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Energy From Thorium Foundation


Energy From Thorium Foundation

The Energy From Thorium Foundation Mission

To educate and promote the adoption of Nuclear

energy based on the use of Thorium in molten

salt reactors, as a means to usher in an era of

Sustainable Abundance TM

Specifically, we advocate the development of

the (2 fluid) Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor

(LFTR)

We believe this is the “best” long term design

Lots for the public to like about LFTRs.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

GDP

per

capita

$50,000

$45,000

$40,000

$35,000

$30,000

$25,000

$20,000

$15,000

$10,000

$5,000

$0

Prosperity depends on energy.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html

Nations with populations

over 10 million.

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Annual kWh per capita


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Energy Crisis(s)

Energy shortages are not unique to our time.

Wood was the 2nd energy source. (1 st food)

Wood also used for construction

Centers of metal smelting became the most

deforested areas of the Roman Empire.

Rome had to import most of their timber from all

over Europe.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Energy Crisis(s)

Shortages happen and get “resolved”.

These resolutions often

spark the development of

superior sources of energy

or superior technology.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

World Energy Consumption The Future:

5.3 billion

tonnes of coal

(128 quads)

31.1 billion

barrels of oil

(180 quads)

2.92 trillion m 3

of natural gas

(105 quads)

65,000 tonnes

of uranium ore

(24 quads)

Energy from Thorium

6600 tonnes of thorium

(500 quads)

Energy Density of Fission Fuel is

more than 1 Million times

greater than any fossil fuel !!!


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Thorium-232

(100% of all Th)

Uranium-235

(0.7% of all U)

Uranium-238

(99.3% of all U)

Three Basic Nuclear Fuel Options

Uranium-233

Plutonium-239


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Thorium is more Abundant

Natural Thorium

100% thorium-232

Natural Uranium

99.3% uranium-238

0.7% uranium-235


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Thorium-233 decays

quickly to

protactinium-233

Natural thorium

absorbs a neutron

from fission and

becomes Th-233

Thorium-233

Protactinium-233

Thorium-232

Uranium-233

Protactinium-233 decays

slowly over a month to

uranium-233, an ideal fuel

Uranium-233 fissions,

releasing energy and

neutrons to continue the

process


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Nuclear Fuel Options

Neutron

Spectrum

Fuel

Thermal

Spectrum

(< 1eV)

Fast

Spectrum

(>100 keV)

Uranium-233 /

Thorium-232

Feasible: U-233

fission produces

enough neutrons

per thermal

absorption to

sustain conversion

of thorium-232

Feasible but less

desirable: fast

fission requires 10x

more fissile

material per unit

power than thermal

fission

Uranium-235 Plutonium-239 /

Uranium-238

Feasible: U-235 is

naturally fissile but

rare

Feasible but less

desirable: U-235

fast fission requires

10x more fissile

material per unit

power than thermal

fission

Not feasible: Pu-

239 fission does

not produce

enough neutrons

per thermal

absorption to

sustain conversion

of uranium-238

Feasible and

necessary: only fast

fission of Pu-239

produces enough

neutrons per fast

absorption to

sustain conversion

of uranium-238


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Coolant

Temperature

Coolant Choices for Nuclear Reactors

Pressure

Moderate

Temperature

(250-350 C)

High

Temperature

(700-1000 C)

Atmospheric-

Pressure Operation

Liquid Metal Water

Liquid Salt

High-Pressure

Operation

Gas


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Liquid-Fluoride (Salt) Reactors: Background

Liquid-Fluoride Reactors were recognized by

the nuclear pioneers as offering significant

advantages over other reactors types through

use of liquid fluoride salt as both the coolant

and the fuel carrier. These liquid salts offered

the desirable combination of high temperature

operation at low pressures.

In 2002 “molten-salt reactors” were recognized

as a general class as one of six Generation 4

reactor designs.

