A N I L M E H T A
I guess my journey began with a Kodak brownie camera
that my dad gifted me. I remember using the camera to
take my first pictures that told stories, had captions,
delineated character, tried to be funny.
Then, in an improvised darkroom in our bedroom, we set
out to make prints with kitchen utensils holding the baths,
and a dismantled photo frame holding the sandwiched
negative and paper to make contact prints. The magic was
captivating, the moment etched.
Many years later I made my way back to cinema through
film clubs and theatre which I pursued with a vengeance
through my years in college, proscenium, experimental,
street, protest, avante garde, all forms were welcome;
freedom was taking its toll.
The crossroads of life had many crosses, some large
enough to be nailed on, some with polite warnings,
Cinema Studies at the Film Institute in Pune was one such
path that I was allowed to venture down. My years there
were the usual potent concoction of confusion, politics,
drift, debate, opinion, but above all, it was the consuming
world of cinema that was revealing itself to me under the
canopy of the main theatre, an experience closest to going
to the planetarium as a child. Into that universe one day
would walk in a living legend, a meticulous practitioner
and a great teacher; Mr.Subroto Mitra.
There was never any looking around after that: the narrow
and difficult path of cinematography was it. Kodak, as it
turns out, was a fellow traveler. Talking emulsions, look,
grain, contrast, latitude became feelings, not words.
I have by now spent many years trying to grapple with the
analog medium and the emerging digital technologies.
While technology has grown exponentially to make life
easier for the cinematographer, I feel the challenges have
actually multiplied. The choices become more complex.
The narratives in Indian cinema are drawing on newer
textures and the cinematographer’s work is becoming
more interesting. It is in this environment that I continue to
struggle to find a voice and it is not easy at all.
But then, as they say in our industry, ‘did the doctor
prescribe cinema for you?’
Anil Mehta’s credits includes Hum Dil De Chuke Sanam,
Lagaan, Agnivarsha, Saathiya, Kal Ho Na Ho, Veer Zaara, Kabhi
Alvida Na Kehna, Wake up Sid (currently under production).
Issue 3, 2009
Arthur Wilson shares his celluloid journey
with Daya Kingston
Black is Beautiful
Sasanka Palit tells Jayanti Sen, about his work
with Sandip Ray.
Kamaljeet Negi tells Deepa Gumaste that
making a movie is like a marriage.
“The Director is Captain”
J.G.Krishna talks to R.G.Vijayasarathy about
his long stint in the Kannada industry.
“The DOP is always alone”
P. Sukumar shares his attitudes and points of
view on cinema with K. B. Venu
Less is More
K. Dattu tells Manju Latha Kalanidhi about
his passion and obsession for the camera.
Art of the Matter
Amalendu Chowdhury talks to Johnson
Thomas about his career and technique.
Shaji tells K.B. Venu that he prefers
quality to quantity.
Language No Bar
Manish Vyas in conversation with Johnson
Solomon Silveira continues his series on
Issue 3, 2009
Watching the news and reading magazines has been depressing over the last six months,
especially with the economy tanking across the world. While countries like India and China
were relatively hit more by a slowdown rather than a recession, the movie industry here
suffered a severe setback due to a two month face-off between producers and multiplex
owners over profit sharing, resulting in no movies being screened in multiplexes across the
country. As of now everything seems to have been resolved and from all accounts business
is back to normal with several major films up for releases and audiences also hungry for
Over the course of last month we launched our new daylight film,namely Vision3 250D
Color Negative film 5207 at Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Bangalore and all across the
response was overwhelming to say the least. Unlike earlier times this film was tested in
India by Rafey Mehmood and his inputs were taken into consideration in the final design of
the film. A big thanks to Rafey!
This issue of Images captures the filmmaking action from all over the country. Additionally,
Solomon Silviera continues to share updates on the latest in negative processing, based on
our experiences, which we hope contribute to a happy reading..
Suresh S Iyer
Country Business Manager
Managing Editor: Suresh Iyer
Editor: Deepa Gahlot
Design and layout: Roopak Graphics, Mumbai
Printing: Amruta Print Arts, Mumbai
Printed and Published by: Suresh Iyer on behalf of Kodak India Private Limited, at Mumbai
Do write in with ideas, suggestions, comments to firstname.lastname@example.org
This is an independent magazine.
Views expressed in the articles are those of authors alone.
Volume 6, Issue 3, 2009
Cover Credit: Still from Naan Kadavul
Naan Kadavul was extensively shot in Kasi, Madurai and Malikovil.
Director Bala’s films are usually disturbing and linger in the mind for long
after. The visual treatment plays a great role in building the tempo of the
film. Arthur says, “The introduction shot of Arya was really difficult, it
had the hero Arya lying down and smoking and we used a revolving
trolley to go around him and shoot from different angles.”
Naan Kadavul is not a glossy film, it deals with grim reality. The
protagonist played by Arya is an agori, a kind of sanyasi who eats human
flesh from dead bodies. A castaway child who was left at Kasi by his
parents, he grows up a sanyasi and later his family comes in search of
him. Though they find him and try to integrate him into the regular
Arthur Wilson has recently hit the 20-film mark with the film Naan Kadavul, which won
much critical acclaim. The unusual subject deals with the dark and macabre world of agoris
and the intricacies of organized beggary. Wilson has recreated this world by using dramatic
lighting, playing with light and shadow to intensify the effect of the emotions displayed on
screen ranging from nonchalance, despair to murderous anger. The visuals created quite a
flutter and made the audience sit up and take notice.
outine of a small town family, he is unable to
adjust and gets back to Kasi. A sub plot shows
the bleak side of organized beggary. The
female lead is a blind beggar girl.
Wilson says, “The story revolves around the
lives of these characters, it was not necessary
to have big colourful sets or picturize soft-
hearted romantic scenes. The script depicts
only the reality in lives, so the craft demanded
real live characters. The beggars in the film
were all real, not many actors were used. It
was very challenging to shoot a true incident
with real life characters in realistic locations.
As the plot moves on to the darker shades of
the character, I chose to use lower shades of
light which resemble Rembrandt paintings.
“The parts of the script that happened in Kasi
fill the frame with agoris, rishis and dead
bodies, so picked the tone of fire as major
source for the particular locations; whereas
the Mali Kovil portions had to be shot in a way
that the frame was filled with a comparatively
dark and slight source of light. I used Kodak
Vision 5279, Vision 2 5201 stocks. I avoided
“I have great regard for Bala and think he is
one of the finest directors. What I really like is
that he not only gives the cinematographer
scope but also provides independence. He
carefully explains every scene in a detailed
manner and expects perfection in lighting the
character according to their reactions. It was
personally a wonderful experience for me to
move along the shore of reality. He proves his
brilliance in handling the perceptions of the
Arthur Wilson is a graduate from the famous
M.G.R. Film and Television Institute
(Chennai). He had migrated from his village
Koneripatty near Salem to Chennai to study
and stayed with his uncle. His initial days in
the film industry proved to be quite a struggle.
He trained under DOP Selva Kumar and after
that embarked on his own experiments and
learnt a lot through the time-tested
techniques of trial and error.
“I paint and love to look at paintings,” he says.
“I firmly believe that the roots of
cinematography lie in paintings. I think that if
you do a thorough research on Leonardo Da
Vinci and Rembrandt and understand them,
“When it comes to using
film stocks, I have an
understanding of Kodak film.
I don’t even see the rushes
because I know what the
output will be when I set
a certain exposure.”
you can become a good cinematographer. I
spend a lot of time updating my knowledge of
art and cinematography.
“When it comes to using film stocks, I have
an understanding of Kodak film. I don’t even
see the rushes because I know what the
output will be when I set a certain exposure. I
like to use whatever new film stock comes in. I
used to enjoy using an old stock, 5247. I like
Vision 2 best. I would like to use the 250 ASA,
I like the warmth it has but have not tried it
Arthur made his debut as cinematographer
with Sundara Purushan starring Livingston and
Rambha in lead roles; this was a runaway hit
and his work was noticed. He considers as
some of his best works Vannathaipolla staring
Vi j a ya k a n t h d i re c t e d b y Vi k ra m a n ,
Linguswamy's Aanandham, Sasi's Sollammalea,
Ravi’s Enn Swase Katre, K.S Ravi Kumar's
Panchathanthiram, Sunder.C’s Anbe Sivam,
Simbu Devan's Imsai Arasan Irubathi
Moondram Pulikesi and the Telugu film Batra.
He has worked on two coveted films starring
K a m a l h a s s a n — A n b e S i v a m a n d
Panchatanthiram was a rib-tickling comedy
and he used the 5274 stock. Arthur recalls,
“Kamal Haasan is one of our finest artistes.
He knows everything about cinema and I have
a lot to learn from him. In Anbe Sivam, we shot
a scene where he's stuck in a storm. It was a
great challenge, we shot on a floor filled with
water. Kamal sir appreciates me for that shot.
“I firmly believe that the roots of cinematography lie in
paintings. I think that if you do a thorough research on
Leonardo Da Vinci and Rembrandt and understand them,
you can become a good cinematographer.”
“I love to shoot my picture
according to an artist’s feel. I
follow aesthetics like they do
in paintings and with different
camera view points.”
“In VIP, we shot many scenes inside a house
using low lights. The lights were like Chinese
lanterns and this created an interesting effect.
