Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Variations in Process ... - Kodak

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Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Variations in Process ... - Kodak

©Eastman Kodak Company, 2000

Processing EASTMAN

EKTACHROME Color Reversal

Films,

Module 14

Effects of Mechanical &

Chemical Variations in

Process RVNP


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

Mechanical Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

Chemical Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-1

Critical Chemical Analyses, Table 14-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2

Checklist For Daily Operation, Figure 14-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-3

Photographic and Sensitometric Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-4

Correlation of Mechanical, Chemical, and Sensitometric Data . . . . . . . 14-4

Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Variations, Figures 14-2 through 14-14 . . . 14-5

Effects of Contamination, Figure 14-15 through 14-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-18

DIAGNOSTIC SCHEMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-26

Verification Process, Figure 14-23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-27

Problem Sorting, Figure 14-24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-28

Low First Developer Activity, Figure 14-25 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-29

High First Developer Activity, Figure 14-26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-30

Low Color Developer Activity, Figure 14-27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-31

High Color Developer Activity, Figure 14-28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-32

Retained Silver in Persulfate Bleach, Figure 14-29 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-33

Retained Silver Halide, Figure 14-30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-34

SPECIAL TESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-35

Retained Silver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-35

Retained Silver Halide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-35

PROCESSED FILM PROBLEMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-36

The information contained herein is furnished by Eastman Kodak Company without any warranty or guarantee whatsoever. While

Kodak is unaware of any valid domestic patents of others which would be infringed by the methods, formulas or apparatus

described herein, the furnishing of this information is not to be considered as any license for inducement of, or recommendation

for any action by any party any such action being a matter for independent investigation and decision by such party.

-0 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP


14 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations

in Process RVNP

INTRODUCTION

Process RVNP provides rapid-access processing of the news

and print films through either of two process sequences. The

two sequences are identified as Sequence P-1 and

Sequence P-2. Process wet time has been reduced from

14:15 in Process VNF-1 to 7:42 in Sequence P-1, and to 7:52

in Sequence P-2 of Process RVNP.

The reduction in process time is accomplished through the

use of:

• Increased machine speed.

Additional decreases in some solution times.

Increased solution temperature.

Reduced safety factor.

Persulfate Bleach and Accelerator in place of Ferricyanide

Bleach.

Process Control

The successful processing of the designated films requires a

good process control system. The essential phases of such a

control system include mechanical, chemical, and

photographic control, plus correlation and interpretation of

results.

The designated films for Process RVNP are:

EASTMAN EKTACHROME Film 7239 (Daylight)

EASTMAN EKTACHROME Film 2239 / ESTAR

Base

EASTMAN EKTACHROME Film 7240 (Tungsten)

EASTMAN EKTACHROME High Speed Film 7250

(Tungsten)

EASTMAN EKTACHROME High Speed Daylight

Film 7251

EASTMAN EKTACHROME High Speed Daylight

Film 2253 / ESTAR Base

EASTMAN EKTACHROME Print Film 5399 / 7399

The philosophy and a recommended system of process

control are given in Module 1, Process Control. The

following sections are specific for Process RVNP.

Mechanical Control

Mechanical control includes items basic to any chemical

reaction, such as temperature, agitation, and time of reaction.

Maintain the Process RVNP developer temperatures tightly

within specifications. Control the temperatures of the other

solutions within specifications also, even if not quite so

critical. Regulate recirculation and replenishment rates to

maintain the required chemical activity of the various

solutions. Pipe turbulated solutions through devices that

indicate the rates of flow and pressures so that the

jet-agitation action of the solution at the film surface can be

controlled. A method for calibrating and measuring flow

rates is given in Module 2, Equipment and Procedures.

Check the operating speed of the processing machine

frequently. All such factors, whether regulated automatically

or manually, constitute the physical or mechanical aspects of

control. A checklist for daily operation of a Process RVNP

machine is given in Figure 14-1.

Chemical Control

Maintaining the proper composition of the processing

solutions is one of the most important elements of control.

For satisfactory process control, the chemical composition of

the solutions must be maintained to specifications rather than

to compensate for poor mechanical control.

Analytical Methods recommended in Module 3,

Analytical Procedures determine the chemical composition

of each processing solution. Some of the methods require the

use of a pH meter for the accurately measurement of solution

acidities or alkalinities or for potentiometric titrations. A

spectrophotometer can be useful to measure some

constituents in the processing solutions. With these two

instruments plus chemical reagents and the assorted

glassware (pipets, burets, hydrometers, beakers, etc.) usually

found in analytical laboratories, all of the solutions used in

the process can be analyzed. Table 14-1 presents all the

analyses and their method numbers that can be performed in

Process RVNP. All fresh chemical mixes, rejuvenated and

reconstituted mixes should be analyzed completely as the

first defense against mixing errors. The tank solutions should

be checked on a regular basis to monitor any changes in the

chemical composition of these solutions. Some factors

evaluated, such as developer pH, are more critical to good

film results than other factors, such as the level of sodium

sulfite, in the developer.

