Words and Phrases"

Passover, 49, 5 I, 147

Physicians, 73, 172

Patriotism, patriots, 28, 53-54, 62, 74 Physics, 99

Patterson-Liston prizefight, I 66

PAULSEN, MONRAD G., 173

Picnics, 45

PIERCE, FRANKLIN, 89-90

Paupers, pauperism, I I 5, I 20,

see also Poor, the

Pawnee River, Kansas, I 3 3

149, I 57; Piety, pietism, 47, 49-50, 157

Piggott's Comet, 3 I

PILCH, JUDAH, Fate and Faith, 173

Peace, 96, 140, 176

PILCHIK, ELY E., 170

Peddlers, peddling, 5, 149, 152-53, 179

PEGLER, WESTBROOK, 163

Pilgrims, 76

Pilpul (talmudic dialectics), I 56

PEIXOTTO, BENJAMIN F., 95; JUDITH, 95;

MARK PERCY MADURO, 95

Pelican (ship), 92

PINERO, JOHN DANIEL, 100

PINKNEY, AARON, 176

Pioneers, 96, 99-100, 150, 175

PELIKAN, JAROSLAV, I 7 3

PEMBER, PHOEBE YATES LEVY (Mrs.

Pittsburgh, Pa., 56, 146, 158, 170

Placement of children, I 73

Thomas), 36, 40-41, 66, 68

Pennsylvania, 56, 85, 105; Brigade of

Volunteers, 94; see also Easton, Hanover,

Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Scranton,

Plainfield, Vt., I 76

Plattsburg. N. Y ., 104

Plays, playwrights, 172-73 ; see also Drama

PLUMSTED AND FRANKS, 9 I

Washington, York

Poale Zion, Inc. (Labor Zionist Organiza-

Pentateuch, 85; see also Bible, Law, Torah tion of America), 84


114

"Poems and Translations Written Between

the Ages of Fourteen and Seventeen,"

64

Poetry, poets, 35, 38-39? 49, 54, 58, 64,

77-80, 172-74

Pogroms, 16, 143

Priesthood, priests, 77

Princeton University, Princeton, N. J.,

102; Library, 95

Prisons, 39, 59, 62

Privateers, 85, 92

Prizefights, 166

Probate courts, 9 I

Professors, 3, 103, 109, 167, 169, 172739

Pointer, 92

Poland, 93, 96, 152; Jews of, 144. 148,

I 50. 156, 158; see also Polish Austria,

Russian-Polish Jews

Polemics, 155. 163

Police Raid, The, 9 I

Polish Austria, to4

POLISH, DAVID, 82

Political freedom; see Freedom

Political rights; see Equaliry, political

Politics, political life, 3, I 1-12,

16, 61-62, 64-65, 74, 80, 97, 114, 144,

165, 167-68, 173

POLLAK, JACOB B., 97

POLOCK, ISSACHER, 85

175-76

Pro-Germans, 103

Prmniscd City, The (review), 167-69

Property, 74

Protestantism, Protestants, 80, I I I, 172,

179; see also Christianity

Providence, R. I., 95

Provisional Zionist Committee, 98, 103;

see also Zionism

Psalms, 38

Public - Archives of Canada. Ottawa.

~~

Canada, 84, 86, 90-91

Public office, 15-16, 43, 61-62, 84-85,

88-9 1, 104, I 54, r 72; see also Statesmen

Public Record Office, London, England,

POMEROY, BRICK, 8

Pomona, Calif., 84

PONOMARENKO, PAUL J., IOZ

Poor, the, 50-51, 54, 134-35, 152-53;

see also Paupers

Popes, 176

Population statistics; see Statistics

Portland, Ore., 84, 99

Portraits of Jews, 105

Portsmouth, Ohio, 46-47, 50. 52

Portuguese-Jewish Community, Amster-

'05

Public schools, 38, 42, 68, 80, 147, 158.

173; religion in, 80; see also Education,

High schools, Schools

Publishers, 89

Pueblo, Colo., 82

Pupils, 44

Purim, 48-49, 5 I, 67

Purveyors to the army; see Army purveyors

Pushcart markets, 169

dam, Holland, roz

POSTAL, BERNARD, 10s

Postmasters, 36

Practice, rcligious; see Religious observance

PRAGERS, LIEBAERT, & CO., 105

Prague, 43

Prayer, prayers, 38, 42, 44-45? 47, 77,

Q

Quebec, Canada (province), 90

Quincy, Ill., 36

106, 154, 156, $58, 161; books, ror;

mourner's prayer, 154; New York State RAAB, EARL, Religious Cmfrict in America,

Regents' Prayer, 80; prayer cases,

173

Preachers, preaching, I 54; see also Rabbis

Precapitalism, I 15

Prejudice, nationalist, 168; racist, 168;

