From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA - LUTH

luth.obspm.fr

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA - LUTH

New instruments for very high energy γ-ray astronomy:

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA

A. Zech

H.E.S.S. / CTA team

LUTh


Very High Energy γ-ray astronomy

γ-ray

VHE γ-rays (energy of the order of TeV) are observed

indirectly through the Cherenkov light from showers of

secondary charged particles in the atmosphere.

Among the many topics of γ-ray astronomy, our group is

mainly focused on emission and acceleration processes

in compact objects (AGN, pulsars).

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 2


an artist's conception

of H.E.S.S.-II

H.E.S.S.-II

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 3


H.E.S.S.-II science objectives

Objective : extend the spectral range down to about

20 GeV and connect to the γ-ray domain of satellites

H.E.S.S.-I telescopes

– effective mirror surface

107 m 2 , camera f.o.v. 5°

– 960 PMT per camera,

f.o.v. 0.16°

– E thresh ~ 100 GeV

H.E.S.S.-II big telescope

– effective mirror surface

600 m 2 , camera f.o.v. 3.5°

– 2048 PMT per camera,

f.o.v. 0.08°

– E thresh ~ 20 GeV

e.g. extra-galactic sources:

-> less absorption by EBL

-> higher redshifts

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 4


Involvement of our group

● instrumentation:

contribution to design studies of the elevation drive

(G. Herpe, J.-M. Huet, H. Sol)

construction of an instrumented shelter for the H.E.S.S.-II camera

(G. Herpe, J.-M. Huet, H. Sol, with help from ITA of the OBSPM)

● contribution to the simulation of air showers and instrument

(C. Medina, A. Zech)

● commitment to the physics with H.E.S.S. phase II :

AGN data analysis and modelling, MWL analysis

(C. Boisson, J.-P. Lenain, C. Medina, H. Sol, L. Venter, A. Zech)

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 5


Involvement of our group

● instrumentation:

contribution to design studies of the elevation drive

(G. Herpe, J.-M. Huet, H. Sol)

construction of an instrumented shelter for the H.E.S.S.-II camera

(G. Herpe, J.-M. Huet, H. Sol, with help from ITA of the OBSPM)

● contribution to the simulation of air showers and instrument

(C. Medina, A. Zech)

● commitment to the physics with H.E.S.S. phase II :

AGN data analysis and modelling, MWL analysis

(C. Boisson, J.-P. Lenain, C. Medina, H. Sol, L. Venter, A. Zech)

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 6


H.E.S.S.-II current status

mechanical structure of the H.E.S.S.-II camera

(collaboration meeting September '08 in Annecy)

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 7


H.E.S.S.-II

current status

construction of the

H.E.S.S.-II telescope

structure

(winter 2008 in

Walvis Bay, Namibia)

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 8


H.E.S.S.-II current status

space for the

H.E.S.S.-II

instrumented

shelter

H.E.S.S. site in Namibia with foundation for H.E.S.S.-II

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 9


Contribution from the LUTh: Instrumented Shelter

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 10


Construction under the

responsibility of G. Herpe in 2008.

The shelter has now arrived in

Namibia.

Construction of the

instrumented shelter

6 m

at the LUTh

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 11


CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array)

since 2008:

● highly ranked in ASTRONET

● highly ranked in the European Strategy

of ASPERA

● entered into ESFRI roadmap as the only new

project in Physical Sciences & Engineering

● considered "hautement prioritaire" in the

French roadmap (together with E-ELT)

currently more than 30 institutes

(9 in France) in 14 countries

contribute to the Design Study

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 12


CTA science objectives

~ 3000 sources

by Fermi, AGILE

~ 1000

sources

by CTA

First observatory at TeV energies !

Guaranteed science return:

galactic and extra-galactic sources

e.g.

- blazars, radio-galaxies

- SNR, PWN, binaries

- population studies

- variability (pulsars, binaries...)

- cosmology (EBL, luminosity function)

Very high discovery potential:

e.g.

- AGN, starburst galaxies, GRB...

- galaxy clusters

- unknown non-thermal sources

- origin of cosmic rays

- dark matter, constraints on Gen. Rel. ...

Simulated CTA/AGIS Galactic Plane Survey (Funk, Hinton, Digel, Hermann, Gamma-08)

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 13


E x F(>E) [TeV/cm 2 s]

10 -11

10 -12

10 -13

10 -14

Expected sensitivity for CTA

GLAST

MAGIC

H.E.S.S.

CTA ?

10 100 1000 10 4

E [GeV]

Crab

10% Crab

1% Crab

10 5

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 14


E x F(>E) [TeV/cm 2 s]

10 -11

10 -12

10 -13

AGN and pulsar

physics

e.g. 4 x 30 m

10 -14

Expected sensitivity for CTA

GLAST

MAGIC

H.E.S.S.

CTA ?