Table 14-1 indicates which of the factors are critical and

should be checked more frequently than the others. During

normal operation, analyze the pH of the color developer

daily, the less critical constituents weekly, and the

noncritical constituents monthly. The schedule of analysis to

be used by a particular installation to keep its process in

chemical control depends on the amount of film processed

and the stability of the process.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-1


Figure 14-1 Critical Chemical Analyses for Process RVNP

Solution Analyses

Critical Analyses

Tank Replenisher

Method

Number

First Developer pH W, F F ULM-191-2

Specific Gravity M, F F ULM-0002/1

Total Alkalinity M, F F ECR-702J

Sodium Sulfite M, F F ECR-1305L

Hydroquinone W, F F ECR-440B

Phenidone *

W, F F ECR-440B

Potassium Iodide W, F F ECR-929C

Sodium Bromide W, F F D94-0001/1

Sodium Thiocyanate W, F F D94-0003/1

Stop Baths pH W, F F ULM-191-2

Color Developer pH D, F F ULM-191-2

Specific Gravity M, F F ULM-0002/1

Total Alkalinity M, F F ECR-702J

Benzyl Alcohol M, F F ECR-1603E

CD-3 W, F F ECR-125F

Potassium Iodide M, F F ECR-925A

Sodium Sulfite M, F F ECR-1303

Sodium Bromide M, F F ECR-930E

RA-1 W, F F ECR-1470C

Citrazinic Acid W, F F ECR-1611D or ECR-1612

Ethylenediamine W, F F ECR-617B

Accelerator pH M, F F ULM-191-2

(Persulfate Bleach)

Specific Gravity M, F F ULM-0002/1

PBA-1 W, F F ECR-2100B

Sodium Sulfite M, F F ECR-1340A

Buffer Capacity M, F F ECR-755A

Persulfate Bleach pH W, F F, R ULM-191-2

Specific Gravity M, F F, R ULM-0002/1

Sodium Persulfate W, F F, R ECR-1125B

Sodium Chloride W, F F, R ECR-937

Buffer Capacity M, F F, R ECR-754A

Fixer pH M, F F, R ULM-191-2

Specific Gravity M, F F, R ULM-0002/1

Hypo Index M, F F, R ECR-1308J

Sodium Sulfite M, F F, R ECR-1308J

Thiosulfate M, F F, R ECR-1308J

Stabilizer Formalin M, F F ECR-1803G

F=All Fresh Mixes R=Rejuvenated or reconstituted D=Daily W=Weekly M=Monthly

* Phenidone is a trademark of Ilford (Ciba-Geiga Company)

14-2 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP


Table 14-1 Checklist For Daily Operation

Steps

1. Was shutdown strip in control?

2. Turn on power, air and water supplies, and the exhaust system.

3. Check solution levels

Spec. Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sat Sun

* in machine tanks.

4. Check replenisher supply tanks and First Developer

make fresh replenishment solutions

(if necessary).

5. Turn on recirculation pumps.

First Stop

Color Development

Accelerator

Bleach

Fixer

Stabilizer

6. Adjust wash-water flow-meters to proper setting.

7. Turn on and check air supply to squeegees.

8. Turn on temperature controls systems.

9. Turn on replenishers. Use leader rates until film is being processed.

10. Turn on dryer fan motor and heater.

11. Start machine and check machine speed.

12. Check final squeegee for cleanliness and adjustment. Make

corrections if necessary.

13. Check leader for twists.

14. Check solution time. First Developer

Color Developer

15. Use KODAK Process Thermometer,

Type 3. Check solution temperature. †

First Developer

Color Developer

16. Check recirculation rate.

17. Run control strips.

18. Proceed to production if in control.

First Developer

Color Developer

Accelerator

Bleach

Fixer

19. Check replenisher flow rate. † First Developer

First Stop

First Wash

Color Developer

Second Stop (P2)

Accelerator

Second Wash (P1 Option)

Bleach

Fixer

Final Wash

Stabilizer

* Solution levels must be high enough in the weir boxes to prevent air from being drawn into the recirculation systems when recirculator pumps are turned on.

† Start-up and every two hours.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-3


Photographic and Sensitometric Control

The chemical reactions involved in processing color films

are so complex that it is impossible to evaluate and control

the process completely on the basis of mechanical and

chemical data alone. The end results are photographic and

include the characteristics of the sensitized material and the

chemicals of the process. Actual picture tests can

demonstrate how the process behaves photographically, and

it is possible to use such tests for photographic control.

Picture rests are always desirable because quality

evaluations must be determined from the finished picture.