see also Religious prejudice

173

Rabbinical diplomas, 86

Rabbinical law; see Halnchh

Rabbis, rabbinate, 12, 34, 38, 46-47, 59,

77, 80-83, 85-94, 96, 98-100, 103-5,

109, 143,153-56,165, 170, 172, 17475,

Presidential Papers, The (review), I 66-67

Press; see Journalism, Journals, Newspapers,

Periodicals

'77

Race, 17, 90, 145

"Radicalism," "radicals" (religious), I 56-

Press, American Jewish; see Journals,

Newspapers, Periodicals

57

RAGINS, SANFORD, 107, 143; "The Image


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII 203

of America in Two East European

Hebrew Periodicals," 143-58, 161

Railroads, I 19-20, I 26-27, I 30, I 35-36

Raleigh, N. C., 95

Ramparts (National Catholic Journal), 89

RAMSAY, DAVID, 95

RAWLINS, JOHN A., 5, 89

Readers, 27

Realism, 176

Rebecca (ship), 85

Rebels (Civil War) ; see Confederacy

(Southern)

Reconstructionism, I 7 t

Record of Southwest Texas, loo

Red Cross; see American Red Cross

Reform Judaism, Reform Jews, Reformers,

I 1~45-47, 82: 98, 143- 154-57, 169, 172

Reform, rnunlclpal, 168; political, 38

Refugees, "5, 120, 135-36

REICHERT, VICTOR E., 174; Tower of

David 1964, 173-74

Revolutionary War (American), 2 8, r 40

REZNIKOFF, CHARLES, 174; NATHAN, 174;

SARAH, 174; Family Ch~unicle, 174

Rhode Island, 92; General Assembly, 85;

State Archives, Providence, R. I., 85,92,

102; see also Newport, Providence

Rice, I 3 8

Rice County, Kans., I z I

Rich, the, 77, 147, 154, 157

RICHARD, KARL A., 102

RICHARDS, BERNARD G., 84

Richmond, Va., 34, 36, 40, 55, 59, 63,

65-66, IOI ; Chimborazo Hospital, 36;

Reichstag (German), 148

Libby Prison, 59; Shockoe Hill, 65

RXCKER, R. W., Springfield, Pa., 105;

MRS. R. W., 105

RIDSKOPF, JOSEPH, P!, ? 3

Rights, civil; see Clvll rlghts

Rights, human, 13, 116; Jewish, Ir

Rights, political; see Equality, political

Rights, religious; see Religious rights

RINDSKOPF (family), 90

REINES, ALVIN J., I72

REISSNER, HANNS G., 91

REITER, BAYLA, 86

Riots, 147

Ripton, Vt., 174

RISCHIN, MOSES, The Promised City (re-

Relief Committee, Cincinnati, Ohio, 110, view), I 67-69

125

Relief societies, 56

Religio-cultural life, I 73, 176

Religion, 10-11, 17, 29, 43, 49, 69, 74,

77, 80, 90, 116, 145, 154, 158, 161.

Ritual murder libel, 147, 161

Ritual slaughtering, ritual slaughterer; see

Shechitah

River Jordan, The, 105

RIVERA, ABRAHAM R., 76; JACOB RODRI-

172-73

Religiun and Birth Control, I 7 2

Religion and the Schools, 80

Religions, comparative; see Comparative

religions

GUEZ, 95

Rivers, 105, 130, 133

RIVINCTON, JAMES, 140

Rochester, N. Y., I 14

Rockdale Avenue Temple, Cincinnati,

Religious ceremonies; see Religious observ- Ohio, 174

ance

Rodef Shalom Congregation, Pittsburgh,

Religious Cq7ict in America, I 7 3

Religious education; see Education

Religious freedom; see Freedom

Religious life; see Jewish life

Religious observance, 45, 48, 113, 150,

157, '73

Religious prejudice, 10, 14, 173; see also

Anti-Semitism

Pa., 170

RODMAN, THOMAS, 92

RODRICUES, JOSEPH JESSURUN, 28

Roman Catholicism, Roman Catholics; set

Catholicism

ROOT, JONATHAN, The Betrayers, 174

ROSE, ERNESTINE LOUISE SIISMONDI PO-

TOWSKI (Mrs. William E.), 35, 38, 62,

Religious rights, 88

Religious schools, 154, 156; see also Edu-

68, 74, 96

Ros~~nn, of Beersheba Colony, Kans.,

cation, Schools, Sunday schools

Religious services; see Worship

Religious toleration; see Toleration

REMON, PETER, 87

Republican Party, Republicans, 6, 8-14, 62

Responsa, 103

Revolutionaries, 166

122, 125

ROSENAU, WILLIAM, 88

ROSENBERG, ADOLPH, 93

ROSENRERG, BERNARD D., 88, 94

ROSENBERG, ELIJAH ABRAHAM, 92

ROSENBERG, ETHEL, 174; JULIUS, I74

ROSENBERG, ISRAEL, 92


ROSENBERG, ROY A., 92

SALOMON, HAYM, 85

ROSENBERG, SHLOMO, I 70

ROSENBERG, STUART E., America Is Difler-

Salons, 175

"Saloon, Jewish"; see "Jewish saloon"

