List of Symbols.pdf - Eawag-Empa Library

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List of Symbols.pdf - Eawag-Empa Library

LIST OF SYMBOLS

A - atom

A - radioactive source activity

A - experimental constant

A - radiative transition probability

a - geometric constant

a - probability ratio for two processes

aa - analytical property of a

b - optical path length

B - atom

B - constant

bc - background current

bci - ionization background current

C - carrier gas

C - instantaneous concentration

co - initial concentration

pin

- minimum instantaneous concentration

CmaX - maximum instantaneous concentration

c' - instantaneous concentration in the effective volume of the detector

C, - heat capacity at constant pressure

Cy - heat capacity at constant volume

D - diffusion coefficient

e - secondary electron, slow electron

E - voltage

EP - excitation potential

E, - excitation energy of the eluted substance

F - Faraday constant

G - mass

H - height equivalent to a theoretical plate

I - current

I - atom or molecule of impurity

ic - ionization current

ic, - ionization current of alkali metal

i ~ - ionization ~ ~ current . ~ of ~ de-excited atomic states

ic,,, - ionization current due to electron capture


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ic,,,

icHe

ic, - ionization current of carbonaceous substances due to the FID mechanism

I,

1,

- ionization current of impurities in the carrier gas

- ionization current of the carrier gas due to direct ionization

- intensity of emitted light

- intensity of fluorescence emitted light

Z: ZP - ionization potential

J - Joule's constant

- initial intensity of emitted light

k - constant

k1,2,3 ,,,. - rate constant of reaction 1, 2, 3, . . .

kd.i - rate constant of dissociation, ionization

k, - statistical constant dependent on the number of measurements, n

K - absolute temperature, Kelvin

K - thermal conductivity

Ka,b - dissociation constant of acid, base

1 - electron free path

1 - length of heated filament

I - detector linearity

L - column length

M - atom

M - molecular weight

M" - metastable atomic state

M* - excited atomic state

n - number of electrons

n - number of theoretical plates

n - number of measurements

N - number of moles

N' - number of moles in the effective volume of the detector

ORG - polyatomic molecule of organic compound

CI(0RG) - chlorine-containing ployatomic organic molecule

p - pressure

pc,s - partial pressures of the carrier gas, the eluted substance

ppb - part per billion (American billion = lo9)

Q - electric charge

Q - conductivity cell constant

Q - amount of heat

QE - cross-section for electron capture ionization

Qc,s - cross-section of direct ionization of carrier gas, eluted substance

r - column radius

r - radius of the sensor

R - universal gas constant

R - amplifier resistance


- heated filament resistance

- detector response to property a

- estimated standard deviation

- eluted substance

- signal of analytical probcrty a, of eluted substance S

- time

- the Student distribution

- time of the beginning and the end of elution

- time corresponding to the inflection points of the elution curve

- elution time

- elution curve width

- time of passage of gas through the effective volume of the detector

- temperature

- temperature of the detector walls

- temperature of the heated filament

- linear flow-rate of gas

- volume flow-rate of gas

- flow-rate expressed in moles

- mean molecular velocity

- velocity of electrons

v1 ,2.3. ._. - rate of reaction 1 , 2, 3, . . .

I/ - volume

I/, - effective volume of detector

X - molar fraction

Z - constant

Zi - ionic charge

Z - the third particle in a three-body collision

z,, za - number of non-elastic collisions

a - recombination coefficient

c! - temperature coefficient

c1 - degree of dissociation

6

r

- thermistor material constance

- selectivity

A - change in parameter

q,, - photoionization efficiency

1"

- mean free path, mobility

e - density

T - time constant

@ - fluorescence yield

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