However, it is preferable to use methods that will furnish

quantitative information about the process. A rapid and

accurate means of evaluating the process photographically is

provided by sensitometric strips that greatly simplify the

evaluation and control of the process. These strips can be

included in the process with regular production footage as

often as desired and evaluated visually or, more precisely, by

densitometric methods. The strips can be examined

immediately after processing and the results can be plotted

on charts near those on which the mechanical and chemical

data are recorded. Such information gives an hour-to-hour

check on whether accidents have occurred to move the

process to drift away from normal.

For the convenience of processors, sensitometrically

exposed control strips in 16 and 35 mm are available from

Eastman Kodak Company. KODAK Control Strips,

Process VNF-1 (used for Process RVNP) are packaged in

100-foot rolls containing at least 120 exposures and a

processed reference strip. The exposures on the roll are

spaced at 9.5-inch intervals. Each exposure has 11 gray-scale

steps at 0.30 log H increments (one camera stop). The

reference strip is exposed exactly as the control strips and is

subsequently processed under well-controlled conditions.

An instruction sheet is included which contains correction

factors that are required to establish customer process aims.

A four-digit code number appearing on the carton, can,

control strips, reference strips, and instruction sheet

identifies each production batch of strips. The procedures for

using control strips are found in Module 1, Process Control.

Correlation of Mechanical, Chemical, and

Sensitometric Data

All results—mechanical, chemical, and photographic—

should be recorded and interpreted to monitor whether the

process is in or out of control. If the process drifts out of

control, the control records should indicate what corrective

action was taken to reestablish control.

As experience is gained with Process RVNP, mechanical,

chemical, and sensitometric data will be accumulated, which

can serve as references to indicate what may be expected in

the photographic results when various mechanical and

chemical changes occur.

Before experience is gained with Process RVNP, it is

important to know generally what photographic effects can

be expected as a result of variations and approximately what

magnitude of change can produce a noticeable photographic

effect. Such information is helpful in diagnosing the cause of

a photographically off-balance condition. Some of the major

photographic effects of mechanical and chemical variations

on EASTMAN EKTACHROME Films are illustrated in

Figures 14-2 through 14-14. Effects caused by

contamination of the first developer and color developer are

illustrated in Figures 14-15 through 14-22. Each plot shows

the effect of a change in a process parameter (horizontal

axis) on the dye density of the final film (vertical axis). The

specifications for the various parameters are represented by

the letter “S” along the horizontal axis. A plot at + 0.10 for

the red density indicates the parameter change caused the red

density to increase by 0.10 densitometric units above the

process aim.

The magnitude of the changes shown in these plots should

not be considered to be process-control limits. Also, the data

presented are qualitative, not quantitative. The plots were

derived from experiments using small laboratory machines

in which all constituents were held constant except the

variable being studied. Hence, the figures should be used

only as trend charts and guides. If two or more process

parameters are varied, the resulting photographic effect may

not be additive. Interactions can occur that produce effects

other than those predicted by addition. The plots in this

publication are representative only; they do not contain all

possible solution problems. Most of the important

photographic effects take place in the developer. However,

proper bleaching and fixing are also important.

14-4 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP


Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Variations

Figure 14-2 Effects of Time, Temperature and pH Variations—7240 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0122EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

G

R

G

B

R

B

-18

Time

s

Sec

R G B

R G B

+18

B

G

R

G

R

B

Temperature

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-5

R

G

B

-2

R G B

s

F

R G

R

G

B

B

+2

B

G

R

B

G

R

-0.2

pH

R G B

R G B

s

pH

R G B

B

+0.2

R

G


Figure 14-3 Effects of Hydroquinone and Phenidone Variations—7240 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0123EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

-0.6

Hydroquinone

R

R

G

G

s

g/L

R G B

R G B

B

B

+0.6

Phenidone

14-6 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

R G

B

-0.2

s

g/L

R G B

R

R G

G

B

B

B

+0.2

R G


Figure 14-4 Effects of NaCNS and NaBr Variations—7240 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0124EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

R G B

-0.2

NaCNS

s

g/L

R G B

R G B

R G B

+0.2

R

G B

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-7

-0.6

NaBr

R G B

R G B

R G B

R G B

s

g/L

+0.6


Figure 14-5 Effects of Time, Temperature and pH Variations—7240 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0125EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

R

G

B

R

G B

-60

R

G

Time

B

R

s

Sec

G

R G B

B

+60

G

R

-0.2 s

pH

14-8 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

B

R B

G

R

G

-5

B

R B

G

Temperature

R G

B

s

F

R

R B

+5

G

G

R B

G

B

G

R

B

G

R

B

pH

B

G

R R

B

R G

B

+0.2

G

G

G


Figure 14-6 Effects of CD-3, NaBr and RA-1 Variations—7240 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0126EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

G

R

B

G

R

B

R G

R

CD-3

B

G

B

B

R

G

G

R

B

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-9

NaBr

R G B

R G B

-1.5 s +1.5 -0.6 s +0.6

g/L

g/L

G

R

B

R G B

B

R

G

R

B

R

G B

B

G

R

RA-1

G

R G B

R G B

G

R

R G B

-0.07 s

g/L

+0.07

B


Figure 14-7 Effects of Citrazinic Acid and Benzyl Alcohol Variations—7240 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