ent, 174; A Humane Society, 174

ROSENBLOOM, JOSEPH R., 172

Saloons, I 3 2-33

SALTZSTEIN, MRS. IRVING, 87

ROSENTHAL, ALBERT, 96; FRANCES, 96;

MAX, 96

ROSENTHAL, JEROME, 95

SALVADOR, FRANCIS, 28; JOSEPH, I, 28-33,

86

SALZMANN, HAROLD I., 93

ROSENWALD, JULIUS, 96

ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ, I I

SAMUEL, REBECCA, 140

SAMUEL, WILLIAM, 84

Rosh Hashanah; see New Year

SAMUELS, ROBERT L., 103

ROTH (family), 101; ALBERT S., 101; SAMUELS, MRS. SEYMOUR, 90

FRED H., IOI; LENA PICARD, IOI; San Antonio, Tex., 91; Historical So-

SOLOMON, 101

ROTH, CECIL, I; "A Description of

America, I 785," 27-3 3 ; Essays and

Portraits in Anglo-Jewish History, 27;

Anglo- Jewish Letters, z 8

ROTHSCHILD, HANNAH, 3 8

ROTTERDAMUS, HENRICUS, 93

ciety, 99

San Diego, Calif., 96; Historical Society,

96

San Francisco, Calif., 35, 38, 45, 66, 68,

82,91, roo, 17374; Chrunicle, 174

San Joaquin, Calif., 9 I

SANDERS, MRS. GILBERT, 86; SIMON, 86

Roumania, 148, 168; Jews of, 149, 168

Royal Society, England. 27-29, 32-33

RUBIN, MRS. HERSCHEL, 82

RUBINSTEIN, JUDAH, 83

Rum, 30

SANDMEL, SAMUEL, 96

SANDROW, EDWARD T., IOZ

Sanitary Fairs, 56

Santa Fe, N. Mex., 105

SAPINSLEY, ELBERT L., 100-101

RUSH, BENJAMIN, I40

Russia, 16, 86, 96, 107, "4, 146, 148,

151-52, 161, 164, 168; Army, 86; Holy

Synod, 114; Jews of, 87, 104, 1 14,

I 16-18, 120-22, 135-36, 144, 147-48,

150-51, 153-54, 156-58, 161, 167-68,

176; Russo-American Treaty, 96; see

also Soviet Union

Russian (language), 80, I 70

Russian Emigrants' Aid Societies, I 16;

Cincinnati, Ohio, I 17-1 8

Russian-Polish Jews, 143

Russo-Polish Jewish press; see Periodicals

SAPIRO, AARON, 105

Saratoga, N. Y., I 36

SASEWITZ, of Beersheba Colony, Kans.,

I22

Saturday, 12, 120, 136, 158

Savannah, Ga., 55, 61, 95

SAYRE, FRANCIS B., JR., 93

SCHAGRIN, ELIHU, 83

SCHAPPES, MORRIS U., 96

SCHECHTER, SOLOMON, I 7 I

SCHIFF, HUGO B., 87

SCHIFF, JACOB H., 96; Foundation, 96;

MORTIMER L., 9536

SCHLEIER, of Beersheba Colony, Kans.,

122, 125

Sabbath, 44-45, 67, 105, 120,

134, 136, 152, 158, 161, 179

SABIN, ALBERT, I

128-29, SCHLESINGER, SIGMUND, 100

SCHNITZER, MOISHE LEIB, 86

Scholars, scholarship, !7, 77. 112, 171,

SACHS, MRS. ROSA, I I, I 36

SADLER, A. N., Kansas City, Mo., 120,

126, 134-35

SADOWSKA, KATHERINE DE, 95

SAGMASTER, JOSEPH, 92

175-76; see also Learnmg, Jewish

Schools, 41-42, 52, 73, 80, 103, 136, 169;

see also Day schools, Education, Hebrew

schools, High schools, Parochial schools,

Public schools, Religious schools, Sunday

St. Louis, Mo., 6, 10, 52, 82, 91, 103, schools, Yeshivot

119, 154, 157-58

St. Paul, Minn., 40

SCHWAB, ISAAC, 96

SCHWARTZ, FREDERICK C.; WALTER JACOB;

