Putting it all Together Upside Down Design and Planning for ...

contextsensitivesolutions.org

Putting it all Together Upside Down Design and Planning for ...

Putting it all Together

Upside Down Design and Planning for

Transportation

Gary Toth


Is this the legacy that we want to

Slide courtesy of Dan Burden

leave for our children?


We have been Building Transportation Through

Communities, not communities through transportation

Slide courtesy of Dan Burden


How we got here

Is It Still Working

New Ways of Thinking About Transportation

Closing thoughts


Pre-Automobile Era

• Street design HAD to accommodate all users

• Relationship of land use to streets was critical for survival


Pieces of Community related to each other


Graphic courtesy of Andy Singer


Proximity

Focus on high speed

Accessibility

mobility

Image Courtesy of Chris Sinclair, Renaissance Planning Group

Speed


We began to plan the pieces not

the whole

Slide Courtesy of John Nordquist, CNU


No One Sees the Big Picture

Slide courtesy of Leigh Lane


The Interstate Era Begins


Transportation as a separate

discipline flourished


Building communities

is not our business


Roadway

expansion was

our primary

weapon against

congestion

Slide courtesy of Ian Lockwood, Glatting Jackson


Slide courtesy of Ian Lockwood, Glatting Jackson


Slide courtesy of Ian Lockwood, Glatting Jackson


A successful street?


A successful street?

Slide Courtesy of National Highway Institute Training


Community

Environment

Components of Context

Transportation

Financial

Land Use

But if we think about just one context, we won’t get the big picture Leigh Lane


What We Did For Decades

Politics

Financial

Transportation

Community

Environment


Is This a Successful Street?


We stopped viewing Streets as

Places


Is it Sustainable?


Traffic

Outcomes

Commuters in the

Philadelphia/Wilmington

area experienced over 136

million hours of delay in

2009 (51 million in 1986);

58% of peak hour VMT

was congested (32% in

1986)

Source: 2009 USDOT

Annual Urban Mobility

Report


Safety Outcomes

In I 2010, there were 101

fatalities on Delaware

roadways.

Source: State of

Delaware Office of Highway

Safety


Safety Outcomes

US Dutch

Equivalent

1975 45000 51750

2008 37000 14800


Projects no longer affordable at up to $60 million per mile.

Financial Outcomes

New highway capacity

Billions of Dollars (Next Six Years)

$6.3 billion gap

$ 15.0

$ 21.3

Maintenance & Reconstruction

Total Statewide Revenue Available Total Statewide Needs


The Load has become more than we can bear…


Outcomes

• 225,000 die annually due to sedentary

lifestyle

• Childhood obesity epidemic

• Type 2 diabetes on the rise – in

children!

• The Transportation Prescription. PolicyLink. 2009.

• ‘Adult’ diabetes on the rise in kids. MSNBC. October 30, 2009.

• Center for Disease Control


Social Outcomes

The average parent spends 17 full

days a year behind the wheel;

more than, bathing and feeding a

child, and more than the average

American takes for vacation.

Source: Surface Transportation Policy Project

In 1969, about half of U.S.

children walked or biked to

school. Today, fewer than 15

percent of children walk or bike

to school. More than one-third of

U.S. adults are obese and 17

percent of young children and

adolescents are overweight.

Slide Courtesy of Astrid Glynn

Source: Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention


Climate

Outcomes

Cartoon courtesy of Andy Singer


Do We Fall Back on Our Old

Reliables?


Continue to shovel money into infrastructure?


Insanity: doing the same thing over and over

again and expecting different results.


Is Wider, Straighter, Faster…

Safer?


Informal Study

• Reviewed 20 Safety Projects Built in early 2000s

• Crash rates went down on half

• Crash rates went up on half

Why?