GREEN

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0127EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

BLUE

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

Citrazinic Acid

R

R G

R G

G

B

B

R G

B

B

-0.5 s

g/L

+0.5

Benzyl Alcohol

-1.0 s

mL/L

+1.0

14-10 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

G

R

B

G B

R

R G

B

R G B

G

R

B

R G B


Figure 14-8 Effects of Time, Temperature and pH Variations—7399 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0128EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

R

G

R

G

B

G

G B

B

-18

B

Time

R

R

s

Sec

R

+18

B

G

R

R G

B

G

G

R

Temperature

-0.3 s

pH

+0.3

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-11

B

B

-4

s

F

R G B

R G

R G B

R

B

G

+4

B

R

G B

R

G B

R

G B

pH

R G B

G

G

R

G

R

R


Figure 14-9 Effects of Phenidone, Na 2 SO 3 and Hydroquinone Variations—7399 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0129EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

Phenidone

R G B

R G B

R G B

R G B

R

B

Na2SO3

-0.15 s +0.15 -6.0 s +6.0

g/L

g/L

Hydroquinone

-1.5 s

g/L

+1.5

14-12 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

G

R G B

R G B

R G B

R G B

R

G

R G

B

B

R

G B

R

G B

R G B

R G B

R G

R

G


Figure 14-10 Effects of NaCNS, NaBr and KI Variations—7399 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0130EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

-0.5

NaCNS

R G B

R

R

R

s

g/L

G

G

G

B

B

B

+0.5

-13.0 s

mg/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-13

B

R G

R G

B

-1.0

NaBr

R G B

R G

B

s

g/L

+1.0

R G

B

B

R G

R

B

G

B

R G

KI

R G B

R G

B

R

B

+13.0


Figure 14-11 Effects of Time, Temperature and pH Variations—7399 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0131EC

D-MAX

HD

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

R

G B

G

B

R

G

B

R

G

B

R

Time

B

R G

B

G

R

B

G

R

R G B

Temperature

-40 s +40 -6 s +6

Sec

F

14-14 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

G B

G

R

R

B

R G

R

B

G

B

G

R B

G B

R

B

R G

R G B

R

G

R

B

G

R

B

G

B

pH

R G B

G

-0.2 s

pH

+0.2


Figure 14-12 Effects of Benzyl Alcohol, Na 2 SO 3 and NaBr Variations—7399 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0132EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

R

R

B

G

B

G

B

G

R

Benzyl Alcohol

R G B

B

R

G

B

R G

R G B

2 3 SO Na

-3.0 s +3.0 -3.0 s +3.0

mL/L

g/L

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-15

R

R G

R

G

B

R G B

B

B

G

R

R G

G

B

R

G

R G

B

B

B

NaBr

R G B

R G B

R B G

R G B

-0.6 s

g/L

+0.6


Figure 14-13 Effects of KI, Citrazinic Acid and CD-3 Variations—7399 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

GREEN

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0133EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

BLUE

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

G

B

R

B

G

R

B

R G

R G B

KI

R G B

R G

B

R

B

Citrazinc Acid

-6.0 s +6.0 -0.6 s +0.6

mg/L

g/L

14-16 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

G

R G

B

R

R

B

B

R G

B

G

B

R G

B

R G

B

R

G B

CD-3

G G

R

B

G

R G

B

R G

R B

G

R B G

R G B

R

G

R

-3.0 s

g/L

+3.0


Figure 14-14 Effects of Ethylenediamine and RA-1 Variations—7399 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0134EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

G

R

R

B

R B

G

Ethylenediamine

G B

R

G

R G

B

R

B

G

B

G

R B

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-17

RA-1

-1.0 s +1.0 -0.06 s +0.06

g/L

g/L

B

R

G

B

R

G

R

R

G

B

G

B

R

G

R

B

R

G

B

R

G

B

G B


Effects of Contamination

Figure 14-15 Effects of Color Developer and Fixer Contamination—7240 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0152EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

B

G

Color Developer

R

.10

0 0.015%

G

R

B

G

B

B

R

R G

14-18 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

B

G

Fixer

B

G

R

B

G

0 0.012%

R

R

B

R G

B


Figure 14-16 Effects of Persulfate Bleach and Bleach Accelerator Contamination

—7240 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

GREEN

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0136EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

BLUE

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

Persulfate Bleach

G

.10

0 1.0%

R

R

B

G

B

R

B

G

G

R

B

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-19

0

Bleach Accelerator

G

R

B

B

G

R

G

R

G

R

B

1.2%

R G

B


Figure 14-17 Effects of First Developer and Fixer Contamination—7240 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

GREEN

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0153EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