LFTR meets Gen-4 objectives


F 2

Energy From Thorium Foundation

Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) (2 fluid)

Fluoride Volatility

238UF 6

UF 6

H 2

Uranium Reduction

HF Electrolyzer

HF

Internal continuous recycling

of blanket salt

Fertile Salt

Recycled

Fuel Salt

Fuel Salt

Recycled

Fertile Salt

“Fuel” salt core ( 7 LiF-

BeF 2- 233 UF 4)

“Hot” salt to heat exchanger

Fission reactions in the core

sustain additional fission in

the core and conversion in

the blanket

“Cold” salt from

heat exchanger

Thorium

tetrafluoride

Thorium is

converting to

uranium-233

in the blanket

“Fertile” salt blanket

( 7 LiF-BeF 2-ThF 4)

UF 6

xF 6

Hexafluoride

Distillation

Recycled

7 LiF-BeF2

Fluoride

Volatility

MoF6, TcF6,

SeF6, RuF5,

TeF6, IF7,

Other F6

Uranium

Absorption-

Reduction

Vacuum

Distillation

Fission

Product

Waste

External “batch” processing

of core salt, done on a

schedule


Energy From Thorium Foundation

250 t uranium

containing

1.75 t U-235 35 t of enriched

uranium

(1.15 t U-235)

800,000 t ore

200 t ore

LWR vs. LFTR Fuel flow (1 GWe plant)

1 t

thorium

U-235 is burned;

some Pu-239 is

formed and burned.

215 t of

depleted U-238

(0.6 t U-235)

Fluoride reactor

converts Th-232 to

U-233 and burns it.

1 t fission

products

35 t of spent

fuel containing:

33.4 t U-238

0.3 t U-235

1.0 t fission

products

0.3 t Pu

In 10 yrs, 83%

FP stable.

17% FP stored

~300 years.

.0001 t

Pu


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Weinberg’s Vision for our Energy Future

Alvin Weinberg had a

vision of our energy

future. It would be

clean and sustainable.

As director of the Oak

Ridge National Lab

from 1955 - 1972 he

and his technical team

made remarkable

progress on this vision,

culminating in the

Molten Salt Reactor

Experiment.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

The Molten

Salt Reactor

Experiment

ran from1965

to 1969.

Salt flowed

through channels

in this graphite

core.


Energy From Thorium Foundation


Energy From Thorium Foundation

The Future: Energy from Thorium !


Energy From Thorium Foundation

The Future: Energy from Thorium !

With thorium, you can hold a lifetime’s

supply of energy in the palm of your hand.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Conclusions

Thorium represents a “inexhaustible” source of

energy for the world.

Thorium + LFTR = Sustainable Abundance.

Thorium + LFTR has “public perception” advantages:

Thorium is “new”

Much better safety story – no meltdowns.

Much improved waste story – no “forever” waste.

Learn more at:

http://www.Th90.org

Facebook/EnergyFromThorium

Twitter:ThorFoundation


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Thank You !!!


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Backup Slides !!!


Energy From Thorium Foundation

1954: Aircraft Reactor Experiment used uranium

fluoride dissolved in molten salt at 860 o C.


Energy From Thorium Foundation


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Relative Nuclide Cross-Sections


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Coolant

Temperature

Fuel Results Coupled with Primary Coolant

Pressure

Moderate

Temperature

(250-350 C)

High

Temperature

(700-1000 C)

