Teacher's Guide

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Teacher's Guide

Newton’s

Law

Doppler

Effect

Teacher’s Guide


Table of

Contents

Introduction 3

How to use the CD-ROM ________________________________ 4

Newton’s Laws

Unit Overview and Bibliography ___________________________ 7

Background ___________________________________________ 8

Video Segments ________________________________________ 9

Multimedia Resources ___________________________________ 9

Unit Assessment Answer Key ____________________________ 9

Unit Assessment ______________________________________ 10

Activity One — Making Waves ___________________________ 11

Lesson Plan ______________________________________ 12

Activity Sheet ____________________________________ 14

Activity Two — Sound Wave Action _______________________ 15

Lesson Plan ______________________________________ 16

Activity Sheet ____________________________________ 18

Activity Three — Doing Doppler__________________________ 19

Lesson Plan ______________________________________ 20

Activity Sheet ____________________________________ 22

Doppler Effect

Unit Overview and Bibliography ________________________ 23

Background __________________________________________ 24

Video Segments _______________________________________ 25

Multimedia Resources __________________________________ 25

Unit Assessment Answer Key ___________________________ 25

Unit Assessment ______________________________________ 26

Activity One — Eggsperimenting with Motion _______________ 27

Lesson Plan ______________________________________ 28

Activity Sheet ____________________________________ 30

Activity Two — Enforcing the Speed Limit__________________ 31

Lesson Plan ______________________________________ 32

Activity Sheet ____________________________________ 34

Activity Three — On the Shoulders of Giants _______________ 35

Lesson Plan ______________________________________ 36

Activity Sheet ____________________________________ 38


Introduction

Welcome to the Newton’s Apple

Multimedia Collection!

Drawing from material shown on public

television’s Emmy-award-winning

science series, the multimedia collection

covers a wide variety of topics in earth

and space science, physical science, life

science, and health. Each module of the

Newton’s Apple Multimedia Collection

contains a CD-ROM, a printed

Teacher’s Guide, a video with two

Newton’s Apple ® segments and a

scientist profile, and a tutorial video.

The Teacher’s Guide provides three

inquiry-based activities for each of the

topics, background information,

assessment, and a bibliography of

additional resources.

The CD-ROM holds a wealth of

information that you and your

students can use to enhance science

learning. Here’s what you’ll find on

the CD-ROM:

! two full video segments from

Newton’s Apple

! additional visual resources for each

of the Newton’s Apple topics

! background information on each

topic

! a video profile of a living scientist

working in a field related to the

Newton’s Apple segments

! an Adobe Acrobat ® file containing

the teacher’s manual along with

student reproducibles

! UGather ® and UPresent ® software

that allows you and your students to

create multimedia presentations

! QuickTime ® 4.0, QuickTime ® 4.0

Pro, and Adobe Acrobat ® Reader 4.0

installers in case you need to update

your current software

The Newton’s Apple Multimedia Collection

is designed to be used by a teacher

guiding a class of students. Because

the videos on the CD-ROM are

intended to be integrated with your

instruction, you may find it helpful to

connect your computer to a projection

system or a monitor that is large

enough to be viewed by the entire

class. We have included a videotape of

the segments so that you can use a

VCR if it is more convenient. Although

the CD-ROM was designed for

teachers, it can also be used by individuals

or cooperative groups.

With the help of many classroom

science teachers, the staff at Newton’s

Apple has developed a set of lessons,

activities, and assessments for each

video segment. The content and

pedagogy conform with the National

Science Education Standards

and most state and local curriculum

frameworks. This Teacher’s Guide

presents lessons using an inquirybased

approach.

If you are an experienced teacher,

you will find material that will help

you expand your instructional

program. If you are new to inquirybased

instruction, you will find

information that will help you

develop successful instructional

strategies, consistent with the

National Science Education Standards.

Whether you are new to

inquiry-based instruction or have

been using inquiry for years, this

guide will help your students

succeed in science.

WE WE SUPPORT SUPPORT THE

THE

NA NATIONAL NA TIONAL SCIENCE SCIENCE EDUCA EDUCATION EDUCA EDUCA TION ST ST STAND ST ST AND ANDARDS AND ARDS

The National Science Education Standards published by the

National Research Council in 1996 help us look at science

education in a new light. Students are no longer merely passive

receivers of information recorded on a textbook page or

handed down by a teacher. The Standards call for students to

become active participants in their own learning process, with

teachers working as facilitators and coaches.

Newton’s Apple’s goal is to provide you with sound activities

that will supplement your curriculum and help you integrate

technology into your classroom. The activities have been field

tested by a cross section of teachers from around the country.

Some of the activities are more basic; other activities are more

challenging. We don’t expect that every teacher will use every

activity. You choose the ones you need for your educational

objectives.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 3


Teacher’s

Guide

We suggest you take a few minutes to look

through this Teacher’s Guide to familiarize

yourself with its features.

Each lesson follows the same format. The first

page provides an overview of the activity,

learning objectives, a list of materials, and a

glossary of important terms. The next two

pages present a lesson plan in three parts:

ENGAGE, EXPLORE, and EVALUATE.

! ENGAGE presents discussion questions to get

the students involved in the topic. Video

clips from the Newton’s Apple segment are

integrated into this section of the lesson.

! EXPLORE gives you the information you need

to facilitate the student activity.

! EVALUATE provides questions for the students

to think about following the activity. Many of

the activities in the collection are open-ended

and provide excellent opportunities for performance

assessment.

GUIDE ON THE SIDE and TRY THIS are features

that provide classroom management tips for

the activity and extension activities.

4 — Introduction

Using Using the the CD-ROM

CD-ROM

When you run the Newton’s Apple CD-ROM,

you will find a main menu screen that allows

you to choose either of the two Newton’s Apple

topics or the scientist profile. Simply click on

one of the pictures to bring up the menu for

that topic.

Main Menu

Once you have chosen your topic, use the

navigation buttons down the left side of the

screen to choose the information you want to

display.

Topic Menu

The Background button brings up a short

essay that reviews the basic science concepts

of the topic. This is the same essay that is in the

Teacher’s Guide.


Pla Playing Pla ying the the Video

Video

The Video button allows you to choose

several different clips from the video segment.

We have selected short video clips to

complement active classroom discussions

and promote independent thinking and

inquiry. Each video begins with a short

introduction to the subject that asks several

questions. These introductory clips can

spark discussion at the beginning of the

lesson. The Teacher’s Guide for each

activity presents specific strategies that will

help you engage your students before

showing the video. Each of the individual

clips are used with the lesson plans for the

activities. The lesson plan identifies which

clip to play with each activity.

Video Menu

Once you select a video and it loads, you’ll

see the first frame of the video segment.

The video must be started with the arrow at

the left end of the scroll bar. As you play

the video, you can pause, reverse, or

advance to any part of the video with the

scroll bar. You can return to the Clips Menu

by clicking on the Video button.

Multimedia

Tools

The Newton’s Apple staff has designed a

product that is flexible, so that you can

use it in many different ways. All of

the video clips used in the program are

available for you to use outside the

program. You may combine them with

other resources to create your own

multimedia presentations. You will

find all the video clips in folders on the

CD-ROM. You may use these clips for

classroom use only. They may not be

repackaged and sold in any form.

You will also find a folder for

UGather and UPresent . These two

pieces of software were developed by

the University of Minnesota. They

allow you to create and store multimedia

presentations. All of the information

for installing and using the software

can be found in the folder. There

is an Adobe Acrobat ® file that allows

you to read or print the entire user’s

manual for the software. We hope you

will use these valuable tools to enhance

your teaching. Students may also wish

to use the software to create presentations

or other projects for the class.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 5


Technical

Information

Refer to the notes on the CD-ROM case

for information concerning system requirements.

Directions for installing and

running the program are also provided

there.

Make sure you have the most current

versions of QuickTime ® and Adobe

Acrobat ® Reader installed on your hard

drive. The installation programs for

QuickTime 3, QuickTime Pro, and

Acrobat Reader 3.0 can be found on the

CD-ROM. Double-click on the icons

and follow the instructions for installation.

We recommend installing these

applications before running the Newton’s

Apple Multimedia program.

Trouble

Shooting

There are several Read-Me files on the

CD-ROM. The information found there

covers most of the problems that you

might encounter while using the program.

6 — Introduction

Integra Integrating

Integra ting

Multimedia

Multimedia

We suggest that you have the CD-ROM

loaded and the program running before

class. Select the video and allow it to load.

The video usually loads within a couple of

seconds, but we recommend pre-loading

it to save time.

All of the video segments are captioned in

English. The captions appear in a box at

the bottom of the video window. You can

choose to play the clips in either English

or Spanish by clicking one of the buttons

at the bottom right of the screen. (You can

also choose Spanish or English

soundtracks for the scientist profile.)

The Resources button provides you with

four additional resources. There are

additional video clips, charts, graphs, slide

shows, and graphics to help you teach

the science content of the unit.

Resources Menu

The other navigation buttons on the left

side of the window allow you to go back

to the Main Menu or to exit the program.


Ideas that Move You

What are Newton’s Laws? Why are they called

laws? What does it take to move an object? Does it

require force to keep it moving? How much more

force is needed to push or pull a heavy object

rather than a light one?