BLUE

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

0

First Developer

B

R

G

G

B

R

G

B

R

R

B

G

1.2%

0

G

G

14-20 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

Fixer

R G

R

B

B

R

G

B

B

R

1.2%


Figure 14-18 Effects of Persulfate Bleach and Bleach Accelerator Contamination

—7240 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

GREEN

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0138EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

BLUE

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

Persulfate Bleach

G

B

.10

0 5 %

B

R

G

R

B

G

R

B

G

R

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-21

0

Bleach Accelerator

B

G

R

B

1.2%

R G

B

G

R

B

R

G

B


Figure 14-19 Effects of Color Developer and Fixer Contamination—7399 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0154EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

B

B

Color Developer

B

.10

0 0.015%

R

G

R

G

R

G

R G

B

14-22 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

Fixer

R

R

G B

R

G

0 1.2%

G B

R

G B

B


Figure 14-20 Effects of Persulfate Bleach and Bleach Accelerator Contamination

—7399 Film in Process RVNP First Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0140EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

0

Persulfate Bleach

R

G B

R

G

B

R

G

B

1.0%

G

R B

Bleach Accelerator

0 1.2%

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-23

B

G

R

G

R

G

B

G

R

R

B

B


Figure 14-21 Effects of First Developer and Fixer Contamination—7399 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

RED

GREEN

GREEN

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

F010_0155EC

D-MAX

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

BLUE

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

0

First Developer

B

R

G

R

B

G

R

1.2%

B G

R

B G

14-24 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

0

B

B

Fixer

G

B

G

R

G

R

B

R

1.2%

R G


Figure 14-22 Effects of Persulfate Bleach and Bleach Accelerator Contamination

—7399 Film in Process RVNP Color Developer

AIM

VALUES

F010_0142EC

D-MAX

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

HD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

LD

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

D-Min

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

RED

GREEN

BLUE

B/W

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.25

.20

.15

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.15

.20

.10

.05

+

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

.10

+ .05

0

.05

.10

0

Persulfate Bleach

G

R

B

G

B

R

B

R G

B

5%

R G

Bleach Accelerator

0 1.2%

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-25

R

B

B

G

R

G

R

G

R B

G

B

R


DIAGNOSTIC SCHEMES

The flow chart procedures illustrated in Figures 14-23 to

14-30 will aid in determining the source of an out-of-control

situation. There are nine major schemes:

Verification Process, Figure 14-23

Problem Sorting, Figure 14-24

Low First Developer Activity, Figure 14-25

High First Developer Activity, Figure 14-26

Low Color Developer Activity, Figure 14-27

High Color Developer Activity, Figure 14-28

Retained Silver in Persulfate Bleach, Figure 14-29

Retained Silver Halide, Figure 14-30

14-26 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP


Figure 14-23 Verification Process

Control Strips Show

Apparent Process Problem

F010_0143EC

Do Pictures Agree with

Process Control Strips?

NO YES

Process Another

Control Strip

Reread previously

processed control strip.

Check for fog, fingerprint,

cinch mark, scratch, etc.

Does Deviation

Continue to Show?

Do Densitometered Readings

Continue to Show Deviation?

NO

YES

NO

YES

Continue to process more

control strips until a decision

can be made

Verify Densitometric

Readings "Before"

and "After"

Light leak

Storage

Confirm; Run crossover

test with another batch

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-27

Process Another

Densitometer

Control Strip Problem

Calibration error

Wrong status filters

Plotting error

Dirty Filters

Densitometer malfunction

Does Deviation

Continue to Show?

NO

YES

Process Problem

Verified

Variable

Control Strips

Control Strip

Damage

Go to appropriate

Process Troubleshooting

Diagram

Exposure variability

Storage

Confirm;

Process a 20 strip batch


Figure 14-24 Problem Sorting

Process Problem Verified

B

G

F010_0156EC

High Blue

Low Green

High Green

Low Blue

G

B

Determine Sensitometric Deviation

from Process Control Aim

Lower

Densities

Higher

Densities

Check pH

of Col. Dev.

(too high)

Is it

Retained

Silver?

First Developer Color Developer

High Activity

Low Activity

Is it

Retained

Silver?

14-28 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

See Fig. 14-26 See Fig. 14-27

Check pH

of Col. Dev.

(too low)

NO

Check Strip for Opaque

Streaks/Refix Strip to

Verify Problem

See the Retained

Silver Halide Test.

Check IR Density

and/or Rebleach Strip to

Verify Problem

See the Retained

Silver Test.

YES

NO

YES

Color Developer

High Activity

Retained Silver Halide Retained Silver

First Developer

Low Activity

See Fig. 14-28

See Fig. 14-30

See Fig. 14-25

Persulfate

See Fig. 14-29


Figure 14-25 Low First Developer Activity

The resulting photographic effect is opposite of the first

developer activity because this developer controls the

formation of the negative image.