I concentrate on telling my stories through my
light. I love to shoot my picture according to
an artist’s feel. I follow aesthetics like they do
in paintings and with different camera view
On his directors, he says, “I have worked with
K.S. Ravi Kumar for two films and enjoyed the
experience because he is clear what he wants
and asks for many challenging shots. I am
p r o u d o f t h e f a c t t h a t I w a s t h e
cinematographer for directors like Lingusamy,
Sasi, Simbu Devan during their maiden
“My ambition is to work in Hollywood,” he
finishes on a rather ambitious note.
Sasanka Palit tells Jayanti Sen, about his work with Sandip Ray.
“I started out as a stringer with
Doordarshan,” reminisces Sasanka Palit,
now Sandip Ray’s chief cameraman.
“Those were the days when all these
umpteen news channels had not yet come
into being. There was just Doordarshan
and Aaj Tak and NDTV. For a while I
worked as a newsman, but I was an avid
moviegoer in my college or even school-
days, bunking classes to see a good movie
that had come to town. I felt drawn to the
technical aspects of filmmaking.”
In the early days, a lot of his seniors, like
Debkumar Saha and Amit Das guided and
helped Palit to train himself as a
cinematographer. In the course of his life
as a newsman he came to know Sandip
Ray, who was then preparing to make
“For day sequences
I use Kodak 250D,
200T for night.
If it’s a night sequence
with a big canvas,
for me Kodak’s 500T
Vision 3 is the one and
only stock I use.”
Bombabayier Bombete. His assistant
cameraman Vijay Anand had been
temporarily laid up due to an accident. So
Palit joined Ray’s unit as an assistant
cameraman. “Sandipda liked my work and
since then I continued to remain in his unit
as assistant cameraman. With his
cinematographer Barun Raha’s untimely
death I became his chief cameraman,” he
recalls. “Looking at it that way, my whole
career is connected with Sandip Ray. I
grew as a cinematographer under his
What are the other films you have worked on
My first film was, as I told you, was Bombayier
Bombete. Then came Kailashe Kelenkari,
Tintorettor Jishu, and now Hit List, which we
are about to start shooting. I have also worked
in between as assistant with Rana Dasgupta,
working on two films directed by Bappaditya
Bandyopadhyay, Kaal and Devaki. I must say I
have gained a lot working under Rana
Tintorettor Jishu Tintorettor Jishu
Does your visual style change from director to
director, or even film to film?
Look, as a cinematographer my first
responsibility is to create on screen the
director’s point of view. And each director has
his own way of visual expression. And of
course my visual style varies with each film
and each director. Every director has his
unique style and I recreate this uniqueness in
my own way. I never repeat myself. The most
important factor there is definitely the subject
is always welcome,
we have awards for
all other aspects for
of the film. I took at the script, have a long
discussion with the director. If the subject is a
modern one, then my cinematography will
retain the smart, tiptop look. On the other
hand if it is a period film, I may use sepia tint,
or even try to bring in an element of
theatricality in it. For example, if you take a
look at the black and white movies of
yesteryears, you’d note that any shot taken
inside a room used to have a backlight — I
may go in for that kind of lighting if my subject
demands it. The way Sandipda is treating
Feluda is in its own way intensely interesting.
The massive audience response these films
are getting from all quarters of the society,
tells us its own story of appreciation
What about the raw stock you use?
For day sequences I use Kodak 250D, 200T
for night. If it’s a nightsequence with a big
canvas, for me Kodak’s 500T Vision 3 is the
one and only stock I use, especially using, or
rather shooting in available light. Remember
Tintorettor Jishu, the sequence where the
Feluda trio are marooned in the open sea on a
junk-boat (called dukling locally)? When we
went to look for a location for the sequence,
we found that even though we were selecting
a corner of the open sea to shoot, anchoring
our boat there, yet the high wind that was
blowing would render the use of a lot of studio
lamps and the like impossible. The lights just
won’t stand in that kind of rough weather.
Carrying heavy generators was also out. The
practical problems of shooting that sequence
must be coped with. I decided then and there
that I would use photofloods, 100 watt milky. I
finally used about 10 or 12 of these lightweight
lamps and Kodak’s Vision 3 500 T, and the
results were astounding. The black level was
great, grains came in very good, the colour
Again and again I have come across these
tough situations in my life when all these
lovely stocks of Kodak have rescued me. We
did take in some local lights from Hong Kong,
but the general expense factor of the film
industry outside India is very high, we had to
keep within our budget. Only because of the
Kodak raw stock and the 10 or 12 lamps I
used, I had a result which was beyond my
There was another tough situation in one of
the earlier Feluda films, Kailashe Kelenkari. We
were shooting a night scene inside the Ellora
Cave. But being a heritage site, shooting
anywhere inside the cave after 6 p.m. is
strictly prohibited. So finally I had to go in for
shooting day for night. We were shooting in
scorching broad daylight, but the effect had to
be of a dark, lonesome night. Partly I used DI,
using 250D. In these day for night sequences
the ideal light conditions are found in the early
morning, or in the daytime, between 10 a.m.-
12 noon, or in the early evening, between 4 to
5.30 p.m. But to avail these light conditions,
one needed to stay at Ellora for two whole
months, a situation impossible for a film
production unit, working within a limited
budget. So I had to opt for day for night
instead; there is this sequence when you see
the detective, Feluda, going out alone in and
around the Ellora Caves late at night, torch in
hand. I used 250D and ND6 filter, polarizer to
recreate these night scenes.
“I love to play with black,
the intermingling and
light and shadow
is one of the
greatest aspects of
a psychological thriller.
In order to bring out the
that would keep our
to build up the suspense
so that one never knows
what happens next.”
On coming back from our primary location
hunting, I spoke to Goutam Ghose, the
veteran director-cinematographer and I
related my problem to him, and it was
Goutamda who gave me an original
Hollywood Blue filter. I am deeply grateful to
him for his kind help. If you remember those
scenes inside the cave, with the light from the
torch moving in and around the walls of the
cave, from sculpture to sculpture, to create
those effects we used CG as well, and it was
my raw-stock Kodak 250D Vision 2, which is
very DI-friendly. So I could go in for DI as well
as CG. The raw stock is ideal for shooting
such night sequences in broad daylight. One
side of the cave was open, so daylight filled
the cave, I kept this bright glare of the sun,
using 500T Vision 3. And, as you saw in the
film, the effect is of a beautiful moonlit night.
With these Kodak raw stocks one can, so to
say, paint with light. No artificial lights were
used, and in spite of a very adverse situation I
had to cope with, I managed well enough.
What about the budgetary constraints, a
normal feature of the West Bengal film-
Budgets are one big problem, if you need to
use an expensive light, brows go up in the
budget section. But one cannot blame them
also, our regional film market is so limited that
one has to accept the constraints and yet try
to get the best out of it .
And the processing?
I am not at all happy with the facilities we get
here. I have to go to Chennai for the
processing, because I need the Kodak kit
developer for my films and I get them only if I
go to Chennai, or Mumbai for that matter. For
our last two films I did the processing at the
Prasad Film Laboratories, Chennai and for our
next project, Hit List, I may also go to Gemini, I
don’t know as yet.
What is your reaction to the massive use of
For short throw one can manage with Cube,
but in case of long throw details are lost, a
resolution loss occurs, which is a big problem,
for me at least. The print quality can never be
substituted. But for the younger generation of
newcomers who are coming in to make films
at a very low cost, going digital is perfectly
fine because then these people can make
their films and show it to the public. I don’t
see any problem with that.
What about your forthcoming project, Sandip
Ray’s Hit List ?
Hit List is a psychological thriller, so the play
between light and shade is very important. I
love to play with black, the intermingling and
inter-play between light and shadow is one of
the greatest aspects of a psychological thriller.
In order to bring out the inherent tension that
would keep our audience taut, to build up the
suspense so that one never knows what
happens next you need all that drama in this
sort of a film. Sandipda is also a player in this
game, he enjoys playing with light, darkness
becomes eloquent in his hands, and there we
have a wonderful understanding, I know
exactly what he is looking for, and he also
understands what I am trying to do with my
camera. In fact, I feel myself very influenced
by the films of Alfred Hitchcock, on another
level Satyajit Ray’s own illustrations that he
did for the Feluda stories serve as an all-
important visual key to my camera planning
and lighting effects. We are using a lot of
steadicam, cranes, car rigs and all in the film.
Sandipda himself does a lot of visual planning
in detail before he starts shooting. Then on
location if we see some interesting aspect
coming up, we mutually decide on its use.
“Again and again I have come
across these tough situations
in my life when all these
lovely stocks of Kodak have
One last question, in West Bengal there are no
awards for cinematography — your comment?
Healthy competition is always welcome, we
have awards for all other aspects for cinema,
only cinematography is neglected. We have
such a large number of extremely talented
cinematographers here, and encouragement
and recognition for the contribution of a
cinematographer in filmmaking must be there.
Kamaljeet Negi tells Deepa Gumaste that making a movie is like a marriage.
Kamaljeet Negi wanted to become a journalist when he first started working. From being a
television researcher to shooting features stories and documentaries for foreign produc-
tions, his journey towards becoming a cinematographer has been quite unusual. Studying
at the Lodz Film School in Poland and the National Film and Television Institute, UK, broad-
ened his horizons and exposed him to internationally acclaimed cinematographers. From
documentaries to commercials, Negi has found his groove (he’s shot 100 ad films in less
than three years), but commercial cinema is yet to happen as he prefers to wait for the right
script and director.
You went from studying politics and law to
becoming a cinematographer. How did this
I come from a very middle-class family from
Delhi, where there was absolutely no
background in cinema. It was merely
considered a form of entertainment. So
studying something serious was imperative,
and since I was interested in journalism, both
politics and law were sensible choices. I was
also interested in sports and started working
with a company called Sports Management
Group for whom I wrote press notes. Later I
tried my hand at radio. Basically, the intention
was to get into the mainstream media.