Atmospheric-

Pressure Operation

Thermal U-233/Th-232: Feasible but unattractive,

thorium oxide fuel very difficult to process,

requires additional moderator material

Thermal U-235: Feasible but unattractive,

requires additional moderator material

Fast Pu-239/U-238: Attractive implementation,

coolant choice minimizes moderation

Thermal U-233/Th-232: Feasible and attractive,

thorium and uranium tetrafluorides easy to

process, basis of LFTR concept

Thermal U-235: Feasible but unattractive,

requires enriched fuel, limited U-235

Fast Pu-239/U-238: Somewhat feasible, fluoride

salts moderate neutrons, basis of MSFR concept

High-Pressure

Operation

Thermal U-233/Th-232: Feasible but unattractive,

thorium oxide fuel very difficult to process,

demonstrated at Shippingport LWBR

Thermal U-235: Feasible and basis for nearly all

reactors in the world today, limited U-235

Fast Pu-239/U-238: Infeasible, water coolant is

moderates neutrons and no fast spectrum

Liquid-Metal-Cooled Reactors Water-Cooled Reactors

Thermal U-233/Th-232: Feasible but unattractive,

thorium oxide fuel very difficult to process,

demonstrated at Ft. St. Vrain HTGR

Thermal U-235: Feasible implementation, basis of

PBMR, VHTR, GT-MHR concepts, limited U-235

Fast Pu-239/U-238: Feasible implementation,

fuel processing difficult, basis of GCFR and

EM2 concepts

Liquid-Fluoride Reactors Gas-Cooled Reactors


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Coolant

Temperature

Fuel Results Coupled with Primary Coolant

Pressure

Moderate

Temperature

(250-350 C)

High

Temperature

(700-1000 C)

Atmospheric-

Pressure Operation

Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors

(uranium/plutonium)

Liquid-Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR)

(thorium232-uranium233 ) (Flibe Energy)

High-Pressure

Operation

Enriched uranium water-cooled reactors

(light-water and heavy-water) (uranium )

Liquid-Metal-Cooled Reactors Water-Cooled Reactors

Pebble-Bed and Prismatic-Fueled

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors

(uranium/plutonium)

Liquid-Fluoride Reactors Gas-Cooled Reactors


Energy From Thorium Foundation

2 Natural Nuclear Fuels: Thorium & Uranium

Thorium

One isotope (232)

14 billion year half life

Uranium

Two isotopes (235, 238)

U238: 5 billion year half life

U235: 700 million year half life


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Energy per Capita KCal/day

250

200

150

100

50

0

Energy and Civilization

Transportation

Industry and Agriculture

Home and Commerce

Food

Primitive Man Hunting Man Primitive

Agricultural Man

Advanced

Agricultural Man

Industrial Man Technological Man

Years ago 1 Million 100,000 5,000 600 230 50-present

Food 2 3 4 6 7 10

Home and Commerce 2 4 12 32 66

Industry and Agriculture 4 7 24 91

Transportation 1 14 63


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Light-Water Reactor Spent Fuel Profile


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Energy

Total energy per capita in US per year:

~330,000,000 BTUs

(About 10 tonnes of coal)

(About 800 tonnes of coal in a lifetime)

Personal + Industry.

Standard of living is

closely related to

energy per capita.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

What about Nuclear Energy

Safety Record of Todays Nuclear (LWR)

Excellent Safety Record

Sourse:www.the9billion.com/2011/03/24/death-rate-from-nuclear-power-vs-coal/


Energy From Thorium Foundation

What about Nuclear Energy

Safety Record of Todays Nuclear (LWR)

Excellent Safety Record (comes at a cost).

Disadvantages

Concerns over meltdowns

Concerns over the long lived radioactive waste

Advantages

Clean Energy

HUGE quantity of energy from very little fuel.

Thousands of years of supply (Burners)

Millions to Billions of years of supply (Breeders)

What about Advanced Nuclear ?

Breeders

Thorium


Energy From Thorium Foundation

The Future: Energy from Thorium !

Natural, abundant and inexpensive

thorium can supply our energy needs.

Thorium energy can be inexpensive

and clean if extracted by a Liquid

Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR).


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Advanced Nuclear

Thorium and Uranium have a MILLION times the

energy for the same quantity of either oil or coal

The technology to efficiently use thorium was

largely developed in the United States in the 1950s

and 1960s, but has subsequently been neglected.

This technology can allow us to build small,

modular, safe thorium reactors that can be used for:

1. Electricity production

2. Fabricate synthetic fuels to power our vehicles

3. Produce Fertilizers

4. Desalinate sea water

5. Process heat for industry


Energy From Thorium Foundation

A supernova made the elements of the periodic table.

Thorium

Uranium


Energy From Thorium Foundation

An Introduction Thorium Fuel Cycle


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR)

Chemical

separator

Th-232 in

New U-233 fuel

Fertile

Th-232 blanket

n

Fissile

U-233 core

Heat

n

Chemical

separator

Fission

products

out


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Weinberg’s Vision for our Energy Future

Alvin Weinberg had a

vision of our energy

future. It would be

clean and sustainable.