B

G

R

F010_0157EC

Are the chemical analyses of

developer tank off Specs?

Also see Figs.

14-28, -29, -30

NO YES

Are the chemical analyses of

Developer Replenisher off Specs?

YES

NO

Are the developer physical

measurements off Specs?

NO

YES

High exposure level

(low probability)

Replenisher Rate

Too Low

Replenisher Mix

Error

Developer

Contamination

Low Agitation

Time Too Short

Temperature

Control

Malfunctioning or

Set Too Low

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-29

Check Exposure

Level

Check and adjust

Repl. Rate if

necessary

Check Mixing

Procedure

Compare

with fresh

Developer; mix

fresh Developer

Check

Bars/Nozzles for

plugging; Check

Recirculation

Check and Adjust

Parameter if

necessary

Increase Repl.

Rate

Aeration/Oxidation

of Solution (low

sulfite)

Mix a Fresh

Solution

Eliminate Source of

contamination (incl.

recirculation &

replenisher lines)

Check for Air

Leaks/Foaming

Eliminate

Source of

Oxidation


Figure 14-26 High First Developer Activity

B

G

R

The resulting photographic effect is opposite of the first

developer activity because this developer controls the

formation of the negative image.

F010_0158EC

Are the Chemical Analyses of Developer off

Specs? Also see Fig. 14-27

NO YES

Are the Chemical Analyses of

Developer Replenisher off Specs?

Are the Developer Physical

Measurements off Specs?

YES

YES

NO

NO

Low exposure

level (low

probability)

Repl. Rate

Too High

Repl. Mix

Error

Developer

Contamination

High Stop

Bath pH

Temperature

Control

Malfunctioning

or Set Too High

Check Exposure

Level on Print

Stock

Adjust Stop Repl.

Conc. & Repl. Rate

to Maintain Stable

Tank Chemistry;

Check Operation of

crossover

squeegee

14-30 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

Check & Adjust

Repl. Rate

Check Mixing

Procedure

Compare with

good Developer:

mix fresh dev.

Check pH

Decrease Repl.

Rate

Eliminate Source

of Contamination

(incl. recirculation

& repl. lines)

Time too long

Adjust Existing

Tank Solution

Mix a Fresh

Solution

Check & Adjust

Parameter if

necessary


Figure 14-27 Low Color Developer Activity

R G B

F010_0159EC

Are the chemical analyses of

developer tank off Specs?

YES

Also see Fig.

14-26

NO

Are the Chemical Analyses of

Developer Replenisher off Specs?

YES NO

Are the developer physical

measurements off Specs?

YES NO

Aeration/Oxidation

of Solution

(low probability)

Temperature

Control

Malfunctioning or

Set Too Low

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-31

Replenisher Rate

Too Low

Replenisher Mix

Error

Developer

Contamination

Time Too Short Low Agitation

Check for Air

Leaks/Foaming

Check and adjust

Repl. Rate if

necessary

Check Mixing

Procedure

Compare

with fresh

Developer

Check

Bars/Nozzles for

plugging; Check

Recirculation

Check and Adjust

Parameter if

necessary

Eliminate Source of

contamination (incl.

recirculation &

replenisher lines)

Mix a Fresh

Solution


Figure 14-28 High Color Developer Activity

B

G

R

F010_0160EC

Are the Chemical Analyses of Developer

Off Specs? Also see Figs. 14-25, -29, -30,

NO YES

Are the Chemical Analyses of

Developer Replenisher off specs?

YES

Are the Developer Physical

Measurements off Specs?

NO

YES

NO

Developer

Contamination

Repl. Rate

Too High

Repl. Mix

Error

Developer

Contamination

High Stop

Bath pH

Temperature

Control

Malfunctioning

or Set Too High

14-32 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

Check & Adjust

Repl. Rate

Check Mixing

Procedure

Compare with

good Developer:

mix fresh dev.

Check pH

Eliminate Source

of Contamination

(incl. recirculation

& repl. lines)

Time too Long

Adjust Existing

Tank Solution

Mix a Fresh

Solution

Adjust Stop Repl.

Conc. & Repl. Rate

to Maintain Stable

Tank Chemistry;

Check Operation of

crossover

squeegee

Check & Adjust

Parameter if

necessary


Figure 14-29 Retained Silver in Persulfate Bleach

Retained Silver

F010_0161EC

Are the Chemical Analyses of Accelerator

Tank and Repl. off Specifications?

YES

NO

Old Accel

Mix and/or

Tank

Mix

Reconstitution

Error

Excessive

Aeration of

Accel.

Low

Replenishment

Rate Bleach

or Accel.

Sulfate

Buildup in

Bleach

Reconstitution

Are the Bleach Tank’s Physical

Measurements off Specifications?

Are the Accelerator Tank’s Physical

Measurements off Specifications?