Themes and Concepts

! energy

! force

! friction

! inertia

! mass

! models

! systems and interactions

! velocity and acceleration

National Science Education Standards

Content Standard A: Students should develop abilities necessary to do

scientific inquiry.

Content Standard B: Students should develop an understanding of

motions and forces and transfer of energy.

Content Standard G: Students should develop an understanding of the

nature of science and the history of science.

Activities

1. Eggsperimenting with Motion—approx. 20 min. prep; 40 min.

class time

“An object at rest tends to stay at rest” is part of Newton’s first law of

motion. Observe this law in action as an egg resting on a cylinder is

“magically” dumped into a glass of water.

2. Enforcing the Speed Limit—approx. 10 min. prep; 40 min. class

time

Can increasing the force applied to an object do anything other than make

it move faster? Discover the link between force, mass and change of speed

as you walk “Newton, the dog.”

3. On the Shoulders of Giants—approx. 20 min. prep; 2 class periods

How was Isaac Newton able to figure out all that science on his own? He

didn’t! Newton based his laws of motion on the work of his

predecessors— Aristotle and Galileo. Enlist your journalistic talents and

interview these two prominent thinkers from the past to find out how they

interpret force and motion.

Newton’s Laws

Teacher’s Guide

More Information

Internet

Newton’s Apple

http://www.ktca.org/newtons

(The official Newton’s Apple web site

with information about the show and a

searchable database of science ideas

and activities.)

Newton’s Laws—NASA

http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/trc/saic/

newton.html

(This NASA site provides examples of

Newton’s Laws and applies them to

airplane flight.)

Newton’s Home—Newtonia web site

http://www.newtonia.freeserve.co.uk/W/

index.html

(Virtual tour of Newton’s home in

Linconshire, England)

Newton’s Law Slide Show-Bowling

Green State University

http://fermi.bgsu.edu/~stoner/p201/

newton/sld001.htm

Takes you through a slide show

explaining the three laws.

Newton’s Laws of Motion – The Physics

Classroom

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/

phys/Class/newtlaws/u2l3a.html

(Contains diagrams, illustrations and

animations to help describe Newton’s

laws of motion.)

Internet Search Words

Newton’s laws

laws of motion

Isaac Newton

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 7


Books and Articles

Gonick, L., and A. Huffman. The Cartoon

Guide to Physics. New York, NY: Harper

Collins, 1991.

Thompson, M., R. Smith and J.

Ballinger. Physical Science. Westerville,

OH: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Community Resources

Science museums

Local college or university physics

departments

8 — Newton’s Laws

Newton’s Laws

Background

Sir Isaac Newton was one of the greatest scientific geniuses of all time.

Influenced by his predecessors, Aristotle and Galileo, he turned the

scientific community on its ear in 1687 by synthesizing the principles that

explain an object’s motion into three experimentally proven laws.

Newton’s first law of motion states that every object continues in its state

of rest or motion, in a straight line and at constant speed, if it is not acted

upon by an external force. If a moving body speeds up, slows down or

veers from a straight line, some force, such as gravity or friction or a

combination of forces, has changed its motion. For example, when riding

in a car that comes to an abrupt stop, the driver continues to advance at his

or her same speed until the seat belt, or some other object, stops him or

her. If a body at rest begins to move, some force has caused this change in

movement. A hockey puck at rest on the ice remains motionless until the

hockey player pushes it with the stick. This property of objects or bodies

resisting a change in motion is called inertia.

According to Newton’s second law, the greater the force upon a body, the

greater the change in velocity. A powerful sports car may go from zero to

60 miles per hour in seven seconds. A less powerful car may take 14

seconds to reach the same speed. The greater force exerted by the more

powerful engine in the first car changes its speed (accelerates it) more

quickly than the second car. If the net force upon an object is doubled, the

rate at which the object changes its velocity also will be doubled.

Newton’s third law states that for every action there is an equal and

opposite reaction. If you are sitting in a chair now, you can feel Newton’s

third law at work. The seat of the chair is exerting a force on you equal to

the force you are exerting on it. Can you feel it?

By describing the natural laws of the universe with experimentally proven

laws, Newton’s three laws of motion enable us to explain and predict

events involving force, mass and motion.


Video Clip 1

02:08 to 02:56— David Heil learns how Newton’s First

Law of Motion involves more than sleight of hand. (48

sec.)

Video Clip 2

03:49 to 06:11— Sir Isaac Newton demonstrates his

First Law of Motion as David Heil “eggs” him on. (2

min. 22 sec.)

Video & Stills

Video Segments

Introduction

00:00 to 00:48— The Newton’s Apple kids and host

David Heil make some observations about Sir Isaac

Newton and his “laws.” (48 sec.)

Additional Resources

Button A

Video: Newton’s 1st Law—Newton’s Apple Science

Try-It

Button B

Animation: Newton’s 2nd Law—How do mass and

force affect acceleration?

Video Clip 3

06:12 to 07:53— Sir Isaac Newton gets a free ride while

teaching David Heil about his Second Law of Motion.

(1 min. 41 sec.)

Video Clip 4

08:08 to 09:42— Sir Isaac Newton puts the “pedal to

the metal” to demonstrate the Third Law of Motion.

(1 min. 34 sec.)

Unit Assessment Answer Key

The Unit assessment on the following page covers the basic concepts presented in the Newton’s Apple video segment

and the Background section in this guide. The Unit Assessment may be used as a pre- or post-test. The assessment

does not require completing all of the activities. However, students should view the complete Newton’s Apple video

before doing this assessment. There is additional assessment at the end of each activity.

Think about it.

1. Your body will fall slightly forward and down.

Because of inertia, your body will still want to travel in

a forward direction, gravity will pull you down.

2. Air resistance and friction will cause the bike to slow

down. If there were no other forces acting outside of

you and the bike, after a few pushes you wouldn’t have

to pedal again.

3. Less mass. Newton’s 2nd Law explains that

acceleration is inversely proportional to mass and so by

limiting your mass the car will gain higher acceleration.

Button C

Video: Newton’s 3rd Law—David Heil blasts off in his

own space shuttle

Button D

Timeline: Sir Isaac Newton’s life and accomplishments

4. The wall will push back against you.

5. Yes. Acceleration is dependent on the inverse

relationship between force and mass, by decreasing

them both by half you still get the same acceleration.

What would you say?

6. c 7. b 8. a 9. b 10. b

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 9


10 — Newton’s Laws

Unit Assessment

What do you know about

Newton’s Laws?

Write the answers to these questions in your journal or on a separate piece of paper.

Think about it

1. When riding on a skateboard, you jump off to one

side. In what direction will your body fall? Explain.

2. When riding a bicycle on level ground, why must you

keep pedaling to maintain a steady speed?

3. If you were designing a car that accelerates quickly

would it be best to give the car more or less mass?

Explain.

What would you say?

6. While standing on a bathroom scale you exert a force

downward. What is the reacting force?

a. the scale

b. no reacting force

c. the scale and ground

d. your feet

7. If you place a ball on the floor of a car as it is

making a right hand turn, in which direction will the ball

appear to go?

a. right

b. left

c. straight

d. back

8. How much additional force do you need to exert to

give you and your friend a ride on your bike?

a. about twice as much

b. the same amount

c. about half as much

d. about four times

4. According to Newton’s 3rd Law, when you push on

a wall how will the wall react?

5. If you decrease a car’s net force and mass by half,

will it still accelerate at the same rate as before?

9. What is happening if you are traveling 25 mph in a

car that has an acceleration of zero.

a. the car is slowing down

b. the car is traveling at a constant velocity

c. the car is speeding up

d. none of the above

10. If you are sitting in a wagon throwing weights off

the back, the wagon will move forward. This is an

example of?

a. inertia

b. action/reaction

c. Newton’s 2nd law

d. none of the above

Copyright © Twin Cities Public Television & GPN. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Activity 1

Eggsperimenting with Motion

What happens to an object once it is in motion? When and why does an object at

rest begin to move? What is a force?

Getting Ready

Overview

Students discuss Newton’s first law of motion, watch a demonstration

on video, and observe a classroom demonstration. Students then

individually develop hypotheses to explain what they have observed.

Their hypotheses are then discussed as a whole-class activity.

Objectives

After completing this activity, students will be able to—

! state the link between seat belts and Newton’s first law

! describe inertia by giving examples

! create and perform their own examples of Newton’s first law of

motion

Time Needed

Preparation: Approx. 20 min.

Classroom: approximately 40 minutes

Materials

For the teacher:

! toy wagon (or a toy flatbed truck) with cargo

! non-breakable drinking glass

! pie plate

! empty toilet-paper roll

! several raw eggs

! water

! household broom

! sponges or paper towels (for cleaning up accidents)

Important Terms

acceleration—The rate at which

velocity changes in magnitude or

direction, or both.

force—A push or pull that causes an

object to change its velocity.

friction—A force that opposes the

motion of an object interacting with its

environment.

inertia—An object’s tendency to

remain in its condition of rest or motion

velocity the speed and direction of a

moving object.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 11


Video Clip 1

02:08 to 02:56— David Heil learns how

Newton’s First Law of Motion involves

more than sleight of hand. (48 sec.)

