slides - UCLA

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slides - UCLA

Complex Graphemes in the Proto-cuneiform

Corpus and the Problem of Phonological

Reconstruction

Cale Johnson

University of California, Los Angeles


Why are complex graphemes important for

phonological reconstruction?

EZEN-A + SU-A (MS 4499, Obv. 0104)

+ =

––––––––––––––––––––––––

EZEN-A EZEN-B EZEN-C SU-A SU-B


a, na2 BU+BU+NA2+A = ARINA x

am6 GA2+AN = AMA

bar, sze SZEG9+SZE+BAR = SZEGBAR x

bur GA2+BUR+ME? = GABURA?

en EZEN+EN = EZEN x

en GA2+EN = MEN

gar GA2+GAR = GALGA

gi NE+GI = GIBIL6

ma DARA3+MA = ALIM

ma MASZDA x ?

na URI3+NA = NANNA

nu(n) DARA3+MA+NUN

rum EZEN+ASZ = DURUM x

(s)ug6 PIRIG+SU = UG

szesz4/szusz x

MUSZ3+ERIN = SZUSZIN

ugar x (= SIG7) LAGAB+SIG7 = AGAR2

za PIRIG+ZA = AZ

Previously proposed

phonological diacritics

Krispijn 1991-1992, 17-18

Gong 1993, 115-118

Krebernik 1994, 382-384

Steinkeller 1994, 694-695


The distribution of certain complex signs


BU-A+BU-A+NA2

BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A.NUTILLU

BU-A+BU+A+NA2-A (Uruk IV)

W 9071,e O0101

BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A (Uruk III)

W 14335,c O0102

W 20266,77 O0101

W 24004,3b O0201

BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A.NUTILLU (Uruk IV)

W 6984,a O0201

W 19577,c+ O0202

BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A.NUTILLU (Uruk III)

not attested

≠2-N14 4-N01 ; BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A ?±

SANGA-A ≠BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A±

≠BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A ?±

1-N01 ; BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A

1-N01 ; ≠TUR BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A.NUTILLU±

4-N01 ; BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A.NUTILLU


NANNA-A

• 51 occurrences

Uruk IV

Uruk III

Archaic Ur

• 6 of the 11 Uruk III attestations co-occur with EN-A

W 20274,119 O0102A

W 20274,37 O0202B

W 20274,80+ O0301

W 20274,86 O0103A

W 20327,1 O0207B2

W 21671 O0205

• Archaic Ur attestations never co-occur with EN-A, but 10 of the

40 Archaic Ur attestations co-occur with UR-A SAG

UET 2, 143 O0207

UET 2, 181 O0307

UET 2, 186 O0102

UET 2, 231 O0102

UET 2, 253 O0102

UET 2, 42 O0102

UET 2, 53 O0203

UET 2, 55 O0101

UET 2, 66 O0305

UET 2, 87 O0306

not attested

11 occurrences

40 occurrences

1-N01 ; SU-A NUN-A EN-A NANNA-A

EN-A NANNA-A AN

1-N01 ; EN-A NANNA-A PAP-A SANGA-A

EN-A NANNA-A

EN-A ≠NANNA-A±

NAGAR-B ≠NANNA-A ?± EN-A

1-N22F 3-N01F ; NANNA-A UR-A SAG

1-N22F 3-N01F ; NANNA-A SAG UR-A

NANNA-A SAG UR-A

4-N01F ; NANNA-A SAG UR-A

NANNA-A UR-A SAG

UR-A SAG NANNA-A

UR-A NANNA-A SAG

2-N51F ; GAR NANNA-A SAG UR-A

3-N19F 2-N04F ; NANNA-A SAG UR-A NU TUR

1-N22 3-N01 ; NANNA-A UR-A SAG


AMA-A

AMA-B

• co-occurrence with SAL (10 occurrences):