So you started your career as a journalist?
Yes, as a researcher, in fact, for a series on the
North East of India. It was a great team to
work with and they were more inclined
towards art and cinema and thought it was
necessary to make television programming
more cinematic. I worked with them for two
years and gradually started understanding
different techniques of narrating stories and
looking at life from different perspectives. To
begin with, I had to log tapes, and basically do
just about everything I was asked to.
Gradually I started understanding different
aspects of editing, cinematography and
But cinematography wasn’t on the horizon
Not really. I started assisting a man called
Hemant Kumar who was doing health shows
for BiTV. His was a one-man show and he
understood every aspect of television
production. I started looking into the camera
for the first time while working with him. Then
I got together with a bunch of friends making
a few documentaries and other television
“I knew that
didn’t make a film
it was the people
behind the camera and
the story itself
that mattered. ”
programming. I worked for CMM which had
just done India 24 Hours and while working
there, I saw Santosh Sivan’s work, which was
incredible. Soon I was reading books about
photography, video and cinema besides
watching a lot of films. Being in Delhi was an
advantage because we got access to a lot of
international cinema thanks to film festivals.
How did all this back-end training help you?
It shaped me differently, because I hadn’t
taken the conventional route of starting off as
an assistant cameraman. I was a researcher
and a journalist first, so I worked instinctively
when behind the camera and tried to keep it
simple. I continued working in television for a
couple of years on art and culture capsules
and documentaries. In 1997 I did a single-shot
23-minute film to commemorate 50 years of
Welham Boys School in Dehradun. It was very
challenging because a single-shot format
requires a lot of choreography and we were
working on a very tight budget. I also shot
with international documentary filmmakers
who’d come to India. One noteworthy film
was called The Yogis of Tibet directed by
Jeffery M. Pill. But ultimately Delhi had limited
options, particularly if you wanted to
eventually work in cinema, and so I came to
Mumbai to look for work.
Was it easy getting a break?
It wasn’t. This was in 1998 and while I met a
lot of people, there wasn’t much work coming
my way. I did a little work for the television
series Surabhi. But I was also in poor health
and decided to go back. Earlier, I’d done a
stedicam workshop in the US and through
someone I met there, I heard of the PWSFTviT
(better known as the Lodz Film School) in
Poland. Till then, I didn’t know anything about
Poland except Andrez Wajda and Kieslowski.
I’d saved enough money from my professional
work to afford a year’s course there and
decided to apply.
How did attending film school help?
The main film course at the school was four
years long and I didn’t want to spend that
much time there, nor did I have the money to
do so. But I did a year-long programme and
through this time, my entire orientation and
approach towards cinema changed. I watched
a lot of good cinema and the interaction with
people there helped a lot. At that time,
Kieslowski was God. His films are simple, yet
You didn’t come back to India to seek work
after you finished and went to the UK instead.
Why was that?
I was planning to come back to India, when
someone suggested I apply to the National
Film And Television School in the UK. I did it
on a whim and surprisingly, I got through.
They had an induction workshop where they
introduced us to celluloid and the film camera
and it all seemed very exciting. This was a
totally hands-on course. Raising money for it
was a stretch, but somehow I got a
scholarship and a loan, which allowed me to
go ahead. They took just six students in a year
and they promoted and marketed us to the
fullest. We got to interact with the alumni
which included people like Roger Deakins. My
mentor was Brian Tufano who shot some of
Danny Boyle’s early films like Trainspotting. He
was the head of the department and was
always around. I didn’t even know who he was
when I first went there. Billy Williams who
shot Gandhi conducted workshops with us
and he helped me a lot.
You stayed on in London after the course?
Yes, I did a couple of professional jobs and
conducted some workshops with Brian in the
Film School. Simultaneously, I was also
promoting my documentary My Brother My
Enemy in 2004, which I’d made with Masood
Khan who was studying documentary
filmmaking at the same time I was studying
cinematography. He’s a Britisher of Pakistani
origin and the film is about a Pakistani visiting
India and an Indian going to Pakistan, with
cricket as a backdrop. Masood came to my
house in India (his family originally hailed
from Jalandhar) while I visited his in Pakistan
and we shot each other and co-directed the
“Kodak is quite reliable.
I have been using it consistently
and I’m comfortable with it.”
How did you foray into advertising?
I came to Mumbai to meet a few people and
Kaushik Sarkar saw my showreel and offered
me the World Space commercial. When I shot
my first film I was a bit wary because I’d been
spoilt by the state-of-the-art equipment in
London and was wondering how I’d be able to
adjust to Indian conditions. I was surprised to
see that they had the same technology here.
Besides, I knew that the equipment didn’t
make a film it was the people behind the
camera and the story itself that mattered.
Do you enjoy shooting commercials?
It’s exciting to tell short stories in the simplest
possible way. I don’t believe in gimmickry. All
legendary cinematographers have a
transcendental quality which makes their
work connect with the audience.
Which have been your most exciting films?
The Enfield commercial (which won Sujit
Sircar the ABBY for best director, and got
awarded at the Asia-Pacific Adfest in Thailand
in 2007) was fantastic. For the Airtel
commercial (featuring Shreyas Talpade) it
was interesting doing day for night and
shooting in a train. The Birla Sunlife Insurance
commercial which was shot on a set modelled
after a tea-house like Kayani’s was also very
What about cinema?
I’ve been looking for work that’s interesting
and challenging, but haven’t found anything
yet. I don’t like the attitude of the people who
make feature films here. The first question
they ask you is, “What’s your fee?” Money
isn’t my first priority. Making a film has to be
like a marriage. You have to gel with the
director. I don’t work like a technician my
involvement is complete. So the script and
director matter a lot. Most times films are
churned out mechanically. They have no soul.
I believe your honesty must reflect in your
work. But there are some interesting
filmmakers like Vishal Bharadwaj who’re
doing good work. I also enjoy commercial
films like Om Shanti Om, which was fun.
Why do you use Kodak stock?
Kodak is quite reliable. I have been using it
consistently and I’m comfortable with it. You
tend get attached to a stock and I find Kodak
quite flexible. Besides the stock, I always use
the Kodak Lab.
J.G.Krishna talks to
his long stint
in the Kannada industry.
Javagal Govindappa Krishna, better
known as J.G.Krishna is one of the most
dependable cameraman of the Kannada
Krishna started as a light boy in the indus-
try and has now risen to the position of a
director-cinematographer of repute. He
has worked on more than 100 films as a
cinematographer and 10 films as a direc-
tor. He has also produced many films
including the hugely successful Police
Story which catapulted Sai Kumar into a
leading star of the Kannada film industry.
Krishna has worked on a number of big
budget films with stars and well-known
directors, as much as films with newcom-
ers and debut-making directors. He was
one of the busiest cinematographers in
the early nineties in the Kannada film
industry and is still in demand by many
young film directors.
How did you get into the film industry?
I had very humble beginnings in the film industry. I joined because I had to find a job to sustain
myself. Since I was not educated so well, I had to take up a job as a light man. One of my friends
introduced me to a manager of an outdoor unit and within a day I was working as a light man for a
Hindi film titled Smuggler Girl, which was then being shot in Bangalore. I continued to work as a light
boy later and also worked in the sound and art departments. Then I joined Chamundeshwari
Studios to work as a camera focus assistant. I worked there for nearly six years in the studios. Then
I got a job in Sujatha Movietone, an outdoor unit which was leasing out equipment for Kannada
films. Then I joined the well known cameraman Sundaranatha Suvarna and worked with him for
more than 15 films. Suvarna sir is still my guruji and I have lot of respect for him. But he was a strict
disciplinarian and wanted everything to be neat and precise.
Weren’t you also a still cameraman in a studio?
Yes, you are right. I did not have work continuously, since I depended only on Sundaranatha
Suvarna sir. When I did not have any work in films, I used to work as a still cameraman in Chitra
Studios in Bangalore. I had shot many film stills which appeared in the popular Roopathara monthly
When did you get the first break as a cinematographer?
I got my first break under the then top director K.V.Raju. Raju sir was then making a film titled Nava
Bharatha for producer K.C.N Venugopal. He had observed my work when I went as a clash
cameraman for his film Bandha Muktha, which was handled by my guru Suvarna. Impressed by my
work and the swiftness with which I arranged the lighting, Raju had told me that he would definitely
give me a break. And within a few days, I got a call from him. Since I was busy in films as camera
assistant and a still photographer, I was advised by some of my friends to wait for some more days
and take up the independent job only when I was financially strong. But I had lot of confidence in
myself and did not think about anything including my future. I accepted the offer within two days.
Nava Bharatha became a mild hit and I became a busy cinematographer.
You have worked on many films with K.V. Raju?
I worked on some of the best films of Raju sir including the blockbuster film Indrajith which ran for
25 weeks. Later, I worked for his films like Kadana, Yudhdhakanda, Sundara Kanda and many others.
Raju sir continued to back me and picked me for every film. Later, I worked with directors like Dore-
Bhagavan and Sai Prakash. I did 15 films with Sai Prakash who had utmost confidence in me. He
became a very busy director in the Kannada film industry after giving successive hits like Golmaal
Radhakrishna and Policena Hendthi. I worked in most of his films. We finished the talkie portions of
Golmaal Radhakrishna in just nine days and the song picturization took another six days. It is just my
luck that I continued to work with many directors who had offered me films in the beginning of my
career as a cinematographer. And it was a period when I worked on some of the best Kannada films
like Gagana, Neenu Nakkare Haalu Sakkare, Saamrat, Halo Daddy and many others. I have so far
worked on more than 100 films as a cinematographer.