As director of the Oak

Ridge National Lab

from 1955 - 1972 he

and his technical team

made remarkable

progress on this vision,

culminating in the

Molten Salt Reactor

Experiment.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

LFTR produces < 1% of the long-lived

radiotoxic waste of today’s reactors.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Conventional

Light Water

Reactor

Containment

Building


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Uranium Oxide

Fuel Pellets


Energy From Thorium Foundation

LFTR Passive Safety

Drain Tank

Freeze Plug


Energy From Thorium Foundation

LFTR Advantages

Cannot “Meltdown”

Walk away safe

No Long Lived Nuclear Waste

(No ~300,000 year storage)

~1% of the “waste” requiring ~300 yr. storage

Low capital costs

Low recurring costs (No Fuel Fabrication)


Energy From Thorium Foundation

LFTR Advantages

Millions of

years of fuel

One cu foot of “dirt” has the energy of 5

barrels of oil.

The thorium in all of the land on earth can

power the world for longer than 1 million

years (utilizing soil to only a depth of 10 feet)


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Why Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTR)

Proven Concepts

MSRE operated for 4 years at ORNL and proved much of

the LFTR concepts.

Proliferation Resistant.

U-233 is highly unsuitable for nuclear weapons due to

small amounts of U232.

No operational nuclear weapons use U233.

US tested only one weapon that used U233.

Military Effects Test (MET) Operation Teapot, 1955)

Pu239/U233 core. 22KT yield. 33KT expected.

No fissile material in the spent fuel (waste)

Higher Temperatures

LFTR enable the production synthetic fuels and fertilizers.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Motor Fuel Less Expensive than from Oil

Dissociate water at 900 o C to make

hydrogen, with sulfur-iodine process.

http://wwwtest.iri.tudelft.nl/~klooster/reports/hydro_slides_2003.pdf

Ammonia

Dimethyl ether

for diesel

CO2 + 3 H2

CH3OH + H2O

Methanol for

gasoline


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Why Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTR)

Higher Temperatures

LFTR enable the production synthetic fuels and fertilizers.

More efficient electricity production

Waste heat can be used to desalinate sea water.

LFTRs can be factory built, similar to Boeing aircraft

production

Common design and factory construction reduce cost


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Emulate Boeing Mass Production

LFTR Production Line

One LFTR per day ?

Standardized Units

Computer aided

design, Engineering

and Manufacturing

$200 Million per unit ?


Energy From Thorium Foundation

The Energy From Thorium Foundation

Purpose - Promote and educate on the adoption of

Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTRs) as a

major element of US energy policy to achieve energy

independence, economic growth and

Sustainable Abundance:

To enable the increase in the standard of living for

everyone in the United States and on planet Earth by

making available low cost, inexhaustible, clean

Energy From Thorium !

Lets make Energy the “Bandwidth” of tomorrow.

With your help we will change the Regulatory

Environment so LFTRs can be built and licensed in

the US.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

LFTR Challanges

LFTR is not (yet) fully understood by

regulatory agencies and officials. NRC

takes years just to review a new reactor

design.

Need some way to cut through this RED

TAPE.


Energy From Thorium Foundation

EFTF: Monthly Google Plus Hang Outs

Talk with a different expert every Month. Last

Month it was Kirk Sorenson, founder of Flibe

Energy.

Participate live at Plus.Google.com and search

for Energy From Thorium

Watch real time from the Foundation Website

www.Th90.org


Energy From Thorium Foundation

An Introduction to the Thorium Fuel Cycle


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Why Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTR)

Thorium Element 90


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Historical Energy Usage of USA


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Approximate World Energy Consumption source breakdown

5.3 billion

tonnes of coal

(128 quads)

2.92 tillion m 3

103 trillion ft 3 of

natural gas

(105 quads)

65,000 tonnes

of uranium ore

(24 quads)

31.1 billion

barrels of oil

(180 quads)

Hydro-Electric

Power

(18 quads)

Other (15 Quads)

Total Consumption 424 Quads

????????????????????????