Video Clip 2

03:49 to 06:11— Sir Isaac Newton

demonstrates his First Law of Motion as

David Heil “eggs” him on. (2 min. 22

sec.)

Guide on the Side

! You may wish to begin the lesson

by viewing the Introduction from the

Video Menu on the CD-ROM [00:00 to

00:48]. Find out what students

already know about Newton’s laws of

motion.

! This is a demonstration that you

will definitely want to practice before

doing for the class. It generally takes

several tries before you can perform

the demonstration correctly every

time.

! SAFETY NOTE: The force of the

broomstick against the pie plate will

send the pie plate flying! Make sure

students are positioned safely out of

the way.

! You may want to do the

demonstration two or three times to

allow students to observe from

different vantage points.

! If it is appropriate, you may wish to

view the entire Newton’s Apple

segment on Newton’s Laws after

completing the activity.

12 —Newton’s Laws

Newton’s Laws

Preparation

Here’s How

! Set up the computer to play the CD-ROM (or set up the VCR and

cue tape)

! Gather the necessary materials for the demonstration.

! Make a copy of Activity Sheet 1 for each student.

! Review the Background information on page 8.

Engage (Approx. 10 min.)

Roll a toy wagon or toy flatbed truck with some sort of cargo in it

forcefully across a table top. Before it reaches the edge, put your hand in

front of the wheels so that the wagon stops abruptly. Have students

observe and discuss what happens to the cargo. (The cargo shifted forward.)

When a car stops suddenly, do our bodies continue to move? (Yes, they

keep moving forward until something stops them.) How is this like the

cargo in the wagon? (same) Ask how seat belts prevent injuries. (They are

attached to the car, so when the car stops, the seatbelts also stop. The

seatbelt stops the passenger from moving forward through the

windshield.) Tell students that Newton’s first law of motion can explain

how all this works.

State Newton’s first law of motion: “A body in motion tends to remain in

motion and a body at rest tends to remain at rest, unless acted upon by an

outside force.” Discuss the terms listed in the Important Terms section on

page 11.

After the discussion, play Video Clip 1 [02:08 to 02:56] and Video Clip 2

[03:49 to 06:11]. These clips deal with the two parts of Newton’s first law

of motion. In the first clip, the bodies at rest—the glasses and plates on the

table—remain at rest as the table cloth is pulled out from under them. In

the second clip, the body in motion—the egg—continues to move

forward until gravity pulls it to the ground. Discuss the concepts involved

in the two parts of this law. Encourage students to think of examples of

this law.

Explore (Approx. 30 min.)

Conduct the following “egg-in-glass” demonstration to illustrate a resting

object’s tendency to stay at rest.

1. Fill a non-breakable clear drinking glass 3/4 full of water. Place the glass

near the edge of a table.


Activity 1

2. Place a pie plate on the glass and center a toilet-paper tube and raw egg

on the pie plate directly over the glass.

3. Distribute Activity Sheet 1 and ask, “How can you get the egg into the

glass without touching or breaking the egg?” Give students an opportunity

to generate ideas and record them on their Activity Sheets. Try out one or

two of the suggestions. (Be prepared to clean up any accidents!)

4. After you’ve tried some of the student suggestions, hold the broom

directly in front of the setup (see illustration) and push down on the

broom handle so that the bristles bend. Place one foot on the bristles while

pulling back on the broom handle. Release the handle and let it hit firmly

and directly against the pie plate. The table edge should prevent the

broomstick from hitting the glass. The force of the broomstick will move

the pie plate and the toilet-paper tube (which was caught by the plate’s rim)

out from under the egg, and the egg will drop into the glass.

After the demonstration, have students answer the questions listed on the

Eggsperimenting with Motion Activity Sheets.

Discuss the students’ descriptions and explanations about the

demonstration and provide feedback.

Evaluate

1. Draw two pictures that illustrate the paths of the eggs in the demonstrations

you saw. One picture should show the path of the egg that Newton

dropped in the studio. The other picture should show the path of the egg

in the classroom experiment. Explain the differences between these paths.

What caused these differences?

2. According to Newton’s first law no force is necessary to maintain

motion. Why, then, must you continue to peddle your bike in order to

keep moving? Explain the forces involved. (The forces of air resistance on

you and friction on the tires are acting to slow the bike down.)

3. Give an example of the first part of the first law of motion (“a body at

rest...”) and of the second part (“a body in motion...”) Use illustrations

from everyday life. Do not use examples from the video or the class

discussion. (Examples abound. A stack of books on the dining room table

will remain at rest until someone moves them. When riding on a bus that

stops abruptly or turns a corner, the passengers will continue to move in

the original direction.)

Try This

Replay Video Clip 1 in which David

pulls the tablecloth out from under the

dishes. Try to replicate the experiment

yourself! Using only non-breakable

dishes, pull a tablecloth from beneath

one or more place settings. Discuss

why the dishes didn’t move, or, if things

went awry, why they did! (Hint: You

must pull the cloth very quickly, and the

cloth should not have a seam or hem

around the edge.)

On earth, friction is one force that acts

on bodies in motion. Research some of

things that are done to reduce friction

on moving bodies (like cars or skis).

Report your findings to the class.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 13


Activity Sheet 1

Name Name

Class Class Period

Period

Ho How Ho w to to do do it

it

1. Study the demonstration your teacher has

set up. How would you get the egg into the

glass without touching it or breaking it?

Take a few moments to think about it and

write down your ideas.

2. Watch carefully as your teacher performs

the demonstration. Describe it. What

happened to the plate? To the tube? To the

egg?

Wha What Wha What

t did did you you you find find find out? out?

out?

How does this demonstration relate to

Newton’s first law? What other forces might

have been at work here?

14 — Newton’s Laws

Eggsperimenting

Eggsperimenting

with with Motion

Motion

Wha Wha What Wha Wha t you’re you’re going going to to do

do

You’re going to observe an “eggsperiment” about Newton’s 1st law of motion.

Copyright © Twin Cities Public Television & GPN. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Activity 2

Enforcing the Speed Limit

Why is it easier to set a light object in motion than it is a heavy one? What happens

to an object’s speed when it is pushed or pulled with a constant force?

Getting Ready

Overview

For this activity, students watch and discuss video segments that illustrate

Newton’s second law. They participate in a variety of activities—moving

pencils and drinking straws, exerting forces on rubber bands, and

“walking” a simulated dog named Newton to explore how this law

operates in the real world.

Objectives

After completing this activity, students will be able to—

! state the results of changing the amount of force exerted on an

object

! generate examples of Newton’s second law

! set up an experiment that demonstrates Newton’s second law

Time Needed

Preparation: Approx. 10 min.

Classroom: Approx.40 min.

Materials

For each student:

! drinking straw

! pencil

Each team of students:

! very thick rubber band, cut at one end

! skateboard or small cart

! thin rope or clothesline

! two bricks or objects having similar mass

Important Terms

acceleration—The rate at which

velocity changes in magnitude or

direction, or both.

force—A push or pull that causes a

body to change its velocity.

mass—The amount of matter a body or

object contains.

net force—The combination of forces

that act upon an object .

velocity—The speed and direction of a

moving body.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 15


Video Clip 3

06:12 to 07:53— Sir Isaac Newton gets

a free ride while teaching David Heil

about his Second Law of Motion.

(1 min. 41 sec.)

Guide on the Side

! You may wish to begin the lesson

by viewing the Introduction from the

Video Menu on the CD-ROM [00:00

to 00:48]. Find out what students

already know about Newton’s laws

of motion.

! This activity works best in a long

hallway or gymnasium. A smooth,

uniform surface is best for rolling the

skateboard.

! A spring scale can also be used

in this activity. Tie string or light rope

to each end of the scale. Tie one

piece to the skateboard. Using the

spring scale will allow students to

monitor the exact pulling force being

exerted.

! If it is appropriate, you may wish

to view the entire Newton’s Apple

segment on Newton’s Laws after

completing the activity.

16 — Newton’s Laws

Newton’s Laws

Preparation

Here’s How

! Set up the computer to play the CD-ROM (or set up the VCR and

cue tape).

! Gather the necessary materials for the student experiments.

! Make a copy of Activity Sheet 2 for each student.

! Review the Background information on page 8.

Engage (Approx. 15 min.)

Have each student place a round pencil on top of a level desk. Ask them

what it would take to get their pencils moving. Tell them that part of

Newton’s second law of motion states that the greater the force applied to

an object, the greater the acceleration of that object. Have students create a

force by gently blowing on their pencils. Ask students to increase their

blowing forces and observe what happens. Discuss the results.

Next, have each student place a straw on his or her desk. Ask, “What

would happen if you exerted the same force on this straw as was exerted

on the pencil?” Have students blow gently on their straws and then increase

the force by blowing more forcefully. Discuss what the students

experienced and observed.

Explain that the second part of Newton’s second law states that the

acceleration of a body is inversely proportional to the mass of the body.

In other words, the greater the mass of an object, the greater the force

needed to accelerate that object. If the mass of the pencil were 100 times

greater than the straw, then it would take a force 100 times greater than the

force needed to move the straw to accelerate the pencil at the same speed.

