e + - KICP Workshops

kicp.workshops.uchicago.edu

e + - KICP Workshops

Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the ISS

Andrei Kounine / MIT on behalf of AMS collaboration

IDM 2012, 27 July 2012, Chicago


USA

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

MIT - CAMBRIDGE

NASA KENNEDY SPACE CENTER

NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER

NASA MARSHALL SPACE FLIGHT CENTER

TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

UNIV. OF MARYLAND - DEPT OF PHYSICS

YALE UNIVERSITY - NEW HAVEN

UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII

MEXICO

UNAM

AMS – International Collaboration

16 Countries, 60 Institutes and 600 Physicists

AMS is based on NASA-DOE

interagency agreement

NETHERLANDS

ESA-ESTEC

NIKHEF

NLR

FRANCE

LAPP ANNECY

LPSC GRENOBLE

LPTA MONTPELLIER

SPAIN

CIEMAT - MADRID

I.A.C. CANARIAS.

PORTUGAL

LAB. OF INSTRUM. LISBON

We want to thank NASA and DOE

for making AMS possible.

DENMARK

UNIV. OF AARHUS

FINLAND

HELSINKI UNIV.

UNIV. OF TURKU

ITALY

ASI

CARSO TRIESTE

IROE FLORENCE

INFN & UNIV. OF BOLOGNA

INFN & UNIV. OF MILANO

INFN & UNIV. OF PERUGIA

INFN & UNIV. OF PISA

INFN & UNIV. OF ROMA

INFN & UNIV. OF SIENA

GERMANY

RWTH-I

MAX-PLANK INST.

UNIV. OF KARLSRUHE

ROMANIA

ISS

UNIV. OF BUCHAREST

SWITZERLAND

ETH-ZURICH

UNIV. OF GENEVA

RUSSIA

I.K.I.

ITEP

KURCHATOV INST.

MOSCOW STATE UNIV.

KOREA

EWHA

KYUNGPOOK NAT.UNIV.

CHINA BISEE (Beijing)

CALT (Beijing)

IEE (Beijing)

IHEP (Beijing)

NLAA (Beijing)

SJTU (Shanghai) TAIWAN

SEU (Nanjing)

SYSU (Guangzhou)

SDU (Jinan)

ACAD. SINICA (Taiwan)

AIDC (Taiwan)

CSIST (Taiwan)

NCU (Chung Li)

NCKU (Tainan)

NCTU (Hsinchu)

NSPO (Hsinchu)

The detectors were built all over the world and assembled at

CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland


5m x 4m x 3m 7.5 tons

AMS Detector is built with the same precision and

detection capabilities as the large LHC detectors


AMS: A TeV precision, multipurpose particle physics

spectrometer in space.

TRD

Identify e+, e-

Silicon Tracker

Z, P

ECAL

E of e+, e-, γ

Particles and nuclei are identified by their

charge (Z) and energy (E ~ P)

2

1

3-4

5-6

7-8

9

Tracker

5m x 4m x 3m 7.5 tons

Z, P are measured independently from

Tracker, RICH, TOF and ECAL

TOF

Z, E

Magnet

±Z

RICH

Z, E


Transition Radiation Detector:

TRD

Identify e + , reject P

p

e +

Leak rate: CO2 ≈ 5 mg/s

Storage: 5 kg, >20 years lifetime

p

e -


Time of Flight (TOF)

Provides trigger for

charged particles

Trigger time is

synchronized to

UTC time to 1µs

Measures the time

of relativistic protons

to 160 picoseconds

Δt/t=160ps

4 scintillator planes

UTOF

LTOF

Z= ampl

pulse height (a.u.)