St. Petersburg, Russia, 143

Salem, W. Va., 89

SALOMON, EDWARD S., 10, 16

and VIGDOR W. KAVALER, Essays in

Honor of Solornun 8. Freehof, 170

SCHWARTZMAN, BILLY, I 28, I 36


INDEX TO MLUME XVII

SCHWARTZMAN, SYLVAN D., and MILTON SHEFTALL, LEVI, 140; MORDECAI, 85

G. MILLER, Our Religiun and Our SHELBY, JOSEPH ORVILLE, 60-61

Neighbors, 17 z

SHERMAN, C. BEZALEL, 172

SCHWARZ, JACOB D., 98

SHERMAN, WILLIAM T., 59

SCHWIMMER, ROSIKA, I 76

SHERTOK, MOSHE; see Sharett, Moshe

Science, scientists, 27, 29

SHIHOR, SHMUEL, I04

Scranton, Pa., 146, I 58

Scriptures; see Bible, Pentateuch, Torah

Scrolls of the Law, 89, 92, ro3; see also

SHINEDLING, ABRAHAM I., 81-82, 89, 96,

99-1 00

Ship Island, Gulf of Mexico, 36, 60

Torah

SCZERNES, of Beersheba Colony, Kans., I 2 2

Seamstresses, 174

Ships, 85, 90, 92, loo, 105

Shockoe Hill, Richmond, Va., 65

Shomrai Mishmores Hakodesh Anshe

SEARS, ROEBUCK AND COMPANY, 96

Seattle, Wash., 88

Volin, Baltimore, Md., 8 I

Shomrei Mishmereth Congregation, Balti-

Second World War, 88, 106

more, Md., 8 I

Secularism, 168

Shopkeepers; see Storekeepers

Seder, 49

Short stories, 170; see also Novels

SEGAL, ALFRED, 102

SHOSTECK, ROBERT, 8 3, 8 5

SEIGEL, ROBERT ALAN, 8 1, 90, 95

SEIXAS, MRS. B. M.; see Cohen, Eleanor H.

Shulchan Aruch, American (proposed), 96

Sicily Island, La., I I 6, I 5 I

Select Male and Female Academy, New Sick, care of; the sick, 38, 50, 61, 146

York City, 41, 73

SIEGEL, HANNAH R. LONDON, 105; Por-

SELIGMAN, JESSE, 154; JOSEPH, 16

SELZER, PHILIP, 83

traits of Jews, 105; Shades of My Forefathers,

105

Senate (of the United States), senators, SIGEL, LOUIS JOEL, IOO

84-85, 87, 93, 96, 98, 174; $68 also

Congress (of the United States)

SILVER, ABBA HILLEL, 96, 105, 170;

DANIEL J., 96

SENDER, DAVID, 86

SILVER, ALTON, 86

Separation of church and state; see Church

and state

SILVERMAN, A. J., The Bronx, N. Y., 81

SILVERMAN, MARTIN l., 82

Sephardim, 28; see also Oriental Sephardic Simchat Torah, 5 I, I I 3

Jews, Spanish-Portuguese Jews SIMON, MRS. H. (~choolmi~tress), 41

Scrmons, 40, 91-94, 98, 104-5; see also SIMPSON, IRENE, 101

Addresses, Lecturers, Speeches

Servants, 84, 105

Sinai (Mount) ; see Mount Sinai

Sinai Congregation of The Bronx, New

Services, religious; see Worship

York City, 81

Settlement houses, I 69

SINCLAIR, UPTON, 88

Settlements; see Immigrants, Settlers SINGER, CHARLES, 3 I

Settlers, 97, 116, 127, 136-38, 150-51 SINGER, ISAAC BASHEVIS, I 70

Sewing-machine operators, I 74

Singers, singing, 19, 40

Sewing societies, 5 2-5 3

Sisterhoods, 88

Sex, 166

SKWERSKI, of Beersheba Colony, Kans.,

SEYMOUR, HORATIO, 7

122, 125

Shades of My Forefathers, I 05

Slave trade, slavery, slaves, 62-64, 90

SHAHN, BEN, 26

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM, 67

Slobotka, Lithuania, 86

S~oss, MRS. LILLIAN M., 95; S., Cleve-

SHANKMAN, JACOB K., 92, I 70

SHAPIRO, MANHEIM S., I 72

SHARE, NATHANIEL S., 82

land, Ohio, 95

Smugglers, smuggling, 4, 14

Social equality; see Equality

SHARETT (SHERTOK), MOSHE, I 05 Social justice, 172

Shearith IsraelSynagogue, New York City. Social life, 29-30, 48, 51, 66, 68, 72-74,