NO YES

NO YES

Keep mixing

and storage

records

Check Mixing

Instructions

Check for air

leaks and

excessive

agitation

Check &

Adjust if

necessary

Check

Sp Gr

Temp. too

low

Time too

short

Bleach

Contam.

(Ferri)

Temp. too

high

Time too

short

Accel.

Contam.

(Hypo)

Mix a

Fresh

Solution

Discard part of

replenisher;

mix fresh

solution

Check & Adjust

Parameter if

necessary

Check & Adjust

parameter if

necessary

Confirmed,

Mix a Fresh

Tank

Solution

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-33


Figure 14-30 Retained Silver Halide

Retained Silver Halide

F010_0151EC

Are the Chemical Analyses of Fixer

Tank off Specifications?

NO YES

Are the Chemical Analyses

of Fixer Replenisher off Specs?

Are the Fixer Physical

Measurements off Specs?

NO YES

NO

YES

Silver

Recovery

Unit

Malfunctioning

Repl. Rate

Too Low

Sulfate

Buildup

Too High

(excessive

aeration)

Mix/

Reconstitution

Error

Fixer

Contam.

Time in

Accelerator

for Persulfate

Bleach

Too Long

PBA-1 in

Accelerator for

Persulfate

Bleach

Too High

Time

Too Short

Temp. Control

Malfunctioning

or Set

Too Low

Low

Agitation

14-34 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

Check Unit

Check

Repl. Rate

Check

Specific

Gravity

Check

Mixing/

Reconstitution

Procedure

Check and

Adjust

Parameter if

necessary

Check

Bars/

Nozzles for

Plugging

Check

Recirculation

Correct

Malfunction

Increase

Repl. Rate

Eliminate Air

Leaks in

Recirculation

System

Mix a Fresh

Solution


SPECIAL TESTS

There are verification tests for the suspected problems of

retained silver and retained silver halide.

Retained Silver

Retained silver is the result of ineffective bleaching. The

symptoms are:

1. Increased density in the lower-density areas of the

film, particularly D-min. There may be an increase in

high-density areas because of retained silver, but it

may not be noticed.

2. The infrared density of the D-min patch increases.

Normally, an infrared density (at 1,000 nm) of less

than 0.07 is acceptable. A sound track densitometer is

a suitable instrument for this purpose.

Verification Test:

1. Prepare a small volume of fresh ferricyanide bleach *

or use a known good solution of ferricyanide bleach

replenisher.

2. Immerse the processed film with suspected silver

retention in the bleach for 1 - 2 minutes. Agitate by

moving the film strip manually. Wash the film for

30 - 40 seconds under running water.

3. Fix the strip for 1 - 2 minutes in a small volume of a

fresh fixer solution, again agitating manually. Wash

the film for 30 - 40 seconds.

4. Dry the film and reread the infrared density. An

infrared density within the acceptable region (which

had formerly been marginal or unacceptable) confirms

silver retention. Lower optical densities also confirm

retained silver.

* If you are unable to prepare a fresh ferricyanide bleach, prepare a fresh

persulfate accelerator and bleach. Follow normal times and temperatures.

Retained Silver Halide

Retained silver halide is the result of ineffective fixing. The

symptoms are:

1. There are large increases in density (i.e., greater than

+ 0.10 R, G, and B) in both the D-min and D-max steps

of the control strip. The overall contrast is only slightly

increased.

2. The infrared density of the D-max patch is normal.

Normally, an infrared density (at 1,000 nm) of less

than 0.07 is acceptable. A sound track densitometer is

a suitable instrument for this purpose.

3. Opaque streaks are generally visible when the strip is

viewed with reflected light.

Verification Test:

1. Re-fix the processed control strip for 1 - 2 minutes in

a small volume of a fresh fixer replenisher solution.

Agitate by moving the film manually. Wash the film

for 30 - 40 seconds under running water.

2. Dry the film and reread the densities. If the D-min and

D-max readings are down to normal control levels

after refixing and/or the opaque streaks disappear, the

problem can be attributed to retained silver halide.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-35


PROCESSED FILM PROBLEMS

Problem Appearance Possible Source of Problem Suggestion Corrective Action

Black lines and

comets

Short, black lines and

comets on emulsion

surface. Shiny in

reflected light.

Dirt particles Dark spots and

marks. Easiest to see

under high-intensity

specular lighting.

Dots equally

spaced apart,

repeating

Emulsion

skivings

Yellow particles on

surface.

Showers of dots on

emulsion.

Small particles of

emulsion sheared

from the film edges

and deposited on the

film surface.

Ferrotyping Irregular, shiny areas

on the emulsion

surface.

Fungus or algae

deposits

Light irregular

smears, streaks, and

spots.

Newton’s rings Fuzzy, erratic, faintly

colored lines.

Reticulation Rough emulsion

surface.

Scalloped or

fluted edges

Under certain conditions, the electrolytic silver cell in

the fixer recirculation systems produces small,

flocculent silver flakes. These flakes get into the fixer

tank, attach to the emulsion, and then go through the

fixer squeegee, where each one is smeared into a

line or comet.