When did you take up direction?
As a cameraman I was always part of film
discussions. Whenever I used to make
suggestions, some of the people including the
producers of those films would tell me that I
would make a good director. And I had already
become a producer when I was selected to
direct my first Kannada film. I started a
production company with my friends Rockline
Venkatesh who has become a big established
producer now and fight master Govindoo to
produce a film Belli Modagalu under the
direction of K.V.Raju. My first film as producer
was a remake of Telugu hit Seetharamayya
Manavaraalu which brought profits to all the
three partners in production. The film was
sold to distributors even before its release as
it was carrying very good reports. Later I did
produce Police Story under the direction of
Thriller Manju which also became a hit. Later
a few of my films including Snehada Kadalalli
and Bhagat failed at the box-office, including
Police Story Part II. After a long gap, I am now
producing my own Aithalakkadi, a comedy
which will be directed by me.
Karnataka Police was my first film as a
director. Producer Praveen Kumar offered me
the direction of this film. Then I directed a film
Jipuna Nanna Ganda produced by actor
Jaggesh which ran for 100 days. I have also
faced many ups and downs as a film director.
Even after working for two decades as a
cinematographer, you are still getting good
offers. What is the secret of your success?
Now, I am working as a cinematographer for
a film titled Devaru directed by actor-director
Sadhu Kokila. The film stars Vijay in the lead. I
am in demand in the industry because I am
always recognized as a cinematographer of
the producer and director. I do not like to
order costly equipment just for the heck of it. I
always go by the requirements of the
producer and director. As a producer and
director, I have also known the importance of
budget and planning in my films. I think most
of the films fail because they overshoot the
budget, which is very risky. I always try to give
some suggestions during production. And I
have always tried to finish my lighting as fast
as possible, and do my best work. I always try
to work to the expectations of the director,
even if it is very difficult and risky job to get a
perfect shot. I am prepared to take a lot
physical strains in the sets.
Do you get pressurized when you work in a
big budget film with a super star and do you
feel your style of work changes when you
work in small budget films with a relatively
new director and a new set up?
I would not like to play a dominant role in any
film, big or small. I think the script of a film
should play a dominant role and all the people
working for the film should act according to
the dictates of the script. And a cameraman
should work in tandem with the director of
the film. The director is really the captain of
the ship as he knows everything connected to
You are known to shoot the best action
sequences in the Kannada film industry…
Yes, I am really overwhelmed when people
connected to the film industry and film fans
say that some of action sequences
cinematographed by me are very good. You
should know that I have shot sequences
without exceeding the budget and within the
time frame fixed earlier. Action sequences are
liked by the mass audience who are the real
backbone of the film trade. I've also won
K a r n a t a k a S t a t e a w a r d f o r B e s t
Cinematography for the year 2000 for the
f i l m N a n n a s e y a H o o v e d i r e c t e d b y
You have always been using Kodak products
for your film shoots. What is your opinion
about Kodak products?
Kodak products come in different ranges
which are suitable for many types of shots. I
mainly use the Kodak 5219 range for my work
because it carries many user friendly
applications. I have always got best results
for my colour schemes with this stock.
Self made and self assured, cool headed and innovative--a person who likes to face life as it
comes in its varied forms; now, after several creative years and thousands of magnificent
frames later, the ace cinematographer P. Sukumar is all the more fresh and energetic.
Sukumar was relaxing at Kochi after the latest Malayalam hit Passenger, a scintillating road
movie for which he did an excellent camerawork. This year, the actor-turned-
cinematographer is planning to direct a film too.
“My ultimate commitment is
towards the project I am
involved in. I don’t
differentiate between a
veteran and a novice
when I wield the camera.”
is always alone
shares his attitudes and
points of view on cinema
with K. B. Venu
You first worked as an actor, then as an assistant cameraman before becoming an independent
cinematographer. Was there any notable change in the nature and support of the equipment and
raw stock? How did you cope up with the emerging situations, right from the beginning of your
Even while acting in movies, I tried my hand at the camera. I could make use of all available stocks
while I was an assistant cameraman. Even after becoming independent, I considered each and
every shot I take as part of an unending experiment. Even in the recent movie, my attitude was the
same. And I believe in, and depend on, my basic knowledge of cinematography. I used Kodak’s 500
ASA, a stock that was quite new to me, in Sopanam. It helped me in successfully completing the
experiment I wanted to bring into the movie. I got the Kerala State Award for best cinematographer
for the film. Even for my latest venture Passenger I used Kodak. Nowadays I prefer high speed stock,
and my work has also become speedier.
Does this speed go hand in hand with the demands of different filmmakers you work with?
I always have a wholesome approach to cinema, both as a cinematographer and a film buff.
Malayalam cinema is planned, shot and processed in adverse situations. Right from the beginning
stage to the release of the final product, we function in a budget-oriented way. Most of the time we
don’t get the right working atmosphere and proper equipment that the film demands. So we tend to
compromise at different stages of filmmaking.
The whole crew must abide by the cinematic
socio-economic situation prevalent in a
project.. The speed we are talking about is not
my natural speed. My speed varies with the
nature of the film and the style becomes
different and each product is unique.
What about the content? We talked only
We can’t compromise beyond a certain limit.
If the basic minimum quality cannot be
m a i n t a i n e d , h o w c a n w e g o o n
compromising? I will tell you an example. A
Tamil cinematographer was assigned to shoot
a Malayalam movie and he was later kicked
out from the project for lack of speed. When
the producers came in search of another
cinematographer I told them that their
approach to the Tamil DOP was wrong. They
assigned this cinematographer after watching
the high standards he maintained in his works.
To ensure this quality, he needs his own time.
Otherwise his work will be quite ordinary. It’s
unfair to squeeze a person like that and
demand too much from him. Even a machine
cannot produce more than what it actually is
capable of. There is no point in expecting a
printing machine to produce 10,000 prints per
hour given its actual capacity is only 1000.
You have worked with different directors in
different genres of movies. How do you
approach each subject?
The director should be able to establish good
communication and rapport with his
cinematographer. The cinematographer also
must be aware of each minute detail in the
subject and the script. Each movie has a
particular character and attitude. I work
according to that attitude and each frame
should reflect the character of the movie. But
this attitude should neither surpass the film
nor fall behind it. I believe this is the essence
of a cinematographer’s artistic success.
Have you ever felt being isolated at any stage
of creation of a movie?
The truth is that the DOP is always alone, in
all frames. He gets inputs from the creative
and technical crew including the director. But
there is an area where the cinematographer
himself needs to prove his mettle, his identity
as a creative person. The cinematographer
and director fix a frame jointly, but ultimately
it’s the responsibility of the former to bring in
some kind of uniqueness in it. The crew
expect such a creative contribution from the
“If you want to rectify a
deficiency, you must be
capable of doing it.”
How do you deal with the actors?
Acting is actually an important part of
photography. When an actor’s face or body is
composed in a frame, it should serve the
purpose of the shot. It should become an
inseparable part of the narrative.
You have worked with established actors as
well as novices. What is your strategy in these
two different situations? You are also an
All established actors have their peculiarities
and mannerisms. The spectators are familiar
with their gestures. Some actors have become
popular because of their mannerisms. When a
popular actor deliberately tries to avoid
mannerisms for a particular character and be
different, we are able to assess his/her real
talents. An experienced cinematographer can
work with a regular actor without much strain
because he is aware of the actor’s acting
rhythm. But when a novice is in action, we
need two or three rehearsals before going for
a take. The DOP needs that much time to
understand his rhythm of action.
Have you ever try to break conventional
methods of cinematography to mould a novice
into a good actor or director?
The convention naturally gets broken once a
new actor or director enters cinema because
everything about him is fresh. Of late I have
worked with a number of debut-making
directors. I don’t think any of them will say
anything ill of me. My ultimate commitment is
towards the project I am involved in. I don’t
differentiate between a veteran and a novice
when I wield the camera.
There is a belief among a section of aspirant
filmmakers that anybody can become a
d i r e c t o r i f h e h a s a n e x p e r i e n c e d
cinematographer with him. How far do you
believe in this?
I have already explained that my commitment
is towards the project as a whole. My output
will not vary even if the director is absent at
the location for some reason and chooses to
give instructions over the mobile phone. There
are some directors in the new generation who
have excellent ideas but are lacking in
technical knowledge. On such occasions the
cinematographer’s experience will be of great
help. This always happens in filmmaking. I am
being considered for a particular film because
of my experience. Then it’s my duty to help
those who are inexperienced in the field. It’s
almost like helping a fellow human being who
is in trouble.
Yo u h a ve n ’ t a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n
An inexperienced director won’t be able to
m a ke a f i l m w i t h t h e h e l p o f a ny
cinematographer. He will need a good
“The truth is that
the DOP is always alone,
in all frames. He gets inputs
from the creative
and technical crew
including the director.”
cinematographer. That makes a lot of
difference. If you want to rectify a deficiency,
you must be capable of doing it. I will tell you
an example. Becoming a cinematographer
was not on my agenda when I was young boy.
But I had some interest in direction which I
still cherish. So I put forward suggestions both
from the point of view of a cinematographer
and a director. Sometimes they are accepted
and help in the success of the movie.
Sometimes they don’t click too.