44, 64

114-15, 138, 150, 153, 165, 167-68,

Shechitah, Shochet, 15, 85, 128, 136, 158,

'69, '79

174, 176

Soc~al scientists, 162


Social service, 97

SPECTOR, ISAAC ELCHANAN, 86

Social workers, 36

Speculators, speculation, 4-5, 7, 14-15

Socialism, 88, 168

Speeches, 87, 90, 94, 98, 102-3, 112; see

Society; see Social life

also Addresses, Lecturers, Sermons

Society for Ethical Culture, New York SPICEHANDLER, EZRA, 85, 97

city, 99

SPIEGELBERG, LEHMAN, 105

Society of Antiquaries, London, England, SP' les, 174

32

Stage; see Theatre

Society of Arts and Manufacrures, Eng- Stage designers, 175

land, 32

STARKOFF, BERNARD, 2, 108

Society of Concord Synagogue, Syracuse, State Department (United States), 87

N. Y., 57

State, the, 17

Sociology,. 167, 172, I 76

STATES, OFFICER, San Francisco, Calif., 68

SOKOLOFF, BENJAMIN A., 167; review of States, the American, 3, 74, I73

The Presidential Papers, I 66-67

Statesmen, 17 2; see also Public office

Soldiers, 6-7, 10, 34-35, 54-55, ~q-62, Statistics, 50-51, roz. 136, 139, 157, 167,

82, 85-88, 91, 97; see also Mllltary 169-70, 175

service, Militia

Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, 39

SOLINS. SAMUEL, 97

Steering Committee of Metropolitan Hous-

SOLOMON, LEVY, 105

ton, Texas Conference on Religion and

Solomon Lodge No. 16, B'nai B'rith, Race, 90

Cleveland, Ohio, 89

STEIN, AARON, 100-1 01

SOLOMONS, ADOLPHUS SIMEON, 64 STEIN, GERTRUDE, I 7 5

SOLOMONS, JACOR, 86

STEIN, PHILIP, 96-97

SOLOMONS, LEVY, 86

STEINEL, WILLIAM, I 7 2

SONNESCHEIN, SOLOMON H., I 54 STEINER, RUTH (Mrs. Albert), I oo

"Sophia" (pseudonym), 3 7

STEINFELD, ALBERT, 97

Sorghum, I 38

STERN, MRS. EDGAR B., 96

SORRA, PHINEAS, 86

STERN, JULIUS, 97

South (United States), Southerners, South- STERN, MALCOLM H., 98

ern cause, Southern states, 3, 34-36, 53, STETTHEIMER, ETTIE, I 75; FLORINE, I 75

60, 62-65, 90, 102, 147; Army, 61 STEWART, ERNEST O., JR., 89

SouthCarolina, I, 28, 33, 63,86, 109, 111, STIEGLITZ, ALFRED, I 75

140; Archives Department, Columbia, STILLPASS, LEO J., 95

S. C., 86; Gazette and General Advertiser, Stock raising, Iro, 125, 127, 129-30,

140; see also Carolina, Charleston, 133-34, 137-38

Columbia, Sumter

Stockton, Calif., 9 I, 94

Southern Baptist Convention, I 7 I STOLZ, JOSEPH, 88, 97

Southern California Jewish Historical Storekeepers, 77, 135, 158; see also

Society, Los Angeles, Calif., 84

Business, Merchants, Trade

Southern Democrats, 6

STORER, BELLAMY, 8

Southern Historical Collection, University STOWE, HARRIET BEECHER, 7 I

of North Carolina Library, Chapel Hill, Strangers, 5 I

N. C., 95

STRAUSS (family), 10 I

Smrthern Woman's Story, A, 36

STRAUSS, JOSEPH, 105

Soviet Union, 87; Soviet Jewry, 164; see STROUSE, SAMUEL S., 101

also Russia

STUART, MOSES, 103

Spain, the Spanish, 29

Students, 175

S~anish-American War, . 82. .,. 04

Study; see Learning, Jewish

~ianish and Portuguese Synagogue, Lon- Suez Zone, 95

don, England, 27

Suffolk, Va., 62

Spanish-Portuguese Jews, 28; see also Suffrage, suffragettes, 35, 74; scea lso

Sephardim

Voters

SPEAR, ARTHUR, 8 1

SULKES, WILLIAM, 82


INDEX TO VOLUME XMI

SULZBERGER, ARTHUR HAYS, 97

Temple Covenant of Peace, Easton, Pa., 82

SUMNER, MRS. ARTHUR J., 100

Temple Emanu-El, New York City, 84,

Sumter, S. C., 59

99, 104; San Francisco, Calif., 82;