Dirt may consist of dust, cloth filaments, hair, skin

flakes, chemical crystals, scum, etc. Such dirt can

come from machine operators, air-conditioning units,

incorrect construction materials, lack of solution or

dryer air filters, water hardness, poor housekeeping,

etc.

Low fixer pH causes the formation of sulfur particles

in the fixer.

Soft touch tire pressing on the emulsion during

processing.

Use a 10- to 15-micron filter in the

fixer return line from the cell, or correct

operation of the cell.

Establish and follow good laboratory

cleanliness procedures. For more

information on laboratory cleanliness,

refer to Module 2.

Maintain the fixer pH within

specifications.

Be certain the emulsion does not ride

on spools with soft-touch tires.

Spools improperly aligned, or with burrs. Check the machine spools.

Wet or tacky emulsion at processor windup. Adjust the dryer to provide adequate

film drying.

High windup tension on unprocessed films. Reduce the windup tension.

Unwinding and rewinding unprocessed cold film

without allowing it to reach room temperature.

Fungi and algae tend to form on the inside walls of

the wash tanks. Their presence is indicated by a

slippery and slimy feel to the tank walls.

Always allow adequate time for film to

come to room temperature before

using.

A 5 1/4 percent solution of sodium

hypochlorite, available as household

liquid bleach (e.g., Clorox), can be

used to clean the tank in order to

control the formation of fungi and

algae. See Control of Biological

Growths in Module 2.

High or uneven printer gate pressure. Adjust printer.

Low relative humidity in printing room. Raise relative humidity to 60 percent.

Preprint film was dried too fast or overdried. Adjust drying conditions of preprint

film.

High solution temperatures. Adjust to specifications.

Dryer temperature too high or relative humidity too Adjust to specifications.

low.

Excessive tension on the film strand. Check the processing machine for

excessive tension in the film loops

caused by a high rack or improper

machine drive. Check for improper

threading. Rectify either condition.

14-36 Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP


Problem Appearance Possible Source of Problem Suggestion Corrective Action

Scratches Light lines parallel to

the film edges.

Shoreline Fuzzy contour lines

near the edges of the

film.

Static marks Blue streaks, spots

and dots.

Old, hard, worn, crystal-laden, or maladjusted wiperblade

squeegees.

Use spring-loaded wiper blade

squeegees of 40-durometer hardness

or less. Keep them clean, and replace

them when worn.

Cinching a roll of film before or after processing. Be certain that the machine take-up

does not jerk the film roll. Train film

handlers in proper film rewinding

techniques.

Improper loading of processing machine. Always handle film with care. Examine

equipment for sharp edges, burrs, etc.

and eliminate them.

Machine spools that are not rotating freely or are out

of line.

Check spools regularly, and replace

bearings when necessary.

Chemical crystals or other foreign material on spools. Spools and racks should be cleaned

regularly according to the procedures

in the machine maintenance section of

this manual.

Improper machine threading (a twist in the film) or

improper splices.

These problems should be corrected

according to normal processing

procedures.

Nonuniform drying of the film emulsion. Reduce the temperature, or increase

the relative humidity of the air in the

drying cabinet.

Rapid rewinding or transporting film in low relative

humidity.

Emulsion contact with flat electrophoretic rollers

before processing.

Unprocessed film should not be

rewound at high speed. The relative

humidity in the rewinding area should

be 50 percent or greater.

Only undercut rollers should come in

contact with the emulsion surface. Use

conductive materials on the rewind,

load accumulator, etc., and ground

them.

Tacky film Inadequate final film squeegee action. Check the air flow, alignment and

cleanliness of the final squeegee.

Inadequate drying conditions. Check the temperature, relative

humidity, and flow rate of the air in the

dryer cabinet. The heaters or the fan

may not be functioning properly, or the

air filters may be plugged with dirt. If

the dryer uses recirculated air, be sure

it is mixed properly with incoming air.

Also check the humidity control of

recirculated air. If the film is still tacky

after all possible normal corrective

measures have been taken, as a

temporary measure, increase the

temperature of the dryer air. Because

increased air temperature can be

injurious to the film, such action

requires close attention to the physical

appearance of the film.

Water spots Irregular areas on

emulsion surface

best seen in specular

reflected light.

Lines, drops, or puddles of water allowed to enter the

dryer on the film.

The final squeegee in the process

must be very efficient and must

remove virtually all water from the

emulsion surface.

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP 14-37


Processing EASTMAN EKTACHROME Color Reversal Films, Module 14

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical Variations in Process RVNP

Processing EASTMAN

EKTACHROME Color Reversal Films,

Module 14,

Effects of Mechanical & Chemical

Kodak, Ektachrome, Eastman, and Estar are trademarks.

Revised 5/05

Printed in U.S.A.

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