Folie 1 - TU Berlin

baugeschichte.a.tu.berlin.de

Folie 1 - TU Berlin

December 6th, 2009

May 6th, 2011

Qasr al-Mushatta

research and

restoration project

A common effort of

Jordan and Germany

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


The famous desert castles in Jordan – more are available

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Desert castles:

Qastal and Kharana

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Desert castles: Kharana

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Desert castles: Qusair Amra

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Desert castles: Qusair Amra

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Desert castles: Qasr al-Tuba

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Desert castles: Qasr al-Tuba

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Desert castles: Qasr al-Tuba

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Desert castle: Qasr al-Mushatta.

The site before 1903 in the

steppe with no human

settlements around

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


The site next to Amman Queen Alia

International Airport from the airplane

threatened by industrial building

activities

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Qasr al-Mushatta -

shared heritage in Jordan and Germany

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


1. Research strategies

- Evaluation of historic documents

- Surveying

- Documentation

- Archaeology

- Buildings archaeology

- investigation of the surface

- collection of the graffiti

- research in the emerging Islamic art history

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Now in the new National Museum

More in Kuwait, Jerusalem and

Marocco; some disappeared

Identification of dispersed elements

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


What has been done since 1903:

clearance work

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


aerial archaeology and landscape survey

geodetic survey, mapping of the entire

surfaces

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


exact drawing of the remains: south façade in Jordan

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


exact drawing of the remains: south façade in Berlin

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


exact drawing of the remains: Detail south façade

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Archaeology in order to

identify the original

ground plan

Yellow: Bujard 2000

Magenta: TU Berlin 2010

Mosaic tesserae

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Trench I_03_a.

Foundation East-West.

Looking east; Oct. 2010

Foundations and finds

Axonometric drawing of the foundations in trench I_03_a

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Excavation in the quarter of the mosque

Foundation of partition wall; Oct.

2010

Trench VIII_08_a.

Looking southwest and

south; Oct. 2010

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Historic building techniques: brickwork and limestone masonry

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


ickwork: two different

sizes of the bricks

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


lime stone masonry: headers and stretchers

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Detailed study of the construction

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


High quality surface of the brickwork with one brick

showing an inscription of unknown message

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Refinement of the limestone masonry:

Embellishment of the joints found

throughout the entire castle

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Refinement of the brickwork:

Numerous remains of plaster

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Refinement of

the walls and

flooring:

colourful mosaic

tesserae

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Refinement of the flooring: big green

marble slabs

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Refinement of the decoration: red colour in the rosettas of the palace

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Numerous fragments of

sculpture in the palace

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Results of the research project

- Complete documentation of the actual situation of the ruin

- Archaeological evidence concerning ground plan

- The palace did not remain a ruin but was finished and used

in the central area

- Reconsidering the dating of Mushatta

Foundations

finished

Definitely

completely

finished

Eventually

finished

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project

Only

trenches

of foundations

finished


Excavation in the central court of the castle

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Location of the excavation

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Earthquake has thrown down the arches

of the facade and twisted the pillars

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Coin of around 760

under the pavement of

the court and under the

stones of the arches

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


2. Restoration strategies

- Safeguarding the existing fabric by conservation

- Stop further loss of precious works of art

- Improve the understanding of the ruin for visitors by

° Rebuilding the facade of the palace

° Rebuilding the inner arch of the audience hall

° Closing the gap of the main gate

° Site management and visitor center

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Current restoration project:

repair of the old brickwork in the elevation with old bricks

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Mortar is produced from lime,

sand, crushed bricks, a bit of

clay and with lots of ashes –

the use of cement in a

historic monument is a

crime against heritage

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Current restoration project:

repair of the brickwork in the wall tops with new bricks

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


How to produce

new bricks:

First study the

old ones: brick

with special

traces; bricks

with stamp –

unique find

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Brick production is not easy: numerous ingredients like clay, sand, straw

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Brick production: forming the adobes

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Brick production: filling the kiln

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Brick production in a very traditional way:

Kiln before firing bricks for two full days,

after this the kiln will cool down for

another 10 days – slow production.

100.000 bricks needed 18 months.

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Selection of old bricks – numerous different colors

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Old and new brick – color is similar

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Old bricks inside, new

bricks on the surface as

sacrifice layer

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Current restoration project: repair of the brickwork – results achieved

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Future Project 1: raising

the western elevation in order

to obscure the ugly industrial

zone

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Hedjaz railway track

Mushatta is threatened

by a growing industrial

zone approaching the

ruin – the visual integrity

is highly endangered

Air cargo access

to the airport

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Environmental aspects 1: Plants and flowers

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Environmental aspects 2:

Animals - various birds and lizzards

falcon

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Current restoration project: Anastylosis of the facade of the palace

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


location of various

line drawings

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Line drawings –

sketch of the

arcade, not to scale

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


econstruction of the colonnaded court,

superimposed with the line drawings

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


lime stone masonry: headers and stretchers

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


line drawing for a decoration inside the palace, scale 1:1

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


line drawing of a design for a decoration, scale 1:1,

superimposed on the south façade

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


line drawing of an arch, scale 1:1

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


line drawing, scale 1:1, superimposed on the three-arched façade

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


layout superimposed on the realized reconstruction

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Detailed planning for the scaffolding

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Reinforced brickwork

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Sophisticated technology

inside the brickwork:

reinforcement against

earthquake challenges

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Rosetta reassembled from

five different fragments

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Rosettas reassembled

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


New stones are brilliant

white as the old ones have

been more than thousand

years ago. New stone glued

to an old one.

New stones for the arches

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Continuous use of traditional

techniques: liquid mortar

filled into the masonry –

channels prepared for fill-in

in the stones for the arches

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Future Project 1: Rebuilding the inner arch of the reception hall

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Stones of the arch of the audience hall

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Stones are reduced and

looted in various ways

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Unfinished decoration of

the inner arch of the

audience hall

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Rebuilding the arch of

the audience hall

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Future Project 3: Closing the gap of the main gate. Situation as today

and in 1903 before dismanteling the western wing for transport to Germany

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Present situation after anastylosis of the palace façade

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Solution 2: volume of the 1903 situation

rebuilt in solid limestone masonry with

abstracted decoration including original

elements still found on the site

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Solution 3: augmented reality as app for smartphone

current situation superimposed with photograph of before 1903

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Thank you for your attention

Thanks to everybody who supported the project, namely the

Department of Antiquities of Jordan, and the entire staff of Jordan,

Germany, Berlin National Museums and Berlin Institute of

Technology together with those who provided the financial means:

German Research Foundation and German Foreign Office

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project


Bauwerke zum Thema, die man

gesehen haben sollte (5)

Fachhochschule Wildau

Anderhalten Architekten

War: Lokomotivenfabrik

Ist: Hochschulgebäude

Johannes Cramer, Barbara Perlich Qasr al-Mushatta research and restoration project

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