2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1

TRD

TOF

TOF

RICH

ECAL

MAGNET

MDR P = 2.14 TV

MDR He = 3.75 TV

Test Beam

Test Beam

S


Ring Imaging Cherenkov

Detector (RICH)

Radiator

Reflector

detectors

Intensity Z 2

V

Particle

Θ

NaF

Aerogel

Nuclear Charge Z

10,880 photosensors

He Li C O Ca

Single Event Displays

RICH test beam E=158 GeV/n


Lead foil

(1mm)

Fibers

(f1mm)

e

50 000 fibers, f = 1 mm

distributed uniformly

Inside 1,200 lb of lead

Calorimeter (ECAL)

A precision, 17 X 0, TeV, 3-dimensional measurement of

the directions and energies of light rays and electrons

σ (E) 10.6± 0.1

= +(1.25± 0.03)%

E √ E

Test Beam Results


2009: AFTER 9000 hrs of TVT…THE END OF SUB-SYSTEM TESTS


AMS in the ESA Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Chamber,

March 2010, ESTEC, Noordwijk, Netherlands


AMS in the ESA TVT Chamber, April 2010, ESTEC

Duration 330hours

P < 10 -6 mbar

Ambient temperature

from -90 o C to +40 o C


Tests at CERN

AMS in accelerator test beams Feb 4-8 and Aug 8-20, 2010

19 January 2010

AMS

7 km

27 km


N

N

Test Beam Results – 8-20 Aug 2010, CERN

Bending Plane Residual (cm)

e ± Energy Resolution: 2.5-3%

Energy

Measured combined rejection power at 400 GeV: e + /p = 10 -6

N

Velocity measured to

an accuracy of 1/1000

for 400 GeV protons

Reconstructed Velocity/c

TRD: 400 GeV protons


May 16, 2011, 08:56 AM

Total weight: 2008 t

AMS weight: 7.5 t

STS-134

Endeavour


AMS installed on the ISS at

5:15 CDT May 19, 2011

AMS taking data since

9:35 CDT May 19, 2011


AMS Payload Operation and Control Center, JSC


First Data from AMS and detector

performance

The detectors function exactly as designed and,

in one year, we have collected over 17 billion events.

Every year, we will collect 16*10 9 events

and in 10-20 years we will collect 160-320*10 9 events.

This will provide unprecedented sensitivity

to search for new physics.


AMS

AMS Payload Operations Control and

Science Operations Centers

(POCC, SOC) at CERN

AMS Operations

Astronaut at ISS AMS Laptop

Flight Operations

Ground Operations

AMS Computers

at MSFC, AL

TDRS Satellites

Ku-Band

High Rate (down):

Events

S-Band

Low Rate (up & down):

Commanding: 1 Kbit/s

Monitoring: 30 Kbit/s

White Sands Ground

Terminal, NM


AMS Payload Operation and Control Center for ISS

4. DAQ+Trigger

+RunControl

5. Data Handling

6.Tracker+Laser

Align.+Cooling

7.TRD+TRD Gas

8. TOF+ACC

9. RICH

10. ECAL

11. Thermal

All Data

Science Operation Center

1. Management

2. Shift Leader

3. Commander

13. Consultants

14. On call

12. NASA Liaison

Voice Loop

Commands

All Data

Commands to GSC

365 days/year

3 shifts/day

AMS

GSC

The Wall

~12 persons on shift for AMS

POIC,

MSFC

store

all AMS

data

20


POCC at CERN

in control of AMS since 19 June 2011


Thermal Control is the most

challenging task in the operation of AMS

The thermal environment on ISS is constantly changing due to:

– Solar Beta Angle (β)

– Position of the ISS Radiators and Solar Arrays

– ISS Attitude

Over 1,100 temperature sensors and 298 heaters are monitored

around the clock in the AMS POCC to assure components stay within

thermal limits

and avoid permanent damage.


Thermal variables:

• ISS Radiator positions

• Starboard Solar Array position

• ISS attitude changes (primarily for visiting

vehicles)

Visiting Vehicles

(Soyuz or Progress)

TRD Pump temperature

STBD Main Radiator

parked at -8 o

3 Sep

STBD Main Radiator moved

from -8 o to +25 o

4 Sep, 2011


Orbital parameters of AMS DAQ

Acquisition rate [Hz]

DAQ efficiency

Time at location [s]

Particle rates vary from

200 to 2000 Hz per orbit

On average:

DAQ efficiency 85%

DAQ rate ~700Hz


To date AMS collected over 20 billion events

Events collected

Events reconstructed

First year of AMS operations


AMS Physics Potential

• Searches for primordial antimatter:

– Anti-nuclei: He, …

• Dark Matter searches:

– e + , e ± , p , …

– simultaneous observation of several signal channels.