Sunday, I 28, I 52 ; Lecture Society, Cleve- Emanu-El Sisterhood, New York City,

land, Ohio, 103; schools, 35, 44

8 8

Superior Court, Cincinnati, Ohio, 8-9 Temple Emanuel, Pueblo, Colo., 82

Supreme Council 33rd Degree of the Temple Israel, St. Louis, Mo., 82, 103;

Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Stockton, Calif., 94

Freemasonry, 8 I

Temple Ohabei Shalom, Brookline, Mass.,

Supreme Court of Missouri, 82; of the 8 I

United States, 43, 80, 84, 90, 173 Temple Sholom, Cincinnati, Ohio, 34

Surveyors, I 30, I 3 3

Temple Sinai, Chicago, Ill., 154; New

SUSSMAN, MR., of Beersheba Colony, Orleans, La., 98

Kans., 122, 125

Temples; scc Congregations, Synagogues

Sweatshops, 169

Tenement houses, tenements, I 39, 168-69

Synagogues, the synagogue, I I, 17, 27-28, TENENBAUM, S. (writer), I 70

38,427 44-47, Sor 529 55-57,649 74-75, Tennessee, 89; scc also Memphis, Mur-

87, 91, 111. 136, 153-54, 158, 168; freesboro, Nashville

scc also Congregat~ons, Temple Tercentenary (of Jewish settlers in

Synod, 88

America), 175; Committee, Milwaukee,

Syracuse, N. Y., 57, 97

Wis., 175

Syria, 98

Territories (of the United States), 74

SYRKIN, MARIE, 25, 163

TERTE, MR., of Beersheba Colony, Kans.,

SZILARD, LEO, 166, 176

I 28

SZOLD, HENRIETTA, 39, 97

Texas, roo, 127, 130, 137, 169-70, 174;

Conference on Religion and Race, 90;

scc also El Paso, Galveston, Jefferson,

San Antonio, Vietoria

Textile industry, 9 I

Talmud, 43, 98

Theatre, theatres, 35, 45, 63, 66, 68,

Talmud Yelodim Institute, Cincinnati, 71-72, 168-69; scc also Drama

Ohio, 83

Theology, I 7 I

Tanana Valley, Alaska, 87

THOMSON, VIRGIL, 175

TARR, HERBERT, Thc Cmvcrsiun of Chap- Tobacco trade, 3 I

lain Cohen, I 74

TOBIAS, THOMAS J., JR., 101

TATTMAR (family), 106; MRS. PAULA TOCQUEVILLE, ALEXIS DE, 40

NEIGER (Mrs. Martin), 106; My Five Tolerance, toleration, 10, 147-48

An~rls. " . 106

TOLLER, ERNST, I 76

Taxes, 127, 130, 173

"Tombstone of the Reverend Moses

TCHERIKOWER, ELIAS, Thc Early Jmish Cohen, The," 77-79

Labor Movement in the United States, 175 Tombstones, 77-79

Teachers, 37-38. 42, 44-46,. 68. 136, Topeka, Kans., I 19-20, I 26

176; see also Professors, Rabbls Torah, 46, 89, 92, 109, 113, 153, 156,

Tebah; sec Lectern

158, I 76, I 79; scc also Bible, Pentateuch,

Teen-agers, 17 3

Scrolls of the Law

Tefillin (phylacteries), I 57

Toronto, Canada, 93, 174

Temple (of Solomon), I 47

Totalitarianism, 165-66

Temple Beth Am of the South Shore, Tou~o, ABRAHAM, 86

Hingham, Mass., 143

TOUROFF, NISSON, 86; Dr. Nisson Touroff

Temole Beth David of Dedham-Westwood,

Mass.. 81

Temple Beth El, Elizabeth, N. J., 172

Temple Beth Shalom, East Liverpool,

Memorial Fund, 86

Towcr of David 1964, I 7 374

Towns; see Urban areas

Trade, traders, trading, 3-5, 9-10, 13,

I 05, I I 6; scc &o konomic life


Tradition, I 13, 155, 169, 179

Traditional Judaism, Traditionalists; see

Orthodox Judaism

Translations, translators, 38, 77-80, 98,

112, I75

Travel, travelers, 40-43, 102

Treasury Department (United States), 4

Trenton, N. J., 158

TRILLING, DIANA, I 67

TROUNSTINE, ABRAHAM,

TRUMAN, HARRY S., 97

I I 7

Tub Tam, or Vindication of the Israelitish

W-ny of Killing Animals, I 5

Tucson, Ariz., 99

Tully Filmus, I 7 6

TURNER, FREDERICK JACKSON, 76

TURNER, JUSTIN G., 84

Twentieth Army Corps Hospital, Savannah,

Ga., 55

Twenty-fourth Regiment of Wisconsin

Infantry, 59

TYLER, JOHN, 90

TYLER, PARKER, Florine Stettheimer, 175

Tzitzit (fringes), 157

Office, 128-29; Navy, 85; Mediter-

ranean Squadron, United States Navy,

94; Sanitary Commission, 56-57; see also

America, North (United States), North

America, South (United States), West

(United States)