T h e r e a r e o c c a s i o n s w h e n t h e
c i n e m a t o g r a p h e r ’s s e n s i b i l i t i e s g e t
synchronised absolutely with that of the
director. What will be your approach towards
a project in which this synchronisation never
There are instances when this synchronisation
gets tampered. With the advent of video
monitors the industry began to lose a
precious thing, which is nothing but the
cameraman’s imaginative power and creative
contribution. The monitor gives a diminutive
vision of the objects to the cinematographer.
But he is capable of imagining how the
magnified version on the big screen will look
like. Some directors or other members of the
directorial team feel that the frame in a
monitor is too small in size. If the directorial
team lack the capacity to see how the frame
will appear on the big screen, it will cause
problems for the DOP. Before the advent of
monitors, directors used to assess the frame
through the camera for one or two scenes and
then leave it to the DOP’s imaginative and
Has the advent of monitors become an
impediment in filmmaking?
That’s not true. Monitors have in fact helped
in improving the quality of filmmaking. It’s
quite advantageous to the filmmaker. He can
visualize the movie in advance, rewind the
visuals and make corrections instantly.
Heard that you are planning to direct a movie
Yes... I am going to direct a movie. Kalavoor
Ravikumar is writing the script and Dileep will
don the main role in the film. The script is
almost over and we are on a location hunt.
K. Dattu tells Manju Latha Kalanidhi about his passion and obsession for the camera.
He could have been a dialogue writer. He packs a punch in every sentence. He could have been a
lyricist. Alliterations, allegories and metaphors dot his words. He could have been a scriptwriter as he
narrates every experience like a storyteller. But K. Dattu chose to be a cinematographer and after over
two decades in the profession, he is convinced that nothing turns him on more than the camera.
What’s your current venture
Samardhudu is a love story with
f a m i l y d r a m a . We h a v e
youngsters like Raja and Sanjana
taking on veterans such as
means ‘competent’ and it is
about a go-getting Legislator
(played by Krishnamraju) who is
ready to stake his life for the
people but is facing a threat
from a local criminal (played by
Raja). In my experience, it is
tougher to work for a regular
commercial movie than for a
different, off-beat movie. In the
former, one has to use the
available, regular elements to
infuse new life, but in an offbeat
movie, you have all the freedom
to experiment. In Samardhudu, I
used fewer lights and filters to
bring out the realism and
conflict between the characters.
W h e t h e r i n l i f e o r
cinematography, I believe ‘less is
more’. Many may find it strange
but I always work at reducing
external sources to light up my
characters. At times, I have had
a few tiffs with my directors
about this, but eventually they
“A DOP is like a
vehicle who runs on
four wheels –
director, art director,
make-up artiste and
costume stylist – to
win the race.”
What stocks did you use for
I have used 5219 (Vision 3 500
T) and 5218 (Vision 2 500 T).
Tell us about your entry into the
field and your journey so far.
I am K. Dattatreya Varaprasad
and I hail from Mogalturu in
West Godavari district. Way
back in 1980s, I was a hot-
headed youth who had just
finished his graduation in
science and was on the verge of
creating a nuisance at home–
loafing around, late nights,
wasting money, etc. Luckily, it
was megastar Chiranjeevi who
brought me to Hyderabad and
placed me as an assistant to
cinematographer K.S. Hari. The
star and I share three things: we
hail from the same village, share
t h e s a m e s e c o n d n a m e
(Varaprasad) and passion for
movies. Chiranjeevi was a family
friend and on the behest of my
dad, he asked me if I was ready
to make a career for myself in
movies. I nodded my head and
started working with Hari. I
worked with several big names
such as Lok Singh, Kabir Lal,
Vincent and Teja before I started
working solo. Interestingly, I
w o r k e d f o r a c h u n k o f
Chiranjeevi’s biggest hits during
the eighties. Hits like Gang
Leader, Vijeta, Gharana Mogudu,
even his Hindi debut Pratibandh
had me behind the camera
team. My first solo was with
Paatabasti in 1996. I had also
d o n e o n e m o v i e i n
Hindi–Muskaan with Aftab
Shivdasani and Gracy Singh. I
had the privilege to work for
Chiranjeevi’s best movies like
Rikshavodu, Hitler, Bavagaru
Bagunnara, Sneham Kosam and
Does a Director of Photography
enjoy freedom in the Telugu
Cinematography is not about
f r e e d o m , i t i s a b o u t
responsibility. A DOP is like a
vehicle who runs on four wheels
director, art director, make-up
artiste and costume stylist to
win the race. He translates the
work of everybody behind the
camera onto the camera to
produce the final vision. So, my
work depends on teamwork. We
are painters of light and we are
totally dependent on our entire
team, not just the assistant or
the boy who helps me with the
camera, but everybody else
involved in creating the visual,
including the girl who puts the
b l u s h e r o n t h e h e r o i n e .
However, there are times when
the director believes that you
can get the desired effect only
when you mount extravagant
s e t s a n d u s e t h e m o s t
sophisticated camera. I have
not about freedom, it
had tiffs with some young
directors who would want it
their way even though the scene
did not require it. Why do you
need a rifle to prick a balloon
when you can do it with a pin?
I a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t a s
t e c h n i c i a n s , i t i s o u r
responsibility to ensure that the
movie works within the budget. I
have seen several producers hit
the dust primarily because the
technicians from the set
designer to the make-up artiste
overshooting the budget and
“I want to work as a cinematographer
with the basic cameras and lens and
zero external light sources.”
“Less is more truly holds good
in many aspects of filmmaking. ”
landing him in trouble. There are
times when the budget for a set
is about 10 lakhs but the art
director lays out a set for 16
l a k h s a n d c o n v i n c e s t h e
producer that he should not
compromise on anything. Each
of them work on their own lines
and even if the movie is a hit,
the producer would find it hard
to recover his money. I think
everybody who works for a
movie must feel responsible
about these things. Less is more
truly holds good in many
aspects of filmmaking.
You have worked in Telugu,
Kannada, Hindi and even in
Hollywood. What has each of
the industries taught you?
I have worked for just one movie
in Hollywood for a Chiranjeevi-
starrer (Thief of Baghdad) that
g o t s h e l v e d m i d w a y. I n
Hollywood, they discover new
techniques to create a scene.
Here, we create scenes to adapt
a technique. There are times
when the technique dominates
the scene and that is among the
first things you should never do
in a movie. The book The
Cinematographer, which is like a
Bible for us in this craft, tells you
what to do with the camera.
Working in the industry tells you
what not to do. A good
cinematographer learns his
lessons both from theory and
practice. I think the Telugu
industry can do with a film
institute. I am surprised that
despite being such a flourishing
industry, there is no film
institute in Hyderabad. The
industry should invest in training
good professionals who produce
good work. I have also realized
that Hollywood is about 10
years ahead of us in technique.
We need to catch up to be the
Many cinematographers are
embarrassed about the dark
greens, blues and reds in the
film but there is no need to feel
that way. We need to give
emphasis on some colours for
some movies that are made for
the B and C centers. These
centers have movie screens that
are more than a decade old and
do not reproduce subtle colours
well. So a movie made for B and
C centers may look gaudy on the
multiplex screen but we also
need to keep the screen quality
of a majority of the theatres in
the state. It is essential to keep
these considerations in mind
rather than just trying to come
o u t w i t h e l e g a n t a n d
sophisticated products which
may not go down well with the
Can you tell us about any movie
or scene that you excelled in as a
I personally loved Bavagaru
Bavunnara by Chiranjeevi. It was
a remake of the Hollywood
movie Walk In The Clouds. I love
to cash in on nature’s beauty for
my movies. Selecting the right
location is half the battle won.
When you get this right, you can
go easy on the other elements. I
shot almost half of the movie
Bavagaru Bagunnara in New
Zealand using simple thermocol
filters and nothing else. I used
the brown mountains, white
buildings and blue lakes as my
background for the best scenes.
We could do it without much
“Black is the yardstick to gauge a roll’s
efficiency. If black is reproduced well, the
rest of it falls in place. Kodak produces
black brilliantly, faithfully.”
What are your experiences with
Black is the yardstick to gauge a
roll’s efficiency. If black is
reproduced well, the rest of it
falls in place. Kodak produces
black brilliantly, faithfully. Unlike
other films which make green
dominate the film, it brings out
every colour just the way it
should. When I load my camera
with Kodak, I can simply focus
on the other issues as I know it
will do its job well.
W h a t i s y o u r g o a l a s a
I do a lot of research about
moviemaking. I love to spend
time talking to producers,
f i l m m a k e r s , f i n a n c e r s ,
distributors about the craft. It
costs Rs 280 per minute for an
average Telugu movie with a
budget of around Rs 3 crores.
My aim is to reduce the costs
significantly so that even small
directors and producers with
good stories can dream of
making movies. I want to work
as a cinematographer with the
basic cameras and lens and zero
external light sources.
How did you get interested in cinematography?
My mother was an artist, a painter. So right from the time I was a young boy I was influenced by her artistic
work. She always encouraged me to draw and paint and would give me directions in achieving the right effects.
I used to stay closer to the main city area and so right from childhood I was exposed to the visual art and history.
I used to visit the art galleries with my mother. Since my mothers genes were invested in me I was also very good
at painting. My childhood memories largely constituted art and imagery, which later on became a talent and skill
that I could explore through cinematography.
Was that a very trying period in your life?
I had a tough time in college. I had joined for B.Com and I had no aptitude for it. As a result I felt totally lost and
Did the exposure to art continue through college?