• Searches for new forms of matter:

– strangelets, …

• Measuring CR spectra – refining propagation models;

• Understanding of local sources:

– SNR, Pulsars, PBH, …

• Study effects of solar modulation on CR spectra over 11 year

• …

solar cycle


Φ (m -2 sr -1 GeV -1 )

Physics of AMS: Nuclear Abundances Measurements

For energies from 100 MeV to 1 TeV

with 1% accuracy over the 11-year solar cycle.

These spectra will provide experimental data that go into calculating the

background in the Search for Dark Matter,

i.e., p + C →e + , …


He 3

Data from AMS on ISS: He rate

He 4

10 3


AMS data: He rate and Solar Flare

Polar region

Equatorial region

Solar Flare, 24/1/2012

Quiet period


The Origin of Dark Matter

The physics of AMS include:

~ 90% of Matter in the Universe is not visible and is called Dark Matter

Search for the origin of Dark Matter:

Collisions of Dark Matter will produce additional e+

These characteristics of additional e+ can be

measured very accurately by AMS


The leading candidate for Dark Matter is a SUSY neutralino

AMS data on ISS

1 TeV


AMS TRD Data on ISS, energy range 3–100 GeV

Electrons

9600

Protons


Event fraction

AMS ECAL Data on ISS, energy range 3–1000 GeV

Protons

Electrons

BDT estimator value

Rejection factor

ECAL + Tracker

10 10 2 10 3

Measured Energy (GeV)

Matching momentum of 9 tracker planes with ECAL energy measurements

A magnet separates TRD and ECAL so that e + produced in TRD will be

swept away and not enter ECAL

In this way the rejection power of TRD and ECAL are independent


e + /(e + + e - )

Detection of High Mass Dark Matter

m=200 GeV

AMS-02

e+ Energy (GeV)

m=800 GeV

m=400 GeV


front

view

AMS data on high energy e ± :

side

view

TRD:

identifies

electron

Tracker and Magnet:

measure momentum

RICH

charge of

electron

ECAL:

identifies electron and measures

its energy

1.03 TeV electron

35


front

view

front

view

AMS data: High energy positrons

205 GeV Positron

388 GeV Positron

front

view

front

view

369 GeV Positron

424 GeV Positron


120 GeV photon

Unique Features: 17 X 0, 3D ECAL, measure γ to 1 TeV, time resolution of 1μsec

120 GeV photon,

direction

reconstructed with

3D shower

sampling


Search for primordial Antimatter in the Universe

In space

AMS

On the ground

The Big Bang origin of the Universe requires

matter and antimatter

to be equally abundant at the very beginning


Physics of AMS: Search for Antimatter Universe

Experimental work on Antimatter in the Universe

Direct

search

AMS

Increase in sensitivity: x 10 3 – 10 6

Increase in energy to ~TeV

New CP

BELLE

BaBar

(sin 2β= 0.672±0.023

consistent with SM)

FNAL KTeV

(Re(ε’/ ε) = (19.2±2.1)*10 -4 )

CERN NA-48

CDF, D0

LHC-b, ATLAS,CMS

Search for

Baryogenesis

Proton decay

Super K

(τ p > 6.6 * 10 33 years )

No explanation found for the absence

of antimatter (no reason why

antimatter should not exist)


Z = 7 (N)

P = 2.088 TeV/c

Z = 15 (P)

P = 1.497 TeV/c

Z = 21 (Sc)

P = 0.390 TeV/c

AMS data: Nuclei in the TeV range

Z = 10 (Ne)

P = 0.576 TeV/c

Z = 16 (S)

P = 1.645 TeV/c

Z = 22 (Ti)