A Review of Lane Reduction

Projects…


Reinvented Edgewater Drive

Slide courtesy of Dan Gallagher, Charlotte DOT


Crash Rate

Crash Rate (per MVM)

14.0

12.0

10.0

8.0

6.0

4.0

2.0

0.0

12.6

34% Reduction

8.4

Before After


Injury Rate

Injury Rate (per MVM)

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

3.6

1.2

Before After

68% Reduction


Prospect Park West

New York City


Prospect Park West

New York City


Prospect Park West

New York City


Bridgeport Way, Washington

Crashes Before 57 (1997)

Crashes After 24 (3 yr period)

Mid Block crashes reduced 58%

ADT 20k to 22.5 k

Operating speed 35.3 to 33.4


Is Wider, Straighter, Faster…

Faster?

Route 7 South Burlington, Vermont


Will we really travel at 45 mph?

Slide courtesy of Billy Hattaway, VHB


Will we travel at the Design Speed?


Prospect Park West

New York City


Prospect Park West

New York City


Prospect Park West

New York City


Prospect Park West

New York City


Faster speeds versus getting there

faster


Intersections

Are traffic lights and stop signs

the best way to manage

intersections?


Roundabouts

“Those Jersey Things” Patt Cannon


Do Roundabouts Increase Travel Times?


Benefits of Roundabouts

Delays

• National Cooperative Highway Research Program: reductions in

peak hour delays of about 75 percent

• Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: National projections: if

just 10% of the 265,000 signalized intersections were replaced,

annual vehicle delays would be reduced by 800 million hours. To

put this into perspective, the total annual delay for the San Jose

Metro area in 2009 was 42 million hours

• New York State DOT Studies

• Decreased by 54% at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie

• Reduced from 32 seconds to 6.5 seconds during peak hour on

Route 114

• Travel times reduced by 70% along the Route 67 corridor in Malta

New York

• Delays at Vail, Colorado Interchange reduced to zero from 60

seconds to 30 minutes.

• Substantial reductions at four intersections in Gilbert Crossing,

Virginia and at Five Corners, Glen Falls New York


Are Roundabouts Less Safe?

“People Don’t Know How to Drive Thru Them”


Benefits of Roundabouts

Safety

• Maryland DOT: Injury Crashes reduced by 86%; Fatal /

Incapacitating crashes reduced by 100%; for every dollar spent

on roundabouts, there is a return of $15.00 due to accident

reduction.

• Arizona DOT: injury accidents reduced by 75 percent and fatal

accidents by 90 percent

• Insurance Institute for Highway Safety: Injury crashes reduced

by 76%; fatal crashes reduced by 90%.

• NYSDOT: crashes on State Route 376 in Poughkeepsie

reduced by 51% after installation of roundabout…crashes on

State Route 114 cut in half after installation of roundabouts (5)

• Injury crashes in Europe reduced by 34% to 76%

• Injury crashes in Australia reduced by 74%


Benefits of Roundabouts

Safety


But Large Vehicles Can’t Handle Them,

Right?


Common Unrealistic Objection – Large Trucks

75’x13’ Modular Home Takes Left at Greenwich, NY Roundabout


But They Certainly Cost More?


Costs of Roundabouts

• Arizona DOT: Roundabouts cost less than traffic

signals and do not require expensive equipment or

maintenance. They save even more because they

reduces the need for turning lanes.

• The initial cost of roundabouts are in the same

range as traffic signals, but maintenance costs are

lower: approximately $3k per year versus $15k

• Alaska DOT: Initial costs bout the same,

maintenance costs $2k per year versus $15k for

signalized intersections.

• FHWA: Lower operating and maintenance costs

than a traffic signal


Single Lane

Roundabouts

125 to 180 ft


Urban Compact Roundabouts

90 to 125 ft


Mini Roundabouts



45 to 90 ft


So now what do we do?