(Although the term “acceleration” includes a change in direction, for

purposes of this lesson it means the rate at which an object speeds up or

slows down.)

Play Video Clip 3 [06:12 to 07:53], which demonstrates and discusses

Newton’s second law. Restate Newton’s second law—The acceleration of

an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object and

inversely proportional to the mass of the object. Discuss the concepts in

the second law and encourage students to offer examples from everyday

life.

Explain to students that force is a push (e.g., the force they used in the

experiment with the pencil and the straw) or a pull that causes a body to

change its velocity.

Explore (Approx. 25 min.)

To help your students better understand constant force and Newton’s

second law of motion, they will take their “dog” Newton for a walk. Tell

students that Newton will be represented in this experiment by a skateboard

(a small cart would work as well) and that the activity challenges

them to pull Newton with a constant force. They will know the force is

constant when the stretch of the rubber band they use remains uniform.


Activity 2

Organize students into groups, provide them with the materials for the

activity, and distribute Activity Sheet 2.

To help students start this activity, have them attach the rope or leash to

their skateboards; then have them tie a rubber band to the end of the rope

or leash.

Students should then take Newton for a walk in a long hallway using a

constant pulling force. Explain that the rubber band will stretch when they

start pulling the skateboard, and they should try to keep it stretched to

about the same length. Students should do whatever is necessary to

maintain a constant force. This will be evident by a rubber band that

doesn’t expand or contract. (What students will discover is that they need

to continuously increase their speed in order for the force to remain

constant.)

When students have finished pulling Newton, have them answer the

question about Walk 1 on their Activity Sheets.

In order to complete the second part of the Enforcing the Speed Limit

experiment, students need to add two bricks to Newton. Now, have

students take the heavier Newton for a walk, trying again to maintain a

constant force on the rubber band. Students should record their

experiences on their Activity Sheets.

Discuss the students’ findings. How can they relate what happened to

Newton’s second law?

Evaluate

1. Using moveable objects (such as balls of various sizes or vehicles with

wheels) and objects that can be used to exert a force (such as rubber bands

or flexible rulers), demonstrate Newton’s second law. Explain your demonstration.

Describe the relationship between the force and the movement.

2. A rocket fired from its launching pad increases in speed as it soars into

space with its engines burning. Why? Hint: About 90% of the mass of a

newly launched rocket is fuel. (As the fuel is consumed, the mass of the

rocket decreases. The force produced by the engines, however, is

remaining constant, thus the speed of the rocket increases.)

3. Give an example of how increasing or decreasing the amount of force

applied to an object affects its acceleration. Be specific. For example, what

happens if the force is decreased by one-half? (If the force is decreased by

one-half, the acceleration is decreased by one-half.) How does increasing or

decreasing the same object’s mass affect its acceleration? (If mass is

increased by one-third, acceleration is decreased by one-third. If mass is

decreased by two-thirds, acceleration is increased by two thirds.)

Try This

Some students may want to research

the relationship between time, distance

and change of speed. Conduct the

same “walk-the-dog” demonstration

along a metered track.

Watch the animation about Newton’s

second law on the CD-ROM (Resource

Button B). Explain what is happening

with each of the trucks. How does this

relate to your experience with pulling

“Newton”?

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 17


Activity Sheet 2

Enforcing Enforcing the

the

Speed Speed Limit

Limit

Name Name Name __________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________Class __________________________________ Class Period Period Period ____________

____________

Wha What Wha Wha t you’re you’re going going to to do do

do

You’re going to explore Newton’s second law of motion using a skateboard and rubber bands.

Ho How Ho How

w to to to do do do it it

it

Work with your group.

Tie a short piece of rope

or strong string to the

skateboard so that you can pull it.

Then attach a rubber band to the string.

You should be able to pull the skateboard

with the rubber band.

Walk 1

It is time for your “dog” Newton to go for a

walk, but Newton has very peculiar walking

habits. Instead of trotting along at a nice pace

behind you, Newton makes you pull on his leash

with a constant force. To keep Newton happy,

you must do everything you can to maintain that

constant force.

Hint: You can tell if you are pulling at a

constant force if the stretch on the rubber band

at the end of Newton’s leash remains the same.

Walk 2

It seems as though Newton is always hungry

(and not very active) and has grown quite a bit.

In fact, his mass increase is equivalent to two

bricks. Take Newton out for a stroll again with

those two bricks he’s added to his mass and see

what happens.

18 — Newton’s Laws

Wha What Wha t did did you you find find out?

out?

Walk 1: Describe your walk with Newton. What

did you have to do to maintain a constant force?

Walk 2: Describe your second walk with Newton.

What did you have to do to maintain a constant

force?

From your experiences, what did you learn about

Newton’s second law?

Copyright © Twin Cities Public Television & GPN. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Activity 3

On the Shoulders of Giants

Who were the patriarchs of force and motion theories? How did their hypotheses

evolve? What method of scientific inquiry did Newton use that is still used today?

Getting Ready

Overview

This activity begins with students discussing Sir Isaac Newton and

viewing the video segment in which he describes his laws of motion.

Then, the students discuss Newton’s predecessors, Aristotle and Galileo,

and how their scientific theories on motion influenced the development

of Newton’s three laws of motion. Next, students participate in an

activity in which some students research Aristotle and Galileo and then

pose as these historic figures, while other students act as reporters who

interview the students who are portraying the scientists. After conducting

their interviews, students write a news story describing these two great

thinkers and their views on forces and motion.

Objectives

After completing this activity, students will be able to—

! describe, with examples, Aristotle’s theory of natural motion and

violent motion

! discuss the merits of Galileo’s supposition regarding force and

motion

! compare and contrast Aristotle’s and Galileo’s theories of motion

! identify components of the scientific method

Time Needed

Preparation: Approx. 20 min.

Classroom: Approx. 2 class periods

Materials

For the teacher:

! props and costumes for Galileo and Aristotle

! microphones (real or simulated) for the interview session

For each student:

! interview questions (student-generated)

! notes on Galileo and Aristotle

! pencil or pen

Important Terms

force—A push or pull that causes a

body to change its velocity.

friction—A force that opposes the

motion of an object interacting with its

environment.

natural motion—The tendency of

objects to seek their natural resting

places through motion not caused by

external forces.

violent motion —Imposed motion

caused by external forces.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 19


Video Clip 4

08:08 to 09:42— Sir Isaac Newton

puts the “pedal to the metal” to

demonstrate the Third Law of Motion.

(1 min. 34 sec.)

Guide on the Side

! You may want to include Isaac

Newton as one of the characters to be

interviewed.

! If a camcorder or video camera is

available, you may wish to videotape

the “talk show” for students to watch at

a later time. It could possibly be

broadcast on a local cable channel.

! If there is a drama coach or speech

teacher at the school, ask him or her to

work with the students who will be

portraying Aristotle and Galileo to more

fully develop their characters.

! If it is appropriate, show the entire

Newton’s Apple video segment on

Newton’s Laws after completing the

activity.

20 —Newton’s Laws

Newton’s Laws

Preparation

Here’s How

! Set up the computer to play the CD-ROM (or set up the VCR and

cue tape).

! Gather the necessary materials for the student experiments.

! Make a copy of Activity Sheet 3 for each student.

! Review the Background information on page 8.

Engage (Approx. 15 min.)

Ask students what they know about Sir Isaac Newton. When and where

did he live? What did he do?

Play Video Clip 3 [08:08 to 09:42]. Discuss the third law and review

information about the first two laws. Explain to students that Newton’s

development of the three laws of motion was not an isolated occurrence,

but part of an advancement in thought that began with scientists who

came before him. Explain that most scientific breakthroughs are not

isolated instances, but are built on, or occur because of, the previous work

of others. This was certainly the case for Newton.

Explain that Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who lived from 384 to 322

B.C. who developed some theories about motion. He postulated that there

were two types of motion—natural and violent. Natural motion was the

term he used to describe movements that appeared to happen without

external forces being applied, such as objects falling to the ground or

smoke rising into the air. Violent motion, according to Aristotle, was

movement caused by an external force, such as a sailboat being pushed by

the wind or a cart being pulled by a horse. Encourage students to suggest

additional examples of an object’s movement as Aristotle would have

seen it.

Explain that Aristotle’s theories on movement were prominent for 2000

years. It wasn’t until the sixteenth century that Galileo challenged the idea

that, in the absence of friction, a force was not needed to keep an object in

motion. Encourage students to compare and contrast Aristotle’s and

Galileo’s theories.

Explain that Galileo not only influenced Newton’s thoughts on motion, he

also influenced the way in which Newton conducted experiments—using

the scientific method (experiment, observe, record). Discuss whether this

method is still used today.

Note: Before the interview and writing activity, select students to conduct

library research so that they can pose as Aristotle and Galileo. Direct these

students to information about the field of science during the time of

Aristotle and Galileo. After learning as much as they can about the life and

work of these men, the students posing as Aristotle and Galileo will be

interviewed by the other students. Aristotle and Galileo will then respond

to questions as they believe their characters would have.


Activity 3

Explore (Approx. 2 class periods)

Distribute Activity Sheet 3. Read the Activity Sheet aloud or have a student

read it.