P = 1.288 TeV/c

Z = 13 (Al)

P = 9.148 TeV/c

Z = 19 (K)

P = 1.686 TeV/c

Z = 23 (V)

P = 0.812 TeV/c

Z = 14 (Si)

P = 0.951 TeV/c

Z = 20 (Ca)

P = 2.382 TeV/c

Z = 26 (Fe)

P = 0.795 TeV/c


He

AMS TOF and Tracker Data on ISS

Li

Be

B C

N O

F

Ne

Na Mg

Al

Si

S

Ar

Ca

Ti

Cr

Fe


BESS results (2012)

AMS-02 (18 Yrs)


Front view Side view

1

Amplitude => Z, 2

Rigidity = 4.31 ± 0.38 GV

Charge Z = 2

1 = 2 = 0.462 ± 0.005

Mass = 16.45±0.15 GeV/c 2

Z/A = 0.114 ± 0.01

Flux (1.5 < E K < 10 GeV) = 5x10 -5 (m 2 sr sec) -1

Strangelets

E. Witten, Phys. Rev. D,272-285 (1984)

All the known material on Earth is made out of u and d quarks.

Is there material in the universe made up of u, d, & s quarks?

Candidate observed with AMS-01 5 June 1998 11:13:16 UTC

Candidate

Z/A

Z/A~0.1

AMS-01

Background probability < 10 -3

Φ strangelets = 5x10 -10 (cm 2 s sr) -1

or ~30 in 1 st year for AMS-02


AMS is taking data since May 19, 2011

All sub-systems are fully operational.

Detector calibrations are completed for the 1 st year

10+ years onboard ISS – great physics potential

The most exciting objective – to probe the unknown


In 12 years the field has

remained the same to


Veto System rejects random cosmic rays

Measured veto(ACC) efficiency better than 0.99999


AMS electronics on ISS

650 processors,

300,000 channels.

up to 400% redundancy

A ten year effort by 75 engineers

Reduce data volume

7 Gbit/s to 10 Mbit/s


AMS Electronics

The AMS group performed extensive radiation tests

to select components that tolerate the radiation of space.


Data reduction computers

Data Acquisition

TOF

Tracker

TRD

RICH

ECAL

48

192

24

24

28

High

voltage

Low voltage

Trigger

Tracker Readout

TOF Readout

TRD Readout

RICH Readout

ECAL Readout

8

2

16

4

4

4

AMSWire links

DAQ

Computer

s

Tracker Laser

Alignment

4

CAN Bus

TTCS

ISS Avionics 1

AMS Laptop

LRDL 2 2 HRDL 2 Power

Main Data

Computer

4

TRD Gas

PDS

2 2 2 2 2

JMDC

Power

Slow Control & Monitoring

2

Power to AMS

elements

GPS

Star Tracker


AMS POCC at JSC, May 19, 2011


1

2

3

4

5

6

196,608 Pulse Heights,

216 Low Voltages,

7

8 9

196,608

Pulse Heights

Low voltage

Tracker Readout Computers

192 Tracker Data Reduction (TDR) 16 Readout Computers (JINF-T)

AMSWire

Busy

Trigger

•Analog to digital conversion

coordinate resolution of 10 um

•Data reduction:

Pedestal subtraction

Noise suppression

Cluster finding

• Format, send to next level

Active

Redundant

AMSWire

To next level

Busy

Trigger

•Collect data from TDR

•Format, send to next level

•Control Low Voltages

•Combine Busy signals

•Distribute Trigger

•Distribute command to TDR


Sensitive Search for Antimatter with He/He >10 10

and Dark Matter with p/e + >10 6

1

2

3-4

5-6

7-8

9

Tracker

Inner Tracker Entry

a) Minimal material in the detector

So that the detector does not become a source of large angle scattering

b) Repetitive measurements of momentum

To ensure that particles which had large angle scattering are not

confused with the signal.

0.27 X 0

Inner Tracker Exit

Tracker Entry

0.33 X 0

Tracker Exit

0.50 X 0

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