Universidad Ibero-Americana, Mexico

City, Mexico, I 7 I

Universities, 3, 27, 83, 88, 95, 102, 109,

143, 167, 169, 171, 173, 175; see also

Colleges

University College, London, England, 103

Universitv of Alaska Alumni Associa-

tion, 88

University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 173;

of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, 88, 167;

of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio, 3; of ~isso&i,

Columbia. Mo.. 87; of North Carolina

Library, chapel N. C., 95; of the

Americas, Mexico City, Mexico, I 7 I ;

of Wisconsin, Madison and Milwaukee,

Wis., 175

Unleavened bread, 5 I

Upper class, 166

Upstream, I I o

"Uptown Jews" (New York City), 167

Urban areas, 115-16, 146, 148, 151, 154,

167-69, 176

Usurers, 16

Utopia, I I 2

UJA; see United Jewish Appeal

Ukases, 143

ULLMAN, AMELIA (Mrs. Joseph), 40

Unafiliated Jews, 172

Unemployment, I 46

Union (American), 5, 7, 61-62; Army

(Civil War), 4-5, 7, 55, 62, 66; see also Valley Jewish Seniors, Pomona, Calif., 84

America, United States

VALVERDE, ELIAS, 106

Union, unity (Jewish communal), 16 VAN ANDOLM, ABRAHAM, 85

Union of American Hebrew Congrega- VAN VECHTEN, CARL, 175

tions, 90,93, 95-98, I 15, 135

Venezuela, 87

Union Pacific Railroad, I 20-2 I

Vernacular; see English language

Unitarianism, I 54

Victoria, Tex., roo

United Arab Republic, 9 I

Vigilantes, 76

United Hebrew Relief Association, Chicago,

Ill., 157

United Israel Bulletin (New York City), 89

VINCENT, CLARK E., 173

Vineland. . N. -, 1.. I . c I

Violence, I 76

United Israel World Union, 89

Virginia, 3 I ; Historical Society, Rich-

United Jewish Appeal (UJA), 88

mond, Va., 86; see also Appomattox Court

United Jewish Charities, Cincinnati, Ohio, House, Richmond, ~uffdk, Wheeling

83; Rochester, N. Y., I 14

Virginia Street Temple; see B'nai Israel

United Jewish Social Agencies, Cincin- Congregation, Charleston, W. Va.

nati, Ohio, 83

Virologists, 2 r

United States, 3-4, 6-7, I I, I 3, 68, 86, VOLKMAN, SAMUEL, 8 I

93, 95-96, 100-101, 106, 114, 116, 118, VORSPAN, ALBERT, 172

'43-44. 151. 155, 171, 173, 175,180-81;

Air Force, 174-75; Army, 87,102; Land

''Vote, Jewish"; see "Jewish vote"

Voters, voting, 7, 9, 12-13, 15, 74


INDEX TO VOLUME XVII z09

VRBA, RUDOLF, and ALAN BESTIC, I Cannot

Forgive, 175

Waco, Texas, 169

Wake County, N. C., 95

Wall betwem Church and State, The, 17 3

Waltham, Mass., 109

War, 55,93,96; see also Civil War (United

States), French and Indian War, Revolutionary

War (American), Spanish-

American War

War Department (United States), 14

War of Independence; see Revolutionary

War (American)