Encourage students to use the back of their Activity Sheets to formulate

motion-related questions to ask Aristotle and Galileo. While they are

formulating their questions, the Aristotles and Galileos should be preparing

for the interview session. In addition to donning costumes and gathering

props, they may want to rehearse answers to several questions.

After students have formulated their questions, organize the class into

“audiences.” Each group should select someone who will assume the role

of a TV-talk-show host and help direct questions from the audience,

similar to the program format used by television talk shows. Then, have

the Aristotles and Galileos make their grand entrances and sit “on-stage” in

front of one of the audiences. Have the hosts introduce the guests and

explain why they are there. Interviews should be conducted in a format

similar to a television talk show.

After finishing the interview, students should summarize the key points and

write a short article in a style appropriate for publication or broadcast.

As a class, discuss the questions that were posed and the responses of

Aristotle and Galileo. Were they valid?

Post students’ Aristotle and Galileo stories on a bulletin board. Have

students select one or two for possible publication, or record students’

reports onto audio or video tape.

Evaluate

1. According to Galileo, a ball rolling down an inclined plane increases in

speed. A ball rolling up an inclined plane decreases in speed. What happens

to the speed of a ball rolling on a smooth, horizontal surface? Use a ball

and an incline to test Galileo’s theories of motion. Explain your

observations. Do they support Galileo’s theories of motion? Was Galileo

right? Explain your answers.

2. A basketball is rolled across the court and slowly comes to a stop. How

would Aristotle explain this action? How would Galileo explain it?

(Aristotle would say that the ball was returning to its natural state of rest.

Galileo would say that the ball would continue on a straight path

indefinitely were it not for friction.)

3. Give an example of a science experiment you might conduct. Describe

the method you would use and explain the reasons for each step. (Answers

will vary, but should include examples of experimenting, observing and

recording the results.)

Try This

To further investigate Galileo’s theory,

have students try rolling a ball up an

incline, down an incline and on a

horizontal plane. Try to use the same

amount of force to start the ball rolling

each time. Ask them to report their

findings to the class. Did they use the

scientific method—experiment,

observe, record?

Isaac Newton produced an astonishing

array of discoveries and theories.

Research Newton’s life and compose a

list of his discoveries. Describe how

each is used today and how his

theories may have influenced more

modern thinkers such as Einstein.

Report your findings to the class.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 21


Activity Sheet 3

Name_________________________________ Name_________________________________ Class Class Period Period Period ____________

____________

22 — Newton’s Laws

On On the the Shoulders

Shoulders

of of Giants

Giants

Today you will have a unique opportunity. Thanks to a never-before-seen time machine (and considerable expense),

Aristotle and Galileo have been brought forward in time to discuss their views on motion. To help you prepare for an

interview with these two great thinkers of the past, read the position statements each man has provided. Use the back of

this page to prepare questions you may want to ask during the audience-participation portion of the interviews.

Aristotle

Aristotle

Physics is the study of things that change because they possess a source of movement. I

call this source of movement the Prime Mover. The Prime Mover is a perfect and eternal

being that helps all objects move or fall. But my theory on motion goes one step

beyond this. I believe that the heavier and larger an object is, the quicker it will fall. For

example, if you had a boulder that weighed 500 pounds and a rock that weighed 10

pounds, and you dropped both from the same height and at the same time, the 500pound

boulder would reach the ground first. All objects, when falling, have one

goal—to reach a natural resting place at the center of the Earth.

Galileo

Galileo

You must also remember that an object’s motion progresses from

potential to actual. Some objects, such as sand or leaves, only have

the potential for movement. They need a source, such as a physical

push or wind, to make them move. Other objects, such as animals

and humans, can move without an outside force. I believe an

object’s ability or inability to move defines its level of existence. An

object that cannot move without an outside force is simple, while

an object that can move on its own is

much more complex.

My beliefs on motion are somewhat different from those of my predecessor,

Aristotle. I believe that even if two objects are of a different size and weight, they will

fall at the same speed. My idea is very hard to prove because air resistance will always

be a factor in how an object falls. If an object has a larger surface area, it will catch

more air and will fall more slowly. Ideally, I would like to construct a vacuum that

would allow me to test different objects and how quickly they fall. I am sorry to say

that this type of experiment is hard to build and my testing will have to be done by

making adjustments for air resistance.

I have also discovered something else through my experiments with objects

and how fast they fall. I have learned that the farther an object falls, the more

its speed increases. I also have determined that objects stop moving because

of friction on the surfaces with which they come in contact. I would like

to someday prove that if all friction is removed, an object will stay in

motion indefinitely—continuing beyond earth and into infinite space.


Sound in Motion

Why does the pitch of a train’s whistle sound higher

as the train approaches and lower as it passes by?

What are waves and how are they related to

sound? What are the important characteristics of

waves? Are all waves alike? What is the Doppler

effect and how is it related to waves?

Themes and Concepts

! motion

! patterns of change

! sound

! systems and interactions

! waves

National Science Education Standards

Content Standard A: Students should develop abilities necessary to do

scientific inquiry

Content Standard B: Students should develop an understanding of

transfer of energy

Activities

1. Making Waves—approx. 10 min. prep; 45 min. class time

Waves are everywhere: water waves, sound waves, light waves, electromagnetic

waves, even shock waves in an earthquake! This activity examines how

waves differ, depending on the medium through which they are traveling.

2. Sound Wave Action—approx. 15 min. prep; 45 min. class time

Sound occurs when an object vibrates in a medium. In this activity, make a

variety of sound waves and discover how sounds change when wave

frequency or wave pitch are altered.

3. Doing Doppler—approx. 15 min. prep; 45 min. class time

Experiencing the Doppler effect is essential to understanding it. Twirl a

sound source in a wide circle and hear the Doppler effect for yourself.

Doppler Effect

Teacher’s Guide

More Information

Internet

Newton’s Apple

http://www.ktca.org/newtons

(The official Newton’s Apple web site

with information about the show and a

searchable database of classroom

science activities.)

The Doppler Effect – University of

Michigan

http://www.windows.umich.edu/cgi-bin/

tour_def/earth/Atmosphere/tornado/

doppler_effect.html

(Good page for information on the

discovery of the Doppler effect and its

uses for weather forecasting.)

Sonic Doppler Effect – Explore Science

http://www.explorescience.com/

soundwav.htm

(This page allows you to experiment

with moving sound.)

The Doppler Effect -Kettering University

http://www.gmi.edu/~drussell/Demos/

doppler/doppler.html

(See what happens to sound the faster

it passes by you.)

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/basics/bsf6-

4.htm

(An interesting site with good graphics

explaining the Doppler effect.)

Internet Search Words

Doppler effect

sound waves

compression waves

longitudinal waves

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 23


Bibliography

Ehrlich, R. Turning the World Inside Out

and 174 Other Simple Physics

Demonstrations. Princeton, NJ:

Princeton University Press, 1990.

Gardner, R. Experimenting with Sound.

New York, NY: Franklin Watts, 1991.

Lampton, C. Sound: More than What You

Hear. Hillsdale, NJ: Enslow Publishers,

Inc., 1992.

Community Resources

Local college or university

physics department

Local science museums

24 — Doppler Effect

Doppler Effect

Background

Have you ever been stopped at a railroad crossing as a train zoomed by

with its whistle blowing? Did you notice the pitch of the whistle was

higher as the train approached and lower as it passed? This change in pitch,

the Doppler effect, is the effect of the motion of the train (relative to you,

the listener) on the sound waves produced by the whistle.

Technically, the Doppler effect is a change in the observed frequency of

any sort of wave and is caused by the relative motion between the wave’s

source and the observer of the wave. We most frequently associate the

Doppler effect with sound waves. In order to understand the Doppler

effect, let’s first understand waves.

Waves are motions that carry energy from one point to another in a

medium. But the medium itself does not move from the starting point to

the ending point—only the waves, or the fluctuations, move through the

medium. Waves are often represented visually as wavy lines. The high part

of the wave is called the crest and the low part of the wave is called the

trough. Other characteristics of waves include amplitude (the difference in

height from a wave’s crest or its trough to the mid-point of the wave);

frequency (the number of crests that pass a point in a given period of

time); and, length (the distance from crest to crest or trough to trough).

We can easily observe the Doppler effect with sound waves because we

can hear the apparent change in frequency. As the source approaches us, the

wave crests “bunch together” so they reach us more frequently. The higher

frequency corresponds to a higher pitch in sound. As the source moves

away, the wave crests “string out” and the crests reach us less frequently,

producing a lower pitch.

Measurement of the Doppler effect is not limited to sound waves. Light

waves also produce a Doppler effect, altering the observed color of stars

in distant galaxies, depending on whether they’re moving toward us or

away from us. Doppler radar provides precise measurements of

approaching storms, as well as the speeds of cars on a highway.


Video Clip 1

00:33 to 01:08—Peggy Knapp bounces her voice off a

canyon wall to explain how sound moves. (35 sec.)

Video & Stills

Video Segments

Introduction

00:00 to 00:21—Discuss these questions to find out

what students already know about sound and the

Doppler effect. (21 sec.)

Additional Resources

Button A

Illustration: How bats use the Doppler effect.