1 quad = 1 quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000,000) BTUs (1,055,000,000,000,000,000 J)


Energy From Thorium Foundation

GDP

per

capita

$50,000

$45,000

$40,000

$35,000

$30,000

$25,000

$20,000

$15,000

$10,000

$5,000

$0

Prosperity depends on energy.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html

Nations with populations

over 10 million.

0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Annual kWh per capita


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Advanced Nuclear

Source

Instantaneously released energy

Average energy released

(MeV)

Kinetic energy of fission fragments 168.2

Kinetic energy of prompt neutrons 4.9

Energy carried by prompt γ-rays 7.7

Energy from decaying fission

products

Energy of β−-particles 5.2

Energy of anti-neutrinos 6.9

Energy of delayed γ-rays 5.0

Sum, less escaping anti-neutrinos 191.0

Energy released when those prompt

neutrons which don't (re)produce

fission are captured

Energy converted into heat in an

operating thermal nuclear reactor

9.1

200.1


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Coolant

Temperature

Fuel Results Coupled with Primary Coolant

Pressure

Moderate

Temperature

(250-350 C)

High

Temperature

(700-1000 C)

Atmospheric-

Pressure Operation

Thermal U-233/Th-232: Feasible but unattractive,

thorium oxide fuel very difficult to process,

requires additional moderator material

Thermal U-235: Feasible but unattractive,

requires additional moderator material

Fast Pu-239/U-238: Attractive implementation,

coolant choice minimizes moderation

Thermal U-233/Th-232: Feasible and attractive,

thorium and uranium tetrafluorides easy to

process, basis of LFTR concept

Thermal U-235: Feasible but unattractive,

requires enriched fuel, limited U-235

Fast Pu-239/U-238: Somewhat feasible, fluoride

salts moderate neutrons, basis of MSFR concept

High-Pressure

Operation

Thermal U-233/Th-232: Feasible but unattractive,

thorium oxide fuel very difficult to process,

demonstrated at Shippingport LWBR

Thermal U-235: Feasible and basis for nearly all

reactors in the world today, limited U-235

Fast Pu-239/U-238: Infeasible, water coolant is

moderates neutrons and no fast spectrum

Liquid-Metal-Cooled Reactors Water-Cooled Reactors

Thermal U-233/Th-232: Feasible but unattractive,

thorium oxide fuel very difficult to process,

demonstrated at Ft. St. Vrain HTGR

Thermal U-235: Feasible implementation, basis of

PBMR, VHTR, GT-MHR concepts, limited U-235

Fast Pu-239/U-238: Feasible implementation,

fuel processing difficult, basis of GCFR and

EM2 concepts

Liquid-Fluoride Reactors Gas-Cooled Reactors


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Coolant

Temperature

Fuel Results Coupled with Primary Coolant

Pressure

Moderate

Temperature

(250-350 C)

High

Temperature

(700-1000 C)

Atmospheric-

Pressure Operation

Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactors

(uranium/plutonium)

Liquid-Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR)

(thorium232-uranium233 ) (Flibe Energy)

High-Pressure

Operation

Enriched uranium water-cooled reactors

(light-water and heavy-water) (uranium )

Liquid-Metal-Cooled Reactors Water-Cooled Reactors

Pebble-Bed and Prismatic-Fueled

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors

(uranium/plutonium)

Liquid-Fluoride Reactors Gas-Cooled Reactors


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Eugene Wigner

Eugene Wigner

Conceived the Thorium

Uranium Breeder

Reactor.

Co-authored

Numerous Patents on

Light Water Reactors

with Alvin Weinberg

1963 Nobel Prize in

Physics


Energy From Thorium Foundation

Conclusions

Thorium is a natural, abundant energy source of

extraordinary energy density and the technology to

unlock the potential of thorium is real and has been

demonstrated.

Thorium represents a practically inexhaustible

source of energy for the US and the world.

Thorium and the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor

(LFTR) can enable True Energy Independence.

Learn more at:

http://www.EnergyFromThorium.com

http://www.EnergyFromThorium.org

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