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<strong>Chapter</strong> 3: Rome: From Republic<br />

to <strong>Empire</strong><br />

Section 7: The Fall of <strong>the</strong><br />

Republic<br />

By Dallin Hardy


Pompey, Crassus, Caesar, <strong>and</strong><br />

Spartacan Revolt<br />

73 B.C.<br />

Led by Spartacus<br />

Gladiatorial slave<br />

Cicero


Third Servile War<br />

73-71 B.C.


Marcus Licinius Crassus<br />

Roman general<br />

Most wealthy man in<br />

Rome<br />

Put down <strong>the</strong> Spartacan<br />

Revolt<br />

Member of <strong>the</strong> 1 st<br />

Triumvirate<br />

Pompey<br />

Member of <strong>the</strong> 1 st<br />

Triumvirate


Fall of Spartacus<br />

71 B.C.<br />

6,000 slaves were<br />

crucified<br />

Along <strong>the</strong> Appian Way


1 st Century B.C. Rome<br />

Despotism<br />

Militarism<br />

Civil War<br />

Political upheaval


Catiline Conspiracy<br />

Lucius Catiline<br />

Patrician<br />

Senator<br />

Sought to replace <strong>the</strong><br />

Roman republic with a<br />

monarchy


“His mind was daring,<br />

crafty, <strong>and</strong> versatile,<br />

capable of any pretense<br />

<strong>and</strong> dissimulation. A man<br />

of flaming passions, he<br />

was as covetous of o<strong>the</strong>r<br />

men’s possessions as he<br />

was prodigal of his<br />

own…. His monstrous<br />

ambition hankered<br />

continually after things<br />

extravagant, impossible,<br />

beyond his reach.”<br />

Sallust, Roman historian


Secret Society<br />

Corrupted <strong>the</strong> youth<br />

Immorality<br />

Forged documents<br />

Monarchists<br />

Political leaders<br />

Prepared to overthrow <strong>the</strong><br />

Republic


Rome’s Economy<br />

Bankrupt<br />

Costly wars


Marcus Tullius Cicero<br />

Orator<br />

Lawyer<br />

Statesman<br />

Elected Consul<br />

63 B.C.<br />

Stood in <strong>the</strong> way of <strong>the</strong><br />

Catiline Conspiracy


Catiline Orations<br />

Four speeches given to<br />

<strong>the</strong> Senate<br />

By Cicero<br />

Exposing <strong>the</strong><br />

Catiline Conspiracy<br />

Catiline<br />

Left Rome<br />

Called for <strong>the</strong> assassination<br />

of<br />

Cicero<br />

Sought to form an army


“Since I am<br />

encompassed by foes<br />

<strong>and</strong> hounded to<br />

desperation, I will check<br />

<strong>the</strong> fire that threatens to<br />

consume me by pulling<br />

everything down about<br />

your ears.”<br />

Catiline


Catilinarians<br />

Captured<br />

Brought before <strong>the</strong> Senate<br />

Defended by<br />

Julius Caesar<br />

Sought light punishment<br />

for <strong>the</strong> conspirators


Julius Caesar<br />

Orator<br />

Advocate


Marcus Cato<br />

“Cato <strong>the</strong> Younger”<br />

Moral <strong>and</strong> full of integrity<br />

Debated against <strong>the</strong><br />

Conspirators


“O<strong>the</strong>r crimes can be<br />

punished when <strong>the</strong>y<br />

have measures to<br />

prevent its being<br />

committed, it is too late:<br />

once it has been done, it<br />

is useless to invoke <strong>the</strong><br />

law.”<br />

Cato <strong>the</strong> Younger


“They were hard workers at<br />

home, just rulers abroad;<br />

<strong>and</strong> to <strong>the</strong> council chamber<br />

<strong>the</strong>y brought untrammeled<br />

minds, nei<strong>the</strong>r racked by<br />

consciousness of guilt, nor<br />

enslaved by passion. We<br />

have lost <strong>the</strong>se virtues. We<br />

pile up riches for ourselves<br />

while <strong>the</strong> state is bankrupt.<br />

We sing <strong>the</strong> praises of<br />

prosperity—<strong>and</strong> idle away<br />

our lives. Good men or bad—<br />

it is all one: all <strong>the</strong> prizes<br />

that merit ought to win are<br />

carried off by ambitious<br />

intriguers. …”