Button B

Slide Show: The Doppler effect and red shift.

Video Clip 2

01:26 to 02:36—Peggy Knapp demonstrates the highs

and lows of sound with a honking horn and a mooing

cow. (1 min. 10 sec.)

Button C

Slide Show: Doppler radar

Button D

Video: Newton’s Apple Science Try It – Buzzer

Unit Assessment Answer Key

The Unit Assessment on the following page covers the basic concepts presented in the video segment and the

background on the Unit Theme section in this guide. The assessment does not require completing all of the activities.

The Unit Assessment may be used as a pre- or post-test. However, students should view the complete Newton’s Apple

video before doing this assessment. There is additional assessment at the end of each activity.

Think about it.

1. No. Because you and the horn are moving together

there will not be a change in frequency.

2. High. The rubber band stretched out will produce a

lot of small vibrations which gives the sound a high

frequency and therefore a high pitch.

3. Yes. The Doppler effect will occur because you will

observe a changed frequency as you pass by the singer.

Video Clip 3

02:27 to 03:47—As a car zooms by, Peggy Knapp

shows how and why its sound changes.

4. No. Amplitude corresponds to the height of the

wave and will not effect the number of times a wave

will pass by a point in a certain amount of time.

5. The sound wave’s crests will be coming at the

listener less frequently thus creating a lower and lower

pitch as it moves away.

What would you say?

6. a 7. b 8. d 9. d 10. c

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 25


26 — Doppler Effect

Unit Assessment

What What do do you you know know about about the

the

Doppler Doppler Effect?

Effect?

Write the answers to these questions in your journal or on a separate piece of paper.

Think about it

1. If you’re traveling on a train that is blowing its

horn will you be able to observe the Doppler

effect? Explain

2. If you pluck a stretched out rubber band does it

create a high or low pitch? Explain

3.If you’re traveling in a car and you pass by a

person singing will you observe the Doppler

effect? Explain

What would you say?

6. What is the top part of a wave called?

a. crest

b. amplitude

c. pitch

d. trough

7. The strength of a wave is its _________

a. frequency.

b. amplitude.

c. pitch.

d. Doppler effect.

8. Which of these things are associated with the

Doppler effect?

a. light

b. police radar

c. weather forecasting

d. all of the above

4. Will amplitude effect the frequency of a wave?

5. What happens to the sound wave as the source

of the wave is moving away from the listener?

9. What type of waves can produce the Doppler

effect?

a. sound

b. light

c. compression

d. all of the above

10. A higher frequency will create a higher what?

a. amplitude

b. length

c. pitch

d. crest

Copyright © Twin Cities Public Television & GPN. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Activity 1

What are waves and how are they created? What are important characteristics of

waves? Are all waves alike?

Getting Ready Important Terms

Overview

Understanding waves is the focus of this activity. Students work in teams

using a jump rope and a Slinky to test and record their observations

of amplitude, frequency and wavelength for transverse and longitudinal

waves.

Objectives

After completing this activity, students will be able to—

! identify the components needed to create the doppler effect

! produce transverse waves using a rope

! produce longitudinal waves using a Slinky

! describe how waves behave in different media

Time Needed

Preparation: approximately 10 minutes

Classroom: Approximately 45 minutes

Materials

For the teacher:

! metal Slinky

! 2 meters (approximately 6 feet) of rope or clothes line

For each team of students:

Making Waves

! 3 meters (approximately 10 feet) of rope or a jump rope

! metal Slinky

! paper and pencils

compression or longitudinal wave—A

wave in which the vibration is in the

same direction as that in which the

wave is traveling, rather than at right

angles to it.

crest—The top part of a visual

representation of a wave.

frequency of a wave—The number of

crests that pass a point in a given

period of time.

medium—A substance through which

energy is transferred by wave motion.

transverse wave—A wave in which the

vibration is in a direction perpendicular

to the direction in which the wave is

traveling.

trough—The bottom part of a visual

representation of a wave.

wavelength—The distance between

two neighboring crests or troughs of a

wave.

wave — A disturbance caused by the

movement of energy through a

medium.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 27


Video Clip 1

00:33 to 01:08—Peggy Knapp

bounces her voice off a canyon wall to

explain how sound moves. (35 sec.)

Guide on the Side

28 — Doppler Effect

Preparation

Video Clip 2

01:26 to 02:36—Peggy Knapp

demonstrates the highs and lows of

sound with a honking horn and a

mooing cow. (1 min. 10 sec.) Engage (Approx. 15 min.)

! You may wish to begin the lesson

by showing the Introduction from the

Video Menu of the CD-ROM [00:00 to

00:21]. Use the questions to find out

what students already know about

sound waves and the Doppler effect.

! You may want to have students

perform this activity in a hallway or

other open space.

! Remind students to work with the

materials carefully, following

established classroom safety

procedures.

! Slinky toys are manufactured in

both plastic and metal and in several

different sizes. A standard-sized metal

Slinky works best for this activity.

! Demonstrate the amplitude,

frequency and wavelength of waves

in another medium such as water,

vegetable oil or a thin sheet of plastic,

wood or metal.

! If it is appropriate, show the entire

Newton’s Apple video segment on the

Doppler effect after completing the

activity.

Doppler Effect

Here’s How

! Set up the computer to play the CD-ROM (or set up the VCR and

cue the tape.)

! Gather the necessary classroom materials for the student experiments.

! Make a copy of Activity Sheet 1 for each student.

! Review the Background information on page 24.

Fasten one end of a long rope to a support in your classroom. Straighten

the rope out, and then create a wave in the rope by giving it a single quick

shake up and down. Ask students to describe what is happening. (A wave

should move along the rope. Notice that the wave energy is reflected back

into the rope when it reaches the fastened end.)

Discuss the transfer of energy from your moving arm to the wave in the

rope. Through the discussion, develop a definition for a wave and write

that definition on the chalkboard.

Waves carry energy through a substance from one point to another.

However, no matter moves from the first point to the second; only the

fluctuations—the waves—move between the two points. When you shake

one end of a rope, you produce a wave that travels to the other end, but

the material that the rope is made of does not move with the wave; only

the oscillation—the wave—moves through the rope.

Show Video Clip 2 [01:26 to 02:36]. Pause the video when Peggy “draws”

a diagram of sound waves. Discuss the characteristics of a wave (trough,

crest, wavelength, and amplitude). Draw a diagram on the board (like the

diagram shown below) to help illustrate the different parts of a wave.

Explain to students that when you shook the rope, you were creating

transverse waves—wave shapes that move up and down on the rope and

that travel along the rope from end to end. The oscillations of the rope are

perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling. Discuss other ways that

waves are created and travel (e.g., waves in water or vibrations traveling

through a substance such as glass or metal).

Demonstrate a longitudinal wave by having a student hold one end of a

Slinky, stretching the spring across the floor, and then pulling several coils

together near one end of the spring and letting go. Discuss with students

the wave’s shape and amplitude. Compare this type of wave with the

transverse wave.

Have students think of waves in terms of energy, movement, and

medium. How are waves created? What materials will waves travel

through?


Activity 1

Sound is a longitudinal wave, where the fluctuations of the wave are in the

same direction as the movement of the wave. Longitudinal waves are

sometimes called “compression waves” because the waves consist of

compressions in the material through which the waves move. Show Video

Clip 1 of Peggy describing how a sound wave moves. If helpful, draw the

diagram shown at the right on the board.

Review the two types of waves discussed—transverse and longitudinal—

with an additional demonstration of each. Write their definitions on the

board for students to refer to as they complete the activity. Use diagrams

if helpful.

Explore (Approx. 30 min.)

Organize the class into groups and distribute Activity Sheet 1. In this

activity, students use a 3-meter (or 10-foot) rope and a Slinky to

experiment with creating waves.

Have teams work together to create transverse and longitudinal waves. Tell

them that at the end of the activity they will have the opportunity to

demonstrate one of their waves to the rest of the class.

After students experiment with creating waves, have them draw

illustrations of their waves on their worksheets and write descriptions of

how they created them. On the back of the paper, ask them to draw and

label illustrations that represent the amplitude, frequency and wave length

of a transverse and a longitudinal wave.

Ask each team to demonstrate one type of wave and to describe the

wave’s characteristics. Discuss each wave and its characteristics after the

team presentations. Come up with examples of situations where each type

of wave occurs. (Examples could include a musical horn, a water bed, or

surfing.)

Evaluate

1. Using available materials, create a visible wave. Describe the wave.

Explain its features. What type of wave is it? How can the frequency of the

wave be increased? What will cause the wave to disappear?

2. Describe the wave forms of both transverse and longitudinal waves.

Then, using a Slinky and a rope, create both transverse and longitudinal

waves.

3. Draw a wave pattern. Label these features: crest, trough, amplitude and

length. (Refer to the illustration in the teacher materials for scoring.)

Try This

Waves occur all around us. Some of

them are visible, other are not. Make

lists of visible and invisible waves.

When possible, label the type of waves

you’ve identified. (The list may include

a flag being moved by the wind, a

power line bouncing between two

poles, the wave created as a boat

moves through water, etc.) Share your

list with the class.

Both sound and light move in waves.