10 100 1000 10 4

Deep TeV sky

coverage

E [GeV]

e.g. 28 x 18 m

Crab

10% Crab

Exploration of the

EHE regime of

galactic sources

1% Crab

10 5

e.g. 20 x 10 m

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 15


Site

environmental

conditions

data

observatory

The CTA Design Study

area,

height

Photon detectors

Electronics

Array

Telescope

weight

fov

telescope types, size, fov

telescope cost

trigger options

Optical layout and

mirror facets

Structure

Camera Mount & dish

Physics

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 16


data

mining &

analysis

Site

environmental

conditions

data

format

observatory

The CTA Design Study

Involvement of our group at the LUTh.

area,

height

Photon detectors

Electronics

detector

& shower Array

simulations

Telescope

weight

fov

telescope types, size, fov

telescope cost

trigger options

Optical layout and

mirror facets

Structure

Camera Mount & dish

mechanic

Physics

AGN,

pulsars

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 17


CTA members at the LUTh

Name, First Name position time time time member of WP

CTA (%) HESS (%) other (%)

Boisson, Catherine perm. (CNAP) 40 40 20 data, phys, site

Castarède, Hugues engineer / UMS 100 0 0 fpi

Herpe, Georges engineer 10-20 30 60 fpi

Lenain, Jean-Philippe Ph.D. student 10 70 20 phys

Medina, Clementina postdoc 40 40 20 mc, site, phys

Mottez, Fabrice perm. (CNRS) 20 0 80 phys

Pelat, Didier perm. (CNAP) 10 0 90 site, phys

Sol, Hélène perm. (CNRS) 70 20 10 phys

Venter, Louis postdoc 30 50 20 phys,site

Zech, Andreas perm. (OBS) 40 50 10 mc, phys

special responsibilities in CTA:

Our involvement in CTA

● P.I. CTA-France (H. Sol)

● development of the camera mechanics in

collaboration with the LLR

● responsibilities in WP MC, DATA, PHYS, SITE

● development of website CTA-FRANCE

associated persons:

● Virginie Hababou , administrative support

● Fabrice Roy , informatics support (GRID)

● Jean-Michel Huet, OP, technical division

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 18


WP PHYS (Boisson, Lenain, Medina, Mottez, Pelat,Sol, Venter, Zech)

=> objectives: definition of the science case for CTA and study of technical requirements for the

different science objectives

our involvement:

● C. Boisson, H. Sol and A. Zech are responsible for the coordination of science case "AGN"

● contribution to the science case for pulsars

(F. Mottez)

● involvement in connected tasks

(EBL, Galactic Center, Starburst Galaxies,

Fundamental Physics, Timing, Surveys)

● link to X-ray, optical, radio experiments

e.g. prediction of the flux from

quasar 3C 273, Lenain et al. 2008

CTA

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 19


WP FPI (Castarède, Sol)

=> objectives: Focal Plane Instrumentation (photodetectors + camera mechanics)

our involvement:

responsibility for the development of the camera mechanics (in collaboration with LLR)

● integration of the camera in the telescope structure

● development of a cooling system

● study of modularity of the design

● concept for camera maintenance and

protection

● cost estimate and reduction, camera

weight reduction

e.g. modular design for the

protective cover of the camera

(H. Castarède, 2009)

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 20


WP MC (Medina, Zech)

=> objectives: simulation of air showers and detector response to find an optimised design

our involvement:

● A. Zech responsible for WP task "showers" (selection of shower generators)

● creation of an interface between shower generator and detector response simulation

● comparison of different shower generators (Kaskade, Corsika) and hadronic interaction models

(Fluka, UrQMD, QGSJet, Sibyll)

● use of the GRID for access to MC files

● validation of simulations vs. existing data

Gamma '08 conference

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 21


WP SITE (Boisson, Medina, Pelat, Venter)

=> objectives: to determine the most suitable location for CTA (S & N) based on a set of relevant

criteria

our involvement:

● WP task "data-mining & analysis" - team leader C. Boisson & S. Wagner (LSW Heidelberg)

● comparison of atmospheric data from satellites with ground based observatories

● interaction with experiments in Argentina (Casleo, Auger) and South Africa (SALT, SKA)

● compilation of existing data

(geographic, atmospheric...)

in these countries

● WP meeting at OBSP Feb. 09

● interface WP SITE - WP MC

e.g. study of cloud cover and

elevation of sites in South Africa

use of the FriOwl software thanks

to E. Graham and ESO

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 22


WP DATA (Boisson)

=> objectives: definition of the data structure at several levels, archiving and dissemination

our involvement:

● definition of data standards for VHE gamma-ray data (compliant with VO standards)

● dissemination of high level data for the astrophysics community (light curves, spectra,...)

● interface with the Virtual Observatory (VO) and multi-messenger science; collaboration with CDS

● workshop on data

standards at Meudon

Nov 08

e.g. development of

a database for VHE

data (H.E.S.S.) with

Ozou-Mathis (CDD)

From H.E.S.S.-II to CTA, A. Zech 23


Thank you for your attention !

For more information on H.E.S.S. and CTA:

http://www.mpi-hd.mpg.de/hfm/HESS

http://www.cta-observatory.org

Milky Way observed

with H.E.S.S.

Milky Way observed

with CTA

(simulation)

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