“…And no wonder, when<br />

each of you schemes<br />

only for himself, when in<br />

your private lives you<br />

are slaves to pleasure,<br />

<strong>and</strong> her in <strong>the</strong> Senate<br />

House <strong>the</strong> tools of<br />

money or influence. The<br />

result is that when an<br />

assault is made upon <strong>the</strong><br />

Republic, <strong>the</strong>re is no one<br />

<strong>the</strong>re to defend it.”<br />

Cato <strong>the</strong> Younger


Tullianum<br />

Roman prison<br />

Five leaders of <strong>the</strong> Catiline<br />

Conspiracy<br />

Executed


Battle of Pistoria<br />

62 B.C.<br />

Roman Republic vs.<br />

Catiline<br />

Results<br />

Republican victory<br />

Death of Catiline


The First Triumvirate


Gaius Julius Caesar<br />

100-44 B.C.<br />

Military genius<br />

Charismatic leader<br />

Author<br />

Demagogue<br />

Politician<br />

Personal assets<br />

Wit<br />

Intellect<br />

Decisiveness<br />

Physic<br />

Responsible for <strong>the</strong><br />

Downfall of <strong>the</strong> Republic


Gnaeus Pompeius<br />

Pompey<br />

Military leader<br />

Put down rebellions<br />

Marian<br />

Sicily<br />

Africa<br />

Spartacus<br />

Became consul<br />

70 B.C.<br />

Destroyed Cilician pirates<br />

67 B.C.


First Triumvirate<br />

Crassus<br />

Pompey<br />

Julius Caesar


Gallic Wars<br />

58-51 B.C.<br />

Gaul<br />

Germania<br />

Britannia<br />

Led by<br />

Julius Caesar<br />

Julius Caesar <strong>and</strong> His<br />

Government of Rome


Siege of Alesia<br />

52 B.C.<br />

Last battle of <strong>the</strong> Gallic<br />

Wars


Vercingetorix<br />

Gaul General


Results<br />

Roman victory<br />

Vercingetorix<br />

Surrenders<br />

Rome conquers Gaul


The Gallic Wars<br />

50s B.C.<br />

By Julius Caesar


Battle of Carrhae<br />

53 B.C.<br />

Rome vs. Parthian <strong>Empire</strong><br />

Results<br />

Roman defeat<br />

One of Rome’s worst<br />

Crassus<br />

Killed


Crossroads of <strong>the</strong> Roman<br />

Republic<br />

53 B.C.<br />

Crassus died in battle<br />

Pompey<br />

Had <strong>the</strong> support of <strong>the</strong><br />

Senate<br />

Julius Caesar<br />

Ordered to lay down his<br />

comm<strong>and</strong><br />

Refused


The Fall of <strong>the</strong> Republic


Crossing <strong>the</strong> Rubicon<br />

49 B.C.<br />

Julius Caesar<br />

Ordered to<br />

Disb<strong>and</strong> army<br />

Return home<br />

“Alea jacta est”<br />

“The die is cast!”<br />

Marches on Rome


Great Roman Civil War<br />

49-45 B.C.<br />

Pompey<br />

Backed by <strong>the</strong> Roman<br />

Senate<br />

Caesar<br />

Battles<br />

Spain<br />

Italy<br />

Africa<br />

Greece


“Optimates”<br />

The Good Men<br />

Pompey<br />

Cato<br />

Supported <strong>the</strong> Senate<br />

“Populares”<br />

Favoring <strong>the</strong> People<br />

Supported Caesar


Battle of Dyrrhachium<br />

48 B.C.<br />

Optimates vs. Populares<br />

Pompey vs. Caesar<br />

Results<br />

Optimate victory


Battle of Pharsalus<br />

48 B.C.<br />

Caesar vs. Pompey<br />

Results<br />

Caesar<br />

Victorious<br />

Pompey<br />

Flees to Egypt


Assassination of Pompey<br />

48 B.C.<br />

Egypt<br />

By King Ptolemy XIII


Cleopatra<br />

Queen of Egypt<br />

51-30 B.C.<br />

Fell in love with<br />

Julius Caesar<br />

Gave birth to<br />

Ptolemy XV Philopator<br />

Philometor Caesar<br />

“Caesarion”<br />

Little Ceasar


Veni, Vidi, Vici<br />

Julius Caesar<br />

“I came, I saw, I<br />

conquered”


Death of Cato<br />

46 B.C.<br />

Stabbed himself<br />

Upon hearing about <strong>the</strong><br />

most recent defeat by<br />

Caesar


Battle of Munda<br />

45 B.C.<br />

The last battle of Caesar’s<br />

Civil War<br />

Sou<strong>the</strong>rn Spain<br />

Pompey <strong>the</strong> Younger<br />

Caesar


Results<br />

Victory for Caesar


Pater Patriae<br />

45 B.C.<br />

“Fa<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong> Fa<strong>the</strong>rl<strong>and</strong>”<br />

Julius Caesar<br />

Became dictator for life<br />

Increased <strong>the</strong> Senate to<br />

900


Julian Calendar<br />

365 Days<br />

12 Months<br />

Leap year<br />

Every 4 years


King Caesar?<br />

Marcus Antonius<br />

Mark Anthony<br />

Tried to crown Caesar<br />

King


Deification of Caesar<br />

Temples dedicated to him<br />

Priests prayed on his<br />

behalf


Caesar<br />

Redistributed wealth<br />

Public works<br />

L<strong>and</strong> redistribution<br />

Planned military<br />

campaigns


Death of <strong>the</strong> Republic<br />

510-49 B.C.