Research the electromagnetic

spectrum Report to the class how

different types of electromagnetic

waves are classified by their frequency,

for example, visible light, radio waves,

and infrared.

Wave Length

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 29

Trough

Crest

Amplitude


Activity Sheet 1

Name Name ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Class Class period period __________

__________

Wha Wha What Wha t you’re you’re going going to to do

do

You’re going to explore different types of waves.

30 — Doppler Effect

Making Making W WWaves

W ves

Ho How Ho w to to do do it

it

Experiment with making waves using a jump rope and a Slinky. For example, what happens when you

shorten the amount of rope you use? What happens when you push the Slinky rather than whip it from

side to side? Make a drawing of each wave form you create and describe how you made the wave. Be

ready to discuss and demonstrate what you did.

Recor Recording Recor ding your your da data da ta

In your science journal, record information about each of the waves you created. Record if you used the

rope or the Slinky, the trial number, how you made the wave, and what the wave looked like. Draw a

diagram of each wave you observed.

Wha What Wha Wha t did did you you find find find out?

out?

Which type of wave was easier to observe? Why?

What factors contributed to the strength of the wave? To how long it continued?

Discuss your observations with the class.

Copyright © Twin Cities Public Television & GPN. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Activity 2

Sound Wave Action

What are sound waves? How are sound waves visually represented? What are the

important characteristics of sound? When a tightly stretched rubber band is

plucked, what happens?

Getting Ready

Overview

In this activity, students discover how sound waves are produced and

how sound travels through the air. Students also learn about the

relationship between frequency and pitch. After filling bottles with

varying amounts of water, the students predict and test the pitch of the

sound produced by each bottle.

Objectives

After completing this activity, the student will be able to—

! create and observe sound waves of different frequencies and pitches

! describe how sound is produced

! explain how sound travels

Time Needed

Preparation: Approx. 15 min.

Classroom: Approx. 45 min.

Materials

For the teacher:

! a boom-box or a radio with speakers

! sheet of paper just smaller than speakers

! tape

! empty 3 lb. coffee can

! large rubber band

! 2 nails

! hammer

For each group of students:

! 4 identically sized, glass, soft-drink bottles (empty)

! pencils

! pitcher of water

Important Terms

amplitude—The distance a wave rises

or falls from a normal rest position.

compression or longitudinal wave—A

wave in which the vibration is in the

same direction as that in which the

wave is traveling, rather than at right

angles to it.

frequency of a wave—The number of

crests that pass a point in a given

period of time.

pitch—The highness or lowness of a

sound as frequency sound

sound—the sensation produced by the

organs of hearing when sensing

vibrations.

sound wave—A longitudinal wave that

moves through a medium.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 31


Video Clip 2

01:26 to 02:36—Peggy Knapp

demonstrates the highs and lows of

sound with a honking horn and a

mooing cow. (1 min. 10 sec.)

Guide on the Side

! You may wish to begin the lesson

by showing the Introduction from the

Video Menu of the CD-ROM [00:00 to

00:21]. Use the questions to find out

what students already know about

sound waves and the Doppler effect.

! Several days before doing this

activity, ask students to bring in clean

glass soda bottles.

! If it is appropriate, show the entire

Newton’s Apple video segment on

the Doppler effect after completing

the activity.

32 —Doppler Effect

Preparation

Doppler Effect

Here’s How

! Set up the computer to play the CD-ROM (or set up the VCR and

cue the tape).

! Gather the necessary materials for the student experiments.

! Make copies of Activity Sheet 2 for each student.

! Review the Background information on page 24.

Engage (Approx. 15 min.)

Play a radio and ask students how the sound is produced. Do vibrations

have anything to do with the sound they hear? How does the sound from

the radio reach the listener?

Tape a small piece of paper to one of the speakers. Increase the volume

on the radio and watch what happens. (The paper vibrates.)

If possible, take the cover off of the speaker. Explain that the speaker’s

cone vibrates and produces waves of air—sound waves. These waves

move through the air to their ears, vibrate against their inner ears and are

interpreted in their brains as sounds.

Ask students how far they think sound waves can travel and still have

enough energy to be heard. What can be done to control that distance?

Encourage the students to speculate.

Turn a 3-lb. coffee can upside down and drive two nails into opposite

sides of the bottom of the can (one nail at the “3:00” position and the

other at the “9:00” position, for example). Next, stretch a rubber band

between the two nails. Ask students to listen as you pluck the rubber band.

Then remove the rubber band and tie several knots at one end of the

rubber band to make it shorter. Stretch the shortened band between the

nails and have students listen as you pluck the rubber band again. What

happened to the sound? What caused the change?

Show Video Clip 2 [01:26 to 02:36]. Summarize and discuss the video

segments, linking the information to information about waves that students

have studied previously.

Summarize the segments and discuss the relationship between frequency

and pitch. (Close crests = high pitch; far-apart crests = low pitch)


Activity 2

Explore (Approx. 30 min.)

Organize the class into teams and distribute Activity Sheet 2. Have students

gather the materials they will need, and then proceed with creating sounds

of different pitches. Before the experiment, students should predict what

will happen with the pitch. Students will then test these predictions and

discuss their findings within the teams.

As a class, have students explain what their experiments revealed. Were

their predictions correct or incorrect? Encourage students to discuss why

their predictions were correct or incorrect.

Evaluate

1. If you have ever seen a band or orchestra, you may have noticed drums

of several different sizes. Explain why differently sized drums might be

needed. What kinds of sounds would you expect the small drums to make

compared to the large drums? Explain your answer. (Different drums

make different sounds and pitches. Larger drums generally have a lower

pitch than smaller drums. The pitch can also depend on how tightly the

drum head is stretched.)

2. The movement of an object, such as a violin string, will cause vibrations

that send waves through the air. How are these waves related to sound?

(The waves moving through the air are called sound waves. They enter the

ear, where the pattern of the vibration is sensed and interpreted by the

brain as sound.)

3. Guitar players press down on the guitar strings to shorten the length of

the string they are about to pick. By placing their fingers in different

positions, they can create a variety of sounds. Would the pitch of the

sound become higher or lower as the string becomes shorter? Explain

your answer. (The shorter string would produce a higher pitch. The shorter

length causes the vibrations to be faster. This creates a wave pattern in

which the crests of the wave are close together.)

Try This

String instruments, such as a violins or

cellos, produce altered pitches when

the instrumentalists shorten the length

of the strings by positioning their

fingers in different places along the

neck. Using commonly available items

such as rubber bands, blocks of wood

and string, build “instruments” that

produce a range of pitches. Explore the

pitches you can produce and use the

instruments to make music to create a

homemade orchestra!

Calculate the speed of sound in air by

measuring how long it takes for the

sound of a drum beat to travel 200

meters ( approximately 220 yards.

Have two people stand near each

other, one with a drum and the other

with a digital stopwatch that can

measure fractions of a second. A third

person should stand 200 meters away.

Start the stopwatch exactly when the

drummer beats the drum. Stop it exactly

when the person 200 meters away lifts

a flag, signaling he or she has heard

the beat. Calculate the speed of the

drum beat. Determine how accurate

this method is by comparing your

findings to the findings of your

classmates who have conducted the

same experiment.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 33


Activity Sheet 2

Name ______________________________________ ______________________________________ Class Period ___________

___________

34 —Doppler Effect

Sound Sound W WWave

W ve A AAction

A ction

Wha What Wha Wha t you’re you’re going going to to do

do

You’re going to explore sound waves, frequency, and pitch by making your own musical instrument.

Ho How Ho w to to do do do it it

it

Work with your group. Use 4 soft-drink bottles of the same size. Add some water, and with a pencil,

create “music.”

1. Pour a little water into the first bottle. Pour a little more water into the second bottle, even more into

the third, and even more into the last bottle.

2. Using a scale of 1 to 10 (1 being lowest and 10 being highest), predict what sort of pitch you will hear

when someone blows across the top of each bottle. Record your predictions.

3. Have someone blow across the top of each bottle. Record the results of what you hear.

4. Using the same bottles and the 1-to-10 scale, predict what will happen if someone taps the bottles with

a pencil. Record your predictions.

5. Have someone tap the bottles. Record the results of what you hear.

Recor Recording Recor ding your your da data da data

ta

Use the data table below to record your predictions and observations.

Blowing

across

Pencil

tap

Predicted pitch

Actual pitch

Predicted pitch

Actual pitch

Bottle 1 Bottle 2 Bottle 3 Bottle 4

Wha What Wha t did did you you find find find out? out?

out?

Were your first predictions correct? Why or why not?

Were your second set of predictions correct? Why?

Based on what you know about sound waves, which

bottle produces the longest sound wavelength? The

shortest?

Copyright © Twin Cities Public Television & GPN. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


Activity 3

Doing Doppler

Why does the sound of a horn from a speeding car change when the car passes

you? What is the Doppler effect?

Getting Ready

Overview

In this activity, students learn why the pitch of a train or car horn changes

as the vehicle passes by. In an experiment, students test the Doppler

effect caused by a sound emitted from an object as it whirls through the

air.

Objectives

After completing this activity, students will be able to—

! demonstrate the Doppler effect

! explain the role of wave lengths in the doppler effect

! tell why a person doesn’t experience the Doppler effect while

traveling with the source of the sound

Time Needed

Preparation: Approx. 15 minutes

Classroom: Approx. 45 min.