We shifted to Pune pretty early on in my life and I continued my education in art as well in formal
academics. I did very well in both but I was never really sure of my talent and did not know how it
would give me an advantage, so I opted to continue my formal education despite fulfilling all the
criteria necessary for art school. My parents never forced me either way. They just wanted me to do
well in life and be happy. My father was an engineer. In fact when my father had an opportunity to go
to the US, he got me a camera and a book on architecture, he was obviously hoping that I would chose
either as a sincere pursuit. But my parents and I too felt that at that point a degree was important and
in that process I couldn’t really go back to art school. Then art school was after the tenth standard and
it was a diploma then. It wasn’t like it is today. Today whether degree or diploma your inherent talent
accounts for much more.
of the Matter
Amalendu Chowdhury has
been a DOP for several
successful and critically
appreciated Marathi films.
He started without any
formal training and learnt his
craft on the job, helped along
by his childhood exposure to
“I don’t believe in
style for the sake of a
style. For me my
approach to cinema is
to tell a story and
everything that a
concentrate on telling
the story to the best
Amalendu Chowdhury talks to Johnson Thomas about his career and technique.
So did your photography continue during this period?
That was my only creative outlet and I shot some excellent stills which everyone appreciated. One of my
acquaintances complimented me and said that I could make it as a professional photographer. I started taking on
freelance assignments for magazines and did a lot of advertising shoots too. And I was doing pretty well for
myself financially. I even won an award, the National Sports Trust Award, sponsored by Kodak.
What about cinematography?
Pune had a very good festival of International classics going on at the Film and Television Institute, and since one
of my friends was the organizer I used to go to watch the films there. All the films were projected, they were not
the DVD variety. And there used to be discussions with directors and technicians. Paresh Mokashi was one such
director there; his talk on the film Escape to Victory inspired me into trying out cinematography. I felt it was a very
challenging field. I was always interested in visuals and this seemed to be the right profession to be in. I had to
go to Mumbai and try my hand there as Pune FTII wouldn’t take commerce graduates.
So did you start from scratch without any formal training?
No I did not have any formal training. I had seen Ijazat and Bandit Queen, both shot by Ashok Mehta and I had got
in touch with him. I spoke to him about my interest in the field. I had also read his story and realized that my
dream was achievable if I put in a good deal of effort. I was married at that time, 23 years old and had the
support of my wife to come here and try to get a foothold in the film industry. Ashok Mehta gave me the
opportunity to apprentice under him when I was 29 years old and I assisted him in Moksh and Gaja Gamini and
several ad films. I learnt everything about cinematography under his tutelage. He was my teacher and my guru.
Jhing chick jhing
How did the experience working with Ashok Mehta help in your career?
Ashok Mehta is the master of lighting. He is unparalleled in that respect
and I was lucky to get my training from him. In cinematography lighting
is an integral and most important aspect. Mehta sent me to Rakyesh
Omprakash Mehra to do stills for the film Aks. I was hesitant but he
persuaded me and that was a different and again enriching experience
altogether. Kiran Deohans was the cinematographer on that set and he
was another of my heroes. Despite being an observer on the set, I got to
learn a lot there too. I got to see how another master craftsman worked.
I now realize that I learnt so much under Mehta’s tutelage, enough to
garner appreciation for my own independent DOP work. I even won
awards for my films. Bai Manoos was one of them.
Which was your first film as independent DOP?
Doh, a Marathi language project, was the first film where I took charge
as independent DOP after several stints as assistant DOP in feature
films, ad films and documentaries. I used Kodak 250D, 50D and 500T in
Do you think assisting gives you enough knowledge to take up
Definitely. It teaches you everything even more than what you can learn
in a film institute. In my case I also read up on a lot of cinematographers
who I hold dear. Sven Nykvist and Gordon Willis have been my most
revered in that respect. I read about their approach and watched their
What would you say your style was as a cinematographer?
I don’t believe in style for the sake of a style. For me my approach to
cinema is to tell a story and everything that a cinematographer does
should concentrate on telling the story to the best possible effect. So
style does not come into play. The story and the director’s vision of it
should be king. There’s a beautiful line by Conrad Hogg. An interviewer
asked him: “Where do you point your camera?” And he answered:
“I always point my camera at the story.” That is what I do too!
So what should be the ideal relationship between the director and his
The relationship should be symbiotic. The cameraman should be able to
get into the mind of the director and learn from him his vision of the
story he wants to tell. And he must then employ his skill and technique
to achieve that vision. Before the shooting starts an approach must be
decided together by the director and his cameraman. I don’t believe in
the director getting a DVD film and expecting the cameraman to
replicate a specific look from that film. The cameraman’s stamp should
not be distinct from that of the director. Instead cinematography has to
be a vessel that reaches the director to his destination. It can be
“The cameraman’s stamp should not be distinct
achieved by a combination of meticulous planning and spontaneity. I
believe cinematography is not only about technique it is also about art.
Do you find that while in the process of making a film, the script also
keeps getting revised?
Well, fortunately for me, it hasn’t happened. I wouldn’t appreciate
working in that kind of atmosphere. I need to have a bound script with
director’s instructions before I start on the shoot of a film. Spontaneity is
always there when we reach the set but we need to know where we are
heading first. The intricacies can change but the basic nature should
never change. Harishchandrachi Factory, a film I worked on recently, was a
very lucidly written script. The mood and tone was clear and we were
sure that we need not have to make it into a heavy duty period piece.
The period feel was there but the film had a much lighter vein to it.
The film was intended as a inspiring, sometimes humorous, sometimes
serious document about a creative genius. There were only to
movement shots , everything else was shot on a static camera. We tried
to give the whole treatment a magical tone. I am really proud of my work
in that film. There was absolutely no gimmick involved. The director
wanted to tell the story in that way and it was also written like that.
Remember Dadasaheb Phalke was recognized only after his death.
When he was alive, he was never given his due. That is what the film
wanted to convey.
Do you think you achieved what you set out in that film?
I believe so. The cinematography was never overpowering. It did not
overshadow the performances, neither did it make a style statement. It
was intent on telling a simple story. We shot the film in 35mm and not in
cinemascope in order to keep the academic format consistent and make
the modesty and simplicity the telling point. Even my film Gandh follows
the same pattern. The three stories have different textures to it, because
they are disparate and different from each other linked by a slender
from that of the director. Instead
cinematography has to be a vessel that reaches
the director to his destination.”
How was it working on such diverse projects?
I am happy that I got a chance to experiment with my technique and
skills to achieve such diverse and deliberate results. The awards I
received for Bai Manoos and Gandh speak for my satisfaction and effort.
The current crop of directors in Marathi cinema have literary
backgrounds and know what they are doing. Even though they are
young, they have a dynamism and yearning to tell a story that is true to
their vision and not tainted by commercialism. It’s only in the last two
years that I have been getting such projects and I am truly happy and
satisfied with my work. Of course, there’s much more to learn and
implement in the years to come and I hope I get challenged with every
new project that comes my way.
Shaji is getting more busier by the day in Malayalam filmdom after his recent box-office
hits Veruthe Oru Bharya and Red Chillies. He is currently shooting for Joshy’s new film
How goes your new project Robinhood?
Robinhood is a movie for the youngsters and
features Prithviraj, Narain, Jayasurya,
Samvrutha Sunil and Bhavana. The movie tries
to impart the message that the repercussion
of treachery will be heavy. This is my fourth
film with veteran director Joshy after Naran,
July 4 and Nasrani. We want to make this
movie technically superior.
Do you always get the required technical
facilities in the industry?
Some producers fix a certain budget for
camera and usually are unwilling to think
beyond that amount. There are exceptions
too. Though these producers limit technical
facilities, they have high expectations from
the cinematographer. They demand the
quality of Tamil and Telugu movies. How is
that possible? Tamil and Telugu movies are
made with huge budgets. We spend two to
three crore rupees on a movie and demand
the quality of movies made with a big budget
of 20 crore rupees. We must spend more
money for making the project technically
Shaji tells K.B. Venu that he prefers quality to quantity.
The modernization of cameras and other
cinematographic equipment has been very
fast during the past few years. How has it
changed the cinematographer in you?
The modernization of cameras during the past
few years has brought about a revolution in
the quality of cinematography. You can see it
e v e n i n s t i l l p h o t o g r a p h y . T h e
cinematographer should change his
professional point of view according to the
changing times. DOPs in other industries are
very careful about maintaining their
p r o f e s s i o n a l e x c e l l e n c e . T o p
cinematographers in Tamil, Telugu and Hindi
industries never even touch an Arri 3 camera.
They always demand latest equipment and
facilities to maintain the quality of their work
and their professional reputation. But here in
Malayalam we are often compelled to
compro m i s e o n s eve ra l a s p e c t s o f
cinematography. I watch a lot of movies. After
Uthaman, my first independent venture, I have
always tried to do each film in different styles.
My principle is to deliver quality work, staying
within the limited facilities I am provided with.
But I try to associate with directors and
producers who understand my work and
provide the facilities I need. I like to work with
people with whom I can establish rapport and
communication. Also, I observe the works of
fellow cinematographers and try to learn from
them. Each cinematographer has his own
style. I also try to see whether I too can get
the same working atmosphere and technical
support they had been provided with.