Liberatores<br />

Sought to restore <strong>the</strong><br />

Republic<br />

Senators


Brutus<br />

Statesman<br />

Sought to save <strong>the</strong><br />

Roman Republic<br />

Descendent of<br />

Lucius Brutus<br />

“Fa<strong>the</strong>r of <strong>the</strong> Roman<br />

Republic”


Ides of March<br />

March 15 th 44 B.C.<br />

“The Ides of March are<br />

come…”<br />

“Yes, <strong>the</strong>y are come, but<br />

<strong>the</strong>y are not past.”<br />

Plutarch


“Beware <strong>the</strong> Ides of<br />

March”<br />

Julius Caesar, Shakespeare


Assassination of Julius Caesar<br />

44 B.C.<br />

Theatre of Pompey<br />

By<br />

Liberatores


Results of Caesar’s<br />

Assassination<br />

Caesar became a martyr<br />

Deified<br />

No republican uprising<br />

Romans wanted<br />

Peace<br />

Luxury<br />

Security


The Second Triumvirate <strong>and</strong> <strong>the</strong><br />

Mark Anthony<br />

Triumph of Octavian<br />

Caesar’s junior consular<br />

partner<br />

Roman politician


Anthony’s Eulogy<br />

Day of Caesar’s funeral<br />

Displayed Caesar’s bloody<br />

toga<br />

Publicly shaming <strong>the</strong><br />

Liberatores<br />

Fled to Greece


Anthony’s Ambition<br />

Consolidated power<br />

Cicero<br />

Warned about Anthony’s<br />

tyrannical ambitions


Octavian<br />

Caesar’s adopted son<br />

Gr<strong>and</strong>nephew<br />

Sought to maintain<br />

Caesar’s legacy


Second Triumvirate<br />

43 B.C.<br />

Octavian<br />

Mark Antony<br />

Lepidus


Political Assassinations<br />

43 B.C.<br />

Cicero<br />

Paulus<br />

Lucius Caesar<br />

Hundreds killed


Liberators’ Civil War<br />

43 to 42 B.C.<br />

Liberatores vs. Second<br />

Triumvirate


Last Republican Army<br />

Led by<br />

Brutus<br />

“The Last Roman”<br />

Cassius


Brutus’ Vision


“If Providence shall not<br />

dispose what we now<br />

undertake according to our<br />

wishes, I resolve to put no<br />

fur<strong>the</strong>r hopes or warlike<br />

preparations to <strong>the</strong> proof, but<br />

will die contented with my<br />

fortune. For I have already<br />

given up my life for my<br />

country on <strong>the</strong> Ides of March;<br />

<strong>and</strong> have lived since <strong>the</strong>n a<br />

second life for her sake, with<br />

liberty <strong>and</strong> honor.”<br />

Brutus


Battle of Philippi<br />

42 B.C.<br />

Liberatores vs. Triumvirs


Death of <strong>the</strong> Republican<br />

Cause<br />

Cassius<br />

Committed suicide<br />

Marcus<br />

Son of Cato <strong>the</strong> Younger<br />

Fought to <strong>the</strong> death<br />

Brutus<br />

Shouting his fa<strong>the</strong>r’s name<br />

Fell on his sword


Division of <strong>the</strong> <strong>Empire</strong><br />

Octavian<br />

Western Rome<br />

Mark Antony<br />

Eastern Rome


Fall of <strong>the</strong> 2 nd Triumvirate<br />

33 B.C.<br />

Lepidus<br />

Removed<br />

Antony vs. Octavian


Antony & Cleopatra<br />

41-30 B.C.<br />

Became lovers


War Between Antony <strong>and</strong> Octavian<br />

32-31 B.C.<br />

Mark Antony vs. Octavian


Battle of Actium<br />

31 B.C.<br />

Octavian<br />

Marcus Agrippa<br />

<strong>400</strong> Warships<br />

Mark Antony & Cleopatra<br />

130 Warships


Results<br />

Octavian<br />

Victorious<br />

Gained control of Rome<br />

Mark Antony & Cleopatra<br />

Committed Suicide<br />

Death<br />

Roman Republic


Deaths of Antony & Cleopatra<br />

30 B.C.<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ria<br />

Antony<br />

Stabbed himself<br />

Died in <strong>the</strong> arms of Cleopatra<br />

Cleopatra<br />

Cobra bite


Caesar Augustus<br />

27 B.C.<br />

“The Revered One”

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