Materials

For each team of students:

! lightweight buzzer or noise maker that generates a constant sound

! 1.5 meters (4 feet) of rope or clothes line

Important Terms

crest—The top part of a visual

representation of a wave.

Doppler effect (with sound waves)—

An apparent change in the frequency of

waves caused by the motion of either

the observer or the source of the wave.

frequency of a wave—The number of

crests that pass a point in a given

period of time.

pitch—The highness or lowness of a

sound as determined by frequency.

sound—The sensation produced by

the organs of hearing when sensing

vibrations.

sound wave—A longitudinal wave that

moves through a medium.

trough—The bottom part of a visual

representation of a wave.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 35


Video Clip 3

02:27 to 03:47—As a car zooms by,

Peggy Knapp shows how and why its

sound changes.

Guide on the Side

! You may wish to begin the lesson

by showing the Introduction from the

Video Menu of the CD-ROM [00:00 to

00:21]. Use the questions to find out

what students already know about

sound waves and the Doppler effect.

! SAFETY NOTE: The students must

be very careful when securing the

noisemaker to the rope and in twirling

the noisemaker. It is critical that

students have sufficient space and

are a safe distance away from each

other. You may wish to have students

wear lab glasses as an extra

precaution.

! This activity will work best in a

large space such as a gym or cafeteria.

Groups should not stand too close

together, because the sound from one

group could affect the observations of

another.

! You may want to view the entire

Newton’s Apple segment on the

Doppler effect following this activity.

36 — Doppler Effect

Doppler Effect

Preparation

Here’s How

! Set up the computer to play the CD-ROM (or set up the VCR and

cue the tape).

! Gather the necessary materials for the student experiments.

! Make copies of Activity Sheet 3 for each student.

! Review the Background information on page 24.

Engage (Approx. 15 min.)

Ask students if they have ever been standing by a railroad track when a

train raced by with its horn blowing. How did the horn sound? Did the

sound of the horn seem to change as it passed by? Ask students to

describe what happened to the sound of the train’s horn. Discuss with

students the change in pitch of the train’s horn. Discuss other situations

where students may have experienced this phenomenon (e.g., race cars

speeding around a track, an airplane flying overhead, a motorcycle riding

on a highway etc.).

Explain that the change in the sound of the horn in the video and in other

everyday situations is an example of the Doppler effect. Help students

come up with a brief explanation of the Doppler effect.

Review the concept of sound waves. Make sure students understand the

terms used to describe the features of waves, such as crest, trough and

frequency.

Show Video Clip 3 [02:27 to 03:47] in which Peggy uses a passing car to

illustrate the Doppler effect. Discuss the way sound waves compress and

expand as the car passes by. Make sure students understand this concept.

Explore (Approx. 30 min.)

Organize the class into teams and distribute the Doing Doppler Activity

Sheets.

Using Activity Sheet 3 and the suggested materials, have students conduct

the experiment about the Doppler effect.

After students have completed their experiments and each team member

has had the opportunity to experience the Doppler effect, allow time for

them to discuss what they discovered.

Bring the entire class together to compare and discuss their observations.


Activity 3

Evaluate

1. Assume you are in a car driving down a highway. A car coming from

the other direction is continuously blowing its horn. As it passes you,

would you hear the Doppler effect? Explain your answer. Would it make a

difference if the car were coming from behind you? Explain your answer.

(The answer to both questions is “yes.” Because you are in a car moving

toward and away from the other car, the effect would be somewhat

magnified.)

2. If you are standing near a highway and a car races past, you hear the

Doppler effect. Why don’t you experience the same effect if you are riding

in the car? (Because you are moving along with the source of the sound,

you do not experience the shortening and lengthening of the sound waves.)

3. In your own words, describe what happens to cause the Doppler effect.

(Answers will vary but should include that because the crests of the sound

waves produced by the approaching object are closer together, more

waves strike your ear in any given period, thus raising the pitch of the

sound. As the object passes you, the crests are spread out and the pitch

drops.)

Try This

Christian Johann Doppler was the first

person to explain the effect that now

bears his name. Find out more about

Doppler. When and where did he live?

How did he get interested in physics?

What else did he do in his life? Based

on what you find out about Doppler,

speculate on what his life might have

been like had he had been born in the

United States during the 21st century.

Report your information to the class.

Design a Doppler demonstration using

bikes, skateboards, or roller blades.

Perform the demonstration

for the class.

Educational materials developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation — 37


Activity Sheet 3

Name Name _____________________________________ _____________________________________ Cl Cl Class Cl Cl ass Period Period _______

_______

38 — Doppler Effect

Doing Doing Doppler

Doppler

Wha What Wha t you’re you’re going going to to do

do

You’re going to explore the Doppler effect and see if you can produce it with your group.

Ho How Ho w to to do do it

it

Work with your group. Conduct the following experiment and record your

observations

Securely tie a light-weight buzzer or noisemaker to the end of a rope at

least 1.5 meters (4 feet) long.

SAFETY NOTE: Make sure that the object is securely tied and you

are not near anything it might strike as you spin it on the end of the

rope!

One person is going to stand in the middle of a circle,

while the rest of the group make a large circle

around that person. The person in the middle is

going to turn the noisemaker on and then start

swinging the noisemaker in circles over his or

her head. Before you conduct this part of the

experiment, make predictions as to the pitch of

the sound when the noisemaker is turned on

and swung in circles.

Before

Before

Predict how you think the noisemaker will

sound to you as it twirls around. Record what

you expect to hear at the different positions of

the circle. Use an H for high pitch and an L for

low pitch.

During

During

From your position, listen for a change in the

pitch of the noisemaker as it swirls past.

Record what you actually hear, using an H for

high pitch and an L for low pitch.

Before

During

After

After

Compare your answers with those of your team members. How can you explain the differences?

How did it sound to the person in the center?

Copyright © Twin Cities Public Television & GPN. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use.


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Ms. Mitzi Smith

Thurmont Middle School

Thurmont, MD

Mr. James Stearns

Bristol High School

Bristol, SD

Mr. Jim Stern

Westwood Middle School

Blaine, MN

Mr. Larry Strand

Simle Junior High School

Bismarck, ND

Ms. Marjorie Stueckemann

Twin Groves Jr. High School

Buffalo Grove, IL

Mr. Bob Talbitzer

Kearney High School

Kearney, NE

Mr. James Valente

Dreyfus Intermediate School 49, R

Staten Island, NY

Ms. Laura Walsh

Thompson Junior High School

Bakersfield, CA

Mr. Donna West

Bay Trial Middle School

Penfield, NY

Mr. Lanny Whitten

Kennebunk High School

Kennebunk, ME

SPECIAL THANKS

Larry Bachman

Thomas Carr

Jim Caspar

Kris Dokmo

Evelyn Donald

Trich Flock-Johnson

Aletha Halcomb

Dick Hinrichs

Emily Hoover

Ken Meyer

Paul Musegades

Paul Neff

Arnold Nelson

Jack Netland

Todd Pierson

Sheldon Ramnaine

Brad Randall

Lawrence Rudnick

Hank Ryan

Vince Smith

Dianne Strandberg

Dave Tucker

Judy Tucker

Mark Zuzek


NOTES


NOTES


AT LAST, a supplemental middle school science curriculum that helps you meet the challenges

of today’s science classroom. The program engages students by incorporating segments from

the award-winning Newton’s Apple television show into hands-on/minds-on activities. Each

lesson plan helps you integrate the technology using an inquiry-based approach. A variety of

assessment options allow you to gauge student performance. And the entire program is correlated

to the National Science Education Standards.

EACH CURRICULUM MODULE CONTAINS:

● a CD-ROM with two Newton’s Apple segments, a video profile of a working scientist,

and additional audio/visual resources

● a teacher’s guide with lesson plans for six inquiry-based activities

● a Newton’s Apple videotape

38 topics in 19 modules!! Choose the curriculum modules that benefit your needs.

Physical Science Life Science and Health Earth and Space Science

Air Pressure/Domed Stadiums Antibiotics/Cancer Clouds/Weathering

Electric Guitars/Electricity Blood Typing/Bones Dinosaur Extinction/Earthquakes

Gravity/Rockets DNA/DNA Fingerprinting Everglades/Sewers

Infrared/Reflection Hearing/Human Eye Geothermal Energy/Glaciers

Newton’s Laws/Doppler Effect Nicotine/Smiles Greenhouse Effect/Ozone

Frisbee/Buoyancy Meteors/Solar Eclipses

Skydiving/Roller Coasters Phases of the Moon/The Sun

Sports Physics

Hang Gliding/Surfing

High Wire/Skateboards

Spinning/Water-skiing

Individual Packages: $49.95 To order by mail: To order by phone, call toll-free:

Three-CD collection: $119.45 1-800-228-4630

Four-CD collection: $159.95 Fax your order to:

1-800-306-2330

E-mail your order to:

P.O. Box 80669 gpn@unl.edu

Lincoln, NE 68501-0669

Order today!


Distributed by

Box 80669, Lincoln, Nebraska 68501 — 800-228-4630

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