What do you think is effect of the satellite
The satellite exhibition system is not properly
made use of in Malayalam industry. Here the
discs are made from the master print of the
movie. This causes heavy loss of quality when
the movie is projected in theaters. In other
South Indian languages and Bollywood, they
copy from the negative there is only one per
cent of loss in quality. In fact I am afraid to
watch my movies in theaters because the
print will be of inferior quality. A
cinematographer can’t explain to the public
about what has actually happened to the
print. He spends four to five months with a
movie, right from the period when the story is
discussed till the theater release and this is
how it all ends up. The producers exert a lot of
pressure during the processing period and
force the DOP to release the print as early as
possible. The directors understand the
situation and they won’t complain about the
quality because they watch the first and
second copies of the movie. But the audience
very often get the inferior product.
Even in this movie you are using Kodak. What
is your criterion of selecting a particular
I decide upon the stock right from the first
hearing of the storyline. Certain storylines
demand Kodak. The distinguished quality of
the stock has been proved through so many
years by great cameramen around the world.
“My principle is
to concentrate on the project
I undertake and do them
as perfectly as I can.
I don’t give much importance
to the number of films I do.”
How do you assess the co-operation from your
I was assisting Vipin Mohan before becoming
an independent cameraman. He used to grant
me a free working atmosphere. He was kind
enough to clear my doubts and guide me in
the proper way. I follow the same principle. I
also try to assess what my assistants gained
This is your fourth film with Joshy? How is the
experience of working with the veteran
Joshy is a very senior director... I was a bit
afraid in the beginning when I started with
Naran, my first film with him. But soon I
understood that he is a very kind and helping
person. He is up-to-date about the most
modern equipment and technology. He knows
how to make use of them at the proper place.
And he gives clear answers to all doubts a
technician has in mind.
What about your projects in other languages?
Apart from the Tamil movie Kanakavel Kakka, I
did a Hindi movie called Toofan, directed by
Major Ravi. Even that film was shot with
Kodak. But I believe I couldn’t work to my
satisfaction in both those projects. I get lots of
offers from filmmakers with whom I have
worked before. My principle is to concentrate
on the project I undertake and do them as
perfectly as I can. I don’t give much
importance to the number of films I do.
Right from his advent into Malayalam film
industry in the late seventies with an action
movie Tiger Salim, hitmaker director Joshy has
remained a perpetual student of the technical
aspects of cinema.
It is nothing but a studious mind and ability to
cope with the state of the art technology in
the industry that helps the veteran remain the
numero uno director in mainstream
Malayalam cinema, even after three decades
of active and prolific filmmaking.
He has 64 movies to his credit and most of them
have collected profusely at the box-office. His
latest film Robinhood, a communion of prominent
young actors in Malayalam like Prithviraj,
Jayasurya, Bhavana and Samvrutha Sunil, has a
vibrant storyline meant to lure the youth.
Joshy always had shown a penchant for big
budget movies, incorporating leading stars of
the time, most often teaming up prominent
actors together in a single film. Prem Nazir,
Madhu, Soman, Sukumaran, Mammootty and
many other major actors used to act together
in his movies. This is made possible because
of his command over the actors and the
He believes that artistes should not be bigger
than the director and continues to enjoy this
superior position. When AMMA (Association
of Malayalam Movie Artistes) decided to
produce a film to raise funds for the
organisation, Joshy was the unanimous choice
as director of the movie. They couldn’t find
anyone else who could shoulder the
responsibility of controlling and holding
together a multitude of stars beginning from
Madhu, matinee idol of yesteryears, big stars
Mammootty, Mohanlal, Suresh Gopi, Jayaram,
Dileep and almost all eminent actors
in the industry in a single project.
Joshy could also assign roles to the
bigwig actors in an amicable way,
without diminishing anybody’s prominence in
Experienced writers of the elder and younger
generations agree that Joshy had always tried
to do justice to the scripts he dealt with.
Cinematographers and other technicians
respect him for his clear-headed and logical
approach. He is better known as a craftsman
who pays maximum attention to the taking of
shots. This is the reason why Joshy is
respected by the mainstream moviemakers
though he chooses to tread along with the
latest trends and atmosphere of different
times. He keenly observes his audience and
always moves according to their pulse.
The prolific director made nine films in the
year 1984, seven in 1985, six in 1986 and five
each in 1982 and '83. He teamed up mostly
with Dennis Joseph for the scripts of his big
hits, including New Delhi (1987) which placed
Mammootty on a come-back trail. Joshy also
made a crime investigation story (Ee Thanutha
Veluppankalathu) with the late writer-director
P. Padmarajan in 1990. Star screen writers of
the mainstream Malayalama cinema, Ranjith,
Ranji Panicker and Ranjan Pramod have also
been associated with Joshy in some
His latest film, Robinhood, is written by Sachi
and Sethu from the youngest generation of
scenarists in Malayalam cinema.
Joshy rarely grants interviews; may be
because he believes more in his work than
talking to the media. Young at heart and
communicating with the changing times and
people, this master technician continues to
walk cautiously through the tricky paths of the
industry, quite gloriously.
Language No Bar
Manish Vyas in conversation with Johnson Thomas
What are you working on right now? You are in the middle of a shoot,
Yes. We have just begun shooting in Gujarat. It’s a Gujarati film that I
am shooting on Kodak Super 16, 250D and 200T.
Is there any particular reason why you chose Kodak?
I like Kodak, because you get better detailing and the color saturation is
When did you start your career as a cameraman?
I began my career in 1984 as an assistant to cameraman Murthy in the
film Nastik starring Amitabh Bachchan and Hema Malini. My father was
also working in the film industry. He was an assistant director to Raj
Kumar Kohli and he suggested that I try my hand at Gujarati films
because there were better chances of getting a solo project there. So I
assisted Rocky Leytin, who had long ago, been involved in the making of
the film Mahal with Ashok Kumar and Madhubala.
Did you get your first independent project soon?
Well, I continued assisting till 1991 when I got my first solo DOP project,
a Hindi film directed by Keshav called Mamla Gadbad Hai. The film did
not get completed. The shooting was stopped after a few days. I also
was assistant to Manish Bhatt for Sailaab with Madhuri Dixit and also
did Main Balwan with Sunil Shetty in it. After that I was back looking for
work once again. This time I ventured into television, went to Muscat,
making documentaries for a production house and working mainly on
beta. I did everything from pre and post production to camerawork,
editing, effects etc. I worked there for two years
Manish Vyas learnt the ropes as an
assistant cameraman in Hindi films. But
once he was confident enough to take up
independent projects he entered the
regional cinema industry and has today
made a mark for himself as one of the
highest paid DOPs there. He has
also been the most innovative,
achieving cinemascope effect at a time
when it wasn’t being tried out in regional
cinema. Today he is one of the most
sought after cinematographer in films
made in Gujarati, Bhojpuri, Marathi and
Was it a learning experience for you?
I did learn quite a bit in my stint there. Television has different
requirements compared to cinema. The shot taking is entirely different. I
worked with many directors from the other Middle East countries, also
from Jordan and Egypt. I also got to see many of the best films from that
region. It was an enriching experience for me.
When did you come back from Muscat?
I came back in 1995 and the first film I did thereafter was Lafda, a Hindi
film. In fact, I was the first to experiment on cinemascope in 1991. There
was no camera available for cinemascope picturization. So I had to shoot
it on the normal camera and then magnify it to cinemascope. Thereafter
cameras came fitted with cinemascope lenses, so it was easier to shoot
in that format. Lafda was in cinemascope but it wasn’t my first film in
cinemascope. I had attempted the same technique in an earlier film
which did not get released. If you look at the print of Lafda you will be
surprised to find that it is a double positive instead of a double negative.
Then, I started getting many offers for
regional films, Bhojpuri, Gujarati, Marathi and
Punjabi and so I took them all up. For a
cameraman language is no barrier.
Cinematography is a language in itself. One of
the films even won a National award. It was
called Mere Maa Punjab.
When you introduced the technique for
cinemascope picturization did you face any
Well, when I wanted to achieve that result, I
discussed it with my director and he was very
supportive. He told me to go ahead and do it as
it would be a kind of USP for the film. I did try to
ask around to find out if anyone had done this
before and most of the DOPs and technicians I
spoke to dissuaded me from trying it out. But I
was confident enough and after a few trial runs
I knew I was on the right track. While shooting
I had to use a different optical lens. Rest of the
work was done in Ramnord Labs. They were
very helpful, In fact they were the only ones
who agreed to help me.
“For a cameraman
language is no barrier.
Cinematography is a
language in itself.”
How have the last few years been?
The last two-three years I have been working
exclusively in these regional language films. I
did maximum films with Kodak Mota Ghar Ni
Vau and Av Jo in Gujarati were on Kodak. The
directors I worked with in Gujarati included
Vikram Kotiyal, Pratik Talukdar and Amar
Solanki. I also did a Bhojpuri film called Kasam
Duniya Ki and another one directed by hit
director Ajay Sinha. In fact most of the
Bhojpuri films I shot have been under the
direction of Ajay Sinha.
Did you undertake any formal training or
study in cinematography?
I am a graduate but I haven’t done any formal
course in cinematography. Everything I have
learnt in this field has come through
experience and experimentation. I started my
career with Mr Murthy then worked with
Manish Bhatt and then Rajni Kashi (for Ek
Number Ka Chor, Kamal Amrohi Films with
Tajdar Amrohi as director). All those
experiences taught me the basics of
cinematography and they were all shot on
Kodak. So I was basically groomed on Kodak.
What was your experience like in Hindi
cinema? How does it differ from that of
I enjoyed my stint in Hindi cinema and learnt
a lot from there. But it’s regional cinema that
basically gives me my bread and butter. It may
not be on the same scale as that of Hindi
cinema but it is nevertheless challenging in its
own way. The budgets are of course much
smaller and the equipment may not always be
perfect, but there is much more scope for
experimentation and getting satisfaction
thereof. In Hindi cinema every facility is made
available to us but in regional cinema we have
to innovate to achieve good results. The
facilities may not always be available.