WARBURG, EDWARD M. M., 96-97; FELIX

M. 97; FRIEDA SCHIFF (Mrs. Felix M.),

97

WARREN, EARL, 98

Warsaw, Poland, 143

WASHBURNE, ELIHU BENJAMIN, 9

Washington, D. C., 4-5, 9, 14, 36, 48,

WIEDER. ARNOLD A.. The earl^ lewish

community of ~ostorr's North ~nd, 176

WIENER, NORBERT, 176

WIENER, THEODORE, 170

Wilbur, W. Va., 89

WILE, SOL, 94

WILKENS, MAY BRITT; see Britt, May

William L. Clements Library, University

56, 60, 62, 64, 93. 101; Cathedral, 93

Washington, Pa., 97

WATTS, JOHN, 76

of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 85, 91,

9 5

WILLIAMS, EDWARD BENNETT, 97

WAX, JAMES A., 105

WAXMAN, MORDECAI, 172

Wealth, 145

wills, 51-52, 91, 106

Wilmington, Del., 94

WILSON, WOODROW, 98

Weddings; see Marriage

WINOGRAD, RICHARD W., 90

Weeklies; see Periodicals

Wisconsin, 59, 175-76; Historical Society,

WEIGEL, GUSTAVE, r 73

Madison, Wis., 3, 175; Jewish Archives,

WEIL, HERMAN, The Wisconsin Society for Madison, Wis., 175; Jewish Community

Jewish Learning, I 7 5-76

Papers, 176; Society for Jewish Learning,

WEIL, MRS. MORTON, 98

Milwaukee, Wis., 3, 175-76; see also

WEIL, SIMONE, 176

Eagle, Fond du Lac, Madison, Milwaukee

WEINBERG, ARTHUR, 97-98; and LILA, Wisconsin Society for Jewish Learning, The,

Instead of Violence, I 76

175-76

WEINER, SAMPSON, 86

Wisdom of Solomon Schechter, The, 1 7 I

WEINSTEIN, BERNARD M., 84

WISE, ISAAC MAYER, 11-12, 15, 41, 46,

Weirton, W. Va., 82

WEISEL, BERNHARD (Barnett), 105-6

WEISER, MRS., of Beersheba Colony,

Kans., 137

WEISS, HERMAN, 106; JEANETTE, 106

WEISS-ROSMARIN, TRUDE, 93

WEITZ, MARTIN M., 98

54, 68, 73, 83, 98, 116-19, 155-56,i

"An Humble Plea for a Russian Colonv. , ,

116-18; JONAH B., 88; LEO, 119-21,

125-28, 131, 133

WISE, STEPHEN S., 93, 98, 176

With Faith and Thanksgiving, 170

WITKOWSKY, J., Chicago, Ill., 97

Weizmann Archives, Rehovoth, Israel, 97

WEIZMANN, CHAIM, 97

WELLS FARGO AND COMPANY, 10 I

WERNER, ALFRED, Tully Filmus, 176

WERNER, HOWARD L., 89

WOLF, SIMON, 14, 16, I14

WOLFF, LEO, 72

WOLFSON, HARRY, 93

WOLLMAN, BETTY KOHN, 10 I

WOLSEY, LOUIS, 93

West (United States), 55, 1 35

West European Jews, I 53

West Hempstead, N. Y., 82

West India Reference Library, The Institute

of Jamaica, ~in~ston, Jamaica,

B. W. I., 104

West Indies, 98

WEST, LT. COL. T. S., 59

West Union, W. Va., 89

Western religions, 17 z

Western world, 74

Wheat, 31, 87,'~;8

Wheeling, [W.] Va., 46, 90

WHITE, GRACE MILLER, 99

WHITE, JOHN H., 99

Wichita, Kans.. 90

-,

Widows, 50, 52

Woman's War Record, A, 1861-186y, 3 5

Women, I, 34-75, 87. 119, 133, 146-

47


YisrCel: The First Jewish Omnibus, 170

YlVO Institute for Jewish Research, New

York City, 175

Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), 12,

773 111, 169

York, Pa., 103; County Court House.

York, Pa., 103

Young adults, 173; see also Youth

Youth, 172, 181 ; see also Young adults

Women's Branch of the United States

Sanitary Commission, 57

Women's rights, 38, 74, 96

Women's suffrage, 74

WOOD, JOHN, 86

Wooster St. Synagogue, New York City,

50

Word from Waco, A, I 69

"Word to Wives and Mothers, A," 36-37

"Words and Phrases," 76, 140

Work; see Labor

Workers, 146; see also Labor

World Union for Progressive Judaism, 98 ZAFREN, E~ERBERT C., 92, 170

World War I; see First World War ZANGWILL, ISRAEL, 101 ; MRS. ISRAEL,

World War 11; see Second World War 101

Worship, 17, 46, 74, 83, 93-94, 96, 102, ZAOUI, ANDRE, 170

136

ZEISLER, ERNEST B., 99

Writers, 25, 39, 104, 107, 109, 111, 115, ZEPIN, GEORGE, 106

I 55-56, I 66-67, 170; see also Authors ZIELONKA, MARTIN, 87

WROTTENBERG, JONAS, 86

ZIEVE, MOSES MENAHEM, 179

Wyoming, 74

Zion Musical Society, Cleveland, Ohio,

66-67

Zionism, Zionists, Zionist movement, 93,

109, 112, 143, 162-63, 168, 17172, 180;

Yankees, 59, 66

see also Provisional Zionist Committee

YANOW, ALBERT, 8 I

Zionist Central Archives, Jerusalem, Israel,

YARMOLINSKY, MRS. AVRAHM, 80

87

Yeshivot, 169

ZUBLY, JOHN JOACHIM, 89

Yiddish, Yiddish literature, 153, 158, 168, ZUCKERWASSER, MR., of Beersheba Col-

1709 1759 I79

ony, Kans., 128, 135


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