K030 O0202

MSVO 1, 220 O0102A

MSVO 4, 29 O0203B

N032A O0101B2

W 19416,b O0203

W 20511,2 O0102

W 20831,3 O0102

W 21152,3 O0102

W 23950 O0101A

W 24033,1 O0205A

• co-occurrence with MA or HASZHUR (7 occurrences):

MSVO 1, 191 O0101

MSVO 3, 21 O0207

MSVO 3, 75 O0303

W 15773,l O0102A1

W 20327,9 O0201

W 20327,9 O0202

W 21300,3 R0101

2-N14 ; MUD SAL AMA-A

≠ZATU628-A± SAL SZU AMA-A SAL NAM2 KAB

2-N01 ; TUR NAM2 TI SAL AMA-A

2-LAGAB-B ; ≠SAL± AMA-A

2-LAGAB-A ; NA-A AMA-A SAL

1-N01 ; SAL AMA-A

2-N01 ; AMA-A SAL

SAL ZATU628-B 1-N04 AMA-A SU-A PAP-A

1-N01 ; DUG-C X SAL NIN TAK4-A X AMA-A

2-N01 ; UNUG-A SAL AMA-A ? AN NINDA2+HI+ME-A

AMA-A MA KI-A NA-A

1-N03 ; 3-N57 AMA-A MA

2-N04 3-N41 ; UMUN2 MA 3-N57 AMA-A

2-N14 ; AMA-A MA X

X ≠AMA-A± UDU-A+TAR-B KI-A X MA

1-N01 ; BA SIG2-B SZA ? ≠AN± SANGA-A MA AMA-A

1-N01 ; AMA-A ≠HASZHUR±


AMA-A

(cont.)

AMA-B

• dependent labor accounts with AMA-A MUSZEN MASZ (5 occurrences):

MSVO 1, 212 O0104B3

MSVO 1, 212 O0201B

MSVO 1, 213 O0104B3

MSVO 1, 213 O0105A

MSVO 1, 213 R0103B

• dependent labor accounts with AMA-A AN EN-A (3 occurrences):

MSVO 3, 26 R0201

N027 O0101

Talon 1 O0201b09

• colophon of Schöyen Collection Lexical Lists (5 occurrences):

MS2429/2 R0101

MS2429/3 R0101

MS2429/4 R0101

MS2503/2 R0101

MS2900/04 R0101

≠AMA-A± ERIM-A MUSZEN MASZ

≠AMA-A MUSZEN MASZ KI-A ZATU694-C GI±

AMA-A MUSZEN MASZ ERIM-A

1-N01 ; SAG+MA GESZTU-C5 MUSZEN+2-N57 GI SZA

E2-A AMA-A

SAL AMA-A MUSZEN MASZ GI+KU-B1 ? KI-A

3-N14 1-N01 4-N39A ; SZE-A SZAM2 EN-A AMA-A AN

MEN-A 2-N57 SZA3-A1 SI4-F DU SI4-D

5-N01 ; LU2 AN AMA-A EN-A

AMA-A AN EN-A

4-N14 1-N01 ; NAM2 GAR SANGA-A AMA-A (Professions)

4-N14 1-N01 ; NAM2 GAR AMA-A SANGA-A (Professions)

4-N14 1-N01 ; NAM2 GAR SANGA-A AMA-A (Professions)

1-N34 1-N14 1-N01 ; ≠SANGA-A± GAR AMA-A (Vessels)

X 1-N01 ? ; ≠NI-A ?± SANGA-A GAR ≠AMA-A ? ± (unknown)


The Continuity Hypothesis

BU-A+BU-A+NA2-A = RI x +NA2 = Sumerian /arina/ “root”

URI3+NA = NANNA = Sumerian /nannar/ (divine name)

GA2+AM6 = AMA = Sumerian /ama/ “mother”


Discontinuity and Folk Reconstruction


Major Lexical Strata in Japanese

Substrata in Sino-Japanese


• proto-cuneiform catalog information, transliterations and images

• lexical searches

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