“In all my regional projects
I have tried to get
the best results possible
and I must say that
Kodak helps me greatly
in this respect.”
But does that make it easier or much more
difficult for you?
I am among the highest paid DOPs in Gujarati
cinema and I think I have achieved that
distinction only because I have given the best,
whatever the circumstances may be. In all my
regional projects I have tried to get the best
results possible and I must say that Kodak
helps me greatly in this respect. It is of course
much more difficult to shoot a film in a
regional language as compared to that in
Hindi simply because of lack of proper
budgets for all the accessories and
accompaniments that are required. But I must
also say that it is manageable if you put your
mind and heart into the project and put to
good use all you have learnt over the years
Wherever I may be shooting I do insist on
taking my camera from Mumbai. Lights and
other accessories I try and manage with as
per availability. Most of the regional films
don’t use DI as much as in Hindi films. That is
why it is far more challenging to shoot a
regional film. We have very good technicians
available across the board, but those working
in regional language film industry surely have
deeper and richer experiences!
Continuing his series on Lab procedures,
Solomon Silveira provides answers
to some of the questions asked by
the customers concerning their
processed/ to be processed film.
The lab report makes a comment of edge
break/ frame lost in the film – How could this
Edge break in the film is common and is
detected during the inspection of film in the
dark room before processing. Most commonly
these breaks happen at the head during
loading the film in the camera or at the tail
end of the film during packaging. All this
reflects poor film handling. Avoiding a "run
out" is a best way to avoid loss of frames at
the tail end of the film.
Sometimes, such breaks are also detected in-
between the camera roll. Defects like these
are brought to the notice of the production
house before we bandage this part of the film.
Bandaging the broken edge is essential for
safe processing of the film and to avoid the
possibility of film break while the film is being
processed. A film break during processing
would mean damaging not only the defective
roll but also all rolls before and following the
defective roll. Bandaging the film could cause
a loss of few frames. In most cases, it is
observed that Edge breaks happen between
takes with no image being affected.
Keeping the lab informed about such
problems during the shoot with the camera
can help the lab to be proactive in detecting
such problem in the film.
The sequence of camera rolls in the
processed reel is not OK.
The procedure adopted by Kodak Cinelabs
ensures that the can numbers on the can
labels are properly recorded on the job sheet –
also, each of these cans are labeled by
individual lab can number. These cans are
then kept for processing in a sequence along
with the respective Job sheet. The sequences
of the can numbers are verified before taking
the cans into the dark room for inspection.
After inspection the empty cans are brought
out of the dark room and its sequence verified
once again. The empty cans are kept in the
same sequence of processing for next two
days after processing to verify for complaints,
if any, relating to the camera roll sequence.
Too often it has been found that the sequence
of can numbering is due to incorrect
numbering or mix up during production.
Kodak Cinelabs provides its customers with
free can labels to enable the production house
to capture the production details on every
The report makes a mention of pressure mark
on film. It also makes a mention of the can
being damaged. How could this happen?
Many a times it has been noted that the
production boys are not aware about film
handling and safety. It is also seen that
sometimes to save on money the delivery boy
carries the film by train or bus to save money.
Some of the cans received by the lab are
damaged and this gets reflected as pressure
marks on the film. It is very important to make
the people carrying the camera roll sensitive
to procedures of handling the film. He should
also be made aware that the exposed camera
rolls carried for processing should be suitably
packed to avoid physical damage and direct
exposure to sunlight.
I have some stock but am not sure if it is
exposed, please let me know if I can use the
There is no way that we could inspect the film
without processing the same. The two options
1. Do a fog test in which about 10ft of the
initial portion of the film is processed,
2. Process the entire film.
While the first option is destructive and you
could land up cutting through the image of an
exposed can, it could possibly help you save
the film just in case it happens to be an
unexposed film. However, the second option
is non destructive and could be useful in
ensuring that you get the complete take just
in case you had some exposure on the film.
The lab would always recommend the second
Not doing either of the above could land you
in a situation of having double exposure just in
case the film happens to be previously
exposed. This would mean not only losing the
previous takes but also the recent takes.
Your report makes a mention of overlap of
images on the film. How could this happen?
The overlap of images on the film could
possibly happen if the can contains an
exposed film, which has not been labeled but
reused as a fresh stock. The best way to avoid
such confusion is to ensure proper labeling of
the exposed can. In case of doubt, it is always
better to have the same verified with the
exposed stock or have the roll processed.
We have just done a telecine and are seeing a
chemical spot on the film, please have it
checked at your end.
The film was re-inspected on the inspection
table and no problem was noticed. The film
was later seen on the D Observer and we too
observed a tiny lint like spot in the bottom
corner of the frame. This tiny spot was a part
of the image – signifying that some lint like
particle could have settled on the lens at the
time of exposure causing this problem.
Your report makes a mention of some
scratches on the film – How could this happen?
As a part of start up checks the lab runs a raw
stock of film to ensure that it is free from
defects including scratches on the film before
processing customer rolls. The demand drive
in the processor ensures that it is most gentle
on your film. The processor at our lab is
specially designed to have air knives instead of
the conventional squeeze blades to avoid
contact with the film. Scratch on film could
happen in the camera due to dust in the
camera path and/ or problem in the magazine.
Some of the problems that are reported by the
lab like faint scratch on the base of the film is
something that may not even be seen on the
telecine – however we believe in reporting
such defects just to ensure that the
information is used by the production house to
attend to the problem before the next shoot
thereby avoiding the possibility of a deeper
scratch on a later days shoot. We believe in
being proactive in keeping the customer
informed about such instances.
Your report makes a mention of edge fog in
the film. How could this happen? How will this
affect my film?
Edge fog on the film is reported, during
inspection when the edge of the film is seen
fogged. The fog on the edge of the film does
not affect the image quality. However,
sometimes the fog is seen to bleed into the
image area – this is reflected in the labs
inspection report. The cause of the fog could
be the magazine or the camera itself – the
information provided by the lab can be
effectively correlated to identify the area of
problem. These inputs should be seriously
taken by the production house to look into the
problems with the camera and/ or magazine,
thereby, avoiding the risk of damaging the film
on a later day shoot.
It’s been almost exactly one decade since Texas Instruments and JVC demonstrated digital projection on a large
screen side by side with motion picture film – and the industry took notice. Digital looked surprisingly good and
some suggested it would be adopted immediately, painlessly, automatically if only because it would save so
much money for studios not having to buy film prints.
And yet, those who made such enthusiastic predictions overlooked a fundamental fact: all enduring change in
the entertainment industry must meet four criteria:
It must make creative sense – that is, it should expand the creative content and opportunities available
It must make technical sense – that is, there must be worldwide technical standards to keep the quality high
and to enable worldwide distribution of motion pictures
It must make operational sense – the systems must be reliable, the processes must be proven, cost
efficiencies must be possible, the systems must fit into the exhibitors’ environment with minimal disruptions
And it must make businesses sense – which means the systems must be affordable, the investment must be
shared fairly, financial models must benefit everyone.
It has taken a while to get to a point where those needs are mostly being met, but the transition from analog to
digital continues to be largely piecemeal, with technology earning its way forward, more slowly than some
Kodak Digital Cinema —
With a proud and continuing legacy of supplying film for most of the prints made for movie theatres, Kodak
entered the digital arena with networked pre-show systems in 2003 and quickly became the largest independent
supplier of those systems, worldwide. The Kodak system replaced slide projectors and, in some cases, DVD-
loaded digital projectors, and brought new flexibility, ease of use, and added profitability to the theatre.
Working with ad suppliers, the Kodak system made it possible to target advertising – by genre, rating, studio, day
part, screen, complex, or even individual movie – so advertisers could reach a more select audience if they chose
to. And because Kodak prepared the show playlist centrally and sent it out via DSL or satellite connections to
the cinema, the pre-show arrived ready to go and played as scheduled.
And when the pre-show was associated with a particular movie – and the movie print was moved to a different
screen in the complex – the Kodak-provided pre-show moved automatically with it.
To read further part, please visit: http://motion.kodak.com/US/en/motion/Hub/dcinema.htm
Tel No: 91-22-66416762 / 66
Fax No: 91-22-66416769
Tel No: 91-22-67026600 / 02
Fax No: 91-22-67026666
Tel No: 91-44-2362 3086 / 9840333350
Fax No: 91-44-2362 2522
Chirag Gandhi joined Kodak in July 2008 in the EI division. Prior to joining Kodak, he was in retail
working for Future Group as a retail operation manager.
He says, "In Kodak it has been an interesting journey meeting people from the film industry –
artistes, cameramen, technicians – and enjoying learning a subject which entertains millions of
people worldwide. Behind the creation of this entertainment is sheer hard work. The passion that
the production team puts in is incredible. In my free time I love to watch movies, travelling, music
and playing cricket."
Tel No: 91-44-2362 3086 / 9840489900
Fax No: 91-44-2362 2522
Ananth A. Padmanabha
Tel No: 91-98860 08642
Tel No: 91-33-30286254
Fax No: 91-33-30286270
Motion Picture Film
Tel No: 91-9849015950
Fax No: 91-40-2381 6181
Tel No: 91-9885823238
Fax No: 91-40-2381 6181
Tel No: 91-484-2366230 / 36
Fax No: 91-484-2363211
For more information; visit www.kodak.co.in/go/motion