Traditional Highway Design Approach

Traffic Volume + Area Type (urban, rural) + Role in Network

Functional Classification

Design Speed + Design Vehicle

Alignment + Cross-Section + Intersection + Roadside


Breaks down

the silos

Upside Down Planning

See/feel the

entire elephant


Community Based Planning

Transportation as the canvas for Placemaking

Place

Place

Place

Districts/Streets

Destinations

Place

Place

Place

Place

Place

The Power of Ten

Place

Place

10+ Places


Provide Choices

Move away from functional classification

Negotiate Congestion Levels

Proximity

Slide Courtesy of Chris Sinclair, Renaissance Planning Group

Accessibility

Speed


Place based street classifications


Street Typologies

• Charlotte

• San Francisco

• Savannah

• Denver

• Indianapolis

• Brunswick, Maine


Reconsider Congestion

Travel Projections

Maybe I-35 doesn’t have to be 140 ldanes

Joe Cantalupo, PB Austin, formerly DelDOT

Sketch courtesy of Ian Lockwood, Glatting Jackson


Reconsider Congestion

Level of Service



“Sometimes, LOS E

is OK, if biking and

walking are

accommodated”

Mark Chura,

Delaware Byways


Reconsider Congestion

Is Our Traffic Modeling Accurate

Sketch courtesy of Ian Lockwood, Glatting Jackson


Traffic Model and Projections

• Are Growth and Buildout Numbers Overestimated

• Did they adjust for Walkability

• Did they adjust for Mixed Use

• Are Our Models Based on Early Four Step

Approaches Designed for Interstate Sizing


Illustration: Frank, LD “Health & Community Design

Greenwald, M.J. Transportation Research Record 2001

Slide courtesy of Kate Kraft, RWJF

Build Connected Networks


Benefits of

Connectivity

• Disperses traffic

• Reduces impacts on

collectors

• Direct routes

• Lower vehicle miles of travel

• Encourages walking and

biking

• Transit-friendly

• Block structure provides

development flexibility

• Limits width and number of

lanes on major thoroughfares

A) Conventional suburban hierarchical network

B) Traditional urban connected network


Slide courtesy of Troy Russ, Glatting Jackson


STREETS AS PLACES

• Attractions & Destinations

• Identity & Image

• Active & Connected Edge Uses

• Amenities

• Management:

Central to the Solution

• Seasonal Strategy

• Diverse User Groups

• Balances Modes

• Blending of Uses and Modes

• Protects Neighborhoods


The Street Audit Tool


Build Around Public Transit

Think Beyond the Station/

Stop


Closing thoughts


Engineers are not bad people!


Engineers as problem solvers!

It is the time of French Revolution and the guillotine was hard at work everyday. Today

they're leading a priest, a drunkard and an engineer to the guillotine.


Engineers as problem solvers!

They ask the priest if he wants to face up or down when he meets his fate. The priest

says that he would like to face up so he will be looking toward heaven when he dies.

They raise the blade of the guillotine, release it, it comes speeding down and

suddenly stops just inches from his neck. The authorities take this as divine

intervention and release the priest.


Engineers as problem solvers!

Next the drunkard comes to the guillotine. He also decides to die face up hoping that

he will be as fortunate as the priest. They raise the blade of the guillotine, release it,

it comes speeding down and suddenly stops just inches from his neck. So they

release the drunkard as well.


Engineers as problem solvers!

The engineer is next. He too decides to die facing up. They slowly raise the blade of

the guillotine, when suddenly the engineer says: "Hey, I see what your problem is."


Community

Environment

Components of Context

Transportation

Financial

Land Use

But if we think about just one context, we won’t get the big picture Leigh Lane


What We Did For Decades

Politics

Financial

Transportation

Community

Environment


The Ideal

Land Use

Financial

Community

Environment

Transportation


Capital Cost

CSS can result in less costly solutions

Conventional

Widening

Addition of

Network

Context-

Sensitive

Solution

Community Acceptance

Local Roads/Connections Land

Development Regulations

We will have to compete for funds in the 21st Century Leigh Lane


http://www.pps.org/pdf/bookstore/How_to_Engage_Your_Transportation_Agency_AARP.pdf

Gary Toth

Director of Transportation Initiatives

Project for Public Spaces

609-397-3885

Gtoth@pps.org

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines