The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts: A County Checklist First ...

archives.lib.state.ma.us

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts: A County Checklist First ...

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts: A County ChecklistFirst Revision Melissa Dow Cullina, Bryan Connolly, Bruce Sorrie and Paul Somers

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts:

A County Checklist

First Revision

Melissa Dow Cullina, Bryan Connolly,

Bruce Sorrie and Paul Somers

Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program

Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife


Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program

The Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program (NHESP), part of the Massachusetts

Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, is one of the programs forming the Natural Heritage network.

NHESP is responsible for the conservation and protection of hundreds of species that are not

hunted, fished, trapped, or commercially harvested in the state. The Program's highest priority is

protecting the 176 species of vertebrate and invertebrate animals and 259 species of native

plants that are officially listed as Endangered, Threatened or of Special Concern in

Massachusetts.

Endangered species conservation in Massachusetts depends on you!

A major source of funding for the protection of rare and endangered species comes from

voluntary donations on state income tax forms. Contributions go to the Natural Heritage &

Endangered Species Fund, which provides a portion of the operating budget for the Natural

Heritage & Endangered Species Program. NHESP protects rare species through biological

inventory, environmental review, research and restoration. For more information about the Fund

and the conservation work performed by NHESP, please contact:

Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program

Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife

1 Rabbit Hill Rd.

Westborough, MA 01581

508-389-6360

Or visit our website: http://www.mass.gov/dfwele/dfw/nhesp/nhesp.htm

About the authors:

Bryan Connolly is currently State Botanist with the Natural Heritage & Endangered Species

program and is the Recording Secretary for the New England Botanical Club. He also moonlights

as a Ph.D. candidate in the Plant Science Department at the University of Connecticut. His

previous botanical adventures include working for the New England Wildflower Society,

Connecticut College, and consulting for the Connecticut Natural History and Geological Survey.

He resides in Mansfield Center, Connecticut.

Melissa Dow Cullina worked as Botanist at the Natural Heritage & Endangered Species

Program for eight years (2000-2008). Currently she is Staff Botanist at Coastal Maine Botanical

Gardens and Botanical Research Associate for the Polly Hill Arboretum. She also serves on the

Herbarium Committee of the New England Botanical Club, and is a member of the editorial board

of the journal Rhodora. Her primary interests include plant collection, botanical history, and New

England's aquatic and coastal flora. She lives on Southport Island, Maine.

Paul Somers worked as State Botanist for the Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered

Species Program for 15 years (1992-2007) and held many offices with the New England

Botanical Club including the Presidency. Before that he was a botanist for 15 years (1976-1992)

with the Tennessee Heritage Program. Both positions gave him the opportunity to pursue his

strong interests in botany and conservation which continue with land trust activities in

"retirement." He lives in Ashburnham, Massachusetts.

Bruce Sorrie worked for 12 years as State Botanist with Natural Heritage & Endangered Species

Program (1979-1991), where he developed and revised the list of the state's rare plant species.

He currently works as an Inventory Biologist with the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program

where he performs county-by-county surveys of natural areas, plant communities, and rare

species. Bruce is author of over 50 published papers, a regional reviewer for the Flora of North

America series, a Research Associate at the University of North Carolina Herbarium, and a

photographer. He lives in Whispering Pines, North Carolina.

Cover Illustration:

The authors greatly appreciated the skillful and kind donation of the cover art by

Elizabeth Farnsworth: Potamogeton confervoides


This work is dedicated to

Henry L. Woolsey

To honor his 30 years with the

Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program,

for guiding its biodiversity conservation efforts,

and with particular gratitude for

his ongoing commitment to the protection of the

rare plants and natural communities of Massachusetts .

ii


Table of

Table

Contents

of Contents

Introduction Introduction…………………………………………………………………..

............................................................................................................. iv

About the Checklist................................................................................................. Checklist…………………………………………………………

v

New to this Edition Edition……………………………………………………

.......................................................................................v

Organization Organization…………………………………………………………

................................................................................................vi

County Distribution…………………………………………………..

Distribution ......................................................................................vi

Native, Introduced, and and Waif Waif Taxa…………………………………

Taxa ...............................................................vi

Status………………………………………………………………………….

Status...........................................................................................................vii

S-ranks………………………………………………………………………

S-ranks Common ........................................................................................................viii

Names……………………………………………………..

Common Abbreviations Names and ..........................................................................................ix

other Conventions……………………………...

Abbreviations and other Conventions ..........................................................ix

Information Exchange………………………………………………………

Information Exchange............................................................................................. xi

Summary of Taxa……………………………………………… ……………….

Summary of Taxa .................................................................................................... xii

Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………

Acknowledgements ................................................................................................ xiii

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts: A County Checklist

The Vascular Lycophytes Plants (Clubmosses of Massachusetts: and Relatives)……………………………………………1

A County Checklist

Lycophytes Monilophytes (Clubmosses (Ferns and Relatives) Horsetails)……………………………………………… ...............................................................1 4

Gymnosperms (Conifers)……………………………………………………………..11

Monilophytes (Ferns and Horsetails) ......................................................................4

Magnoliid Complex (Primitive Flowering Plants)…………………………………...13

Gymnosperms Monocots (Conifers) (Flowering .......................................................................................11

Plants: Monocots)...………………………………………….15

Magnoliid Tricolpates Complex (Flowering (Primitive Plants: Flowering most Dicots)………………………………………...79

Plants) ....................................................13

Monocots (Flowering Plants: Monocots) ................................................................15

Tricolpates Species Exclusiae……………………………………………………………………………244

(Flowering Plants: most Dicots) ...........................................................79

Species Unverified Exclusiae Reports……………………………………………………………………………246

.................................................................................................. 244

Unverified

Literature Cited……………………………………………………………................248

Reports .................................................................................................. 246

Index…………………………………………………………………………………. .251

Literature Cited ....................................................................................................... 248

Map of Massachusetts Towns and Counties…………………………………………

Index ....................................................................................................................... 251

Map of Massachusetts Towns and Counties .......................................................... 270

iii

iii


Introduction

The passing of 2009 marked the 10 th anniversary of the publication of The Vascular

Plants of Massachusetts: A County Checklist (“the Checklist”) (Sorrie and Somers,

1999). After a decade of hard use, this much-referenced document earned its place in

the backpack of every Bay State botanist, and dog-eared, marked-up copies abound

throughout the 14 counties. Supplies of the original Checklist dwindled as the decade

progressed, and the Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program (NHESP),

publisher of the Checklist, decided the time was ripe for a freshly-revised edition of the

work. This volume is the result of that endeavor, and combines the research and

compilation efforts of four past and present NHESP botanists, as well as the new record

contributions of many individuals.

The time lapsed since the publication the original Checklist proved to be an exceptionally

active one for floristic botany in the Commonwealth, and harkens back to the heyday of

New England botany at the turn of the previous century. The resurgence of activity in the

field of botanical research and inventory between 2000 and 2011 has resulted in the

completion of many floristic works, including floras of Needham (Standley 2003)

Springfield (Lovejoy 2008), Worcester (Bertin 2003), the Holyoke Range (Searcy 2008),

Penikese Island (Backus et. al 2002), and a revised flora of the Middlesex Fells (Hamlin

and Kittredge, in press). Numerous single-property inventories (e.g. Skunknett Wildlife

Sanctuary, Boston Harbor Islands, Appalachian Trail Corridor, Camp Curtis Guild) and

habitat-specific inventories (e.g. the Living Waters project) of NHESP have also

contributed to our composite knowledge of the Massachusetts flora. In addition to the

above-cited completed works, new or revised floras are currently in preparation for

Dukes, Franklin, and Worcester Counties.

New England-wide projects that relate directly to our understanding of the

Massachusetts flora have also emerged in the past 11 years. The New England Wild

Flower Society conducted the Herbarium Recovery Project (Haines, unpublished data),

an intensive effort to review and inventory herbarium specimens of all regionally rare

taxa in New England (Brumback, Mehrhoff et al., 1996). Sorrie (2005) re-examined

records of all introduced species and distinguished between those that are naturalized

and those that only temporarily appeared on the landscape of Massachusetts (i.e.,

waifs). The Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE) was founded and began to

systematically voucher and document stations of invasive plant species. New

installments of the “Atlas of the New England Flora” (Angelo & Boufford 1998+) continue

to be published as research on each taxonomic group is completed. New England has

also seen a new publication covering the Huperziaceae and Lycopodiaceae of the region

(Haines 2003) and Carex (Standley 2011). Also, guides to the genera Crataegus

(Haines, in prep.), and the family Poaceae (Magee, in prep.) are also underway. Above

all, an exhaustive new identification manual for New England tracheophytes is on the

brink of publication (Haines, in press).

Finally, our collective understanding of the evolutionary relationships of plants to one

another is continually shifting, and as such, the circumscription and nomenclature of taxa

must change over time, the past decade being no exception. Numerous new volumes of

Flora of North America (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+) have

been completed, and new taxonomic research is continually being published.

iv


This revised Checklist draws on our own herbarium and field research, that of our many

colleagues in botany, and all of the above-referenced works. It is, in sum, a compilation

of the work done by the many industrious field and herbarium botanists and ecologists of

Massachusetts. This volume is a testament to their collaborative spirit and collective

efforts, as well as the contributions of many past botanists.

About the Checklist

New to this revision

While the authors have attempted to keep the general format and layout of the Checklist

as close to the original 1999 edition as possible, there are numerous new features

included to increase the informational value for the conservation community it serves,

and to bring the Checklist up-to-date with the scientific literature. For a complete

discussion of these features and their related terms, see the text below this summary.

To provide more information about each taxon, we have:

Assigned “S-rank” values to each, where possible

Included “Invasive rank” categories assigned by the Massachusetts Invasive Plant

Advisory Group (MIPAG), where applicable, and

Distinguished between introduced taxa that are well-established (“I” for “Introduced”)

in the Commonwealth, vs. those that have appeared but not persisted here (“W” for

“Waif”)

To bring the information up-to-date with NHESP research, we have:

revised the MESA-Listed, Historical and Watch-list rankings

updated the county distributions of tracked taxa

To bring the Checklist up-to-date with current botanical systematics, we have:

Separated related families into six, rather than three, major taxonomic groups

Revised taxonomic circumscription of families and their component genera and

species, and

Updated the nomenclature throughout. Circumscription and nomenclature follow

either Flora of North America (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds.

1993+) or Flora Novae-angliae (Haines, in press).

To add to the completeness of the Checklist, we have:

Included a more exhaustive representation of hybrid taxa, supported by much

original herbarium research

Included 319 new taxa (including newly-discovered, recently-elevated, recently

annotated, and newly-included hybrid taxa)

Included 676 new county-level records (many other evaluated and not accepted. In

addition, if specimens could not be critically evaluated for correctness of

identification, they were not included)

Included a separate list of taxa that have been reported but for which we have not

yet been able to locate a voucher specimen, and

Added complete (rather than abbreviated) synonyms for each taxon

To keep the Checklist as rigorous as possible, we have:

Listed 56 new exclusions from Massachusetts since the last edition, and

Excluded taxa from counties in cases where specimen determinations changed

v


To clarify which entry is attributed to which county on a given page, we have shaded

entries for alternate counties to help the eye associate an entry with the correct county.

Entries for Berkshire, Hampshire, Worcester, Essex, Norfolk, Plymouth, and Dukes

counties are shaded, and

Entries for Franklin, Hampden, Middlesex, Suffolk, Bristol, Barnstable and Nantucket

counties are not shaded.

Organization

The arrangement of plant families is alphabetical within each of six major taxonomic

groupings: 1) Lycophytes (Club-mosses and relatives); 2) Monilophytes (ferns and

horsetails); 3) Gymnosperms (the Conifers); 4) Magnoliids (basal flowering plants) 5)

Monocots (monocotyledenous flowering plants); and 6) Tricolpates (majority of

dicotyledonous flowering plants). Families are alphabetical within these six major

groups. Genera and species are also alphabetical within each family or genus,

respectively. This alphabetical approach has been employed for the users‟ convenience

rather than following a traditional phylogenic approach. An index is provided to help the

user find a plant by both its scientific and common names.

County distribution

The distribution columns indicate the documented presence or presumed absence of

every taxon in each of the Commonwealth‟s fourteen counties. For the names and

locations of counties, see the map provided on the last page. Counties are arranged

from west to east and then southeastward toward Cape Cod and the Islands. The intent

is to convey general phytogeographic patterns without actually depicting each taxon‟s

distribution on a map. Thus, boreal and montane species are largely restricted to central

and western counties, whereas southern and maritime plants occur eastward. All county

records are based on herbarium specimens. The only exception is for rare species for

which herbarium collections are not always appropriate; all rare species (listed under the

Massachusetts Endangered Species Act) records are backed up by a critically-reviewed

record in the NHESP database. No reports based solely on sightings, even if published,

are included.

Native, introduced and waif taxa

Native (= N) or indigenous taxa are those considered to include Massachusetts as part

of their natural range within historical times.

Introduced (= I) or non-indigenous taxa, sometimes also referred to as “alien” or

“exotic,” are those which have been intentionally, accidentally, or spontaneously

introduced to Massachusetts through human activities, even if passively via adjacent

states. Such taxa are included if they are “naturalized,” appeared spontaneously, or

have persisted from plantings in areas that have reverted to a more natural environment.

Waifs (= W) are a type of introduction that have appeared spontaneously (not or no

longer in cultivation), but have not persisted in our landscape to become part of our truly

naturalized flora. These are included to render our floristic record complete, but are

designated separately to indicate that their presence is or was only sporadic, and that

they are not truly considered a part of our existing flora. These have usually been

collected only once or twice at farms, ports, railroad yards, dump sites, vacant urban

lots, etc. Many unique collections, for instance, came from mill yards or from fields

vi


fertilized with woolen mill waste containing alien seeds that had been trapped in the

wool, a practice which ceased around the beginning of World War II.

Status

In addition to state-wide distributions, each taxon entry also contains information about

the conservation or invasive status (if applicable) in Massachusetts. The Status column

indicates if a taxon is of conservation concern to NHESP, or, at the opposite end of the

conservation spectrum, i.e., if it is considered to be especially problematic or aggressive

by MIPAG.

Rare species of conservation concern in the Commonwealth are tracked by NHESP

under several categories. Endangered, Threatened, and Special Concern species

categories are defined by Massachusetts statute (MGL Ch. 131A). These species are

protected from collecting or taking under the Massachusetts Endangered Species Act.

Watch List and Historical designations are unofficial status categories established by

NHESP for additional taxa that are being monitored. An observation of any taxon

marked with one of these rarity codes is worth reporting to NHESP (See “Information

Exchange”) as a new site record or as an update of a known population. The

conservation status abbreviations and their meanings are as follows:

E = Endangered: Any species of plant in danger of extinction throughout all or a

significant portion of its range (including, but not limited to, species listed from

time to times as “endangered” under the provisions of the Federal Endangered

Species Act of 1973, as amended), and species of plants in danger of extirpation

as documented by biological research and inventory.

T = Threatened: Any species of plant or animal likely to become an endangered

species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its

range including, but not limited to, species listed from time to time as

“threatened” under the provisions of the Federal Endangered Species Act of

1973, as amended, and any species declining or rare as determined by biological

research and inventory and likely to become endangered in the foreseeable

future; provided, however, that the inclusion of any species on the Federal

Threatened Species list shall not limit the discretion of the director to list said

species as “endangered.”

SC = Special Concern: Any species of plant or animal which has been

documented by biological research and inventory to have suffered a decline that

could threaten the species if allowed to continue unchecked or that occurs in

such small numbers or with such a restricted distribution or specialized habitat

requirements that it could easily become threatened within the commonwealth.

WL = Watch List: Uncommon or possibly rare plant taxa in Massachusetts. This

unofficial list of species maintained by the NHESP includes a) species which

have been removed from the official regulatory list but for which the Program still

maintains active files and encourages conservation efforts to ensure that its

status remains secure; and b) species suspected to be rare or declining but for

which information is lacking regarding the number and size of current

populations, the severity of threats or decline, or its taxonomic status.

vii


H = Historic: Species that have not been observed in Massachusetts during the

past 25 years (approximately 1986 at the date of this publication). Without recent

observations, these species are presumed to be historical in Massachusetts.

Also contained within the Status column are designations by MIPAG (Somers et al.

2006) that relate to categories of invasive plants. As defined by MIPAG, “invasive plants”

are “non-native species that have spread into minimally managed plant systems in

Massachusetts. These plants cause economic or environmental harm by developing

self-sustaining populations that dominate and/or disrupt native ecosystems.” Categories

of invasive plants defined by MIPAG, and included in this Checklist, are as follows:

S-ranks

Invasive: A non-indigenous plant with the biological potential for rapid and

widespread dispersion and establishment in minimally managed areas. These

species have the potential for dispersal over spatial gaps away from the site of

introduction and have the potential for survival in high numbers away from

intensively managed artificial habitats. Invasive plants have become naturalized

in Massachusetts and are widespread or at lease common in a region or habitat

type(s) in the state. Within minimally managed habitats, they have many

occurrences of numerous individuals that form dense stands and are able to outcompete

other species in natural plant communities.

Likely Invasive: A non-native species that is naturalized in Massachusetts but

does not meet the full criteria that would trigger an Invasive designation. In

general these plants have the same qualities as Invasive plants except that they

are not yet widespread in Massachusetts. Likely Invasive plants must have at

least one occurrence in the state and have the potential, based on their biology

and colonization histories in other states, to become Invasive in Massachusetts.

Plants may also be placed in this category if they have been acknowledged as

Invasive in nearby states but their status in Massachusetts is uncertain due to

lack of field information or taxonomic uncertainties.

Potentially Invasive: Non-native species not currently known to exist in

Massachusetts, but can be expected to become invasive within minimally

managed habitats in the future. Potentially Invasive species have documented

histories of invasiveness in other areas of the Northeast, and their naturalization

in Massachusetts is anticipated. These species have the biological capacity, if

naturalized, to pose an imminent threat to the biodiversity of Massachusetts.

The frequency of occurrence and relative threats to a given taxon within the

Commonwealth are summarized in the “S-rank” column. Within the Natureserve network

of natural heritage programs (see www.natureserve.org), “S-rank” is a standardized way

of reporting the conservation priority of a taxon within a state or province. The categories

are defined by Natureserve as:

S1 = Critically Imperiled in [Massachusetts] because of extreme rarity or

because of some factor(s) such as very steep declines making it especially

vulnerable to extirpation from the jurisdiction.

viii


S2 = Imperiled in [Massachusetts] because of rarity due to very restricted range,

very few populations, steep declines, or other factors making it very vulnerable to

extirpation from jurisdiction.

S3 = Vulnerable in [Massachusetts] due to a restricted range, relatively few

populations, recent and widespread declines, or other factors making it

vulnerable to extirpation.

S4 = Apparently Secure: Uncommon but not rare [in Massachusetts]; some

cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors.

S5 = Secure: Common, widespread, and abundant in [Massachusetts].

SNR = Unranked: [Massachusetts] conservation status not yet assessed.

SX = Presumed Extirpated: The species … is believed to be extirpated from

[Massachusetts]. Not located despite intensive searches of historical sites and

other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.

SH = Historical: Known from only historical records, but still some hope of

rediscovery. There is evidence that the species may no longer be present in

[Massachusetts], but not enough to state this with certainty. Examples of such

evidence include (1) that a species has not been documented in approximately

20-40 years despite some searching or some evidence of significant habitat loss

or degradation; (2) that a species has been searched for unsuccessfully, but not

thoroughly enough to presume that it is no longer present in the jurisdiction.

SNA = Not Applicable: A conservation status rank is not applicable because the

species is not a suitable target for conservation activities (e.g. it is a non-native

taxon not appropriate for conservation efforts)

Common names

Common or vernacular names are available in the botanical literature for most taxa, but

for some inconspicuous ones, such as many graminoids, or certain rare or uncommon

taxa, none were found. This work attempts to provide one or more common names for

each scientific name used. Hybrids are a common exception. The creation of new

common names was considered undesirable, and therefore avoided.

Abbreviations and Other Conventions

Synonyms are placed in parentheses below the current scientific name; parental taxa of

hybrids and special comments are also placed in parentheses under each entry. In the

county occurrence columns, the letter “N” stands for native, “I” for introduced and “W” for

waif (see discussion, above). If a “?” appears, uncertainty or doubt is implied. The

abbreviations for the fourteen counties are arranged from west to east and secondarily

from north to south on the pages of the Checklist. Their names in this order are

Berkshire (BE), Franklin (FR), Hampshire (HS), Hampden (HD), Worcester (WO),

ix


Middlesex (MI), Essex (ES), Suffolk (SU), Norfolk (NO), Bristol (BR), Plymouth (PL),

Barnstable (BA), Dukes (DU) and Nantucket (NA).

Botanical abbreviations for naming authorities are often abbreviated (e.g. “L.” for

Linnaeus). Some standard abbreviations for Latin terms commonly used in botanical

nomenclature (as found in Stearn (1966)), appear within the Checklist. For convenience,

explanations for most Latin terms used here are listed below:

Auct. = Auctorum, meaning of authors. This abbreviation is used to denote that certain

authors have misapplied the names as now understood based on a study of the species

and evaluation of the type specimen(s).

Ex = from

Non = not

Pro hybr. = a taxon originally described as a hybrid, but presently treated as a regular

species

Pro sp. = a taxon originally described as a species but presently treated as a hybrid (the

opposite of pro hybr.)

Sensu = “in the sense of,” or following the taxonomic concept of a particular author or

set of authors.

x


Information Exchange

The Massachusetts Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program would like

to hear from you concerning information and questions relative to the

composition and distribution of the flora of the Commonwealth. We are

particularly interested to know about discoveries of any uncommon plant species

or new county records. The Program maintains computerized and mapped

records of hundreds of species occurrences that are used in land protection, land

management, and regulatory activities. Reports and updates of rare plant

observations are, therefore, of great value to the Program. Also, please contact

us when you observe that MESA-listed plant populations are threatened with

destruction or significant loss of habitat. Some currently available publications

and forms are:

The current Massachusetts List of Endangered, Threatened, and Special

Concern Species, with (the Massachusetts Endangered Species Act regulatory

list, 321 CMR 10:90). Status List of Massachusetts Rare Plants, an alphabetical

listing of all plant species actively monitored by the Program. This includes those

rare species that are officially listed (see above), those on the unofficial „Watch

List,‟ and those considered to be „Historic‟ in Massachusetts.

Individual fact sheets about most of the state‟s MESA-listed plants and natural

communities, plus some invasive plant species and how to control them.

Swain, P.C. and J.B. Kearsley. 2011. Classification of the Natural Communities

of Massachusetts. Version 1.4. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species

Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA.

URL: http://www.mass.gov/dfwele/dfw/nhesp/nhclass.htm.

“NHESP Plant Observation Forms” for reporting new MESA-listed or other rare

plant discoveries or status updates for populations already known to the

Program.

Guidelines for Rare Plant Collecting in Massachusetts.

A Guide to Invasive Plants in Massachusetts, a color booklet profiling over 60

of the state‟s most invasive plants.

The current edition of the Massachusetts Natural Heritage Atlas, which depicts

on aerial photographs the „Estimated Habitats‟ of rare wetlands wildlife and

certified vernal pools for use with the Wetlands Protection Act, and „Priority

Habitats of MESA-listed Species‟ for use with the Massachusetts Endangered

Species Act.

The state‟s biodiversity conservation plan entitled BioMap2: Conserving the

Biodiversity of Massachusetts in a Changing World. This plan combines,

updates and enhances the original BioMap and Living Waters conservation plans

from 2001 and 2003, respectively.

Further information about the Department, Division, and/or Natural Heritage &

Endangered Species Program can be obtained from the website:

http://www.state.ma.us/dfwele, or www.nhesp.org, or by calling (508) 389-6360.

Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program

Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife

North Drive

Westborough, MA 01581

xi


Summary of Taxa

Table I: Overall Summary of Massachusetts Taxa compared between 1999 and 2011

1999 2011

Families 180 179

Genera 920 957

Species 2,814 2,984

Total Taxa 3,119 3,293

Hybrids 111 181

Table II. Native vs. Introduced Taxa

1999

number

of taxa

1999

percent

of total

flora

2011

number

of total

taxa

xii

2011

percent

of total

flora

Native Taxa 1,770 57% 1,814 55%

2011

Number of

established

taxa

1,814 67%

Introduced,

898 27% 898 33%

established 1,349* 43%*

Introduced,

Waifs

581 18% - -

Total 3,119 3,293 2,712

*Waifs were not distinguished from established introductions in 1999 Checklist

Type of

Addition

Number of

Taxa

Table III. Additions of taxa since the 1999 Checklist*

Newly-

Discovered in

the Field or

Herbaria

Taxon Elevated

or Previously

Misidentified

Hybrids Newly

Included

2011

percent of

established

flora

Total

139 102 78 319

*Please note that since some taxa have been re-determined or excluded since the 1999

edition, adding numbers of additions to the 1999 taxon list will not give the correct

number of present taxa


Acknowledgements

At the heart of this revision and the original Checklist are the herbaria which house the

many specimens referenced herein. Our sincere gratitude goes first to the curators and

staff of these herbaria. For this edition, we would like to especially thank Karen Searcy

and Roberta Lombardi at the University of Massachusetts (MASS); Walter Kittredge,

Leslie Mehrhoff (deceased), Emily Wood, and Gustavo Romero of the Harvard

University Herbaria (NEBC, GH, A, and AMES); Janet Sullivan of the Hodgdon

Herbarium of the University of New Hampshire (NHA), Pamela Polloni of the Woods

Hole Oceanographic Institute (SCWH), Arthur Haines at the Delta Institute of Natural

History (DINH), Scott Shumway of Wheaton College, David Lovejoy at Westfield State

College (WSCH), Robert Capers of the University of Connecticut Herbarium (CONN),

Elizabeth Allen and David Barrington at the Pringle Herbarium of the University of

Vermont (VT), and Thomas Zanoni at the New York Botanical Gardens (NY). Thank you

so much for your assistance, insights and hospitality.

For assistance in accessing the botanical literature, we thank Judith Warnement of the

Botanical Libraries of Harvard University. For help with taxonomic and nomenclatural

questions, for generously-shared information about new state and county records, and

comments on early drafts, we enthusiastically thank Arthur Haines of the New England

Wild Flower Society and Robert Bertin of College of the Holy Cross.

For help locating sources of new herbarium records, we thank Ray Angelo, David

Boufford, Alexey Zinovjev, the Botanical Club of Cape Cod and the Islands, the New

England Wild Flower Society (Herbarium Recovery Project), and the Invasive Plant Atlas

of New England.

For contributing new state and county records to the Checklist, and for keeping us

updated on field finds throughout this project, we gratefully thank Ray Angelo, Robert

Bertin, Tim Boland, Tom Clark, Ted Elliman, Jennifer Garrett, Arthur Haines, Bryan

Hamlin, C. Barre Hellquist, Matt Hickler, Irina Kadis, Walter Kittredge, Roberta Lombardi,

David Lovejoy, Don Lubin, Leslie Mehrhoff, William Moorhead III, Glenn Motzkin, Tom

Palmer, Pam Polloni, Alexandra Sabella, Julie Russell, Donald Schall, Karen Searcy,

Erika Sonder, Lisa Standley, Arieh Tahl, Lou Wagner, Pamela Weatherbee, David

Werrier, Nancy Wigley, Elizabeth Zacharias, Peter Zika, and Alexey Zinovjev. It has

been our sincere pleasure corresponding with you about your many great discoveries.

This work could not have been completed without the staff of the Natural Heritage &

Endangered Species Program, particularly Henry Woolsey, Tara Huguenin, Sarah

Haggerty, Tara Boswell, Jennifer Garrett, Pat Swain, Tim Simmons and Karen Dolan.

The tireless work of former volunteer Kathy Wilensky allowed us to incorporate many

new Watch List county records.

For much inspiration and moral support during the completion of this project, we

acknowledge the members of New England Botanical Club, Elizabeth Farnsworth, the

Brainerd Botanical Club, and last but far from least, the burgeoning Cullina (Bill, Liam,

Ronan and Maeve) and Connolly families (Diane, William and Cordelia) that kept all

things in perspective.

xiii


Vascular Plant County Checklist

xiv


Lycophytes

HUPERZIACEAE

FIR-MOSS FAMILY

Huperzia

appressa (Desv.) A. & D. Löve

(Huperzia appalachiana Beitel & Mickel)

(Lycopodium selago L. of previous authors)

Appalachian Fir-moss

Status S-Rank

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S1

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

* N * * * * * * * * * * *

×buttersii (Abbe) Kartesz & Gandhi SNR * N * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Huperzia lucidula × H. selago)

A Fir-moss

lucidula (Michaux) Trev. S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N * *

(Lycopodium lucidulum Michaux)

Shining Fir-moss

×protoporophila A. Haines SNR * * N * * * * * * * * * * *

(Huperzia appressa × H. lucidula)

A Fir-moss

selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart. E S1 * N * * N * * * * * * * * *

Mountain Fir-moss

ISOETACEAE

QUILLWORT FAMILY

Isoetes

×foveolata A.A. Eat. ex Dodge

(Isoetes engelmannii × I. tuckermannii)

SNR

*

* * * * * N * * N * * * *

acadiensis Kott E S1 * * * * * * * * * * N N * *

Acadian Quillwort

×eatonii Dodge S4 * * * * * N * * N * * * * *

(Isoetes echinospora × I. engelmannii)

Eaton's Quillwort

echinospora Dur. ssp. muricata (Dur.) Löve

& Löve

Spiny-spored Quillwort

S5 N N N N N N N * N N N * * *

×echtuckerii D.F. Brunton & D.M. Britt. S? * * * * * N * * * * * * * *

(Isoetes echinospora × I. tuckermanii)

Quillwort

engelmannii A. Br. S4 * * * N * N N * N N N * * *

Engelmann's Quillwort

lacustris L. E S1 * * * N N N * * * * * * * *

(Isoetes macrospora Dur.)

Lake Quillwort

×novae-angliae D.F. Brunton & D.M. Britt. S1S2 *

* * * * * * * N N * * * *

(Isoetes riparia var. canadensis × I. tuckermanii)

New England Quillwort

1


2

Lycophytes

ISOETACEAE

QUILLWORT FAMILY

Isoetes

riparia Engelm. ex A. Br. var. canadensis

Engelm. ex N.E. Pfeiff

Status S-Rank

(Isoetes canadensis (Engelm. ex N.E. Pfeiff.) A.A. Eat. ex Maxon)

Riverbank Quillwort

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S3S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * N * N N N N N * * * *

tuckermanii A. Br. ex Engelm. S4? * N * N N N N * N N N N N N

Tuckerman's Quillwort

LYCOPODIACEAE

CLUB-MOSS FAMILY

Dendrolycopodium

dendroideum (Michaux) A. Haines

(Lycopodium dendroideum Michaux)

(Lycopodium obscurum var. dendroideum (Michaux) D.C. Eaton)

Northern or Round-branched Ground-pine

hickeyi (W.H. Wagner, Beitel, & Moran) A.

Haines

(Lycopodium hickeyi W.H. Wagner, Beitel & Moran)

(Lycopodium obscurum L. var. isophyllum Hickey)

Hickey's Ground-pine

hickeyi (W.H. Wagner, Beitel, & Moran) A.

Haines × D. obscurum (L.) A. Haines

S4

N

N N N N * N * * * * * * *

S4S5 N N N N N N N N N N * N * N

SNR * * * * N * * * N * * N * *

obscurum (L.) A. Haines S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Lycopodium obscurum L.)

Ground-pine, Princess Pine

Diphasiastrum

digitatum (Dill. ex A. Braun) Holub

(Lycopodium complanatum L. var. flabelliforme Fern.)

Southern Ground-cedar

S5

N

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

×habereri (House) Holub SNR N N N * N * * * * * * * * *

(Diphasiastrum digitatum × D. tristachyum)

tristachyum (Pursh) Holub S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

(Lycopodium tristachyum Pursh)

Slender Ground-cedar

Lycopodiella

alopecuroides (L.) Cranfill

(Lycopodium alopecuroides L.)

Foxtail Clubmoss

E

S1

*

* * * N N * * * * * * * N

appressa (Chapman) Cranfill S4 * * * N * N N N N N N N N N

(Lycopodium appressum (Chapman) Lloyd & Underwood)

(Lycopodium inundatum var. bigelovii Tuckerman)

Southern Bog-clubmoss

×copelandii (Eiger) Cranfill S? * * * * * * * * * N N N * N

(Lycopodiella alopecuroides × L. appressa)

Copeland's Clubmoss

×gilmanii A. Haines SNR *

* N N N N * * N * * N N *


Lycophytes

LYCOPODIACEAE

CLUB-MOSS FAMILY

Lycopodiella

inundata (L.) Holub

(Lycopodium inundatum L.)

Northern Bog-clubmoss

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

×robusta (R.J. Eat.) A. Haines S? N * * * * N * * * * * * * *

(Lycopodiella inundata × L. alopecuroides)

(Lycopodium i. var. robustum R.J. Eaton)

Robust Bog-clubmoss

Lycopodium

clavatum L.

Staghorn Clubmoss

lagopus (Laestad. ex Hartm.) Zinserl. ex

Kuzen.

(Lycopodium clavatum L. var. lagopus Laest. ex Hartm.)

One-cone Clubmoss

Pseudolycopodiella

caroliniana (L.) Holub

(Lycopodium carolinianum L.)

Carolina or Slender Clubmoss

Spinulum

annotinum (L.) A. Haines

(Lycopodium annotinum L.)

(Lycopodium annotinum L. var. acrifolium Fern.)

Bristly Clubmoss

SELAGINELLACEAE

SPIKE-MOSS FAMILY

Selaginella

apoda (L.) Spring

Meadow Spike-moss

H

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

S4? N N * N N N N * * * * * * *

SX

S5

S4?

*

N

N

* N * * * * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N * N * N * * *

N N N N N N * N N N * * *

eclipes Buck H SH N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Selaginella apoda (L.) Spring ssp. eclipes (W.R. Buck) Skoda)

Hidden Spike-moss

rupestris (L.) Spring WL S3S4 N

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Rock Spike-moss

3


4

Monilophytes

ASPLENIACEAE

SPLEENWORT FAMILY

Asplenium

×ebenoides R.R. Scott

(Asplenium platyneuron × A. rhizophyllum)

Scott's Spleenwort

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

montanum Willd. E S1 N * * * N * * * * * * * * *

Mountain-spleenwort

platyneuron (L.) B.S.P. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Ebony Spleenwort

rhizophyllum L. S4 N N N N * I * I? * * * * * *

(Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link)

Walking Fern

ruta-muraria L. T S2 N N * N * * * * * * * * * *

Wall-rue Spleenwort

trichomanes L. ssp. quadrivalens D.E. Meyer S2? N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

Maidenhair Spleenwort

trichomanes L. ssp. trichomanes S? N N N N N N N N N N * * * *

Maidenhair Spleenwort

AZOLLACEAE

WATER-FERN FAMILY

Azolla

caroliniana Willd.

Mosquito-fern

BLECHNACEAE

CHAIN-FERN FAMILY

Woodwardia

areolata (L.) T. Moore

(Lorinseria areolata (L.) Presl.)

Netted Chain-fern

SNA

S4

*

N

* I I * * * * * * * * * I

N N N * N N N N N N N N N

virginica (L.) Smith S4 * N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Virginia Chain-fern

DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

HAY-SCENTED FERN FAMILY

Dennstaedtia

punctilobula (Michaux) T. Moore

Hay-scented Fern

Pteridium

aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum (Desv.)

Underw. ex A. Heller

Bracken

S5

S5

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N


Monilophytes

DENNSTAEDTIACEAE

HAY-SCENTED FERN FAMILY

Pteridium

aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. pseudocaudatum

(Clute) A. Heller

Pine Barrens Bracken

DRYOPTERIDACEAE

WOOD-FERN FAMILY

Dryopteris

×benedictii Wherry

(Dryopteris carthusiana × D. clintoniana)

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNR

SNR

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

* * * * * * * * * N N N N

* N * * * * * * * * * * *

×boottii (Tuckerman) Underw. SNR N N N N N N N N N * N N N N

(Dryopteris cristata × D. intermedia)

Boott's Wood-fern

×burgessii Boivin SNR * * N * * N * * * * * * * *

(Dryopteris clintoniana × D. marginalis)

campyloptera (Kunze) Clarkson WL S3? N N * * N * * * * * I? * * *

(Dryopteris spinulosa (O.F. Muell.) Watt var. americana (Fischer)

Fern.)

Mountain Wood-fern

carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. Fuchs S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Dryopteris spinulosa (O.F. Muell.) Watt)

Spinulose Wood-fern

clintoniana (D.C. Eaton ex A. Gray) Dowell S4 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

(Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray var. clintoniana (D.C. Eaton ex A.

Gray) Underw.)

Clinton's Wood-fern

clintoniana (D.C. Eaton ex A. Gray) Dowell

× D. cristata (L.) A. Gray

SNR N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

cristata (L.) A. Gray S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Crested Wood-fern

×dowellii (Farw.) Wherry SNR * * N * * * * * * * * * * *

(Dryopteris clintoniana × D. intermedia)

goldiana (Hooker ex Goldie) A. Gray WL S3 N N N N N I * * * I * * * *

Goldie's Fern

goldiana (Hooker ex Goldie) A. Gray × D.

intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray

SNR N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

(Dryopteris spinulosa (O.F. Muell.) Watt var.intermedia (Muhl.)

Underw.)

Intermediate Wood-fern

intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) Gray × D.

marginalis (L.) A. Gray

SNR *

* * * N N * * N * * * * *

5


6

Monilophytes

DRYOPTERIDACEAE

WOOD-FERN FAMILY

Dryopteris

marginalis (L.) A. Gray

Marginal Wood-fern

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

×neowherryi W.H. Wagner SNR N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Dryopteris goldiana × D. marginalis)

×slossoniae Wherry ex Lellinger SNR N N N * N N N * N N N * * *

(Dryopteris cristata × D. marginalis)

Slosson's Wood-fern

×triploidea Wherry SNR N N N * N N N * N N * N * *

(Dryopteris carthusiana × D. intermedia)

(Dryopteris spinulosa (O.F. Muell.) Watt var. fructuosa (Gilbert)

Trudell)

Triploid Wood-fern

×uliginosa (A. Br. ex Dowell) Druce SNR N * N * N N * N N N * * N *

(Dryopteris carthusiana × D. cristata)

Swamp Wood-fern

Polystichum

acrostichoides (Michaux) Schott

Christmas-fern

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

braunii (Spenner) Fée E S1 N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Polystichum braunii (Spenner) Fée var. purshii Fern.)

Braun's Holly-fern

×potteri Barrington SNR N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Polystichum acrostichoides × P. braunii)

Potter's Holly-fern

EQUISETACEAE

HORSETAIL FAMILY

Equisetum

arvense L.

Field-horsetail

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

×ferrissii Clute SNR * * N * * * * * * * * * * *

(Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine × E. laevigatum)

fluviatile L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

River-horsetail

hyemale L. ssp. affine (Engelm.) Calder &

Taylor

(Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine (Englem.) A.A. Eaton)

Scouring Rush

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

×litorale Kühl. ex Rupr. SNR *

N N * * * N * * * * * * *

(Equisetum arvense × E. fluviatile)

Shore-horsetail


Monilophytes

EQUISETACEAE

HORSETAIL FAMILY

Equisetum

×mackaii (Newman) Brichan

(Equisetum hyemale × E. variegatum)

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNR

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

palustre L. H SH * * N * * N * * * * * * * *

Marsh-horsetail

pratense Ehrh. WL S2 N N N N * * * * * * * * * *

Meadow-horsetail

scirpoides Michaux SC S3 N N N N * * N * * * * * * *

Dwarf Scouring Rush

sylvaticum L. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

(Equisetum sylvaticum L. var. pauciramosum Milde)

Woodland-horsetail

variegatum Schleicher ex Weber & Mohr

ssp. variegatum

Variegated Scouring Rush

HYMENOPHYLLACEAE

FILMY FERN FAMILY

Trichomanes

intricatum Farrar

Weft Bristle-fern, Appalachian Bristle-fern

MARSILEACEAE

WATER-CLOVER FAMILY

Marsilea

quadrifolia L.

Water-clover

ONOCLEACEAE

SENSITIVE FERN FAMILY

Matteuccia

struthiopteris (L.) Todaro ssp. pensylvanica

(Willd.) A. & D. Löve

Onoclea

(Pteretis pensylvanica (Willd.) Fern.)

Ostrich-fern

sensibilis L.

Sensitive Fern

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE

ADDER'S-TONGUE FAMILY

Botrychium

angustisegmentum (Pease & Moore) Fern.

WL

E

WL

(Botrychium lanceolatum (Gmel.) Angst. ssp. angustisegmentum

(Pease & Moore) Clausen)

Narrow Triangle Grape-fern

S3 N N N N N * * * N * * * * *

S1

SNA

S4S5

S5

S2S3

N

I

N

N

N

N * * N * * * * * * * * *

* I * * I I I I * * I * *

N N N N N N I N N * I * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N * N * * N * *

dissectum Sprengel S4? N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Botrychium dissectum Sprengel var. obliquum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Clute)

Dissected Grape-fern

7


8

Monilophytes

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE

ADDER'S-TONGUE FAMILY

Botrychium

matricariifolium (Doll) A. Braun ex W.D.J.

Koch

Daisy-leaf Moonwort

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S2?

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N * N * N N * *

multifidum (Gmelin) Rupr. S4 N N N N N N N * N * * N N *

(Botrychium multifidum (Gmelin) Rupr. var. intermedium (D.C. Eaton)

Farw.)

Leathery Grape-fern

oneidense (Gilbert) House WL S1S2 N * N N N N * * N * N * N *

Blunt-lobed Grape-fern

simplex E. Hitchc. WL S1S2 * N N N N * N * * * * * * *

(Botrychium simplex E. Hitchc. var. laxifolium (Clausen) Fern.)

Least Moonwort

tenebrosum A. A. Eaton WL S1S2 N N * * * * N * N * N * * *

(Botrychium simplex var. tenebrosum (A.A. Eat.) Clausen)

Swamp Moonwort

virginianum (L.) Sw. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

Rattlesnake-fern

Ophioglossum

pusillum Raf.

(Ophioglossum pusillum Raf. vulgatum var. pseudopodum (Blake)

Farw.)

Adder's Tongue Fern

OSMUNDACEAE

FLOWERING FERN FAMILY

Osmunda

claytoniana L.

Interrupted Fern

T

S2

S5

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N * N

regalis L. var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Royal Fern

Osmundastrum

Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C. Presl

(Osmunda cinnamomea L.)

Cinnamon Fern

POLYPODIACEAE

POLYPODY FAMILY

Polypodium

appalachianum Haufler & Windham

Appalachian Rock Polypody

S5

S4

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N * * N N * * * *

×incognitum Cusik SNR * * N * N N * N N * N * * *

(Polypodium appalachiana × P. virginiana)

virginianum L. S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Rock Polypody


Monilophytes

PTERIDACEAE

MAIDENHAIR-FERN FAMILY

Adiantum

pedatum L.

Maidenhair-fern

Cryptogramma

stelleri (Gmelin) Prantl

Pellaea

Fragile Rock-brake

atropurpurea (L.) Link

Purple Cliff-brake

Status S-Rank

E

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

S1

S3

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

N * * * * * * * * * * * *

N N N N * * * * * * * * *

glabella Mett. ex Kuhn ssp. glabella SNA * * * * * * * I? * * * * * *

Smooth Cliff-brake

SALVINIACEAE

SALVINIA FAMILY

Salvinia

minima Baker

(Salvinia rotundifolia, auct. non Willd.)

Water-spangles

SCHIZAEACEAE

CURLY-GRASS FAMILY

Lygodium

palmatum (Bernh. ex Schrader) Sw.

Climbing Fern

THELYPTERIDACEAE

MARSH-FERN FAMILY

Parathelypteris

noveboracensis (L.) Ching

(Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl.)

New York Fern

SC

SNA

S3

S5

*

N

N

* * * * * * * W * * * * *

N N N N N N * N N N N * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

simulata (Davenport) Holttum S5 N N N * N N N N N N N N N N

(Thelypteris simulata (Davenp.) Nieuwl.)

Massachusetts Fern

Phegopteris

connectilis (Michaux) Watt

(Thelypteris phegopteris (L.) Slosson)

Northern Beech-fern

S5

N

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

hexagonoptera (Michaux) Fée S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

(Thelypteris hexagonoptera (Michaux) Weatherby)

Southern Beech-fern

Thelypteris

palustris Schott var. pubescens (Lawson)

Fern.

Marsh-fern

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

9


10

Monilophytes

WOODSIACEAE

WOODSIA FAMILY

Athyrium

angustum (Willd.) C. Presl.

(Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth var. angustum (Willd.) Lawson)

Northern Lady-fern

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

asplenioides (Michaux) Desv. WL S2? * * * * * N * * N N * N N N

(Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth var. asplenioides (Michaux) Farw.)

Southern Lady-fern

Cystopteris

bulbifera (L.) Bernh.

Bulblet-fern

S4

N

N * N * I * * * * * * * *

fragilis (L.) Bernh. S4 * * * * * N N * N N * * * *

Fragile Fern

laurentiana (Weatherby) Blasdell WL S1? * N * * * * * * * * * * * *

Laurentian Bladder Fern

tenuis (Michaux) Desv. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

(Cystopteris fragilis var. mackayi Lawson)

MacKay's Fragile Fern

Deparia

acrostichoides (Swartz) M. Kato

(Athyrium thelypteroides (Michaux) Desv.)

Silvery Spleenwort

Diplazium

pycnocarpon (Sprengel) Broun

(Athyrium pycnocarpon (Sprengel) Tidestrom)

Glade-fern

Gymnocarpium

dryopteris (L.) Newman

Oak-fern

Woodsia

glabella R. Brown

Smooth Woodsia

WL

E

S5

S3

S5

S1

N

N

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

N N N * I I? * I * * * * *

N N N N N N * N * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

ilvensis (L.) R. Br. S5 N N N N N N N * N N N * * *

Rusty Woodsia

obtusa (Sprengel) Torrey ssp. obtusa S5 N

N N N N N N N N N * * * *

Blunt-lobed Woodsia


Gymnosperms

CUPRESSACEAE

CEDAR FAMILY

Chamaecyparis

thyoides (L.) B.S.P.

Atlantic White Cedar

Juniperus

communis L. var. depressa Pursh

Common Juniper

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N

11

* * N N N N N N N N N N *

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

horizontalis Moench WL SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

Prostrate Juniper

virginiana L. var. virginiana S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Thuja

Eastern Red Cedar

occidentalis L.

Arbor Vitae

PINACEAE

PINE FAMILY

Abies

balsamea (L.) P. Miller

Balsam Fir

concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Lindley ex

Hildebrand

Larix

White Fir, Colorado Fir

decidua P. Miller

European Larch

E

S1

S4

N

N

* I N? I I I * * I * I I *

N N N N N * * * I I I * *

SNR * * * W * * * * * * * * * *

SNR

I

* * * I * I I I I I I I I

laricina (DuRoi) Koch S5 N N N N N N N * N N N * * I

Picea

Tamarack

abies (L.) Karsten

Norway Spruce

SNR

I

* * I I I I I I * * I I *

glauca (Moench) Voss SNR * * I I I I * * I I I I I *

White Spruce

mariana (P. Miller) B.S.P. S5 N N N N N N N * N * N * * *

Black Spruce

rubens Sarg. S4 N N N N N N * * * * * * * *

Pinus

Red Spruce

banksiana Lamb.

Jack Pine

SNR

*

I I I I I * * * * I I * I


12

PINACEAE

PINE FAMILY

Pinus

mugo Turra

Mugo Pine

Gymnosperms

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNR

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

nigra Arnott SNR * * * * * * I * * * * * * *

Austrian Pine

resinosa Aiton WL S2S3 N N N N N N N * I I * I * I

Red Pine

rigida Miller S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Pitch-pine

strobus L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N I I

White Pine

sylvestris L. SNR I I I I I I I * I I * I * I

Scotch Pine

thunbergii Parl. SNR * * I * * * I * * * * I * I

(Pinus thunbergiana Franco)

Japanese Black Pine

Pseudotsuga

menziesii (Mirbel) Franco

Tsuga

(Abies menziesii Mirbel)

Douglas Fir

canadensis (L.) Carr.

Eastern Hemlock

TAXACEAE

YEW FAMILY

Taxus

baccata L.

English Yew

SNA

S4

SNR

*

N

*

* * * I * * * I I * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

* * * I * * * * * I * * *

canadensis Marsh. var. canadensis S5 N N N N N N N * N * N * * *

American Yew

cuspidata Sieb. & Zucc. SNR *

* I I I * * * * * * * * *

Japanese Yew


Magnoliid Complex

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE

BIRTHWORT FAMILY

Aristolochia

clematitis L.

Asarum

Creeping Birthwort

canadense L.

Isotrema

(Asarum canadense L. var. reflexum (Bicknell) Robinson)

(Asarum canadense L. var. acuminatum Ashe)

Wild Ginger

macrophyllum (Lam.) C.F. Reed

(Aristolochia macrophylla Lam.)

(Aristolochia durior Hill)

Large-leaved Dutchman's Pipe

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S4

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N

*

13

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

N N N N N I * I * * * * *

I I * * I * * * * * * * *

tomentosum (Sims) Huber SNA * I * I I * * * * * * * * *

(Aristolochia tomentosa Sims)

Woolly Pipevine

CALYCANTHACEAE

SWEETSHRUB FAMILY

Calycanthus

floridus L. var. floridus

Eastern Sweetshrub

floridus L. var. glaucus (Willd.) Torrey & A.

Gray

(Calycanthus fertilis Walt.)

(Calycanthus floridus L. var. laevigatus (Willd.) Torr. & Gray)

Eastern Sweetshrub

CERATOPHYLLACEAE

COONTAIL FAMILY

Ceratophyllum

demersum L.

Coontail

SNA

*

* * W * * * * * * * * W *

SNA * * * I * * * * * * * * * *

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

echinatum A. Gray S4 N N * N N N N * N * N * N *

Forked Coontail

LAURACEAE

LAUREL FAMILY

Lindera

benzoin (L.) Blume

Spicebush

Sassafras

albidum (Nutt.) Nees

(Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees var. molle (Raf.) Fern.)

Sassafras

S5

S5

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N


14

Magnoliid Complex

MAGNOLIACEAE

MAGNOLIA FAMILY

Liriodendron

tulipifera L.

Tulip-tree

Magnolia

acuminata L.

Cucumber-magnolia

Status S-Rank

SNA

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

I

* N N N I * * * N I * * *

* I I I * * * * * I I * *

tripetala (L.) L. SNA * * I I I I * * * * I * * *

Umbrella-magnolia

virginiana L. E S1 * * * * * * N * I I * * * *

Sweet Bay

NYMPHAEACEAE

WATER-LILY FAMILY

Brasenia

schreberi J.F. Gmelin

Water-shield

Cabomba

caroliniana A. Gray

Nuphar

Fanwort

microphylla (Pers.) Fern.

Invasive

(Nuphar microphylla (Pers.) Fern. pumila, auct. non (Timm.) DC.)

Tiny Cow-lily

E

S5

SNA

S1

N

I

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

I I I I I I I I I I * * *

* N N N N * * * * * * * *

×rubrodisca Morong S3? N N N * N N * * * * * * * *

(Nuphar microphylla × N. variegata)

variegata Durand ex Clinton S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Yellow Water-lily, Cow-lily

Nymphaea

odorata Aiton

(Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. gigantea Tricker)

(Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. rosea Pursh)

White Water-lily, Fragrant Water-lily

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

tuberosa Paine SNA I * * * * I I * * * * * * *

(Nymphaea odorata Aiton ssp. tuberosa (Paine) Wiersema &

Hellquist)

Tuberous Water-lily

SAURURACEAE

LIZARD'S TAIL FAMILY

Saururus

cernuus L.

Lizard's Tail

H

SH

*

* N * * * * * * * * * * *


Monocots

ACORACEAE

SWEETFLAG FAMILY

Acorus

calamus L.

Sweet Flag

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

15

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

americanus (Raf.) Raf. S3? N * N * * N * * * * * * * *

(Acorus calamus, auct. non L.)

Sweet Flag

AGAVACEAE

AGAVE FAMILY

Yucca

filamentosa L.

(Yucca flaccida Haw.)

Spanish Bayonet

ALISMATACEAE

WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY

Alisma

subcordatum

(Alisma plantago-aquatica L. var. parviflorum (Pursh) Torrey)

Lesser Water-plantain

SNA

S5

*

N

I * I I I I * * * I I I *

N N N N N N N N N * N * N

triviale Pursh S4 N N N * N N N N N * * * * *

(Alisma plantago-aquatica L. var. americanum Schultes & Schultes)

Large Water-plantain

Echinodorus

tenellus (Mart.) Buch

(Echinodorus parvulus Engelm.)

(Echinodorus tenellus (Mart.) Buch. var. parvulus (Engelm.) Fassett)

Little Burhead

Sagittaria

cuneata Sheldon

Northern Arrowhead, Wapato

H

T

SH

S2

*

N

* * * * N * * * * * * * *

* N N * * * * * * * * * *

engelmanniana J.G. Small S4 * N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Engelmann's Arrowhead

filiformis J. G. Sm. S4 * N * * N N N N N N N * * *

(Sagittaria stagnorum Small)

(Sagittaria subulata var. gracillima (S. Watson) J.G. Smith)

Riffle-arrowhead

graminea Michaux var. graminea S4 N N N N N N N * N N N N * *

Grass-leaf Arrowhead

latifolia Willd. S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Sagittaria latifolia Willd. var. obtusa (Muhl.) Wieg.)

Common Arrowhead, Duck-potato


16

Monocots

ALISMATACEAE

WATER-PLANTAIN FAMILY

Sagittaria

montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht. ssp.

spongiosa (Engelm.) Bogin

(Sagittaria calycina Engelm. var. spongiosa Engelm.)

(Lophotocarpus spongiosus (Engelm.) J.G. Small)

Estuary Arrowhead

Status S-Rank

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S1

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * N N * * * * * * *

rigida Pursh WL S2? * * N N * N N * * * * * * N

Mud Arrowhead

subulata (L.) Buch. H SH * * * * * * * * * * N * * *

River-arrowhead

teres S. Watson SC S3 * * * N N N * * * * N N N *

Pondshore- or Terete-arrowhead

ALLIACEAE

LEEK FAMILY

Allium

canadense L. var. canadense

Wild Garlic

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * N

cepa L. SNA * * * W W * W * * * * * * *

(Allium cepa L. var. viviparum M.C. Metz)

Onion

oleraceum L. SNA * * * * * * * W * W * * * *

European Wild Garlic

sativum L. SNA * * * * W * * * * * * * W *

Garlic

schoenoprasum L. SNA * * * I I * I * * * * * * I

(Allium schoenoprasum L. var. laurentianum Fern.)

Wild Chives

tricoccum Aiton var. tricoccum S4 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

Wild Leek

vineale L. SNA * I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Field Garlic

AMARYLLIDACEAE

AMARYLLIS FAMILY

Galanthus

nivalis L. ssp. nivalis

Snowdrop

Leucojum

aestivum L.

Snowflake

SNA

SNA

*

*

* W * W * * * * * * * * *

* * * I * * * * * * * * *


Monocots

AMARYLLIDACEAE

AMARYLLIS FAMILY

Narcissus

poeticus L.

Poet's Narcissus

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

17

* * I I * * * * I I * * *

pseudonarcissus L. SNA * * * I I I I * * * * * * *

Daffodil

ARACEAE

ARUM FAMILY

Arisaema

dracontium (L.) Schott

Green Dragon

dracontium (L.) Schott × A. triphyllum (L.)

Schott ex Schott & Endl. ssp. stewardsonii

(Britton) Huttleston

triphyllum (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl. ssp.

pusillum (Peck) Huttleston

(Arisaema pusillum (Peck) Nash)

Dwarf Jack-in-the-pulpit

triphyllum (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl. ssp.

stewardsonii (Britton) Huttleston

(Arisaema stewardsonii Britton)

Swamp Jack-in-the-pulpit

triphyllum ssp. triphyllum (L.) Schott ex

Schott & Endl.

Calla

(Arisaema atrorubens (Aiton) Blume)

Woodland Jack-in-the-pulpit

palustris L.

Wild Calla

Landoltia

punctata (G.F.W. Mey.) Les & D.J. Crawford

Lemna

minor L.

(Lemna punctata G.F.W. Mey.)

Spotted Duck-meal

Duckweed

T

S2

N

N N N * * * * * * * * * *

SNR * * N * * * * * * * * * * *

S3? * * * * * * * * * * * N N N

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

S4

SNA

S5

N

*

N

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

* * * * I * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

minuta Kunth SNA * * * * * * * * * * * * I *

Minute Duckweed

perpusilla Torrey H SH N * * * * N * * N * N * * *

Tiny Duckweed

trisulca L. S4? N

* N N * N N * N * * * * N

Star-duckweed


18

ARACEAE

ARUM FAMILY

Lemna

turionifera Landolt

Monocots

Turion Duckweed

Status S-Rank

H

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SH

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * * * * N * * * * *

valdiviana Phil. H SH * * * * * N N * N * N N * *

Valdivia Duckweed

Orontium

aquaticum L.

Golden Club

Peltandra

virginica (L.) Schott ex Schott & Endl.

Arrow-arum

Spirodela

polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden

Greater Duckweed

Symplocarpus

foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex Nutt.

Wolffia

Skunk-cabbage

borealis (Engelm. ex Hegelm.) Landolt

(Wolffia punctata, auct. non Griseb.)

Northern Water-meal

E

WL

S1

S5

S5

S5

SNR

N

N

N

N

N

* N N N * * * * * N N * *

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

N N N N N N * N N N N N *

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

* * * * N * * * * * * N *

brasiliensis Weddell S4 * * N N N N * * N * * N * *

(Wolffia papulifera C.H. Thompson)

Papillate Water-meal

columbiana Karsten S4 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

Globose Water-meal

Wolffiella

gladiata (Hegelm.) Hegelm.

(Wolffiella floridana (J. E. Smith) C.H. Thompson)

Sickle Water-meal

ARECACEAE

PALM FAMILY

Phoenix

dactylifera L.

Date-palm

ASPARAGACEAE

ASPARAGUS FAMILY

Asparagus

officinalis L.

Asparagus

BUTOMACEAE

FLOWERING RUSH FAMILY

Butomus

umbellatus L.

Flowering-rush

WL

SNR

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

I

*

* * * * N * * * * N * * *

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

* * * * I * * * * * * * *


Monocots

COLCHIACEAE

AUTUMN CROCUS FAMILY

Colchicum

autumnale L.

Uvularia

Autumn-crocus

grandiflora Small

Large-flowered Bellwort

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S3

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N

19

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

perfoliata L. S4 N N N N N N N N N N * * * *

Perfoliate Bellwort

sessilifolia L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Wild Oats

COMMELINACEAE

SPIDERWORT FAMILY

Commelina

communis L.

Dayflower

Tradescantia

bracteata Small

Long-bracted Spiderwort

SNA

SNA

I

*

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

ohiensis Raf. S4 * N * N N N * * N N * N * *

Smooth Spiderwort

ohiensis Raf. × (T. subaspera Ker. Gawl. ×

T. virginiana L.)

(Tradescantia × andersoniana, auct. non W. Ludwig & Rohweder)

SNA * * * * * * * * * * * * * I

ohiensis Raf. × T.subaspera Ker. Gawl. SNA * * * * * * * I * * * * * *

ohiensis Raf. × T. virginiana L. SNA * * * I * * I I I * * I * *

virginiana L. SNA * I I I I I I I I * I * I I

Virginia Spiderwort

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Bolboschoenus

fluviatilis (Torrey) Soják

(Scirpus fluviatilis (Torrey) A. Gray)

River Bulrush

maritimus (L.) Palla × B. robustus (Pursh)

Soják

maritimus (L.) Palla ssp. paludosus (A.

Nels.) T. Koyama

(Scirpus maritimus L.)

(Scirpus paludosus var. atlanticus Fern.)

Seaside Bulrush

WL

S2

*

* * * * N N * N * * * * *

SNR * * * * * N N * * * N N N *

S5 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N


20

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Bolboschoenus

novae-angliae (Britton) S.G. Smith

(Scirpus cylindricus (Torrey) Britton)

(Scirpus novae-angliae Britton)

Long-spiked Bulrush

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S2?

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * N * N * * N N N N

robustus (Pursh) Soják S5 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Scirpus robustus Pursh)

Saltmarsh Bulrush

Bulbostylis

capillaris (L.) Kunth ex C.B. Clarke

Carex

Sand-sedge

abscondita Mackenzie

Concealed Sedge

WL

S5

S2?

N

*

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

* * * N * * * N N N * N *

acutiformis Ehrh. SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

Marsh Sedge

×aestivaliformis Mackenzie SNR * * * * * N * * * * * * * *

(Carex aestivalis × C. gracillima)

aestivalis M.A. Curtis ex A. Gray WL S2S3 N N N * N N * N N N * * * *

Summer-sedge

alata Torrey S4 * * * * N N N * N N N N N N

Winged Sedge

albicans Willd. ex Sprengel var. albicans S4 N N N N N N N N N * * * * *

(Carex artitecta Mackenzie)

(Carex varia Muhl. ex Willd)

(Carex emmonsii Dewey ex Torrey var. muhlenbergii (Gray) J. Rettig)

Variable Sedge

albicans Willd. ex Sprengel var. emmonsii

(Dewey ex Torrey) J. Rettig

(Carex emmonsii Dewey ex Torrey)

Emmons' Sedge

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

albolutescens Schwein. S3? * * * * N * * * * N * * N *

Greenish-white Sedge

albursina Sheldon S4 N N N N N N * * * * * * * *

White Bear-sedge

alopecoidea Tuckerman T S2 N * N * * * * * * * * * * *

Foxtail-sedge

amphibola Steudel S4 N

* N N * N * N * * * * * *

(Carex amphibola Steudel var. rigida (Bailey) Fern.)

Stiff Sedge


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

annectens (Bicknell) Bicknell

(Carex xanthocarpa Bickn. var. annectens Bickn.)

(Carex annectens (Bicknell) Bicknell var. xanthocarpa (Kük.)

Wiegand)

Yellow Fox-sedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

21

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

appalachica Webber & Ball S5 N N N N N N N N N * N * N *

(Carex radiata, auct. non (Wahlenb.) Small)

Appalachian Sedge

aquatilis Wahlenb. ssp. altior (Rydb.) Hultén WL SNR N * * * N * N * * * * * * *

Water-sedge

arctata Boott ex Hooker S5 N N N N N * N * N * * * * *

Drooping Wood-sedge

argyrantha Tuckerman S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Silvery Sedge

atlantica Bailey ssp. atlantica S5 N * N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Carex incomperta Bicknell)

Eastern or Atlantic Prickly Sedge

atlantica Bailey ssp. capillacea (Bailey)

Reznicek

(Carex howei Mackenzie)

Howe's Prickly Sedge

S5 N * N N N N N N N N N N N N

aurea Nutt. S4 N N * * N * N * * * * * * *

Golden Sedge

backii Boott. E S1 N N N * N * * * * * * * * *

Back's Sedge

baileyi Britton T S2 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Bailey's Sedge

bebbii Olney ex Fern. S4 N * * * N N N * N * * N N *

Bebb's Broom-sedge

bicknellii Britton WL S1S * N N N N N N N N * * * * *

Bicknell's Sedge

billingsii (Knight) C.D. Kirschbaum S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

(Carex trisperma Dewey var. billingsii Knight)

Three-seeded Bog-sedge

blanda Dewey S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Woodland-sedge

brevior (Dewey) Mack. ex Lunell S5 N

N N N N N N N N N * N N *

Short Fescue-sedge


22

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

bromoides Schkuhr ex Willd.

Brome-like Sedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N * N N N * * *

brunnea Thunb. SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

Brown Sedge

brunnescens (Pers.) Poiret ex Lam. var.

sphaerostachya (Tuckerman) Kukenth.

Brownish Sedge

S5 N N * N N N N * N N N * N *

bullata Schkuhr ex Willd. S5 * N * N N N N N N N N N N N

Button-sedge

bushii Mackenzie E S1 N * N * N N * * * * * * * *

Bush's Sedge

buxbaumii Wahlenb. WL S2? N * N N N N N * N * N * * *

Buxbaum's Sedge

canescens L. ssp. canescens S4 N N * N N N * N * N * N * N

(Carex subloliacea (Fern.) Bickn.)

(Carex canescens L. var. subloliacea Laestad.)

Silvery Bog-sedge

canescens L. ssp. disjuncta (Fern.)

Toivonen

(Carex canescens L. var. disjuncta Fern.)

Silvery Bog-sedge

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

caryophyllea Lat. SNA * * * * I I I I I * * * * *

Vernal Sedge

castanea Wahlenb. E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Chestnut-colored Sedge

cephaloidea (Dewey) Dewey S4 N N N N N * * N * * * * * *

Thin-leaved Sedge

cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * N *

Oval-headed Sedge

chordorrhiza Ehrh. ex L. f. E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Creeping Sedge

communis Bailey var. communis S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * N *

Colonial Sedge

comosa Boott S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Bristly Sedge


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

conoidea Schkuhr ex Willd.

Field-sedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

23

N N N N N N N N N N * * N

crawfordii Fern. S5 N N N N N N N N N * * N * *

Crawford's Sedge

crinita Lam. var. brevicrinis Fern. S1? * * * * * * * * N * * * N *

crinita Lam. var. crinita S? N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Awned Sedge

cristatella Britton WL S2? N N * N N * * * * * * * * *

Crested Sedge

cryptolepis Mackenzie S4 N N * * N N N N N N * * * *

(Carex flava var. fertilis, auct. non Peck)

Small Yellow Sedge

cumulata (Bailey) Mackenzie S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Crowded Sedge

davisii Schwein. & Torrey E S1 N * * * * * N * * * * * * *

Davis' Sedge

debilis var. debilis Michaux WL SNR * * * * * * * * * * * * N N

Southern Stalked Sedge

debilis Michaux var. rudgei Bailey × C.

virescens Muhl. ex Willd.

SNR * * * * * * * N * * * * * *

debilis Michaux var. rudgei Bailey S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Northern Stalked Sedge

deflexa Hornem. var. deflexa WL S1? N N * * * * * * N * * * * *

Mountain Sedge

deweyana Schwein. var. deweyana S5 N N N N N * N * * * * * * *

Dewey's Sedge

diandra Schrank WL S1S2 N N * N * N N * N * * * * *

Panicled Sedge

digitalis Willd. var. digitalis S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Slender-spiked Woodland-sedge

disperma Dewey S4S5 N

N N N N N N * N * * * * *

Two-seeded Bog-sedge


24

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

eburnea Boott ex Hooker

Thread-leaf Sedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNR

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

echinata Murray ssp. echinata S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Carex angustior Mackenzie)

(Carex cephalantha (Bailey) Bicknell)

Prickly Sedge

emoryi Dewey WL S1 * * N * * * * * * * * * * *

Emory's sedge

exilis Dewey WL S2S3 * * * N N N N N N * * N * *

Bog Sedge

festucacea Schkuhr ex Willd. S4 * * N N N * N N * * * * N *

Fescue-sedge

flava L. S4 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

Yellow Sedge

foenea Willd. S4 N N N * N * N * * * * * * *

(Carex aenea Fern.)

Hay Sedge

folliculata L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Long-culmed Sedge

formosa Dewey T S2 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Handsome Sedge

glaucodea Tuckerman ex Olney E S1 * * N N * N * * N * * * * *

(Carex flaccosperma Dewey var. glaucodea (Tuckerman ex Olney)

Kukenth.)

Glaucescent Sedge

gracilescens Steudel E S1 * * * * * N * * * * * * * *

Slender Woodland-sedge

gracillima Schwein. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Graceful Sedge

gracillima Schwein. × C. virescens Muhl. ex

Willd.

SNR * * * * * * * N * * * * * *

granularis Muhl. ex Willd. S4 N N * N N * N * * N * * * *

(Carex granularis Muhl. ex Willd. var. haleana (Olney) Porter)

Meadow-sedge

grayi Carey T S2 N N N N * * * * * * * * * *

(Carex grayi Carey var. hispidula A. Gray)

(Carex asa-grayi Bailey)

Gray's Sedge


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

grisea Wahlenb.

(Carex amphibola Steudel var. turgida Fern.)

Gray Sedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

25

* N * N * * * * N * * * *

gynandra Schwein. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

(Carex crinita Lam. var. gynandra (Schwein.) Schwein. & Torrey)

Northern Awned Sedge

×hartii Dewey SNR N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Carex lurida × C. retrorsa)

haydenii Dewey WL S1S2 N N N N N N N * N * N * * *

Hayden's Sedge

haydenii Dewey × C. nigra (L.) Reichard SNR * * * * * N * * * * * * * *

hirsutella Mackenzie S4 N * N N N N * * * N * * * *

Hirsute Sedge

hirta L. SNA I I I I I I I I I * * * * I

Hairy Sedge

hirtifolia Mackenzie S4 N N N N N * N * * * * * * *

Hairy-leaved Sedge

hitchcockiana Dewey SC S3 N N N * * * * * * * * * * *

Hitchcock's Sedge

hormathodes Fern. S5 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

Saltmarsh Straw-sedge

hystericina Muhl. ex Willd. S4S5 N N N N * * N N * * * * * *

Porcupine-sedge

hystericina Muhl. ex Willd. × C. schweinitzii

Dewey ex Schwein.

SNR N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

interior Bailey S4 N N N * * * N * * * * * * *

Inland Prickly Sedge

intumescens Rudge S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

Bladder Sedge

×knieskernii Dewey SNR N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Carex arctata × C. castanea)

kobomugi Ohwi Potential SNA

ly

Invasive

*

* * * * * * * * * * W * *

Dune-sedge


26

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

lacustris Willd.

Lakeside Sedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N * N N N N N N N N * * *

laevivaginata (Kukenth.) Mackenzie S4 N N N * N * * * N N N N N N

Smooth-sheathed Sedge

lasiocarpa Ehrh. ssp. americana (Fern.) D.

Löve & Bernard

(Carex lanuginosa Michaux)

(Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. var. americana Fern.)

Woolly-fruited Sedge

laxiculmis Schwein. var. copulata (Bailey)

Fern.

(Carex ×copulata (Bailey) Mackenzie)

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

SNR N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

laxiculmis Schwein. var. laxiculmis S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Spreading Woodland-sedge

laxiflora Lam. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

(Carex laxiflora Lam. var. serrulata Herm.)

Loose-flowered Woodland-sedge

lenticularis Michaux var. lenticularis T S2 N N * N N N * * * * * * * *

(Carex lenticularis Michaux var. blakei Dewey)

Shore Sedge

leptalea Wahlenb. ssp. leptalea S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

Delicate Sedge

leptonervia (Fern.) Fern. S5 N N N N N N N * N N * * * *

One-nerved Woodland-sedge

limosa L. WL S2? * N * * N N N * N N * * N N

Mud-sedge

livida (Wahlenb.) Willd. E S1 * * * * * * N * * * * * * *

(Carex livida (Wahlenb.) Willd. var. grayana (Dewey) Fern.)

(Carex livida (Wahlenb.) Willd. var. radicaulis Paine)

Livid Sedge

longii Mackenzie S4 * * * N N * N * N * N N N N

Long's Sedge

lucorum Willd. ex Link var. lucorum S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

(Carex pensylvanica var. distans Peck)

Long-beaked Pennsylvania Sedge

lupuliformis Startwell E S1 *

* N N * * * * * * * * * *

False Hop Sedge


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

lupulina Muhl. ex Willd.

Hop-sedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

27

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

lupulina Muhl. ex Willd. × C. lurida Wahlenb. SNR N * N * * * * * * * * * * *

lurida Wahlenb. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Sallow Sedge

lurida Wahlenb. x mitchelliana M.A. Curtis SNR * * * * * * * * * * * N * *

magellanica Lam. ssp. irrigua (Wahlenb.)

Hulten

(Carex paupercula Michaux var. irrigua (Wahlenb.) Fern.)

Pendant Bog-sedge

S4 N N N N N N * * * * * * * *

merritt-fernaldii Mackenzie S4 * N N * N * N * N * * N * *

Fernald's Sedge

mesochorea Mackenzie E S1 * * * N N * * * * * * N * *

(Carex cephalophora var. mesochorea (Mackenzie) Gleason)

Midland-sedge

michauxiana Boeckl. E S1 N N N * * * * * * * * * * *

Michaux's Sedge

mitchelliana M.A. Curtis T S2 * * * * * * * * * N * N N N

Mitchell's Awned Sedge

molesta Mackenzie ex Bright WL S1S2 * * N * * N * N * N * * * *

Troublesome Sedge

muhlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd. var. enervis

Boott

Muhlenberg's Sedge

muhlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd. var.

muhlenbergii

Muhlenberg's Sedge

S4 N N * * N N * N N * N N * *

S4S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

nigra (L.) Reichard S4 * * N * N N N N N N N N * N

Black Sedge

normalis Mackenzie S4 N N N N N N N N N N * * * *

Big Straw-sedge

novae-angliae Schwein. S5 N N N * N N N * N * * * * *

New England Sedge

oligocarpa Schkuhr ex Willd. E S1 N

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

Rich Woods Sedge


28

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

oligosperma Michaux

Few-fruited Sedge, Few-seeded Sedge

Status S-Rank

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S1

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * N N N * * N N * N * *

×olneyi Boott SNR * N * * N N * * N N * N N N

(Carex bullata × C. lurida)

ormostachya Wieg. S4 N N * N N * N * * * * * * *

Necklace Woodland-sedge

ovalis Goodenough SNA I * * * I I I I I * * * * *

(Carex leporina, auct. non L.)

(Carex traceyi Mackenzie)

Hare's-foot Sedge

paleacea Schreber ex Wahlenb. S4 * * * * * N N * * * N N * *

Saltmarsh-sedge

pallescens L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Carex pallescens L. var. neogaea Fern.)

Pale Sedge

panicea L. SNA I * * * I I I I I I I * * *

Millet-sedge

pauciflora Lightf. E S1 N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

Few-flowered Sedge

peckii Howe H SH * * * * N * * * * * * * * *

Peck's Sedge

pedunculata Muhl. ex Willd. S4S5 N N N N N N N N * * * * * *

Long-stalked Sedge

pellita Muhl. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Carex lanuginosa Michaux)

Broad Wooly-fruited Sedge

pensylvanica Lam. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Pennsylvania Sedge

plantaginea Lam. S4 N N N N N * * * * * * * * *

Plantain-leaf Sedge

platyphylla Carey S4 N N N N N N N N * * * * * *

Broad-leaved Woodland-sedge

polymorpha Muhl. E S2 N

* * N N * * * N N N * * *

Variable Sedge


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

prairea Dewey ex Wood

Prairie-sedge

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S1?

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

29

N * * * N N * * * * N * N

prasina Wahlenb. S4 N N N N N N * * N * * * * *

Twisted Drooping Sedge

projecta Mackenzie S5 N N N N N N N * N N * * * *

Beaded Sedge

pseudocyperus L. S5 N N * N N N N * N N * * * *

Galingale-sedge

radiata (Wahlenb.) Small S4S5 N N N N N N * * N * * * * *

Star-sedge

retroflexa Muhl. ex Willd. S4 * * N N N N N N N N N * * *

Reflexed Sedge

retrorsa Schwein. WL S2S3 N N * * N * * * * * * * * *

Hooked Sedge

rosea Schkuhr ex Willd. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

(Carex convoluta Mackenzie)

Big Star-sedge

×ruedtii Kneuck. SNA * N * * * * N * * * * * * *

(Carex flava × C. viridula)

scabrata Schwein. S4S5 N N N N N N N * N * N N * *

Scabrous Sedge

schweinitzii Dewey ex Schwein. E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Schweinitz's Sedge

scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd. var. scoparia S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Broom Sedge

seorsa Howe S4 N * * * N N N * N N N N N N

Swamp Prickly Sedge

siccata Dewey S4 * * N N N N N N N * * * * *

(Carex foenea, auct. non Willd.)

Dry Land Sedge

silicea Olney S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

Seabeach-sedge

sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd. WL S3S4 N

N N N N N N N * N * * * *

Bur-sedge


30

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

spicata Hudson

(Carex contigua Hoppe)

European Star-sedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * I I I I I * I I I I

sprengelii Dewey ex Sprengel S4 N N N N N * N N * * * * * *

Long-beaked Sedge

squarrosa L. H SH N * N * * I * * * * * * * *

Squarrose Sedge

sterilis Willd. T S2 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Carex muricata L. var. sterilis (Willd.) Gleason)

Dioecious Sedge

stipata Muhl. ex Willd. var. stipata S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Awl-fruited Sedge

straminea Willd. ex Schkuhr S5 * N N * * N N N N N N * N *

Straw-sedge

striata Michaux E S1 * * * * * * * N * * N N * N

(Carex striata var. brevis Bailey)

(Carex walteriana Bailey)

Walter's Sedge

stricta Lam. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Tussock-sedge

×sullivantii Boott SNR * * * * * N * * * * * * * *

(Carex gracillima × C. hirtifolia)

swanii (Fern.) Mackenzie S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Swan's Sedge

tenera Dewey var. tenera S5 N N N N N N N N N * N N * *

Slender Straw-sedge

tetanica Schkuhr ex Willd. SC S3 N * * * * N * * * * * * * *

Fen Sedge

tincta (Fern.) Fern. S4? N N N * * * * * * * * * * *

Brown Straw-sedge

tonsa (Fern.) Bicknell var. rugosperma

(Mackenzie) W.J. Crins

(Carex rugosperma Mackenzie var. rugosperma)

(Carex umbellata sensu Fern.)

Sand-sedge

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

tonsa (Fern.) Bicknell var. tonsa S4 N

N * N N N N * N * N N * N

(Carex rugosperma Mackenzie var. tonsa (Fern.) E. Voss)

Stiff-leaved Sand-sedge


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

torta Boott ex Tuckerman

Riverside-sedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

31

N N N N N * * * * * * * *

tribuloides Wahlenb. var. tribuloides S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Blunt Broom-sedge

trichocarpa Muhl. ex Willd. SC S2S3 N * * * * N * * * * * * * *

Hairy-fruited Sedge

trisperma Dewey S4 N N N * N * * * * * * * * *

Three-seeded Bog-sedge

tuckermanii Dewey E S1 N N N * N * * * * * * * * *

Tuckerman's Sedge

typhina Michaux T S2 N N N * N * N * * N * * * *

Cat-tail Sedge

umbellata Schkuhr ex Willd. S4S5 * N N N N N * * N N * * N *

(Carex abdita Bicknell)

Short-beaked Sand-sedge

utriculata Boott S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Carex rostrata Stokes var. utriculata (Boott) Bailey)

Beaked Sedge

vacillans Drej. ex Hartman H SH * * * * * N N * N * * * * *

Swinging Sedge

vesicaria L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

(Carex vesicaria L. var. monile (Tuckerman) Fern.)

Inflated Sedge

vestita Willd. S5 * N N N N N N N N N N N * N

Velvet-fruited Sedge

virescens Muhl. ex Willd. S5 N N N N N N N * N N N * N N

Ribbed Sedge

viridula Michaux ssp. viridula WL S1S2 N * * * * N N N * N N N N *

Little Green Sedge

vulpinoidea Michaux S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Carex setacea Dewey)

Fox-sedge

wiegandii Mackenzie H SH *

* * * N * * * * * * * * *

Wiegand's Prickly Sedge


32

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Carex

willdenowii Schkuhr ex Willd.

Cladium

Willdenow's Sedge

mariscoides (Muhl.) Torrey

Cyperus

Twig-sedge

bipartitus Torrey

(Cyperus rivularis Kunth)

Shining Flatsedge

Status S-Rank

H

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SH

S5

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N

N

* * * * N * * N * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N * N N N N N *

dentatus Torrey S5 * N N N N N N * N N N N N N

Pondshore Flatsedge

diandrus Torrey S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Red-edged Flatsedge

echinatus (L.) Wood SNA * * * W * * * W * * * W * *

(Cyperus ovularis (Michaux) Torrey)

Oval-headed Flatsedge

engelmannii Steudel T S2 * * * * * N N * * * * * * *

Engelmann's Flatsedge

erythrorhizos Muhl. S5 N * N N N N N * N N N * * I?

Redroot Flatsedge

esculentus L. var. leptostachyus Boeck. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Yellow Flatsedge

filicinus Vahl S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Cyperus polystachyos Rottball var. filicinus (Vahl) C.B. Clarke)

(Cyperus polystachyos Rottball var. macrostachyos Boeckeler)

Saltpond Flatsedge

flavescens L. SNA * * * * * * * * * * * W * *

Yellowish Flatsedge

fuscus L. SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

Dusky Flatsedge

grayi Torrey S4 * * * * I * N * N N N N N N

Gray's Flatsedge

houghtonii Torrey E S1 N N * N N? N * * N? * N? * * *

Houghton's Flatsedge

lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks ssp. lupulinus S4 *

N N * N N N N N * N * * *

(Cyperus filiculmis Vahl. var. filiculmis)

Slender Sand- or Button-flatsedge


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Cyperus

lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks ssp. macilentus

(Fern.) Marcks

(Cyperus filiculmis Vahl var. macilentus Fern.)

Sand Flatsedge

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

33

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

microiria Steudel SNA * * * * * W * * * * * W * *

(Cyperus amuricus, auct. non Maxim.)

Golden Flatsedge

odoratus L. WL S3S4 * * I * * N N N N N N N N *

(Cyperus ferruginescens Boeckl.)

Saltmarsh-flatsedge

polystachyos WL S1S2 * * * * * * * * * * N N * N

(Cyperus polystachyos Rottb. var. texensis (Torrey) Fern)

Texas Flatsedge

pseudovegetus Steudel SNA * * * * * * * * W * * * * *

Marsh Flatsedge

retrorsus WL S1? * * * * * * * * * * * * N *

Pine Barren Flatsedge

schweinitzii Torrey SNA * W * * * * * * * * * * * *

Schweinitz's Flatsedge

squarrosus L. S4 N N N N N N * * N * * * * *

(Cyperus aristatus Rottb.)

(Cyperus inflexus Muhl.)

Awned Flatsedge

strigosus L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Cyperus strigosus L. var. robustior Britton)

Straw-colored Flatsedge

Dulichium

arundinaceum var. arundinaceum ×

Rhynchospora capitellata

(Cyperus ×weatherbianus Fern.)

SNR

*

* * * * * * * * * * N * *

arundinaceum (L.) Britton var. arundinaceum S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Threeway Sedge

Eleocharis

acicularis (L.) Roemer & Schultes

Little Spike-rush

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

ambigens Fern. H SH * * * * * * * * * * * * N N

Ambiguous Spike-rush

diandra C. Wright E S1 *

N N * * * * * * * * * * *

Wright's Spikerush


34

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Eleocharis

elliptica Kunth var. elliptica

Orange-fruited Spike-rush

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

engelmannii Steudel var. detonsa A. Gray WL S1 * * N N * N * * * * * * * *

Englemann's Spike-rush

engelmannii Steudel var. engelmannii WL S1S2 * * * * * N N N N * * N * *

Englemann's Spike-rush

equisetoides (Ell.) Torrey H SH * * * * * * * * N * * * * *

Horsetail Spike-rush

erythropoda Steudel WL S3 N N N N * * * * * * * * * *

(Eleocharis calva Torrey)

Red-footed Spike-rush

fallax Weatherby H SH * * * * * * * * * * * N * *

Deceitful Spike-rush

flavescens (Poir.) Urban var. olivacea

(Torrey) Gleason

(Eleocharis olivacea Torrey)

Olive Spike-rush

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

intermedia J.A. Schultes T S2 N N N * * * * * * * * * * *

Matted or Mudflat Spike-rush

melanocarpa Torrey WL S3 * * * * * * * * * * N N * *

Black-fruited Spike-rush

microcarpa Torrey var. filiculmis Torrey E S1 * * * * * * * * * N * * * *

Small or Tiny-fruited Spike-rush

obtusa (Willd.) J.A. Schultes var. obtusa S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Soft-stemmed Spike-rush

ovata (Roth) Roemer & Schultes E S1 * N * * * * N * N * * N * *

(Eleocharis obtusa var. ovata (Roth) Drap. & Mohl.)

Ovate Spike-rush

palustris (L.) Roemer & Schultes S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roemer & Schultes var. major Sonder)

(Eleocharis smallii Britton)

Creeping Spike-rush

parvula (Roemer & Schultes) Link ex Bluff,

Nees & Schauer

Saltpond- or Dwarf Spike-rush

S4 *

* * * * N N N * N N N N N


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Eleocharis

quadrangulata (Michaux) Roemer & Schultes

(Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michaux) Roemer & Schultes var.

crassior Fern.)

Square-stemmed Spike-rush

Status S-Rank

H

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SH

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

35

* * * * * * * N * * * * *

quinqueflora (F.X. Hartmann) Schwarz E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Eleocharis pauciflora (Lightf.) Link var. fernaldii Svenson)

Few-flowered Spike-rush

robbinsii Oakes S5 * N N N N N N * N * N N * *

Robbins' Spike-rush

rostellata (Torrey) Torrey WL S2? * * * * * * N * N N N N N *

Beaked or Saltmarsh Spike-rush

tenuis (Willd.) J.A. Schultes var.

pseudoptera (Weatherby ex Svens.) Svens.

(Eleocharis capitata (L.) Br. var. pseudoptera Weatherby ex Svens.)

(Eleochairs elliptica var. pseudoptera (Weatherby ex Svens.) L.

Harms)

tenuis (Willd.) J.A. Schultes var. tenuis var.

tenuis

Slender Spike-rush

H

SH * * * N * N * * N * N * * *

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * N N

tricostata Torrey E S1 * * * * * * * * * N * * * N

Three-ribbed Spike-rush

tuberculosa (Michaux) Roemer & Schultes S4 * * * * N N N * N N N N * *

Tubercled Spike-rush

uniglumis (Link) Schultes S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Eleocharis halophila (Fern. & Brack.) Fern. & Brack.)

One-glumed Spike-rush

Eriophorum

gracile W.D.J. Koch

Slender Cotton-grass

T

S2

N

N N N N N N N N * * * * *

tenellum Nutt. S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

Rough Cotton-grass

vaginatum L. S5 N * N N N N N N N * N N * *

(Eriophorum vaginatum L. ssp. spissum (Fern.) Boivin)

(Eriophorum spissum Fern.)

Hare's-tail Cotton-grass

virginicum L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Tawny Cotton-grass

viridicarinatum (Engelm.) Fern. S4S5 N

N N N N N N * N N * * * N

Fen Cotton-grass


36

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Fimbristylis

autumnalis (L.) Roemer & Schultes

Fuirena

Autumn Fimbry

pumila (Torrey) Sprengel

Annual Umbrella-sedge

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

S3

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

*

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

* * N * N * * * * N N * N

squarrosa Michaux H SH * * * * * * * * * * * N * *

Hairy Umbrella-sedge

Lipocarpha

micrantha (Vahl) G. Tucker

(Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Pax ex Engler & Prantl)

Dwarf Bulrush

Rhynchospora

alba (L.) Vahl

White Beak-rush

T

S2

S5

*

N

* N N N N N N N * N N N *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

alba (L.) Vahl × R. capitellata (Michaux) Vahl SNR * * * * * * * * * * * N * *

capillacea Torrey E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Capillary Beak-rush

capitellata (Michaux) Vahl S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Brown Beak-rush

fusca (L.) Aiton f. S5 * N N * N N N N N N N N N *

Sooty Beak-rush

inundata (Oakes) Fern. T S2 * * * * * * * * * * N N * *

Inundated Horned-sedge

macrostachya Torrey ex A. Gray S4 * N N N * * N * N N N N * *

Big-headed Horned-sedge

nitens (Vahl) A. Gray T S2 * * * * * * * * * * N N * *

(Psilocarya nitens (Vahl) Wood)

Short-beaked Bald-sedge

scirpoides (Torrey) A. Gray SC S3 * * * N * * * * * * N N * *

(Psilocarya scirpoides Torrey)

Long-beaked Bald-sedge

torreyana A. Gray E S1 * * * * * * * * * * N N * N

Torrey's Beak-sedge

Schoenoplectus

acutus (Muhl. ex Bigel.) A. & D. Löve var.

acutus

(Scirpus acutus Muhl. ex Bigelow)

Hard-stemmed Bulrush

WL

S2S3

N

N * N * N N * * * * N * N


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Schoenoplectus

acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A. & D. Löve × S.

tabernaemontani (K.C. Gmel.) Palla

americanus (Pers.) Volk. ex Schinz & R.

Keller

(Scirpus americanus Pers.)

(Scirpus olneyi A. Gray)

Olney's Threesquare

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNR

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

37

* * * * N * * * * * * * N

S4 * * * * * * N * * N N N N N

hallii (A. Gray) S.G. Sm. H SH * * * * * N N * * * * * * *

(Scirpus hallii A. Gray)

Hall's Bulrush

heterochaetus (Chase) Soják H SH * * * * * N * * N * * * * *

(Scirpus heterochaetus Chase)

(Scirpus lacustris, auct. non L.)

Slender Bulrush

×oblongus (T. Koyama) Soják SNR * * * * * N * * * * * * * *

(Schoenoplectus acutus × S. heterochaetus)

(Scirpus ×oblongus T. Koyama)

pungens (Vahl) Palla var. pungens S5 N * N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Scirpus pungens Vahl)

(Scirpus americanus, auct. non Pers.)

Common Threesquare

purshianus (Fern.) M.T. Strong var.

purshianus

(Scirpus purshianus Fern.)

Pursh's Bulrush

purshianus (Fern.) M.T. Strong var.

williamsii (Fern.) S.G. Sm.

smithii (A. Gray) Soják var. setosus (Fern.)

S.G. Sm.

Smith's Club-sedge

S4S5 * N N N N N N * N N N N N *

H SH * * * * * * * * N * * * * *

SNR * N * * N * * * * * * * * *

smithii (A. Gray) Soják var. smithii S4 N * N * N N N * N * N N * *

(Scirpus smithii A. Gray)

Smith's Club-sedge

subterminalis (Torrey) Soják S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N * N

(Scirpus subterminalis Torrey)

Water Bulrush

tabernaemontani (K.C. Gmel.) Palla S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Scirpus tabernaemontani K. C. Gmelin)

(Scirpus validus Vahl)

Soft-stemmed Bulrush

torreyi (Olney) Palla WL S2? N

* N N N N N * N N N N * *

(Scirpus torreyi Olney)

Torrey's Bulrush


38

Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Scirpus

ancistrochaetus Schuyler

Northeastern Bulrush

Status S-Rank

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S1

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N * * * * * * * * * * * *

atrocinctus Fern. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Dusky Wool-grass

atrovirens Willd. S4 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

Dark Green Bullsedge

cyperinus (L.) Kunth S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Scirpus rubricosus Fern.)

Wool-grass

expansus Fern. S5 N N N N N N N * N * * N * *

Spreading Bulrush

georgianus Harper S4? * * N * N N N N N N N N * *

(Scirpus atrovirens var. georgianus (Harper) Fern.)

Georgia Bulrush

hattorianus Makino S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Meadow Bulrush

longii Fern. T S2 * * * * N N N N N N N * * *

Long's Wool-grass

microcarpus J. & K. Presl S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

(Scirpus rubrotinctus Fern.)

Red-stemmed Bulrush

×peckii Britton SNR N N N * * N * * * * * * * *

(Scirpus atrocinctus × S. hattorianus)

Peck's Bulrush

pedicellatus Fern. S5 N N N N N * N * * * * * * *

(Scirpus cyperinus var. pedicellatus (Fern.) Schuyler)

Stalked Wool-grass

pendulus Muhl. WL S3 N N N * N * N * * N * * * *

(Scirpus lineatus, auct. non Michaux)

Pendulous Bulrush

polyphyllus Vahl WL S2? * N N N N * * N * * * * * *

Scleria

Appalachian Bulrush

pauciflora Muhl. ex Willd. var. caroliniana

(Willd.) Wood

Papillose Nut-sedge

S1

*

* * * N * * * * * * N N N

pauciflora Muhl. ex Willd. var. pauciflora E S1 *

* * * N * * * * * * * * *

Papillose Nut-sedge, Nut-rush or Stone-rush


Monocots

CYPERACEAE

SEDGE FAMILY

Scleria

reticularis Michaux

Pondshore Nut-sedge

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S3

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

39

* * N * N * * * * N N N N

triglomerata Michaux E S1 * N N N N N * * N N * * * N

(Scleria nitida Willd.)

Tall Nut-sedge

Trichophorum

alpinum (L.) Pers.

(Eriophorum alpinum L.)

(Scirpus hudsonianus (Michaux) Fern.)

Alpine Clubsedge

S4

N

N N N N N N * * * * * * *

planifolium (Spreng.) Palla S4 N N N N N N N N N N * * * *

(Scirpus verecundus Fern.)

Woodland Bulrush

DIOSCOREACEAE

YAM FAMILY

Dioscorea

polystachya Turczaninow

(Dioscorea batatas Dcne.)

(Dioscorea oppositifolia, auct. non L.)

Chinese Yam

SNA

*

* W * * * * * * * * * * *

villosa L. WL SNR * * * * * * * * * * N * * *

Wild Yam

ERIOCAULACEAE

PIPEWORT FAMILY

Eriocaulon

aquaticum (Hill) Druce

(Eriocaulon septangulare With.)

(Eriocaulon pellucidum Michaux)

Pipewort

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

parkeri Robinson E S1 * * * * * * N * * * N N * *

Parker's Pipewort

HAEMODORACEAE

BLOODWORT FAMILY

Lachnanthes

caroliana (Lam.) Dandy

Redroot

HEMEROCALLIDACEAE

DAY-LILY FAMILY

Hemerocallis

fulva (L.) L.

Orange Day-lily

SC

S3

SNA

*

*

* * * * * * * * * N N * *

I I I I I I I I I I I * I

lilioasphodelus L. SNA *

I * I I * I * * * I * * *

(Hemerocallis flava (L.) L.)

Yellow Day-lily


40

Monocots

HOSTACEAE

HOSTA FAMILY

Hosta

lancifolia Tratt.

Narrow-leaved Hosta

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

ventricosa (Salisb.) Stearn SNA * I * I I * * * * * * * * *

Blue Hosta

HYACINTHACEAE

HYACINTH FAMILY

Chionodoxa

luciliae Boiss.

Muscari

Glory-of-the-snow

botryoides (L.) P. Miller

Grape-hyacinth

SNA

SNA

*

*

* W * W * * * * * * * * *

I * I I * I * * * I * * *

neglectum Guss. ex Ten. SNA * * * * W * * W * * * * * *

(Muscari atlanticum Boiss. & Reut.)

Atlantic Grape-hyacinth

Ornithogalum

umbellatum L.

Star-of-Bethlehem

Othocallis

siberica (Haw. ex Andr.) Speta

(Scilla siberica Haw.)

Siberian Squill

HYDROCHARITACEAE

FROG'S-BIT FAMILY

Egeria

densa Planchon

Elodea

Brazilian Water-weed

canadensis Michaux

Northern Water-weed

Likely

Invasive

SNA

SNA

SNA

S5

*

*

*

N

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

* I I I I I * * * I * * *

* * * I I I * I * I * * *

N N N N N N * N N * N * *

nuttallii (Planchon) St. John S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Hydrilla

Nuttall's Water-weed

verticillata (L. f.) Royle

Najas

Hydrilla

flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt

Common Naiad

Likely

Invasive

SNA

S5

*

N

* * * I I * * * * I I * *

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

gracillima (A. Braun) Magnus S5 N

N N N N N N * N N N N N *

Slender Naiad


Monocots

HYDROCHARITACEAE

FROG'S-BIT FAMILY

Najas

guadalupensis (Sprengel) Magnus ssp.

guadalupensis

Guadalupe Naiad

guadalupensis (Sprengel) Magnus ssp.

olivacea (Rosendahl & Butters) Haynes &

Hellquist

Guadalupe Naiad

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

41

* * * I * * * I * * I I I

SNA * * * * * * * * I * * * * *

minor All. Likely

Invasive

SNA I * * * I * * * * * * * * *

Lesser Naiad

Vallisneria

americana Michaux

Tape-grass

HYPOXIDACEAE

STAR-GRASS FAMILY

Hypoxis

hirsuta (L.) Cov.

Yellow Star-grass

IRIDACEAE

Crocus

vernus (L.) Hill ssp. vernus

Iris

IRIS FAMILY

Spring-crocus

cristata Aiton

Crested Dwarf Iris

S5

S4S5

SNA

SNA

N

N

*

*

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

* * * I * * * * * * I * *

* * * * * I * * * * * * *

germanica L. SNA * * * * * * W * W * * * W *

Fleur-de-lis

prismatica Pursh S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

Slender Blue Flag

pseudacorus L. Invasive SNA I I I I I I I I I I * * I I

Yellow Iris

sibirica L. SNA I I * * * * I I * * I * * *

Siberian Iris

versicolor L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Northern Blue Flag

Sisyrinchium

angustifolium P. Miller

(Sisyrinchium bermudiana L. sensu Shinners)

(Sisyrinchium graminoides Bicknell)

Stout Blue-eyed Grass

S4

N

N N N N N N N N * N N N N


42

Monocots

IRIDACEAE

IRIS FAMILY

Sisyrinchium

atlanticum Bicknell

Eastern Blue-eyed Grass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

fuscatum Bicknell SC S3 * * * * * * * * * * * N N N

(Sisyrinchium arenicola Bicknell)

Sandplain Blue-eyed Grass

montanum Greene var. crebrum Fern. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Meadow Blue-eyed Grass

montanum Greene var. montanum S2S3 * * N N N * * * * * * * * *

(Sisyrinchium strictum Bickn.)

Meadow Blue-eyed Grass

mucronatum Michaux E S1 N N * N N * * * * I * * * *

Slender Blue-eyed Grass

JUNCACEAE

RUSH FAMILY

Juncus

acuminatus Michaux

Sharp-fruited Rush

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

ambiguus Guss. WL S1? * * * * * * N * * * * N N N

(Juncus bufonius L. var. halophilus Buch. & Fern.)

Seaside Toad-rush

anthelatus (Wieg.) R.E. Brooks SNR * * N N N N N * N N N N N N

(Juncus tenuis Willd. var. anthelatus Wieg.)

Wiegand's Rush

arcticus Willd. var. balticus (Willd.) Trautv. S4 I * I * * N N N N N N N * N

(Juncus balticus Willd. var. littoralis Engelm.)

Brackish Rush

articulatus L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Jointed Rush

biflorus Ell. WL S2? * * * * * * * * * * * N * N

Two-flowered Rush

brachycarpus Engelm. SNA * * * * * * * W * * W * * *

Short-fruited Rush

brachycephalus (Engelm.) Buch. S2S3 N * N * * * * * * * * * * *

Small-headed Rush

brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fern. S5 N

N N N N N * * * * * * * *

Short-tailed Rush


Monocots

JUNCACEAE

RUSH FAMILY

Juncus

bufonius L.

(Juncus bufonius var. congestus (S. Waton) Fern.)

Toad-rush

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

43

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

canadensis Gay ex LaHarpe S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Juncus canadensis Gay ex LaHarpe var. sparsiflorus Fern.)

Marsh- or Canada Rush

debilis A. Gray E S1 * * * * * * * * * N * N * *

Weak Rush

dichotomus Ell. S4 * * * * N N N N N N N N N N

(Juncus platyphyllus (Wieg.) Fern.)

Forked Rush

diffusissimus Buckley SNA * * * * I * * * * I * * * *

Slim-fruited Rush

dudleyi Wieg. S4 N N * N N * * * * * * * * *

Dudley's Rush

effusus L. ssp. effusus SNA I * * * * I I * I I * I * I

(Juncus effusus L. var. compactus Hoppe)

Soft Rush

effusus L. ssp. solutus (Fern. & Wieg.)

Hämet-Ahti

(Juncus effusus L. var. solutus Fern. & Wieg.)

Soft Rush

S5 N * N * N N N N N N N N N N

filiformis L. E S1 N * N * N * N * * * * * * *

Thread-rush

gerardii Loisel. S5 I * * * * N N N N N N N N N

Saltmarsh-rush

greenei Oakes & Tuckerman S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Greene's Rush

inflexus L. SNA I * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Meadow-rush

marginatus Rostk. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Grass-leaf rush

militaris Bigelow S5 N * * * N N N * N N N N N N

Bayonet-rush

nodosus L. WL SNR N

N N * * N * * * * * N * *

Knotted Rush


44

Monocots

JUNCACEAE

RUSH FAMILY

Juncus

pelocarpus E. Meyer

Pondshore-rush

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

pervetus Fern. H SH * * * * * * * * * * * N * *

Blunt-flowered Rush

pylaei Laharpe S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Juncus effusus L. var. pylaei (Laharpe) Fern. & Wieg.)

(Juncus effusus L. var. costulatus Fern.)

(Juncus effusus L. var. decipiens, auct. non Buch.)

Soft Rush

secundus Beauv. ex Poiret S4 N N N? N N N N * N * N N * *

Secund Rush

tenuis Willd. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

(Juncus tenuis Willd. var. williamsii Fern.)

Path-rush, Yard-rush

torreyi Cov. WL SNR N? * * * * * * I * * * * * *

Luzula

Torrey's Rush

acuminata Raf. var. acuminata

Drooping Wood-rush

S4

N

N N N N * N * * * * * * *

bulbosa (Wood) Rydb. WL S2? * * * * * * * * * N * N N N

Bulbous Wood-rush

campestris (L.) DC. SNA * * * * * I * * I * I * * *

Field Wood-rush

echinata (Small) Hermann S4? * * * * * * * * N * * N * *

Hedgehog Wood-rush

luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy & Wilm. SNA * * * * * * * * W * W * * *

White-flowered Wood-rush

multiflora (Retz.) Lej. ssp. frigida (Buch.)

Krecz.

(Luzula multiflora (Retz.) Lej. var. fusconigra Celak.)

Boreal Wood-rush

WL

SNR * * * * * * * * * * * N * *

multiflora (Ehrh.) Lej. ssp. multiflora S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Luzula multiflora (Erh.) Lej. var. acadiensis Fern.)

Common Wood-rush

parviflora (Ehrh.) Desv. ssp. melanocarpa

(Michaux) Hamet-Ahti

Black-fruited Wood-rush

E

S1 N

* * * * * * * * * * * * *


Monocots

JUNCAGINACEAE

ARROW-GRASS FAMILY

Triglochin

maritima L.

Saltmarsh Arrow-grass

LILIACEAE

LILY FAMILY

Clintonia

borealis (Aiton) Raf.

Bluebead-lily

Erythronium

americanum Ker-Gawler ssp. americanum

Lilium

Trout-lily

canadense L.

Canada Lily

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

S4

S5

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N

N

N

45

* * * * N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N * N N N N * *

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

lancifolium Thunb. SNA I I I I I I I * I * * I * I

(Lilium tigrinum Ker)

Tiger-lily

philadelphicum L. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Wood-lily

superbum L. S3S4 * * * * * I? * I * N N N * N

Medeola

Turk's Cap Lily

virginiana L.

Indian Cucumber-root

Streptopus

amplexifolius (L.) DC.

Clasping-leaf Twisted-stalk

WL

S5

S3?

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N * * * * * * * * *

lanceolatus (Aiton) Reveal S4 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

Tricyrtis

(Streptopus roseus Michaux var. perspectus Fassett)

Rose Mandarin

hirta (Thunb.) Hooker

Tulipa

Toad-Lily

gesneriana L.

Garden-tulip

SNA

SNA

*

*

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * W * * * * *

sylvestris L. SNA * * * * * * * * W * W * * *

Wild Tulip

MELANTHIACEAE

BUNCHFLOWER FAMILY

Chamaelirium

luteum (L.) A. Gray

Devil's-bit, Fairy-wand

E

S1

N

* * * * * * * * * * * * *


46

Monocots

MELANTHIACEAE

BUNCHFLOWER FAMILY

Trillium

cernuum L. var. cernuum

(Trillium cernuum L. var. macranthum Eames & Wieg.)

Nodding Trillium

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

erectum L. S5 N N N N N N N * N N * * * *

Purple Trillium

grandiflorum (Michaux) Salisb. SNA * I I I * I * * I * * * * *

White Trillium

undulatum Willd. S4 N N N N N N N * N N N * * *

Painted Trillium

Veratrum

viride Aiton

False Hellebore

NARTHECIACEAE

ASPHODEL FAMILY

Aletris

farinosa L.

Colic-root

ORCHIDACEAE

ORCHIS FAMILY

Aplectrum

hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Torrey

Putty-root

Arethusa

bulbosa L.

Arethusa

Calopogon

tuberosus (L.) B.S.P.

Grass-pink

Coeloglossum

viride (L.) Hartman

E

T

WL

(Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hartman var. virescens (Muhl. ex Willd.)

Luer)

(Habenaria viridis (L.) R. Br. var. bracteata (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray)

Frog-orchis

Corallorhiza

maculata (Raf.) Raf.

Spotted Coral-root

S5

S4

S1

S2

S4

S2S3

S4

N

*

*

N

N

N

N

N N N N N N * N N N * * *

N N N N * * * N N N N N N

N N * * * * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N * * N * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

odontorhiza (Willd.) Poir. var. odontorhiza SC S3 N N N N N N * N * * * * * *

Autumn Coral-root

trifida Chatelain S4 N

N N N N N N * N N N * * *

Pale Coral-root


Monocots

ORCHIDACEAE

ORCHIS FAMILY

Cypripedium

acaule Aiton

Pink Lady's-slipper

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

47

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

arietinum R.Br. E S1 N N * N * * * * * * * * * *

Ram's Head Lady's-slipper

parviflorum Salisb. var. maskin (Farw.)

Sheviak

Small Yellow Lady's-slipper

E

S1 N N * * * N N * * * * * * *

parviflorum Salisb. var. parviflorum H SH * * * * N * * * * * * * * *

(Cypripedium calceolus L. var. parviflorum (Salisb.) Fern.)

Southern Small Yellow Lady's-slipper

parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.)

Knight

(Cypripedium calceolus L. var. pubescens (Willd.) Correll)

Woodland Yellow Lady's-slipper

WL

S2S3 N N N N N N N * N * * * * *

reginae Walter E S1 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

Showy Lady's-slipper

Epipactis

helleborine (L.) Crantz

Galearis

Helleborine

spectabilis (L.) Raf.

(Orchis spectabilis L.)

Showy Orchis

Goodyera

pubescens (Willd.) R. Br.

Downy Rattlesnake-plantain

WL

SNA

S2S3

S4

I

N

N

I I I I I I I * * * I I *

N N N N N * N * * * * * *

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

repens (L.) R. Br. E S1 N N N * N * N * N * * * * *

(Goodyera ophioides (Fern.) Rydb.)

(G. repens (L.) R. Br. var. ophioides Fern.)

Dwarf Rattlesnake-plantain

tesselata Lodd. S4 N N N N N N N * N N N N * *

Isotria

Checkered Rattlesnake-plantain

medeoloides (Pursh) Raf.

Small Whorled Pogonia

E

S1

*

* N N N N N * * * * * * *

verticillata (Willd.) Raf. WL S3S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Liparis

Large Whorled Pogonia

liliifolia (L.) L. C. Rich. ex Ker-Gawler

Purple Twayblade

T

S2

N

N N N * N N * N * * * * *


48

Monocots

ORCHIDACEAE

ORCHIS FAMILY

Liparis

loeselii (L.) L. C. Rich.

Listera

Green Twayblade

australis Lindl.

(Neottia australis (Lindl.) Szlachetko)

Southern Twayblade

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

S1?

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

*

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

* * * * * * * * * * * N *

cordata (L.) R. Br. E S1 N * * * * N N * * N * N * *

(Neottia cordata (L). Rich.)

Heart-leaf Twayblade

Malaxis

bayardii Fern.

Bayard's Green Adder's Mouth, Barrens Adder's M.

monophyllos (L.) Sw. ssp. brachypoda (A.

Gray) A. & D. Löve

(Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw. var. brachypoda (A. Gray) F. Morris &

Eames)

(Malaxis brachypoda (A. Gray) Fern.)

White Adder's-mouth

E

E

S1

*

* * * N * N * * N * N N N

S1 N N N * * * * * * * * * * *

unifolia Michaux WL S2? N N N N N * N N N N * N N *

Green Adder's Mouth

Platanthera

×andrewsii (M. White) Luer

(Platanthera lacera × P. psycodes)

(Habenaria ×andrewsii M. White)

SNR

N

* * * * * * * N * * * * *

aquilonis Sheviak S3S4 N N N N * * * * * * * * * *

North Wind Orchis

blephariglottis (Willd.) Lindley var.

blephariglottis

(Habenaria blephariglottis (Willd.) Hooker)

White-fringed Orchis

S4 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

ciliaris (L.) Lindley H SH * * N * N N * * N * N * * N

(Habenaria ciliaris (L.) R. Br.)

Yellow or Orange-fringed Orchis

clavellata (Michaux) Luer S4S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

(Habenaria clavellata (Michaux) Sprengel)

Club-spur Orchis

cristata (Michaux) Lindley E S1 * * * * * * * * * N * * * *

(Habenaria cristata (Michaux) R. Br.)

Crested Fringed Orchis

dilatata (Pursh) Lindley ex Beck var. dilatata T S2 N

N N * N N * * * * * N * *

(Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Hooker)

Tall or Leafy White Orchis


Monocots

ORCHIDACEAE

ORCHIS FAMILY

Platanthera

flava (L.) Lindley var. herbiola (R. Br.) Luer

Status S-Rank

(Habenaria flava (L.) R. Br. var. herbiola (R. Br.) Ames & Correll)

Pale Green or Tubercled Orchis

T

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S2

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

49

N N N N N N N N N N * N *

grandiflora (Bigelow) Lindley S4 N N N N N N N * N N N * N *

(Habenaria fimbriata (Aiton R.) Br.)

Large Purple-fringed Orchis

hookeri (Torrey ex A. Gray) Lindley WL S2? N N N N N N N * N * * * * *

(Habenaria hookeri Torrey ex A. Gray)

Hooker's Orchis

huronensis (Nutt.) Lindl. WL S2? N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindley var. huronensis (Nutt.) Luer)

(Habenaria huronensis (Nutt.) Spreng.)

Northern Green Orchis

lacera (Michaux) G. Don S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Habenaria lacera (Michaux) Lodd.)

Ragged-fringed Orchis

macrophylla (Goldie) Lindl. WL S2? N N N * N N N * N N * * * *

(Platanthera orbiculata (Pursh) Lindley var. macrophylla (Goldie)

Luer)

(Habenaria macrophylla Goldie)

Large Round-leaved Orchis

obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Lindley ssp.

obtusata

(Habenaria obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Rich.)

Blunt-leaved Orchis

H

SH N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

orbiculata (Pursh) Lindley WL S1S2 N N * * * N N * * * N * N *

(Habenaria orbiculata (Pursh) Torrey)

Round-leaved Orchis or Orchid

psycodes (L.) Lindl. S4 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

Pogonia

(Habenaria psycodes (L.) Sprengel)

Small Purple-fringed Orchis

ophioglossoides (L.) Ker-Gawler

Rose Pogonia

Spiranthes

cernua (L.) L. C. Rich.

Nodding Ladies'-tresses

S5

S5

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

×intermedia Ames SNR * * * * * * * * N N * * * *

(Spiranthes lacera var. gracilis × S. lacera var. vernalis)

Blanche Ames' Tresses

lacera (Raf.) Raf. var. gracilis (Bigelow) Luer S4 N

N N N N N N N N N * N N N

(Spiranthes gracilis (Bigelow) Beck)

Southern Slender Ladies'-tresses


50

Monocots

ORCHIDACEAE

ORCHIS FAMILY

Spiranthes

lacera (Raf.) Raf. var. lacera

Northern Slender Ladies'-tresses

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N * N N N N N N N N N *

lucida (H.H. Eaton) Ames WL S2? N N N * * N N * * * * * * *

Shining or Wide-leaved Ladies'-tresses

ochroleuca (Rydb.) Rydb. S4 N N N N N N N N N N * N * *

Yellow Nodding Ladies'-tresses

romanzoffiana Cham. E S1 N N N * * * * * * * * * * *

Hooded Ladies'-tresses

tuberosa Raf. WL S3S4 * * * * * * * * N N N N N N

(Spiranthes tuberosa Raf. var. grayi (Ames) Fern.)

Little Ladies'-tresses

vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray T S2 * * * * N N * * N N * N N *

Tipularia

Grass-leaved Ladies'-tresses

discolor (Pursh) Nutt.

Triphora

Crane-fly Orchis

trianthophora (Sw.) Rydb. ssp. trianthophora

Nodding Pogonia, Three Birds Orchid

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Aegilops

cylindrica Host

Jointed Goat Grass

Agropyron

cristatum (L.) Gaertner

Crested Wheatgrass

E

E

S1

S1

SNA

SNA

*

N

*

*

* * * * * * * * * * N N *

N * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

desertorum (Fisher ex Link) J.A. Schultes SNA * * * * W * * * * * * * * *

Agrostis

Clustered Wheatgrass

canina L.

Velvet Bentgrass

SNA

*

* I I I I I I I * * * * *

capillaris L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Agrostis tenuis Sibth.)

Rhode Island Bentgrass

elliottiana J.A. Schultes SNA ?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

((NO COUNTY INDICATED))

Elliott's Bentgrass


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Agrostis

gigantea Roth

Monocots

(Agrostis alba, auct. non L.)

Redtop

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

51

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

hyemalis (Walter) B.S.P. S4 * N N N N N * * * * N N N N

Southern Ticklegrass

perennans (Walter) Tuckerman S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Agrostis altissima (Walter) Tuckerman)

Upland Bentgrass

scabra Willd. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Northern Ticklegrass

stolonifera L. S5 I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I?

Aira

(Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustris (Hudson) Farw.)

Marsh Bentgrass

caryophyllea L. var. caryophyllea

Silvery Hairgrass

SNA

*

* * * I I * * * I I I I I

praecox L. SNA * * * * * * * * * I I I I I

Strict Hairgrass

Alopecurus

aequalis Sobol.

Short-awned Foxtail

S5

N

N N N N N N N N * N * * *

carolinianus Walter SNA * W * W W * W * * * * * * *

Carolina Foxtail

geniculatus L. SNA * I I I I I I I I I I I * I

Marsh Foxtail

myosuroides Hudson SNA * * * * * W * W * * * * * *

Slender Foxtail

pratensis L. SNA I I I I I I I I I * I * * I

Meadow Foxtail

Ammophila

breviligulata Fern. ssp. breviligulata

Dunegrass

Amphicarpum

amphicarpon (Pursh) Nash

(Amphicarpum purshii Kunth)

Annual Peanutgrass

Andropogon

gerardii Vitman

Big Bluestem

E

S4

S1

S5

*

*

N

* * I I I N N N N N N N N

* * * * * * * * * * * * N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N


52

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Andropogon

Monocots

glomeratus (Walter) B.S.P. var. glomeratus

Status S-Rank

(Andropogon virginicus L. var. abbreviatus (Hackel) Fern. & Griscom)

Bunched Broom-sedge

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * * * * * N N N N N

virginicus L. virginicus S4 * N N N N N * * N N N N N N

Broom-sedge

Anthoxanthum

hirtum (Schrank) Y. Schouten & Veldkamp

(Hierochloe hirta (Schrank) Borbás)

(Savastana hirta Schrank)

Northern Sweet Grass

nitens (Weber) Y. Schouten & Veldkamp

ssp. nitens

(Hierochloe odorata (L.) Beauv.)

Sweet Grass

SNA

*

I? I? * * * * * * * * * * *

S4S5 N N N * * N N N N N N N * *

odoratum L. S5 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Sweet Vernalgrass

ovatum Lag. var. aristatum Pérez-Lara SNA * * * * * * I I I * * I I *

Apera

(Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss.)

(Anthoxanthum puelii Lecoq & Lamotte)

Puel's Vernalgrass

interrupta (L.) Beauv.

Interrupted Bentgrass

SNA

SNA

*

* I * I * * * * * * * * *

spica-venti (L.) Beauv. SNA SNA I * * * I * I I * * * * I *

Aristida

Silky Bentgrass

basiramea Engelm. ex Vasey

Forktip Needle-grass

SNA

*

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

dichotoma Michaux var. dichotoma S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Poverty-grass

longespica Poiret var. geniculata (Raf.) Fern. SNA * N N N N N N N N N N N * *

(Aristida intermedia Scribner & Ball)

Barrens Needle-grass

longespica Poiret var. longespica SNA W * W * * * * * * * * * * *

Slender Needle-grass or Slimspike Three-awn

oligantha Michaux SNA * I I I I I I I I I I * * *

Prairie Needle-grass

purpurascens Poiret T S2 *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Purple Needle-grass


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Aristida

tuberculosa Nutt.

Monocots

Seabeach Needle-grass

Arrhenatherum

elatius (L.) J. & K. Presl ssp. bulbosum

(Willd.) Schübler & Martens

(Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) J. & K. Presl var. bulbosum (Willd.)

Spenner)

Bulbous Tall Oatgrass

Status S-Rank

T

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S2

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

53

* * * * N N N * * N * * *

* * * * * * * * * W * * *

elatius (L.) J. & K. Presl ssp. elatius SNA I * I I I I I I I I I I * I

Tall Oatgrass

Arthraxon

hispidus (Thunb.) Makino

Avena

fatua L.

Potential

ly

Invasive

(Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino var. cryptatherus (Hackel)

Honda)

Hairy Joint-grass

Wild Oats

SNA

SNA

*

I

W * * * * * * * * * * * *

I I I I I I I I * * * * *

hybrida Peterm. SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

An Oats

sativa L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Oats

Avenula

pubescens (Hudson) Dumort.

(Helictrotrichon pubscens (Hudson) Pilger)

Downy Oat Grass

Bouteloua

gracilis (Willd. ex HBK.) Lag. ex Steudel

Blue Grama-grass

SNA

SNA

W

*

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * W W * * * * * *

repens (Kunth) Scribner & Merrill SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

Creeping Grama-grass

rigidiseta (Steudel) A.S. Hitchc. SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

Stiff-awned Grama-grass

Brachyelytrum

aristosum (Michaux) Trel. in Branner &

Coville

(Brachyelytrum septentrionale (Babel) G. Tucker)

(Brachyeletrum erectum (Schreber ex Sprengel) Beauv. var.

septentrionale Babel)

Woodgrass

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

erectum (Schreber ex Sprengel) Beauv. S4 N

* N * N * * * N N * * * *

(Brachyelytrum erectum var. glabratum (Vasey) T. Koyama & Kawano)

Awned Woodgrass


54

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Brachypodium

Monocots

pinnatum (L.) Beauv.

Briza

media L.

Bromus

Short-stalked Brome

Quaking Grass

arvensis L.

Field-chess

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

*

* W * * * * * * * * * * *

I I I * I I I I I I I * *

* * W W W W W * * * * * *

briziformis Fischer & Meyer SNA * * * * * * * W * W * * * *

Rattlesnake-chess

ciliatus L. S5 N N N N N N N * N * N * * *

(Bromus canadensis Michaux.)

(Bromus dudleyi Fern.)

Fringed Brome

commutatus Schrader SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Hairy Chess

erectus Hudson SNA * * * * * * * * * * W * * *

Upright Brome

hordeaceus L. ssp. hordeaceus SNA * * I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Bromus mollis, auct. non L.)

Soft Brome

hordeaceus L. ssp. pseudothominei (P.

Sm.) H. Scholz

Soft Brome

hordeaceus L. ssp. thominei (Hardouin)

Hylander

(Bromus thominii Hardouin)

Soft Brome

SNA I * * * * * * I * * * * * *

SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * W W

inermis Leysser ssp. inermis SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I * I

Smooth Brome

japonicus Thunb. ex Murray SNA I I I I I I * I I I * * * *

Japanese Chess

kalmii A. Gray S4 N N N N N * * I * * * * * *

(Bromus purgans L.)

Wild Brome

latiglumis (Shear) A.S. Hitchc. S4 N

N N N N N N * * * * * * *

(Bromus altissimus Pursh)

Tall Brome


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Bromus

lepidus Holmb.

Monocots

Slender Brome

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

W

55

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

marginatus Nees ex Steudel SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

Perennial Brome

pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. S4S5 N N N N N N N N N N * N * *

(Bromus purgans, auct. non L.)

Woodland Brome

rigidus Roth SNA * * * * * W W W * * * * * *

(Bromus diandrus Roth ssp. rigidus (Roth) Lainz)

Stiff Brome

rubens L. SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

Foxtail-chess

secalinus L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Cheat

sterilis L. SNA * * * * * * * I * * * I * I

Barren Brome

tectorum L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Drooping Brome

Calamagrostis

canadensis (Michaux) Beauv. var.

canadensis

Canada Bluejoint or Reedgrass

canadensis (Michaux) Beauv. var.

macouniana (Vasey) Stebbins

Macoun's Reedgrass

WL

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

SNR * * * * * * N * * * * N * *

cinnoides (Muhl.) Bart. S5 * N N N N N N * N N N N N N

(Calamagrostis coarctata (Torrey) Eaton)

Reed-bluejoint

epigejos (L.) Roth var. georgica (K. Koch)

Ledeb.

Feathertop

SNA * * * * I * I I * I I I * I

pickeringii A. Gray E S1 * * * * * N N * * * N * * *

(Calamagrostis pickeringii A. Gray var. debilis Kearney Fern. & Wieg.)

Pickering's Reedgrass

stricta ssp. inexpansa (Timm) Koeler E S1 N * * * N * * * * * * * * *

New England Northern Reed Grass

Cenchrus

longispinus (Hackel) Fern.

Common Sandbur

S5

N

N N N N N N N N * N N N N


56

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Cenchrus

spinifex Cav.

Chloris

Monocots

(Cenchrus parviflorus Benth.)

Coastal Sandbur

gayana Kunth

Rhodes Grass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * W * *

verticillata Nutt. SNA * * * I * * * * * * * * I *

Windmill-grass

virgata Sw. SNA * * * * W * * W * * * * * *

Cinna

Feather Finger-grass

arundinacea L.

Common

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

latifolia (Trev. ex Goepp.) Griseb. ex Ledeb. S5 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

Slender Woodreed

Corynephorus

canescens (L.) Beauv.

Crypsis

Clubgrass

schoenoides (L.) Lam.

(Heleochloa schoenoides (L.) Host)

Swamp Prickle-Grass

Cynodon

dactylon (L.) Pers. var. dactylon

Bermuda Grass

Cynosurus

cristatus L.

Dactylis

Crested Dogtail

glomerata L.

Orchard-grass

Dactyloctenium

aegyptium (L.) Willd.

Finger-grass

Danthonia

californica Bol.

California Oatgrass

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

*

I

I

*

*

* * * * * * * * * * * W *

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

* I * I * I I * * * * * I

* I I I I I I I * * * * *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

* * * W W * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * W * * * *

compressa Austin ex Peck S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

(Danthonia allenii Austin)

Woodland Oatgrass

spicata (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & J.A.

Schultes

Poverty-grass

S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Deschampsia

Monocots

cespitosa (L.) Beauv. ssp. cespitosa

(Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv. ssp. parviflora (Thuill.)

Jarmolenko & So¢)

Tussock-hairgrass

cespitosa (L.) Beauv. ssp. glauca (Hartman)

Hartman

Tussock-hairgrass

Status S-Rank

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

57

I I * I * * * * * * * * *

S1 * N N N * N * * I * * * * *

flexuosa (L.) Trin. S5 N N * N N N N N N N N N N N

Common Hairgrass

Desmazeria

rigida (L.) Tutin

(Catapodium rigida (L.) Hubbard ex Dony)

Fern Grass

Dichanthelium

acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark ssp.

acuminatum

WL

(Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark var. acuminatum)

(Panicum auburne Ashe)

Auburn Panic-grass

acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark ssp.

columbianum (Scribn.) Freckmann & Lelong

(Dichanthelium columbianum (Scribner) Freckmann)

(Panicum columbianum Scribner)

(Panicum tsugetorum Nash)

Downy Panic-grass

acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark ssp.

fasciculatum (Torrey) Freckmann & Lelong

(Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark var. fasciculatum

(Torr.) Freckmann)

(Panicum lanuginosum Ell. var. fasciculatum (Torr.) Fern.)

(Panium subvillosum Ashe)

Fascicled Panic-grass

acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark ssp.

implicatum (Scribn.) Freckmann & Lelong

(Panicum meridionale Ashe)

(Panicum oricola A.S. Hitchc. & Chase)

Pondshore Panic-grass

acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark ssp.

lindheimeri (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong

(Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark var. lindheimeri

(Nash) Gould & Clark)

(Dichanthelium lanuginosum (Ell.) Gould var. lindheimeri (Nash)

Fern.)

(Panicum lanuginosum Ell. var. septentrionale (Fern.) Fern.)

Lindheimer's Panic-grass

acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & Clark ssp.

spretum (J.A. Schultes) Freckmann &

Lelong

(Dichanthelium spretum (J.A. Schultes) Freckmann)

(Panicum spretum J.A. Schultes)

Smooth Panic-grass

SNA

S1?

*

*

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * N * *

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

S4 N * * N N N N * * N N N N N

S5 * * * * N * * N N * * * * *

S4 * N * * N N N * N N N N * *


58

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Dichanthelium

Monocots

boreale (Nash) Freckmann

(Panicum boreale Nash)

Northern Panic-grass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * N

clandestinum (L.) Gould S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Panicum clandestinum L.)

Deer-tongue

commutatum (J.A. Schultes) Gould ssp.

ashei (G. Pearson ex Ashe) Freckmann &

Lelong

(Panicum commutatum J.A. Schultes)

(Panicum ashei Pearson)

Changeable Panic-grass

S4 N * * * N N N * N * N N N N

depauperatum (Muhl.) Gould S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Panicum depauperatum Muhl.)

(Panicum depauperatum Muhl. var. involutum Torrey Wood)

Depauperate Panic-grass

dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp. dichotomum S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Panicum dichotomum L.)

(Panicum dichotomum L. var. barbulatum (Michaux) Wood)

Forked Panic-grass

dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp.

mattamuskeetense (Ashe) Freckmann &

Lelong

(Dichanthelium mattamuskeetense (Ashe) Mohlenbrock)

(Panicum mattamuskeetense Ashe)

(Panicum clutei Nash)

Mattamuskeet Panic-grass

dichotomum (L.) Gould ssp. microcarpon

(Muhl. ex Ell.) Freckmann & Lelong

(Dichanthelium microcarpon (Muhl. ex Ell.) Mohlenbrock)

(Panicum microcarpon Muhl. ex Ell.)

Tiny-fruited Panic-grass

E

S1 * * * * * N * * * N N N N N

S4 * * * * N * * N N N N N N *

latifolium (L.) Gould & Clark S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

(Panicum latifolium L.)

Broad-leaved Panic-grass

linearifolium (Scribner) Gould S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

(Panicum linearifolium Scribner)

(Panicum linearifolium Scribner var. werneri (Scribner) Fern.)

Linear-leaved Panic-grass

oligosanthes (J.A. Schultes) Gould ssp.

scribnerianum (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong

(Dichanthelium oligosanthes (J.A. Schultes) Gould var. scribnerianum

(Nash) Gould)

(Panicum oligosanthes Schultes var. scribnerianum (Nash) Fern.)

Scribner's Panic-grass

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Dichanthelium

Monocots

ovale (Ell.) Gould & Clark ssp.

pseudopubescens (Nash) Freckmann &

Lelong

(Dichanthelium commonsianum (Ashe) Freckmann)

(Panicum commonsianum Ashe)

(Panicum owenae Bicknell)

Commons' Panic-grass

ovale (Ell.) Gould & Clark ssp. villosissimum

(Nash) Freckmann & Lelong

(Dichanthelium villosissimum (Nash) Freckmann)

(Panicum villosissimum Nash)

Villous Panic-grass

Status S-Rank

SC

H

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S3

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

59

* * * * * * * * * * N N N

SH * * * * * N * * N * * * N N

scabriusculum (Ell.) Gould & Clark T S1 * * * N * * * * * * * N * *

(Panicum scabriusculum Ell.)

(Panicum recognitum Fern.)

(Panicum aculeatum Hitchc. & Chase)

Harsh Panic-grass

×scoparioides (Ashe) Mohlenbrock SNR * * * * * * * * N * * * * *

(Dichanthelium acuminatum × D. ovale)

scoparium (Lam.) Gould H SH * * * * * * * * * * * N N N

(Panicum scoparium Lam.)

Velvet Panic-grass

sphaerocarpon (Ell.) Gould S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Round-fruited Panic-grass

wrightianum (Scribner) Freckmann SC S3 * * * * * * * * * * N N * *

(Panicum wrightianum Scribner)

Wright's Panic-grass

xanthophysum (A. Gray) Freckmann S4 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

Digitaria

(Panicum xanthophysum A. Gray)

Yellow Panic-grass

cognata (J. A Schultes) Pilger

(Leptoloma cognatum (J.A.Schultes) Chase)

Fall Witch-grass

WL

SNA

N?

N? N? N? N? N? * * * * * * N? *

filiformis (L.) Koeler S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Slender Crab-grass

ischaemum (Schreber) Muhl. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Smooth Crab-grass

sanguinalis (L.) Scop. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Large Crab-grass

violascens Link SNA *

I * * I * * * * * * * * *

(Digitaria ischaemum var. violascens (Link) Radford)

Violet Crab-grass


60

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Distichlis

Monocots

spicata (L.) Greene

Saltmarsh Spike-grass

Echinochloa

colona (L.) Link

Jungle-rice

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

* * * * N N N N N N N N N

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

crus-galli (L.) Beauv. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Barnyard-grass

frumentacea Link SNA I * I I I I I I I I * I I I

(Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. var. frumentacea (Link) W. Wight)

Japanese Millet

muricata (Beauv.) Fern. var. microstachya

Wieg.

Small-spiked Cockspur

S4S5 N * * * N N N N N N * N * *

muricata (Beauv.) Fern. var. muricata S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Cockspur-grass, Barnyard-grass

walterii (Pursh) Heller S4 * * N N * N N N N N N N N N

Eleusine

Walter's Cockspur

indica (L.) Gaertner

Elymus

Goose-grass

canadensis L. var. canadensis

Canada Wild Rye

SNA

S5

I

N

I I I I I I I I I I I * *

N N N N N * N N N * * * *

curvatus Piper SNA * * * * * * * W * * * W * *

(Elymus virginicus L. var. submuticus Hooker)

(Elymus submuticus (Hook.) Smyth & Smyth)

Prairie Wild Rye

glabriflorus (Vasey) Scribn. & Ball H SH * * * * * * * * N * * * N *

Southeastern Wild-Rye

hystrix L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

(Hystrix patula Moench)

Bottlebrush-grass

macgregorii R. Brooks & J.J.N. Campbell WL S2? N * N * N N N * * * * * * *

Early Wild Rye

repens (L.) Gould SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex B.D. Jackson)

(Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv.)

Quack-grass


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Elymus

riparius Wieg.

Monocots

Riverbank Wild Rye

trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners ssp.

glaucus (Pease & Moore) Cody

Status S-Rank

(Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte ex Lewis var. glacucum (Pease

& Moore) Malte)

trachycaulus ssp. trachycaulus (Link) Gould

ex Shinners

WL

(Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte var. novae-angliae (Scribner)

Fern.)

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

61

N N N N N N * * * * * * *

SNR N N N N * N * * N * * * * *

SNR N N N * * N N * * * * * * *

villosus Muhl. ex Willd. E S1 N * * N N? N N N N * N * * *

Hairy Wild Rye

virginicus L. var. halophilus (Bicknell) Wieg. S4 * * * * * * N N * N N N N N

Saltmarsh Wild Rye

virginicus L. var. virginicus S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N N *

Virginia Wild Rye

wiegandii S4? N N N N * * * * * * * * * *

(Elymus canadensis L. var. wiegandii (Fern.) Bowden)

Wiegand's Wild Rye

Eragrostis

capillaris (L.) Nees

Lace-grass

WL

SNA

N

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

cilianensis (All.) Lut. ex Janchen SNA I I I I I I I I I I * I I I

(Eragrostis megastachya (Koeler) Link)

Stink-grass

curvula (Schrader) Nees SNA * * * * * * * * * * I I * *

Weeping Lovegrass

frankii Meyer ex Steudel SC S3 N N N N I? I I I * * * * * *

Frank's Lovegrass

hypnoides (Lam.) B.S.P. SNA N N N N * * * * * * * * * *

Sandbar-lovegrass

intermedia A.S. Hitchc. SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

Prairie-lovegrass

mexicana (Hornem.) Link ssp. virescens (J.

Presl.) S.D. Koch & Sánchez

(Eragrostis virescens J. Presl.)

Mexican Lovegrass

SNA *

* * * W * * * * * * * * *


62

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Eragrostis

minor Host

Monocots

(Eragrostis poaeoides Beauv. ex R. & S.)

Little Lovegrass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

I I I I I * I I * I * * I

pectinacea (Michaux) Nees var. pectinacea S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Tufted Lovegrass

pilosa (L.) Beauv. var. pilosa SNA I I I I I I I I I I * I * *

(Eragrostis multicaulis Steudel)

(Eragrostis peregrina Wieg.)

India Lovegrass

spectabilis (Pursh) Steudel S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steudel var. sparsihirsuta Farw.)

Purple Lovegrass

Eremochloa

ophiuroides (Munro) Hackel

Festuca

Centipede-grass

filiformis Pourret

(Festuca capillata Lam.)

(Festuca tenuifolia Sibth.)

Hair-fescue

Likely

Invasive

SNA

SNA

*

I

W * * * * * * * * * * * *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

ovina L. SNA * I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Sheep-fescue

rubra L. ssp. commutata Gaudin SNA * * * * I I I * I * I I * *

(Festuca rubra L. var. commutata Gaudin)

(Festuca nigrescens Lam.)

Red Fescue

rubra L. ssp. fallax (Thuill.) Nyman SNA * * * * * W * * W * * W * *

(Festuca diffusa Dumort. var. multiflora (Hoffm.) Asch. & Graebner)

(Festuca rubra L. var. multiflora (Hoffman) Aschers. & Graebn.)

(Festuca heteromalla Pourret)

Many-flowered Fescue

rubra L. ssp. pruinosa (Hack.) Piper S4 * * * * * * N N * N N N N N

(Festuca rubra L. var. juncea (Hack.) Richter)

Coastal Red Fescue

rubra L. ssp. rubra SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Red Fescue

subverticillata (Pers.) Alexeev S4S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

(Festuca obtusa Biehler)

Nodding Fescue


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Festuca

Monocots

trachyphylla (Hackel) Krajina

(Festuca duriuscula L., sensu auct. amer.)

(Festuca ovina L. var. duriuscula (L.) W.D.J. Koch, sensu auct.

amer.)

(Festuca longifolia, auct. non Thuill.)

Hard Fescue

Gastridium

phleoides (Nees & Meyen) C.E. Hubbard

Nitgrass

Glyceria

acutiflora Torrey

Sharp-scaled Mannagrass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

S4?

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

N

63

* * * I I I I I I I I * *

* * * * W * W * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

borealis (Nash) Batch. S5 N N N N N N N * N N * * * *

Northern Mannagrass

canadensis (Michaux) Trin. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Mannagrass

fluitans (L.) R. Br. SNA * * * * * * * * * * * * * W

Float-grass

grandis S. Watson var. grandis S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

(Glyceria maxima (Hartman) Holmb. ssp. grandis (S. Watson) Hulten)

Tall Mannagrass

laxa (Scribn.) Scribn. SNR * N * N * * * * * * * * * *

Lax Mannagrass

maxima (Hartman) Holmb. Likely

Invasive

SNR * * * * * * I * * * * * * *

English Watergrass

melicaria (Michaux) Hubbard S4 N N N N N * N * * N * * * *

Slender Mannagrass

obtusa (Muhl.) Trin. S4S5 * * * N N N N N N N N N N *

Coastal Mannagrass

septentrionalis A.S. Hitchc. var.

septentrionalis

Eastern Float-grass

S5 N * N N N N N N N N N * * N

striata (Lam.) A.S. Hitchc. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Holcus

(Glyceria striata var. stricta (Scribner) Fern.)

Fowl Mannagrass

lanatus L.

Velvet-grass

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I


64

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Hordeum

Monocots

jubatum L. ssp. jubatum

Foxtail-barley

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

murinum L. ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcangeli SNA * * * * W W * W * * * * * *

Wild Barley

pusillum Nutt. SNA * * * * I * * * * * * * * *

Little Barley

vulgare L. SNA I I * I I I I I I I I I * I

Leersia

(Hordeum vulgare var. trifurcatum)

Barley, Six-row Barley

oryzoides (L.) Sw.

Rice Cut-grass

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

virginica Willd. S4S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

White Cut-grass

Leptochloa

fusca (L.) Kunth ssp. fascicularis (Lam.) N.

Snow

(Diplachne maritima Bicknell)

(Diplachne fascicularis (Lam.) Beauv.)

(Leptochloa fascicularis var. maritima (Bicknell) Gleason)

Saltpond-grass

fusca (L.) Kunth ssp. uninervia (J. Presl) N.

Snow

(Diplachne uninervia (Presl) Parodi)

(Leptochloa uninervia (Presl) Hitchc. & Chase)

Mexican Sprangletop

panicea (Retz.) Ohwi ssp. mucronata

(Michaux) Nowack

Leymus

(Leptochloa mucronata (Michaux) Kunth)

(Leptochloa filiformis Lam. Beauv. var. attenuata (Nutt.) Steyermark

& Kucera)

Slender Feather-grass

mollis (Trin.) Hara ssp. mollis

Lolium

(Elymus arenarius L. var. villosus Meyer)

Sea Lyme-grass, American Dunegrass, Strandwheat

multiflorum Lam.

(Lolium multiflorum Lam. var. diminutum Mutel)

(Lolium perenne L. var. aristatum Willd.)

Italian Rye-grass

T

E

S1

*

I * * I I * I * * * N N N

SNA * * * * * I * * * * * * * *

SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

S1

SNA

*

I

* * * * * N * * * * N N *

I * I I I I I I I I I * I

perenne L. SNA I

* I I I I I I I * I I I I

Perennial Rye-grass


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Lolium

Monocots

temulentum L. ssp. temulentum

Mibora

Darnel

minima (L.) Desv.

Mibora

Microstegium

vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus

(Eulalia viminea (Trin.) Kuntze)

Japanese Stiltgrass

Milium

effusum L. var. cisatlanticum Fern.

Woodland-millet

Miscanthus

sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Franchet

Japanese Plumegrass

Status S-Rank

Likely

Invasive

T

Likely

Invasive

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

SNA

S2

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

I

N

*

65

* * I I I I I * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * W * * *

I I I I I * * I * * * * *

N N * N * * * * * * * * *

I I I I * I * * * * * * *

sinensis Andersson SNA * * I * I * * I * I * I * *

Molinia

Chinese Plumegrass

caerulea (L.) Moench

Purple Moorgrass

Muhlenbergia

capillaris (Lam.) Trin.

Hairgrass

H

SNA

SH

I

*

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

N N * * * * * * * N * * *

frondosa (Poiret) Fern. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Wirestem Muhly

glomerata (Willd.) Trin. S5 N N N N N N N N N * N N * *

(Muhlenbergia glomerata (Willd.) Trin. var. cinnoides (Link) Hermann)

Marsh Muhly

mexicana (L.) Trin. S5 N N N N N N N N * N N * * N

Satingrass

schreberi J.F. Gmelin S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Nimblewill

sobolifera (Muhl. ex Willd.) Trin. S4 * N N N N N N * N N * * * *

Awnless Woodland-muhly

sylvatica Torrey ex A. Gray S4 N N N N N N N N N * * * * *

(Muhlenbergia sylvatica Torrey ex A. Gray var. robusta Fern.)

Woodland- or Forest-muhly

tenuiflora (Willd.) B.S.P. S4S5 N

N N N N N N N N * * * * *

Awned Muhly


66

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Muhlenbergia

Monocots

uniflora (Muhl.) Fern.

Northern Muhly

Oryzopsis

asperifolia Michaux

Panicum

Spreading Ricegrass

amarum Ell. ssp. amarulum (A.S. Hitchc. &

Chase) Freckmann & Lelong

Bitter Panic-grass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

S5

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N

*

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

* * * * * * * * * * I * *

capillare L. ssp. capillare S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Panicum capillare L. var. occidentale Rydb.)

Witch-grass

dichotomiflorum Michaux var.

dichotomiflorum

(Panicum dichotomiflorum Michaux var. geniculatum (Wood) Fern.)

Fall Panic-grass

dichotomiflorum Michaux var. puritanorum

Svenson

Svenson's Panic-grass

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

S4 * * * N N N * * N N N N N N

miliaceum L. ssp. milliaceum SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I * I

Broom-corn Millet

philadelphicum Bernh. ex Trin. ssp.

gattingeri (Nash) Freckmann & Lelong

(Panicum gattingeri Nash)

Gattinger's Panic-grass

philadelphicum Bernh. ex Trin. ssp.

philadelphicum

SC

SC

(Panicum philadelphicum Bernh. ex Trin var. tuckermanii (Fern.)

Steyerm. & Schmoll)

Philadelphia Panic-grass

rigidulum Bosc ex Nees subsp. pubescens

(Vasey) Freckmann & Lelong

(Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees var. pubescens (Vasey) Lelong)

(Panicum longifolium Torrey)

Long-leaved Panic-grass

T

S2 N N N * N * * * * * * * * *

S3 N N N N N N N * N N N N * *

S2 * * * * * * * * * N N * N *

rigidulum Bosc ex Nees ssp. rigidulum S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

(Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees var. rigidulum)

(Panicum agrostoides Sprengel)

Flat-stemmed Panic-grass

verrucosum Muhl. S4 *

* N N * * * * N N N N N *

Warty Panic-grass


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Panicum

virgatum L.

Monocots

(Panicum virgatum L. var. cubense Griseb.)

(Panicum virgatum L. var. spissum Linder)

Switchgrass

Pascopyrum

smithii (Rydb.) A. Love

(Agropyron smithii Rydb.)

Western Wheat-grass

Paspalum

laeve Michaux

Status S-Rank

(Paspalum laeve Michaux var. circulare (Nash) W. Stone ex Fern.)

Field Bead-grass

setaceum Michaux var. muhlenbergii (Nash)

D. Banks

(Paspalum ciliatifolium Michaux var. muhlenbergii (Nash) Fern.)

Muhlenberg's Bead-grass

setaceum Michaux var. psammophilum

(Nash) D. Banks

(Paspalum psammophilum Nash)

Sand Bead-grass

H

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

SNA

SH

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

*

*

67

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

* I * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * * * N *

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

S2S3 * * * * * * * * * * N N N N

setaceum var. setaceum Michaux WL S3? * * N * * * * * * * N * N N

Phalaris

Small-fruited or Slender Bead-grass

arundinacea L.

Reed Canary-grass

Invasive

S5

I?

I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? *

canariensis L. SNA I * I I I I I I I I * I * I

Phleum

Canary-grass

arenarium L.

Sand-timothy

SNA

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

pratense L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Phleum pratense L. ssp. nodosum (L.) Arcang.)

Timothy

subulatum (Savi) Asch. & Graebner SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

Subulate Timothy

Phragmites

australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel ssp.

americanus Saltonstall, P.M. Peterson &

Soreng

Phragmites, North American Reed

WL

SNR

N

* * * * N N * * * * N * *

australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel Invasive SNA I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Phragmites, Common Reed


68

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Phyllostachys

dulcis McClure

Monocots

Sweet Bamboo

Piptatherum

pungens (Torr ex Spreng.) Dorn

(Oryzopsis pungens (Torrey ex Sprengel) A.S. Hitchc.)

Little Ricegrass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

racemosum (Sm.) Eat. S4 N N N N N N N * N * * * * *

(Oryzopsis racemosa (J. E. Smith) Ricker ex A.S. Hitchc.)

Mountain Ricegrass

Piptochaetium

avenaceum (L.) Parodi

Poa

(Stipa avenacea L.)

Black Oatgrass

alsodes A. Gray

Floodplain-speargrass

WL

SNR

S4

*

N

* * * * N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N * * * * * * * *

annua L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Annual Bluegrass

bulbosa L. ssp. vivipara (Koel.) Arcang. SNA * * I I I * * * * I * I * *

Bulbous Bluegrass

chapmaniana Scribner SNA * * I * * I I * * * * * * *

Chapman's Bluegrass

compressa L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Canada Bluegrass

nemoralis L. SNA I I I I I I I I I * * * * *

Woodland-bluegrass

palustris L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Fowl-meadow Grass

pratensis L. ssp. pratensis SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I *

Kentucky Blue-grass, Junegrass

pratensis L. ssp. angustifolia (L.) Arcang. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Poa angustifolia L.)

Narrow-leaved Kentucky Blue-grass

saltuensis Fern. & Wieg. ssp. languida (A.S.

Hitchc.) A. Haines

(Poa debilis Torrey)

Drooping Speargrass

E

S1 N N N N N * * * * * * * * *

saltuensis Fern. & Wieg. ssp. saltuensis S4 N

N N N N N * * * * * * * *

Woodland Speargrass


POACEAE

Poa

GRASS FAMILY

Monocots

trivialis L. ssp. trivialis

Rough Bluegrass

Polypogon

monspeliensis (L.) Desf.

Rabbit-foot Grass

Puccinellia

distans (Jacq.) Parl. ssp. borealis (Holmb.)

W.E. Highes

Reflexed Alkali-grass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

*

*

69

I I I I I I I I I * I I I

* * * W W * W * * * * * *

* * * * * * I * * * * * I

distans (Jacq.) Parl. ssp. distans SNA I * I * I * I I * * I * * I

European or Reflexed Alkali-grass

fasciculata (Torrey) Bicknell H S4 * * * * * * N N * N * N * N

Bunched Alkali-grass

maritima (Hudson) Parl. S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N * *

Seaside Alkali-grass

pumila (Vasey) A.S. Hitchc. H SH * * * * * * * * * * N N N *

(Puccinellia tenella (Lange) Holmb. ssp. alascana, auct. non

(Scribner & Merrill) Tzvelev)

(Puccinellia paupercula (Holmb.) Fern. & Weath. var. alaskana, auct.

non (Scribner & Merrill) Fern. & Weath.)

Northern Alkali-grass

Sacciolepis

striata (L.) Nash

(Holcus striatus L.)

(Panicum aquaticum Bosc ex Spreng.)

American Cup-scale

Schedonorus

arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.

(Festuca arundinacea Schreber)

(Festuca elatior L. var. arundinacea (Schreb.) C.F.H. Wimmer)

(Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbyshire)

Tall Rye Grass

SNA

SNA

*

I

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

* * I * * I I * * I * * *

pratensis (Hudson) Beauv. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Festuca pratensis Hudson)

(Festuca elatior L., in part)

(Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbyshire)

Meadow Rye Grass

Schizachne

purpurascens (Torrey) Swallen

Purple Oats

Schizachyrium

scoparium (Michaux) Nash var. scoparium

(Andropogon scoparium Michaux)

(Andropogon scoparium Michaux var. frequens Hubbard)

(Andropogon scoparium Michaux var. ducis Fern. & Griscom)

Little Bluestem

S4

S5

N

N

N * N N * * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N


70

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Secale

cereale L.

Rye

Setaria

Monocots

faberi Herrm. ex Rosen

Nodding Foxtail

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I

I I I I I I I I I I I * I

I * I I I I I I I I I I *

italica (L.) Beauv. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I * I

Foxtail-millet

parviflora (Poiret) Kerguelen SC S3 * * * * * * * N N N N N N N

(Setaria geniculata (Lam.) Beauv.)

Bristly Foxtail

pumila (Poir.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes ssp.

pumila

(Setaria glauca, auct. non (L.) Beauv.)

Yellow Foxtail

SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

verticillata (L.) Beauv. SNA * I * * * I I I * * * * * *

Bur-bristle Grass

viridis (L.) Beauv. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. var. weinmannii (R. & S.) Brand)

Green Foxtail

Sorghastrum

nutans (L.) Nash

Indian Grass

Sorghum

bicolor (L.) Moench

Sorghum

S4S5

SNA

N

*

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

W * * W W W W W W W W * *

halepense (L.) Pers. SNA * I * * I I I I I * I * * *

Spartina

(Sorghum vulgare Pers.)

Johnson-grass

alterniflora Loisel

Saltwater Cord-grass

S5

*

* * * * N N N N N N N N N

×caespitosa A.A. Eaton SNR * * * * * * N N * * N N N *

(Spartina patens × S. pectinata)

cynosuroides (L.) Roth T S2 * * * * * * * * * N N N * *

(Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Roth var. polystachya (Michaux) Beal ex

Fern.)

Salt-reedgrass

patens (Aiton) Muhl. var. patens S5 *

* * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl. var. monogyna (M.A. Curtis) Fern.)

Salt-hay, Salt-meadow Grass or Cord-grass


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Spartina

pectinata Link

Monocots

(Spartina pectinata Link var. suttiei (Farw.) Fern.)

Prairie Cord-grass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

71

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

pectinata Link × S. alterniflora Loisel. SNR * * * * * * N * * * * * * *

Sphenopholis

intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb.

(Sphenopholis obtusata (Michaux) Scribner var. major (Torrey)

Erdman)

Slender Wedgegrass

S4

N

N N N * N N N N * N N * *

nitida (Biehler) Scribner T S2 N N N N N N * * N * * * * *

Shining Wedgegrass

obtusata (Michaux) Scribner H SH * * N N N N N N N * * * * N

(Sphenopholis obtusata (Michaux) Scribner var. lobata (Trin.)

Scribner)

(Sphenopholis obtusata (Michaux) Scribner var. lobata (Trin.)

Scribner)

Prairie-wedgegrass

pensylvanica (L.) A.S. Hitchc. T S1S2 * N * N * N N * N N * N * N

(Trisetum pensylvanica (L.) Beauv.)

Swamp-oats

Sporobolus

compositus (Poiret) Merrill var. compositus

(Sporobolus asper (Beauv.) Kunth)

Tall Dropseed

WL

SNR

I

* * * * I I I I N? I * * *

cryptandrus (Torrey) A. Gray WL S2? I * * I I N N N N * N * * *

Sand-dropseed

heterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray H SH * * * * N * * * * * * * * *

Northern Dropseed

neglectus Nash E S1 N * * * * * I * * * * * * *

Small Dropseed

vaginiflorus (Torrey ex A. Gray) Wood var.

vaginiflorus

Poverty-grass

Thinopyrum

intermedium

(Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski)

(Agropyron intermedium (Host) Beauv.)

Hairy-scaled Wheat-grass

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

SNA

*

* * * * * I * * * * * * *

pycnanthum (Pers.) Barkworth SNA * * * * * * I I I * I I * I

(Elymus pycnanthus (Godr.) Melderis)

(Elymus pungens (Pers.) Melderis subsp. pycnanthus (Godr.) O.

Bolòs & Vigo)

Seabeach Quack-grass


72

POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Torreyochloa

Monocots

pallida (Torrey) Church var. fernaldii (A.S.

Hitchc.) Dore ex Koyama & Kawano

(Torreyochloa fernaldii (A.S. Hitchc.) Church)

(Glyceria fernaldii (A.S. Hitchc.) St. John)

(Puccinellia fernaldii (A.S. Hitchc.) E.G. Voss)

Fernald's Mannagrass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

* N N * N N N N N N N * N

pallida (Torrey) Church var. pallida S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Tragus

(Glyceria pallida (Torr.) Trin.)

(Puccinellia pallida (Torr.) Kuntze)

Pale or Torrey's Mannagrass

berteronianus J.A. Schultes

Tridens

Texas Bur

flavus (L.) A.S. Hitchc. var. flavus

(Triodia flava (L.) Smyth)

Purpletop

Triplasis

purpurea (Walter) Chapman var. purpurea

Purple Sand-grass

Tripsacum

dactyloides (L.) L.

Triraphis

Northern Gama-grass

mollis R. Br.

Trisetum

Purpleheads

flavescens (L.) Beauv.

Yellow False Oats

E

SNA

SNA

S4

S1

SNA

SNA

*

I

*

*

*

*

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

I I I I I I * I I I I I I

* * * * N N N * N N N N N

* * * * * * * * N N * N N

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

* W * W * * * * * * W * *

spicatum (L.) Richter E S1 N N N N N N N * N * * * * *

Triticum

(Trisetum triflorum (Bigelow) Love & Love ssp. molle (Michaux) Love

& Love)

(Trisetum spicatum var. molle (Kunth) Beal)

Narrow False Oats

aestivum L.

Wheat

Urochloa

texana (Buckley) R.D. Webster

Vulpia

(Brachiaria texana (Buckley) S.T. Blake)

(Panicum texanum Buckley)

Texas Signal-grass

bromoides (L.) S.F. Gray

(Festuca bromoides L.)

(Festuca dertonensis (All.) Asch. & Graebner)

Bromelike Fescue

SNA

SNA

SNA

W

*

*

* * W W W W W W W * W * W

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * W * * * * * * * * *


POACEAE

GRASS FAMILY

Vulpia

Monocots

myuros (L.) K.C. Gmelin

(Vulpia myuros (L.) K.C. Gmelin var. hirsuta Hackel)

(Festuca myuros L.; Festuca megalura Nutt.)

(Vulpia megalura (Nutt.) Rydb.)

Mouse-tail or Rat-tail Fescue

octoflora (Walter) Rydb. var. tenella (Willd.)

Fern.

(Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydb. var. glauca (Nutt.) Fern.)

(Festuca octoflora Walt. var. glauca (Nutt.) Fern.)

(Festuca octoflora Walt. var. tenella (Willd.) Fern.)

Six-weeks Fescue

Zea

mays L. ssp. mays

Corn

Zizania

aquatica L. var. aquatica

Wild Rice

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

73

* I I I I * I * I * I I I

S4S5 * * N N N N N N N N N N N N

SNA

S4

*

*

W * W W W W W W * W * * *

* N N N N N * N N N N * N

palustris L. var. palustris WL S1S2 I * * * N * * * N * * N N *

(Zizania aquatica L. var. angustifolia A.S. Hitchc.)

Slender Wild Rice

PONTEDERIACEAE

PICKERELWEED FAMILY

Eichhornia

crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach

(Eichhornia speciosa Kunth)

Water-hyacinth

Heteranthera

dubia (Jacq.) MacM.

(Zosterella dubia (Jacq.) Small)

Water Star-grass

Pontederia

cordata L.

(Pontederia cordata L. var. lancifolia (Muhl.) Torrey)

Pickerel-weed

POTAMOGETONACEAE

PONDWEED FAMILY

Potamogeton

alpinus Balbis

Northern Pondweed

WL

H

SNA

S2S3

S5

SH

*

N

N

N

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

N N N * * N * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

amplifolius Tuckerman S5 N N N N N N N * N * N N * *

Big-leaved Pondweed

×argutulus Hagstr. SNR N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Potamogeton gramineus × P. nodosus)

berchtoldii Fieber S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Potamogeton pusillus L. var. tenuissimus Mert. & Koch)

Slender Tiny Pondweed


74

Monocots

POTAMOGETONACEAE

PONDWEED FAMILY

Potamogeton

bicupulatus Fern.

(Potamogeton capillaceus Poiret)

Hairlike Pondweed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

biculpulatus Fern. × P. epihydrus Raf. SNR * N * * * * * * * * * * * *

confervoides Reichenb. T S2 N N * * N N * * N N N * * *

Alga-pondweed

crispus L. Invasive SNA I I I I I I I * I * * I * *

Curly Pondweed

epihydrus Raf. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Potamogeton epihydrus Raf. var. ramosus (Peck) House)

Ribbon-leaf Pondweed

foliosus Raf. ssp. foliosus S4 N N * N * N N N N * N * N *

Leafy Pondweed

friesii Rupr. E S1 N * * * * N * * * * * * * *

Fries' Pondweed

gemmiparus (J.W. Robbins) J.W. Robbins

ex Morong

(Potamogeton pusillus L. var. gemmiparus Robbins)

Tiny Pondweed

WL

S2? * N N N N N N * N * * * * *

gramineus L. S5 N N N N N N N N N * N * N *

(Potamogeton gramineus L. var. maximus Morong)

(Potamogeton gramineus L. var. myriophyllus Robbins)

Grass-leaf Pondweed

hillii Morong SC S3 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Hill's Pondweed

illinoensis Morong S4 N N * N * N N * * * * * * *

Illinois Pondweed

×mysticus Morong SNR * * * * * N * * * * * * * *

(Potamogeton berchtoldii Fieber × Potamogeton perfoliatus L.)

natans L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Floating Pondweed

×nitens G.H. Weber SNR * * * * * * N * * N * * * *

(Potamogeton gramineus × P. perfoliatus)

(Potamogeton ×subnitens Hagstrom)

nodosus Poiret S4 N

N * N * N N N N * * * * *

Long-leaved Pondweed


Monocots

POTAMOGETONACEAE

PONDWEED FAMILY

Potamogeton

oakesianus Robbins

Oakes' Pondweed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

75

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

obtusifolius Mert. & Koch WL S1? N * N N N N N * * * * * * *

Blunt-leaved Pondweed

ogdenii Hellquist & Hilton E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Ogden's Pondweed

perfoliatus L. S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

(Potamogeton perfoliatus L. var. bupleuroides (Fern.) Farw.)

Perfoliate Pondweed

praelongus Wulfen S4 N N * * * N N * * * * * * *

Whitestem-pondweed

pulcher Tuckerman S4 * * N N N N N N N N N * N N

Spotted Pondweed

pusillus S4 N * * * * N * * N * * * N N

Tiny Pondweed

richardsonii (Benn.) Rydb. S3? N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

Richardson's Pondweed

robbinsii Oakes S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Robbins Pondweed

×scoliophyllus Hagstr. SNR N N * N * * * * * * * * * *

(Potamogeton amplifolius × P. illinoensis)

×spathuliformis (Robbins) Morong SNR N * * * * N N * * * * * * *

(Potamogeton gramineus L. × P. illinoensis Morong)

spirillus Tuckerman S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Northern Snailseed-pondweed

strictifolius Benn. E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Straight-leaved Pondweed

vaseyi Robbins E S1 N N * * N N N * N * * * * *

(Potamogeton lateralis Morong, in part)

Vasey's Pondweed

zosteriformis Fern. S5 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

Flatstem-pondweed

Stuckenia

pectinata (L.) Boerner

(Potamogeton pectinatus L.)

Sago-pondweed

S4

N

N N N * N N * * N N N N N


76

Monocots

RUPPIACEAE

WIDGEON-GRASS FAMILY

Ruppia

maritima L.

Widgeon-grass

RUSCACEAE

BUTCHER'S BROOM FAMILY

Convallaria

majalis L.

Lily-of-the-valley

Maianthemum

canadense Desf.

Canada Mayflower

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4S5

SNA

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

I

N

* * * * N N N N N N N N N

I I I I I I I I I I I * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

racemosum (L.) Link ssp. racemosum S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf.)

False Solomon's Seal

stellatum (L.) Link S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Starry Solomon's Seal

trifolium (L.) Sloboda WL S3? N N N N N N N * N * N * * *

Three-leaved Solomon's Seal

Polygonatum

biflorum (Walt.) Ell.

(Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Ell. var. commutatum (Schultes f.)

Morong)

(Polygonum commutatum (Schultes f.) Dietr.)

Giant Solomon's Seal

S4

N

N N N I I * * I * I I * *

latifolium (Jacq.) Desf. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Broad-leaved Solomon's Seal

pubescens (Willd.) Pursh S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Solomon's Seal

SCHEUCHZERIACEAE

POD-GRASS FAMILY

Scheuchzeria

palustris L.

(Scheuchzeria palustris L. ssp. americana (Fern.) Hulten)

Pod-grass

SMILACACEAE

GEENBRIAR FAMILY

Smilax

glauca Walter

(Smilax glauca Walter var. leurophylla Blake)

Sawbrier

E

S1

S5

N

*

N N N N N N * N * * * * *

* N * N N * N N N N N N N

herbacea L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Carrion-flower

rotundifolia L. S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Common Greenbrier


Monocots

TYPHACEAE

CAT-TAIL FAMILY

Sparganium

americanum Nutt.

Common Bur-reed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

77

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

androcladum (Engelm.) Morong WL S3? * N N N N N N * N N * N N N

Shining Bur-reed

angustifolium Michaux WL S2S3 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

(Sparganium emersum Rehmann var. angustifolium (Michaux) Taylor

&

MacBryde)

(Sparganium emersum Rehmann var. multipedunculatum (Morong)

Reveal)

(Sparganium multipedunculatum (Morong) Rydb.)

Narrow-leaved Bur-reed

emersum Rehmann S4 N N N N N N N * N N N N * *

(Sparganium chlorocarpum Rydb.)

Green-fruited Bur-reed

eurycarpum Engelm. ex A. Gray S3? N * N N N N N N N N N N N N

Giant Bur-reed

fluctuans (Morong) Robinson WL S2S3 N N N * N N * * N * * * * *

Floating Bur-reed

natans L. E S1 N * N * N N N * * * * * * *

Typha

(Sparganium minimum (Hartman) Fries)

Small Bur-reed

angustifolia L.

Narrow-leaved Cat-tail

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

×glauca Godron SNR N N N N N N N N * * * N N N

(Typha angustifolia × T. latifolia)

latifolia L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Common Cat-tail

XYRIDACEAE

YELLOW-EYED GRASS FAMILY

Xyris

difformis Chapman var. difformis

(Xyris caroliniana, auct. non Walter)

Yellow-eyed Grass

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

montana Ries WL S2? N N N N N N * * * * * * * *

Northern Yellow-eyed Grass

smalliana Nash WL S3? *

* * * N N N * N N N N * *

(Xyris congdonii Small)

Quagmire Yellow-eyed Grass


78

Monocots

XYRIDACEAE

YELLOW-EYED GRASS FAMILY

Xyris

torta Small

Twisted Yellow-eyed Grass

ZANNICHELLIACEAE

HORNED PONDWEED

Zannichellia

palustris L.

(Zannichellia palustris L. var. major (Hartman) W.D.J. Koch)

Horned Pondweed

ZOSTERACEAE

EEL-GRASS FAMILY

Zostera

marina L.

(Zostera marina L. var. stenophylla Aschers. & Graebn.)

Eel-grass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

S4

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

*

* * N * N N * * N N N N N

N N * * N N N N N N N N N

* * * * N N N * * N N N N


Tricolpates

ACTINIDIACEAE

ACTINIDIA FAMILY

Actinidia

arguta (Sieb. & Zucc.) Planchon ex Miq.

Bower-actinidia

ADOXACEAE

MOSCHATEL FAMILY

Sambucus

nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli

(Sambucus canadensis L.)

Black Elderberry

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

N

79

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

racemosa L. S5 N N N N N N N * N * N * * *

(Sambucus racemosa L. ssp. pubens (Michaux) House)

Red-berried Elderberry

Viburnum

acerifolium L.

Maple-leaf Viburnum

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

dentatum L. var. lucidum Aiton S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Viburnum recognitum Fern.)

Northern Arrow-wood

dentatum L. var. venosum (Britton) Gleason S4? * * * * * * I? * * * * N N N

Southern Arrow-wood

dilatatum Thunb. SNA * * * * I I * * * * * * * *

Linden Arrow-wood

lantana L. SNA W * * * * * W * * * W * * *

Wayfaring Tree

lantanoides Michaux S5 N N N N N N N N N * N * * *

(Viburnum alnifolium Marsh.)

Witch-hobble; Hobblebush

lentago L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Nannyberry

nudum L. var. cassinoides (L.) Torrey & A.

Gray

(Viburnum cassinoides L.)

Wild Raisin

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

opulus L. ssp. opulus SNA I * I I I I I I I * I * * I

(Viburnum opulus L. var. opulus)

Guelder Rose, Snowball

opulus L. ssp. trilobum (Marsh.) Clausen S4 N N N N N N N * * * * * * *

(Viburnum opulus L. var. americanum Aiton)

(Viburnum trilobum Marsh.)

Highbush-cranberry


80

Tricolpates

ADOXACEAE

MOSCHATEL FAMILY

Viburnum

plicatum Thunb.

(Viburnum tomentosum Thunb.)

Japanese Snowball

rafinesquianum J.A. Schultes var.

rafinesquianum

Downy Arrow-wood

Status S-Rank

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * I * * * * I * * * * *

S1 N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

sieboldii Miq. SNA * * I * I * * * * I * * * *

Siebold's Viburnum

AIZOACEAE

FIG-MARIGOLD FAMILY

Tetragonia

tetragonioides (Pallas) Kuntze

New Zealand Spinach

AMARANTHACEAE

AMARANTH FAMILY

Alternanthera

pungens Kunth

albus L.

(Achyranthes repens L.)

(Alternanthera repens (L.) Link)

Khaki Joyweed

Amaranthus

Tumbleweed

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

I

* * * * * W * * * * W * W

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

I I I I I I I I I * I I I

blitoides S. Watson SNA I * * I I I I I I * I I I I

(Amaranthus graecizans, auct. non L.)

Tumbleweed

blitum L. ssp. emarginatus (Moq. ex Uline &

Bray) Carreter

(Amaranthus lividus L.)

Livid Amaranth

SNA I I I * * I * * * * * * * *

cannabinus (L.) Sauer S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N * *

(Acnida cannabinus L.)

Saltmarsh-hemp

caudatus L. SNA * * I * I I * I * * * * * *

Love-lies-bleeding

cruentus L. SNA * * * * * I I I I * * * * *

Purple-amaranth

deflexus L. SNA W * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Low Amaranth

hybridus L. SNA I

I I I I I I I I I I * * I

Green Amaranth


Tricolpates

AMARANTHACEAE

AMARANTH FAMILY

Amaranthus

hypochondriacus L.

Prince's Feather

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

81

I I * I I I * I * * * * *

macrocarpus Benth. var. macrocarpus SNA * * * * W * * * * * * * * *

Dwarf Amaranth

palmeri S. Watson SNA * * * * W W W * * * * * * *

Palmer's Amaranth

powellii S. Watson SNA I I I I I I I * I * I * * *

Powell's Amaranth

pumilus Raf. H SH * * * * * * * * * * * * N N

Seabeach-amaranth

retroflexus L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Redroot

spinosus L. SNA I I * I I I I I I * * * * *

Spiny Amaranth

tuberculatus (Moq. ex DC.) Sauer SNA I I * * I I I I I * * * * *

(Amaranthus rudis Sauer)

(Acnida altissima Riddell)

(Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer var. subnuda S. Watson)

Water-hemp

viridis L. SNA * * * * W * * W * * * * * *

(Amaranthus gracilis Desf.)

Slender Amaranth

Atriplex

acadiensis Tascher.

(Atriplex glabriuscula Edmondston var. acadiensis (Taschereau) S. L.

Welsh)

Maritime Orache

H

SH

*

* * * * * N * * * * * * *

cristata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Atriplex pentandra (Jacq.) Standley)

(Atriplex arenaria Nutt.)

Seabeach Orache

glabriuscula Edmonston WL S1S2 * * * * * * N N * N N N * N

Prostrate Orache

hortensis L. SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

Red Orache

littoralis L. S4 *

* * * * N N N N N N * * *

(Atriplex patula var. littoralis (L.) A. Gray)

Seaside Orache


82

Tricolpates

AMARANTHACEAE

AMARANTH FAMILY

Atriplex

patula L.

Orache

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I * I

prostrata Boucher ex DC. S4 * * * * N? N N N N N N N N N

(Atriplex patula L. var. hastata, auct. non (L.) A. Gray)

Halberd-leaf Orache

rosea L. SNA * * * * * * * W * * W * * *

Red Orache

sibirica L. SNA * * * * W * * * * * * * * *

(Obione muricata Gaertn.)

(Obione siberica (L.) Fisch.)

Siberian Saltbush

subspicata (Nutt.) Rydb. H SH * * * * * N * N * * N N * *

Axyris

(Atriplex patula var. subspicata (Nutt.) S. Watson)

Halberd-leaf Orache

amaranthoides L.

Bassia

Russian Pigweed

hirsuta (L.) Aschers.

Downy Seablite

SNA

SNA

*

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

* * * * I I I I I I I I I

hyssopifolia (Pallas) Volk . SNA * * * * W W * W * * * * * *

Beta

Hyssop Seablite

vulgaris L.

Beet

Chenopodium

album L.

(Chenopodium album L. var. missouriense (Aellen) Bassett &

Crompton)

(Chenopodium album L var. lanceolatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Coss. &

Germ.)

(Chenopodium missouriense Aellen)

Pigweed, Lamb's Quarters

berlandieri Moq. var. bushianum (Aellen)

Cronq.

(Chenopodium bushianum Aellen)

Country Pigweed

berlandieri Moq. var. macrocalycium

(Aellen) Cronq.

(Chenopodium macrocalycium Aellen)

Seabeach Pigweed

berlandieri Moq. var. zschackei (J. Murr) J.

Murr in Urban & Graebn.

(Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. ssp. zschackei (J. Murr) Zobel)

Berlandier's Goosefoot

SNA

SNA

*

I

* * * * * W W * * * * * W

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

SNA I * I I I I I I I I I I * *

S4 * * I * * N N N * N N N N N

SNA *

W * W W * * * * * * * * *


Tricolpates

AMARANTHACEAE

AMARANTH FAMILY

Chenopodium

bonus-henricus L.

Good King Henry

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

83

* * * I I I * * * * * * *

capitatum (L.) Aschers. var. capitatum SNA I * * * I I I * I * I * * *

Strawberry-blite

foggii Wahl E S1 N N * N * N * * * * * * * *

Fogg's Goosefoot

foliosum (Moench) Aschers. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Leafy Goosefoot

glaucum L. var. glaucum SNA I I I * I I I I I * I * I I

Oak-leaf Goosefoot

murale L. SNA * * I * I I I I I I I I * I

Sowbane

polyspermum L. var. acutiflorum (Sm.)

Gaud.

Many-seeded Goosefoot

SNA * * W * * * * * * * * * * *

pratericola Rydb. S4 * * * N * N N N * N N N N *

(Chenopodium desiccatum A. Nels. var. leptophylloides (J. Murr.)

H.A. Wahl)

White Pigweed

rubrum L. var. humile (Hooker) S. Wats. SNA * * * * * * * * * * * * * I

(Chenopodium humile Hooker)

Coast-blite

rubrum L. var. rubrum S5 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

Coast-blite

simplex (Torrey) Raf. WL S3? N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

(Chenopodium gigantospermum Aellen)

(Chenopodiumhybridum L. var. gigantospermum (Aellen) Rouleau)

Maple-leaf Goosefoot

standleyanum Aellen WL SNR * N * * * * N * * * * * * *

(Chenopodium hybridum L. var. standleyanum (Aellen) Fern.)

Woodland-goosefoot

strictum Roth ssp. glaucophyllum (Aellen)

Aellen & Just.

(Chenopodium strictum Roth var. glaucophyllum (Aellen) Wahl)

Glaucous Pigweed

SNA * * I I I I I I * I * * * *

urbicum L. SNA I

* I * I I I I * * I * * I

City-goosefoot


84

Tricolpates

AMARANTHACEAE

AMARANTH FAMILY

Cycloloma

atriplicifolium (Sprengel) Coulter

Winged Pigweed

Dysphania

ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants

(Chenopodium ambrosioides L.)

(Chenopodium ambrosoides L. var. anthelminticum (L.) Gray)

(Chenopodium anthelmiticum L.)

Wormseed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

I

* * * * * * * * * I I * *

I * I I I I I I I I I I I

botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants SNA I I I I I I I I I I I * * *

(Chenopodium botrys L.)

Jerusalem Oak

cristata (F. Muell.) Mosyakin & Clemants SNA * * * * W * * * * * * * * *

(Chenopodium cristatum (F. Muell.) F. Muell.)

(Blitum cristatum F. Muell.)

Crested Glandular-goosefoot

graveolens (Willd.) Mosyakin & Clemants SNA * * * * W W * * W * * * * *

(Chenopodium graveolens Willd.)

Fetid Pigweed

multifida (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants SNA * * * * W * * W * * * * * *

(Chenopodium multifidum L.)

(Roubieva multifidum (L.) Moq.)

Cut-leaved Goosefoot

pumilio (R. Br.) Mosyakin & Clemants SNA * I I I I I I * I * * I I *

(Chenopodium pumilio R. Br.)

(Chenopodium carinatum auct. non R. Br.)

Ridged Goosefoot

Froelichia

gracilis (Hooker) Moq.

Kochia

Slender Cottonweed

scoparia (L.) Schrader

Summer-cypress

Monolepis

nuttalliana (J.A. Schultes) Greene

Poverty-weed

Salicornia

ambigua Michaux

(Salicornia virginica, auct. non L.)

Perennial Glasswort

SNA

SNA

SNA

S5

*

I

*

*

I I I I I I * * * I * * *

I I I I I I I I I I * * *

* * * W * * * W * * * * *

* * * * * N N N N N N N N

bigelovii Torrey S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

Dwarf Glasswort or Saltwort

depressa Standl. S5 *

* * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Salicornia europaea, auct. non L.)

Common Glasswort or Saltwort


Tricolpates

AMARANTHACEAE

AMARANTH FAMILY

Salsola

collina Pallas

Steppe-saltwort

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

85

I * I I * * I * * * * * *

kali L. ssp. pontica (Pallas) Mosyakin S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Salsola caroliniana Walter)

(Salsola kali var. caroliniana (Walt.) Nutt)

Carolina Saltwort

kali L. ssp. kali S5 I * * * I N N N N N N N N N

Prickly Saltwort, Seabeach-saltwort

tragus L. SNA I I * I I I I I I * I I * I

(Salsola kali L. ssp. tragus (L.) Aellen)

(Salsola iberica Sennen & Pau)

(Salsola kali L. var. tenuifolia Tausch)

Russian Thistle

Spinacia

oleracea L.

Spinach

Suaeda

calceoliformis (Hooker) Moq.

(Suaeda americana (Pers.) Fern.)

American Sea-blite

SC

SNA

S2S3

*

*

* * * * W * W * * * * * W

* * * * N N N * N N N N N

linearis (Ell.) Moq. S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

Slender Sea-blite

maritima (L.) Dumort. ssp. maritima S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

Saltmarsh Sea-blite

maritima (L.) Dumort. ssp. richii (Fern.)

Bassett & Crompton

(Suaeda richii Fern.)

Rich's Sea-blite

ANACARDIACEAE

CASHEW FAMILY

Cotinus

coggygria Scop.

Rhus

Eurasian Smoketree

aromatica Aiton var. aromatica

Fragrant-sumac

WL

S2S3 * * * * * * N N * * N N * *

SNA

SNA

*

I

* I * I I I * * * * * * *

I * I I * * * * * * * * *

copallinum L. var. latifolia Engler S4S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Winged Sumac

glabra L. S4S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Rhus borealis Greene)

Smooth Sumac


86

Tricolpates

ANACARDIACEAE

CASHEW FAMILY

Rhus

hirta (L.) Sudworth

(Rhus typhina L.)

Staghorn-sumac

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

×pulvinata Greene SNR * N * * * * * * * * * N N *

(Rhus glabra × R. hirta)

(Rhus glabra L. var. borealis Britt., auct. non R. B. Greene)

Toxicodendron

radicans (L.) Kuntze ssp. radicans

(Rhus radicans L.)

Poison-ivy

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

rydbergii (Small ex Rydb.) Greene S4 N * * N N N N * N * * * * *

(Rhus radicans var. rydbergii (Small) Rehder)

Creeping Poison-ivy

vernix (L.) Kuntze S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Rhus vernix L.)

Poison-sumac

APIACEAE

PARSLEY FAMILY

Aegopodium

podagraria L.

Aethusa

Goutweed

cynapium L.

Fool's Parsley

Anethum

graveolens L.

Dill

Angelica

atropurpurea L.

Purplestem-angelica

Invasive

SNA

SNA

SNA

S4

I

I

*

N

I I I I I I * I * I I * I

* * * I I I I I I I * * I

* W * W W * * * * * * * W

N N N N N N * N * * * * *

lucida L. WL S2? * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Coelopleurum lucidum (L.) Fern.)

Seaside-angelica

venenosa (Greenway) Fern. H SH N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Angelica villosa (Walter) B.S.P.)

Hairy-angelica

Anthriscus

sylvestris (L.) Hoffmann

Apium

Chervil

graveolens L.

Celery

Likely

Invasive

SNA

SNA

I

*

I * * I * * I I * * I * *

* * * * * W * * * * * * *


APIACEAE

PARSLEY FAMILY

Aralia

elata (Miq.) Seem.

Tricolpates

Japanese Angelica Tree

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

87

* * * I * * * I * * I * *

hispida Vent. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Bristly Sarsaparilla

nudicaulis L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Wild Sarsaparilla

racemosa L. ssp. racemosa S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Spikenard

spinosa L. SNA * * I I * * * I I I * * * *

Astrantia

major L.

Hercules' Club

Greater Masterwort

CARROT FAMILY

Bupleurum

lancifolium Hornem.

(Bupleurum protractum Hoffm. & Link)

Lance-leaved Thorow Wax

PARSLEY FAMILY

SNA

SNA

*

*

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

* * * * I * I * * * * * *

odontites L. SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

(Bupleurum fontanesii Guss. ex Caruel)

Toothed Hare's Ear

rotundifolium L. SNA * * I * I * * * * * * * * *

Carum

carvi L.

Hare's Ear

Caraway

Caucalis

sp.

Cicuta

A bur-parsley

bulbifera L.

Bulblet Water-hemlock

SNA

SNA

S5

I

*

N

I I I I I I I I I * I * *

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

maculata L. var. maculata S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Water-hemlock

Conioselinum

chinense (L.) B.S.P.

Conium

Hemlock-parsley

maculatum L.

Poison-hemlock

SC

S2?

SNA

N

I

* * * N? * * * N? * N? * * *

* * I I I I I I I I * I I


88

APIACEAE

PARSLEY FAMILY

Coriandrum

sativum L.

Coriander

Cryptotaenia

Tricolpates

canadensis (L.) DC.

Honewort

Cuminum

cyminum L.

Cumin

Daucus

carota L.

Queen Anne's Lace

Eleutherococcus

pentaphyllus (Sieb. & Zucc.) Nakai

(Acanthopanax sieboldianus Makino)

Five-leaved Aralia

Eryngium

planum L .

Falcaria

(Aralia pentaphylla Sieb. & Zucc.)

Broad-leaved Eryngo

vulgaris Bernh.

Sickleweed

Foeniculum

vulgare P. Miller

Fennel

Hedera

helix L.

English Ivy

Heracleum

mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier

Giant Hogweed, Giant Cow-parsnip

Status S-Rank

Likely

Invasive

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S4

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N

*

I

*

*

I

*

*

*

* * * W * W W * W * * W W

N N N N N N N * N * N * *

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

* * I I * * * * * * * * *

* * * W * W * * * * * * W

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * W W * W * * * W

* * I I I * * * * * I I I

* I I * * * * * * * * * *

maximum Bartram S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Heracleum lanatum Michaux)

Cow-parsnip

sphondylium L. ssp. sibiricum (L.) Simonkai SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

Hogweed

Hydrocotyle

americana L.

Swamp-pennywort

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

umbellata L. S4 *

* * * * N N * N N N N N N

Water-pennywort


APIACEAE

PARSLEY FAMILY

Hydrocotyle

verticillata Thunb.

Tricolpates

Status S-Rank

(Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. var. triradiata (A. Richard) Fern.)

Saltpond Pennywort

Kalopanax

septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz.

(Acanthopanax ricinifolius (Sieb. & Zucc.) Seem.)

Castor-aralia

Levisticum

(Kalopanax pictus (Thunb.) Nakai)

officinale W.D.J. Koch

Lovage

Ligusticum

scothicum L.

Scotch Lovage

Lilaeopsis

chinensis (L.) Kuntze

Myrrhis

Lilaeopsis

odorata (L.) Scop.

(Scandix odorata L.)

Anise

Osmorhiza

claytonii (Michaux) C.B. Clarke

Sweet Cicely

T

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S2

SNA

SNA

S4

S2?

SNA

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

I

*

*

*

N

89

* * * * * * * * N * N N N

* * * I * * I I * * * * *

* * * * * I * * * * * * *

* * * * * N * N N N N N N

* * * * * N * N N N N * N

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

N N N N N * * * * * * * *

longistylis (Torrey) DC. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Panax

(Osmorhiza longistylis var. villicaulis Fern.)

Aniseroot

quinquefolius L.

American Ginseng

SC

S3

N

N N N N N * * * * * * * *

trifolius L. S4 N N N N N N N * N N N * * *

sativa L.

Dwarf Ginseng

Pastinaca

Field-parsnip

Petroselinum

crispum (P. Miller) Nyman ex A.W. Hill

Parsley

Peucedanum

palustre (L.) Moench

Milk-parsley

Pimpinella

anisum L.

Anise

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

I

*

*

*

I I I I I I I I I I I * I

* * * * * * * * * * * * W

* * * * I I * I * I I * *

* * * W * * W * * * * * *


90

APIACEAE

PARSLEY FAMILY

Pimpinella

Tricolpates

saxifraga L. ssp. saxifraga

Burnet-saxifrage

Ptilimnium

capillaceum (Michaux) Raf.

Sanicula

Mock Bishop's-weed

canadensis L. var. canadensis

Canadian Sanicle

Status S-Rank

T

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S4

S2

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

*

N

* * * I * * * * * * * I *

* * * * * * * * N N N N N

N * * * * * * * N N * N N

canadensis L. var. grandis Fern. H SH * N * * * * * * * * * * * *

marilandica L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N * N N N

Black Snakeroot

odorata (Raf.) Pryer & Phillippe T S2 N N N * * N N N * * * * * *

(Sanicula gregaria Bickn.)

Clustered Sanicle

trifoliata Bicknell WL S2S3 N N N N * * * * * * * * * *

Scandix

Trefoil Sanicle

pecten-veneris L.

Sium

Shepherd's Needle

suave Walter

Torilis

Water-parsnip

japonica (Houtt.) DC.

Japanese Hedge-parsley

SNA

S5

SNA

*

N

I

* * * * * W W * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

leptophylla (L.) Reichenb. f. SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

Zizia

Narrow-leaved Hedge-parsley

aurea (L.) Koch

Golden Alexanders

APOCYNACEAE

DOGBANE FAMILY

Amsonia

tabernaemontana Walter var.

tabernaemontana

Amsonia

Apocynum

androsaemifolium L.

Spreading Dogbane

S5

SNA

S5

N

*

N

N N N N N N N N N N * * I

* * W W * * W * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N


Tricolpates

APOCYNACEAE

DOGBANE FAMILY

Apocynum

cannabinum L.

(Apocynum cannabinum L. var. hypericifolium A. Gray)

(Apocynum sibiricum Jacq.)

(Apocynum sibiricum Jacq. var. cordigerum (Greene) Fern.)

Prairie-dogbane

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

91

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

×floribundum Greene S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Asclepias

(Apocynum androsaemifolium × A. cannabinum)

(A. ×medium Greene)

amplexicaulis J.E. Smith

Blunt-leaved Milkweed

S45

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

exaltata L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Poke-milkweed

incarnata L. ssp. incarnata S3S4 N N N N * * * * * * * * * *

Smooth Swamp-milkweed

incarnata L. ssp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.)

Woodson

Downy Swamp-milkweed

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

purpurascens L. E S1 N N N N N N N N N * * N N N

Purple Milkweed

quadrifolia Jacq. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Four-leaved Milkweed

syriaca L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Common Milkweed

tuberosa L. WL S4 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

Orange Milkweed

verticillata L. T S2 * N N N * N * N N N N N N *

Whorled Milkweed

Cynanchum

louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi

(Cynanchum nigrum (L.) Pers.)

(Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench)

Black Swallow-wort

Invasive

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I * *

rossicum (Kleopov) Borhidi Likely

Invasive

SNA * * I I I I * * I * * * * *

Vinca

(Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleo.) Barb.)

Pale Swallow-wort

herbacea Waldst. & Kit.

Herbaceous Periwinkle

SNA

*

W * * * * * * * * * * * *


92

Tricolpates

APOCYNACEAE

DOGBANE FAMILY

Vinca

major L.

Greater Periwinkle

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

minor L. SNA I I I I I I I * I I I I * I

Periwinkle

AQUIFOLIACEAE

Ilex

HOLLY FAMILY

aquifolium L.

English Holly

SNA

*

* * * * I * * * * * * * *

glabra (L.) A. Gray S4 * * * * * * N * N N N N N N

Inkberry

laevigata (Pursh) A. Gray S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Smooth Winterberry

montana Torrey & A. Gray ex A. Gray E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Big-leaved Holly, Mountain Holly

mucronata (L.) M. Powell, Savol., & S.

Andrews

(Nemopanthus mucronatus (L.) Loes.)

Mountain-holly

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

opaca Aiton var. opaca S4 * * * N * * N * N N N N N N

American Holly

verticillata (L.) A. Gray S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray var. tenuifolia (Torrey) S. Watson)

Winterberry

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Acanthospermum

australe (Loefl.) Kuntze

Achillea

Paraguay Greenstripe

millefolium L. ssp. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper

(Achillea millefolium L. var. occidentalis DC.)

(Achillea millefolium L. var. borealis (Bong.) Farw.)

(Achillea borealis Bong.)

Seaside-yarrow

WL

SNA

S3S4

*

*

* * * W * W W * * * * * *

I * * * I N N N N * N N N

millefolium L. ssp. millefolium SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Yarrow

ptarmica L. SNA I

* * * I I I I * I I I * *

Sneezeweed


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Ageratina

altissima (L.) King & H.E. Robinson

(Eupatorium rugosum Houtt.)

White Snakeroot

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

93

N N N N N N N N N I I I *

aromatica (L.) Spach E S1 * * * * * N * N N N N N N N

(Eupatorium aromaticum L.)

Lesser Snakeroot

Ageratum

houstonianum P. Miller

Houston's Ageratum

Ambrosia

artemisiifolia L.

(Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. elatior (L.) Descourtils)

(Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. paniculata (Michaux) Blankinship)

Ragweed

SNA

S5

*

N

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

psilostachya DC. SNA * * I * * * * I * * * I I I

(Ambrosia coronopifolia Torrey & A. Gray)

(Ambrosia psilostachya DC. var. coronopifolia (Torrey & A. Gray)

Farw.)

Western Ragweed

trifida L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * * I

Giant Ragweed

Anaphalis

margaritacea (L.) Bentham & Hooker f.

(Gnaphalium margaritaceum L.)

Pearly Everlasting

Antennaria

howellii Greene ssp. canadensis (Greene)

Bayer

(Antennaria canadensis Greene)

Canadian Pussytoes

howellii Greene ssp. petaloidea (Fern.)

Bayer

(Antennaria neodioica Greene ssp. petaloidea (Fern.) Bayer &

Stebbins)

(Antennaria petlaoidea Fern.)

Field-pussytoes

S5

S5

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

S5 N N N * N N N * N N N N * N

neglecta Greene S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Pussytoes

howellii Greene ssp. neodioica (Greene)

Bayer

(Antennaria neodioica Greene var. grandis Fern.)

(Antennaria neodioica Greene var. chlorophylla Fern.)

(Antennaria neodioica Greene var. attenuata Fern.)

Greene's Pussytoes

S5 N N N * N N N * N N N N N N


94

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Antennaria

parlinii Fern. ssp. fallax (Greene) Bayer &

Stebbins

(Antennaria fallax Greene)

(Antennaria brainerdii Fern.)

(Antennaria munda Fern.)

Broad-leaved Pussytoes

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * N

parlinii Fern. ssp. parlinii S4 N N N N N N N N N N * * * *

(Antennaria arnoglossa Greene)

(Antennaria parlinii Fern var. arnoglossa (Greene) Fern.)

(Antennaria parlinii Fern. var. arnoglossa (Greene) Fern.)

Smooth Pussytoes, Parlin's Pussytoes

plantaginifolia (L.) Richardson S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Plantain-leaved Pussytoes

Anthemis

arvensis L.

(Anthemis arvensis L. var. agrestis (Wallr.) DC.)

Dog-chamomile; corn-camomile

SNA

*

I I I * I I I I I I I * I

cotula L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Arctium

lappa L.

Mayweed

Great Burdock

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I * I * * *

minus Bernh. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Common Burdock

tomentosum P. Miller SNA W * * * * W * * * * * * * W

Arctotis

Woolly Burdock

stoechadifolia Berg.

(Arctotis grandis Thunb.)

(Arctotis stoechadifolia var. grandis (Thunb.) Less.)

Silver Arctotis

Artemisia

abrotanum L.

Southernwood

SNA

SNA

*

*

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

* * * * W W * * * * * * *

absinthium L. SNA I * I * I I I I I I I I * I

Absinthe

annua L. SNA * * I * I * I I I I * I * I

Annual Wormwood

biennis Willd. SNA I

* * I I I I I I * * * * *

Sageweed


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Artemisia

campestris L. ssp. caudata (Michaux) Hall &

Clements

Tall Wormwood

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

95

N? * N? * N N N * N N N N N

dracunculus L. SNA * * * * W * W * * * * * * *

Terragon

frigida Willd. SNA * * * * W W * * * * * * * *

Prairie-sagewort

ludoviciana Nutt. ssp. ludoviciana SNA I I I I I I I * * * * * * *

White Sage

pontica L . SNA * * * * I I I * * * * I * *

Roman Wormwood

stelleriana Besser SNA * * * * I I I I * I I I I I

Dusty Miller

tridentata Nutt. ssp. tridentata SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Sagebrush

vulgaris L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I * I

Mugwort

Aster

tataricus L. f.

Tartarian Aster

Baccharis

halimifolia L.

Groundsel-tree

Balsamita

major Desf.

Bellis

(Chrysanthemum balsamita (L.) Baillon)

Costmary

perennis L.

Bidens

(Tanacetum balsamita L.)

English Daisy

alba (L.) DC.

(Bidens alba (L.) DC. var. radiata (Schultz-Bip.) Ballard ex T.E.

Melchert)

(Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Schultz-Bip.)

Bur-marigold

SNA

S4

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

*

I

*

* * * * * * * W * * * * *

* * * * N * N N N N N N N

* * * * W W * * * * W * W

* * * * I * * I * I * * I

* * * W W * * * * * * * *

aristosa (Michaux) Britton SNA *

* * * W W * W * * * * * *

(Bidens aristosa (Michaux) Britton var. mutica A. Gray Gattinger)

Bearded Bur-marigold


96

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Bidens

beckii Torrey ex Sprengel

(Megalodonta beckii (Torrey ex Sprengel) Greene)

Water-marigold

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S2

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

* N N N N N N N N * * * *

bipinnata L. SNA * * * * * I * I I * * * * *

Spanish Needles

cernua L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

Nodding Bur-marigold

connata Muhl. ex Willd. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Swamp Beggar-ticks

discoidea (Torrey & A. Gray) Britton S4 * N N N N N N N N * N N N *

Small Beggar-ticks

eatonii Fern. E S1 * * * * * * N * * N * * * *

Eaton's Beggar-ticks

frondosa L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Devil's Pitchforks

hyperborea Greene E S1 * * * * * * N * * * N * * *

(Bidens hyperborea Greene var. colpophila (Fern. & St. John) Fern.)

Estuary Beggar-ticks

laevis (L.) B.S.P. S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N * *

Smooth Bur-marigold

×multiceps Fassett SNR * * * * * * * * * N * * * *

(Bidens connta × B. eatonii)

polylepis Blake SNA * * * * I * * * * * * * * *

(Bidens involucrata (Nutt.) Britt.)

(Bidens polylepis Blake var. retrorsa Sherff)

(Coreopsis involucrata Nutt.)

Ozark Beggars-ticks

tenuisecta A. Gray SNA * * * * W * * * * * * * * *

Cut-leaved Beggar-ticks

trichosperma (Michaux) Britton S3S4 * * * * N N N N N N N N * *

(Bidens coronata (L.) Britton)

Northern Tickseed-sunflower

tripartita L. SNA I I I I I I I I I * * * * *

(Bidens comosa (A. Gray) Wiegand)

Leafy-bracted Beggar-ticks

vulgata Greene S5 N

N N N N N N N N * N * * N

Tall Beggar-ticks


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Boltonia

asteroides (L.) L'Her var. latisquama (A.

Gray) Cronq.

False Aster

asteroides (L.) L'Her var. recognita (Fern. &

Griscom) Cronq.

White Dolls-daisy

Calendula

officinalis L.

Pot-marigold

Callistephus

chinensis Nees

Calotis

China Aster

cuneifolia R. Br.

Carduus

Wedge-leaf Calotis

acanthoides L. ssp. acanthoides

Spiny Plumeless-thistle

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

97

* W * W * * * * * * * * *

SNA I * * * I I * I * I * * * *

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

*

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

* * I * * * * * * * * * *

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

nutans L. SNA * I * * * I * * I * I I * *

Nodding Thistle

Carthamus

lanatus L.

Woolly Safflower

SNA

*

* W * * * * * * * * * * *

tinctorius L. SNA * * * W * * * * * * * W * *

Safflower

Centaurea

benedicta (L.) L.

(Cnicus benedictus L.)

Blessed Thistle

SNA

*

* * * * W W * * * * * * *

cyanus L. SNA I * * I I I I I I I I I * I

Bachelor's Button

diffusa Lam. SNA * * I * I * I I I * * * * *

Spreading Star-thistle

jacea L. SNA I * I I I I I * * I I I * I

(Centaurea ×debeauxii Gren. & Godr. ssp. thuillieri Dostal)

Brown Knapweed

melitensis L. SNA * * * * * * * W W * * * * *

Maltese Star-thistle

×moncktonii C. E. Britton SNA * * * * * * I * * I I I I I

(Centaurea jacea × C. nigra)

(Centaurea pratensis, auct. non Thuill.)


98

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Centaurea

nigra L.

(Centaurea nigra L. var. radiata DC.)

Black Knapweed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I * *

nigrescens Willd. SNA * * * * * I I * * I * I I *

(Centaurea vochinensis Bernh. ex Reichenb.)

(Centaurea transalpina Schleicher ex DC.)

Wocheiner Knapweed

solstitialis L. SNA * * * * W * W * * * * * * *

Yellow Star-thistle

stoebe L. ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek Likely

Invasive

SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Centaurea biebersteinii DC.)

(Centaurea maculosa, auct. non Lam.)

Spotted Knapweed

Chaenactis

glabriuscula DC. var. glabriuscula

Pebble-pincushion

Chrysanthemum

morifolium Ramat.

(Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvelev)

Florist's Chrysanthemum

Cichorium

intybus L.

Chicory

Cirsium

arvense (L.) Scop.

(Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. var. integrifolium Wimmer & Grab.)

(Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. var. mite Wimmer & Grab.)

Canada Thistle

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

I

I

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * W * * * * * * W * *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

discolor (Muhl. ex Willd.) Sprengel S5 N N N N * N N N N N N N N N

Field-thistle

horridulum Michaux var. horridulum WL S2S3 * * * * N N N N * N N N N N

Yellow Thistle

muticum Michaux S4? N N N N N N N * N N N N * *

Swamp-thistle

palustre (L.) Scop. SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

Marsh-thistle

pumilum (Nutt.) Sprengel var. pumilum S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Pasture-thistle

vulgare (Savi) Tenore SNA I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Bull-thistle


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Coreopsis

lanceolata L.

Lanceleaf-tickseed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

99

I * I I I I I I I I I I I

major Walter SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

(Coreopsis major Walter var. stellata (Nutt.) B.L. Robinson)

Trefoil-tickseed

palmata Nutt. SNA * * * * I * * * * * * * * *

Prairie Tickseed

pubescens Ell. SNA * * * W * * * * * * * W * *

(Coreopsis pubescens Ell. var. robusta A. Gray ex Eames)

Hairy Tickseed

rosea Nutt. WL S3 * * * * * N * * N N N N N *

Pink Tickseed

tinctoria Nutt. SNA I * I I I I I * * * * * I I

Plains-tickseed

tripteris L. SNA * * * * * * * W * W * * * *

Tall Tickseed

verticillata L. SNA * * * I * * * * I * * * * *

Cosmos

Whorled Tickseed

bipinnatus Cav.

Cosmos

SNA

*

* * * W W W W * * * * * *

parviflorus (Jacq.) Pers. SNA * * * * W W W * * * * * * *

Small-flowered Cosmos

sulphureus Cav. SNA * * * * W * * * * * * * * *

Cota

Orange Cosmos

tinctoria (L.) J. Gay

Cotula

(Anthemis tinctoria L.)

Yellow Chamomile

coronopifolia L.

Crepis

Brass-buttons

capillaris (L.) Wallr.

Smooth Hawk's Beard

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

I

I I I I I I I I * I I * I

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

I I I I I * * I * I I I I

foetida L. SNA *

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

Fetid Hawk's Beard


100

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Crepis

nicaeensis Balbis ex Pers.

Turkish Hawk’s-beard

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * * * * * * * W * *

tectorum L. SNA * * I I I I * * * * * * * *

Crupina

Narrow-leaved Hawk's Beard

vulgaris Cass.

False Saw-wort

Cyclachaena

xanthifolia (Nutt.) Fresen.

(Iva xanthifolia Nutt.)

Big Marsh-elder

Doellingeria

infirma (Michaux) Greene

(Aster infirmus Michaux)

Cornel-leaf Flat-topped Aster

E

SNA

SNA

S1

*

*

*

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

* I * I I I * I * * * * I

* * N * N * * * * * * * *

umbellata (P. Mill.) Nees var. umbellata S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Aster umbellatus P. Mill.)

Tall Flat-topped White Aster

Doronicum

pardalianches L.

Great Leopard's Bane

Dyssodia

papposa (Vent.) A.S. Hitchcock

Fetid Marigold

Echinacea

pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.

Pale-purple Coneflower

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

*

* * * I * * I I * * * * *

* * * W * * * W * * * * *

* * * * * * * W * * W W *

purpurea (L.) Moench SNA * * * I * * * * * * * * * *

Purple Coneflower

Echinops

sphaerocephalus L.

Eclipta

Globe-thistle

prostrata (L.) L.

(Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk.)

Yerba de Tajo; False Daisy

Erechtites

hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC. var.

hieracifolius

Pilewort, Fireweed

hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC. var.

megalocarpus (Fern.) Cronq.

(Erechtites megalocarpus Fern.)

Seaside Pilewort

WL

SNA

SNA

S5

*

*

N

I I * I I I I I * * * * I

* * * * * * W W W * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

S2S3 *

* * * * * * * * * N N N *


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Erigeron

annuus (L.) Pers.

Daisy-fleabane

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

101

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

canadensis L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.)

(Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. var. pusilla (Nutt.) Cronq.)

(Conyza onyzaparva Cronq.)

Horseweed, Hogweed, Butterweed

philadelphicus L. var. philadelphicus S5 N N N N N N N * N N N * * I

Philadelphia Fleabane

pulchellus Michaux var. pulchellus S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Robin's Plantain

strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. var. septentrionalis

(Fern. & Wiegand) Fern.

Rough Fleabane

SNR * * * N * * * * * * * N * *

strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. var. strigosus S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Euchiton

(Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. var. beyrichii (Fischer & C. Meyer)

Torrey & A. Gray)

(Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. var. discoideus Robbins ex A.

Gray)

Rough Fleabane, Lesser Daisy-fleabane

involucratus (G. Forst.) Holub

(Gnaphalium involucratum G. Forst.)

Common Creeping Cudweed

Eupatorium

altissimum L.

Tall Boneset

SNA

SNA

*

*

* W * * * * * * * * * * *

* * I I I * * * I * * * *

hyssopifolium L. S4? * * * * * * * * * N N N N N

(Eupatorium hyssopifolium L. var. calcaratum Fern. & Schub.)

Hyssop-leaved Boneset

novae-angliae (Fern.) V. Sullivan ex A.

Haines & Sorrie

(Eupatorium leucolepis (DC.) Torrey & A. Gray var. novae-angliae

Fern.)

New England-boneset

E

S1 * * * * * * * * * * N N * *

perfoliatum L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Boneset

pilosum Walter S5 * * N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Eupatorium pilosum Walter rotundifolium var. saundersii (Porter)

Cronq.)

Rough Boneset

pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. S4? *

N N N N N N * N N N N * N

(Eupatorium rotundifolium L. var. ovatum (Bigelow) Torrey)

Hairy Boneset


102

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Eupatorium

rotundifolium L.

Round-leaved Boneset

Status S-Rank

H

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SH

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * * N * * * * * * *

serotinum Michaux SNA * * * W * W * W * * W * * *

Late Boneset

sessilifolium L. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Eurybia

(Eupatorium sessilifolium L. var. brittonianum Porter)

Upland Boneset

divaricata (L.) Nesom

(Aster divaricatus (Nutt.) Torrey & A. Gray)

White Wood-aster

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

×herveyi (A. Gray) Nesom SNR * * * * * * * N N N N * * *

(Eurybia macrophylla × E. spectabilis)

(Aster ×herveyi A. Gray)

Cartpath-aster

macrophylla (L.) Cass. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

(Aster macrophyllus L.)

Big-leaved Aster

radula (Aiton) Nesom WL S1S2 * * * * N N N N N N N * * *

(Aster radula Aiton)

Rough Aster

schreberi (Nees) Nees S4? N N N N * N * * * * * * * *

(Aster schreberi Nees)

(Aster glomeratus (Bernh. ex Nees) Burgess)

(Aster macrophyllus var. schreberi (Nees) Seymour)

Schreber's Aster

spectabilis (Aiton) Nesom S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Aster spectabilis Aiton)

Showy Aster

Euthamia

caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Britton

(Euthamia tenuifolia (Pursh) Nutt.)

(Solidago tenuifolia Pursh)

(Solidago microcephala (Greene) Bush)

Slender-leaved Flat-topped Goldenrod

S5

*

* * N N N N N N N N N N N

graminifolia (L.) Nutt. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb.)

(Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. var. nuttallii (Greene) Stone)

(Solidago graminifolia var. nuttallii (Greene) Fern.)

Grass-leaf Flat-topped Goldenrod, Common Flattopp

Eutrochium

dubium (Willd. ex Poir.) E.E. Lamont

(Eupatorium dubium Willd. ex Poiret)

Atlantic Joe-Pye-weed

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Eutrochium

fistulosum (Barratt) E.E. Lamont

(Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt)

Hollow-stemmed Joe-Pye-weed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

103

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N * N N N N * *

maculatum (L.) E.E. Lamont var. maculatum S4 N N N N N N * N * * * * * *

(Eupatorium maculatum L.)

Spotted Joe-Pye-weed

purpureum (L.) E.E. Lamont var. purpureum S4 N N N N N N * N N * N * * *

Filago

(Eupatorium purpureum L.)

Sweet Joe-Pye-weed

vulgaris Lam.

Flaveria

((location of this waif is uncertain))

Common Cotton-rose

trinervia (Sprengel) C. Mohr

Yellowtops

Gaillardia

aristata Pursh

Perennial Gaillardia

SNA

SNA

SNA

?

*

W

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * W * * *

pulchella Foug. SNA * * * * W * * * * * * * * *

Rose-ring Gaillardia

Galinsoga

parviflora Cav.

Quickweed

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I * I I * *

quadriradiata Ruiz & Pavón SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Galinsoga bicolorata St. John & White)

(Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) Blake)

(Galinsoga caracasana (DC.) Schultz-Bip.)

Hairy Quickweed

Gamochaeta

pensylvanica (Willd.) Cabrera

Pennsylvania cudweed

SNA

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

purpurea (L.) Cabrera E S1 * * * * * I * * * N N N N N

Purple Cudweed

Glebionis

carinata (Schousb.) Tzvelev

(Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.)

Tricolor Daisy

SNA

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

coronaria (L.) Cass. ex Spach SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

(Chrysanthemum coronarium L.)

Garland-chrysanthemum

segetum (L.) Fourr. SNA *

* * * * * * * * * W * * *

(Chrysanthemum segetum L.)

Corn-marigold


104

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Gnaphalium

uliginosum L.

Low Cudweed

Grindelia

squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal

Guizotia

Gumweed

abyssinica (L. f.) Cass.

Niger

Helenium

amarum (Raf.) Rock var. amarum

(Helenium tenuifolium Nutt.)

Fine-leaved Sneezeweed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

SNA

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

*

*

*

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

* * * W W * W * * * W * *

W * * W * W * * * * * * *

* * * I I I I * * * * * *

autumnale L. WL S3? N * * N? N? I I * * I * * * I

(Helenium autumnale L. var. canaliculatum (Lam.) Torrey & A. Gray)

Common Sneezeweed

flexuosum Raf. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I *

(Helenium nudiflorum Nutt.)

Purple-headed Sneezeweed

Helianthus

annuus L.

Common Sunflower

debilis Nutt. ssp. cucumerifolius (Torrey &

A. Gray) Heiser

Cucumber-leaf Sunflower

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

SNA * * * * * * W W * * * W * *

decapetalus L. S4 N N N N N N N I? * * * * * *

Thin-leaved Sunflower

divaricatus L. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Divaricate Sunflower

giganteus L. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Giant Sunflower

grosseserratus Martens SNA I * * I I * * * I * I I * *

Saw-toothed Sunflower

×intermedius R.W Long SNR * * * * W * * * * * * * * *

(Helianthus grosseserratus × H. maximiliani)

×kellermanii Britton SNA W * * * W * * * * * * * * *

(Helianthus grosseserratus × H. salicifolius)

Kellerman's Sunflower

×laetiflorus Pers. SNA I

I I I I * * I I * I * * *

(Helianthus pauciflorus × H. tuberosus)

Showy Sunflower


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Helianthus

maximiliani Schrader

(Helianthus dalyi Britton)

Maximilian's Sunflower

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

105

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

mollis Lam. SNA I I * * I I * * * I * I * *

Ashy Sunflower

pauciflorus Nutt. ssp. pauciflorus SNA * * * * * W * * W * * * * *

(Helianthus rigidus (Cass.) Desf.)

(Helianthus laetiflorus Pers. var. rigidus (Cass.) Fern.)

Stiff Sunflower

pauciflorus Nutt. ssp. subrhomboideus

(Rydb.) O. Spring and E. Schilling

(Helianthus rigidus (Cass.) Desf. ssp. subrhomboideus (Rydb.)

Heiser)

(Helianthus laetiflorus var. subrhomboideus (Rydb.) Fern.)

Rhombic-leaved Sunflower

SNA * * * * * * * * * * * W * *

petiolaris Nutt. ssp. petiolaris SNA * * I I I I * * I * * I * I

Prairie Sunflower

strumosus L. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Harsh Sunflower

tuberosus L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I * I

Jerusalem Artichoke

Heliomeris

multiflora Nutt. var. multiflora

(Gymnolomia multiflora (Nutt.) Benth. & Hooker f.)

Showy False Goldeneye

Heliopsis

helianthoides (L.) Sweet var. helianthoides

Oxeye, False Sunflower

helianthoides (L.) Sweet var. scabra (Dunal)

Fern.

(Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet ssp. scabra Dunal Fischer)

Rough Oxeye

Helminthotheca

echioides (L.) Holub

(Picris echioides L.)

Bristly Oxtongue

Hemizonia

fasciculata (DC.) Torrey & A. Gray

Fascicled Tarweed

Heterosperma

pinnatum Cav.

Fine-leaved Heterosperma

SNA

SNA

*

W

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

* * * W * * W * * * W * *

SNA I I I I I I * * I I * * * I

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

*

* * W * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * W * * * * * * * * *


106

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Hieracium

aurantiacum L.

Orange Hawkweed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I * I

caespitosum Dumort. SNA I I I I I I I I I I * I * *

(Hieracium pratense Tausch)

King-devil

×fernaldii Lepage SNR * * * * * * * * * * * * N *

(Hieracium kalmii × H. scabrum)

(Hieracium canadense var. hirtirameum Fern.)

flagellare Willd. SNA * I I * I I * I I I I * I *

(Pilosella flagellaris (Willd.) P.D. Sell & C. West)

Whip-hawkweed

×floribundum Wimmer & Grab. SNA I I I I I I I * I * * * * *

(Hieracium caespitosum × H. lactucella)

King-devil

gronovii L. S4 * N * N * * * * * N N N N N

Hairy Hawkweed

lachenalii K.C. Gmelin SNA * I I * * I I I I * I * * *

(Hieracium vulgatum Fries)

European Hawkweed

×marianum Willd. SNR * N N * * N * N N * N N * N

(Hieracium gronovii × H. venosum)

Maryland Hawkweed

murorum L. SNA I * I * I * * * I * * * * *

Golden Lungwort

paniculatum L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Panicled Hawkweed

pilosella L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I * I

Mouse-ear Hawkweed

piloselloides Vill. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Hieracium florentinum All.)

Smooth Hawkweed

praealtum Vill. ex Gochnat SNA * W * * * * W * * * * * * *

(Hieracium praealtum Vill. ex Gochnat var. decipiens W.D.J. Koch)

Stellate Hawkweed

sabaudum L. SNA * * * * * I I I I I * * * *

Savoy Hawkweed

scabrum Michaux S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Rough Hawkweed


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Hieracium

umbellatum L.

(Hieracium canadense Michaux)

(Hieracium canadense Michaux var. fasciculatum (Pursh) Fern.)

(Hieracium kalmii L.)

Canada Hawkweed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

107

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

venosum L. N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

glabra L.

(Hieracium venosum L. var. nudicaule (Michaux) Farw.)

Rattlesnake Weed

Hypochaeris

Smooth Cat's Ear

SNA

*

* * * W W * * * * * * * *

radicata L. SNA I I I I I I * * I I I I I I

Inula

Spotted Cat's Ear

helenium L.

Elecampane

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

salicina L. SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

Ionactis

Willow-leaved Yellowhead

linariifolia (L.) Greene

Iva

annua L.

(Aster linariifolius L.)

Stiff Aster

(Iva ciliata Willd.)

Rough Marsh-elder

S5

SNA

N

*

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

frutescens (Bartlett) R.C. Jackson S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Iva frutescens (Bartlett) R.C. Jackson ssp. oraria)

Hightide-bush

Jacobaea

vulgaris Gaertner

Krigia

(Senecio jacobaea L.)

Tansy-ragwort

virginica (L.) Willd.

Lactuca

Dwarf Dandelion

biennis (Moench) Fern.

Blue Wild Lettuce

Likely

Invasive

SNA

S5

S5

*

N

N

* * * I * I I * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

canadensis L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Lactuca canadensis L. var. latifolia Kuntze)

(Lactuca canadensis L. var. longifolia (Michaux) Farw.)

(Lactuca canadensis L. var. obovata Wiegand)

Yellow Wild Lettuce


108

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Lactuca

hirsuta Muhl. ex Nutt.

Status S-Rank

WL

(Lactuca hirsuta Muhl. ex Nutt. var. sanguinea (Bigelow) Fern.)

Hairy Wild Lettuce

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S2S3

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N * * N N N * N * * N N N

×morssii B.L. Robinson SNR * N * * * N * N * * N N * *

(Lactuca biennis × L. canadensis)

Morss's Wild Lettuce

sativa L. SNA W * W * * W * * W * * * W *

Garden-lettuce

serriola L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I * *

Lapsana

(Lactuca scariola L.)

Prickly Lettuce

communis L.

Nipplewort

Lasthenia

californica DC. ex Lindley

(Baeria chrysostoma Fischer & C.A. Meyer)

Goldfields

SNA

SNA

I

*

* I * I I I I I * * * * *

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

minor (DC.) Ornduff SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Layia

Woolly Lasthenia

platyglossa (Fischer & C.A. Meyer) A. Gray

Tidytips

Leontodon

saxatilis Lam. ssp. saxatilis

(Leontodon taraxacoides (Vill.) Mérat)

(Leontodon leysseri (Wallr.) G. Beck)

Little Fall-dandelion

Leucanthemum

vulgare Lam.

Liatris

(Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.)

(Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. var. pinnatifidum Lecoq &

Lamotte)

Oxeye-daisy

pycnostachya Michaux var. pycnostachya

Gayfeather

scariosa (L.) Willd. var. novae-angliae

(Lunell) Gandhi, S.M. Young, & P. Somers

(Liatris borealis Nutt.)

(Liatris novae-angliae (Lunell) Shinners)

New England Blazing-star

SC

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

I

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

I * * I * * * I I I * I *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

* * * * I I * I * * * * *

S3 * N N N N N N N N N N N N N

spicata (L.) Willd. var. spicata SNA *

* * * W W W * * * W * * *

Spiked Blazing-star


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Logfia

minima (Sm.) Durmort.

Madia

(Filago minima (Sm.) Pers.)

(Gnaphalium minimum Sm.)

Little Cotton-rose

sativa Molina

(Madia sativa var. congesta Torrey & A. Gray)

Large-headed Coast-madia

Matricaria

(Madia capitata Nutt.)

chamomilla L.

(Matricaria recutita L.)

(Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert)

Wild Chamomile

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

SNA

109

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

I

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * W W * * W * W * * *

* I * * I I * * * * * * *

discoidea DC. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Matricaria matricarioides, auct. non (Less.) Porter)

Pineapple-weed

Microseris

douglasii (DC.) Schultz-Bip.

Mikania

Douglas's Microseris

scandens (L.) Willd.

Mycelis

Climbing Hempweed

muralis (L.) Dumort.

Nabalus

Wall-lettuce

albus (L.) Hooker

(Prenanthes alba L.)

White Lettuce

WL

SNA

S4

SNA

SNR

*

*

I

N

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* N N N N N N N N N N N N

* * * * I * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N * * * * *

altissimus (L.) Hooker S4S5 N N N N N N N * N N * * * *

(Prenanthes altissima L.)

Slender Rattlesnake-root

serpentarius (Pursh) Hooker E S1 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

(Prenanthes serpentaria Pursh)

Lion's Foot

trifoliolatus Cass. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Prenanthes trifoliolata (Cass.) Fern.)

Gall-of-the-earth

Oclemena

acuminata (Michaux) Nesom

(Aster acuminatus Michaux)

Whorled Wood-aster

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * N

×blakei (Porter) Nesom SNR *

* * * N N N * * * N * * *

(Aster ×blakei (Porter) House)

Blake's Aster


110

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Oclemena

nemoralis (Aiton) Greene

(Aster nemoralis Aiton)

Bog-aster

Oligoneuron

album (Nutt.) Nesom

(Solidago ptarmicoides (Nees) Boivin)

(Aster ptarmicoides (Nees) Torrey & A. Gray)

Upland White Goldenrod

Status S-Rank

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

S1

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

* * * N N N * N N * N * *

N N N * * * * * I * * * *

rigidum (L.) Small var. rigidum H SH N * I? * * * * * * * * * * I?

(Solidago rigida L.)

Stiff Goldenrod

Onopordum

acanthium L. ssp. acanthium

Packera

Scotch Thistle

aurea (L.) A. & D. Löve

(Senecio aureus L.)

Golden Ragwort

obovata (Muhl. ex Willd.) W.A. Weber & A.

Löve

(Senecio obovatus Muhl. ex Willd.)

Broad-leaved Ragwort

SNA

S5

I

N

* I I I I I I * I I * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N * N

S4 N N N N N N N * N * * * * *

paupercula (Michaux) W.A. Weber & A. Löve S4 N N N N * N N * N * N * * *

(Senecio pauperculus Michaux)

Balsam-ragwort

Palafoxia

texana DC.

Texas Palafoxia

Parthenium

hysterophorus L.

Santa Maria

SNA

SNA

*

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * W W * * * * * * * *

integrifolium L. SNA * W * * W * * * * * * * * *

Perezia

Wild Quinine

multiflora (Humb. & Bonpl.) ssp. sonchifolia

(Baker) Vuill.

(Perezia aletes Macbride)

Perezia

Petasites

(Perezia sonchifolia Baker)

frigidus (L.) Fries var. palmatus (Aiton)

Cronq.

(Petasites palmatus (Aiton) A. Gray)

Sweet Colt's Foot

E

SNA

S1

*

N

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

N N * N * * * N * * * * *

hybridus (L.) Gaertner, B. Meyer, & Scherb. SNA *

* I I I * I I I * * * * *

Butterbur


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Picris

hieracioides L.

Hawkweed Oxtongue

Pityopsis

falcata (Pursh) Nutt.

Pluchea

(Chrysopsis falcata (Pursh) Ell.)

(Heterotheca falcata (Pursh) Harms)

Sickle-leaved Golden-aster

odorata (L.) Cass. var. succulenta (Fern.)

Cronq.

(Pluchea purpurascens (Sw.) DC. var. succulenta Fern.)

Saltmarsh-fleabane

Pseudognaphalium

macounii (Greene) Kartesz

(Gnaphalium viscosum Kunth)

(Gnaphalium macounii Greene)

Clammy Everlasting

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S4

S4

S1S2

111

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

*

*

N

* I I * * I I * * I * * *

* * * N * * * * N N N N N

* * * * N N N N N N N N N

N N * N N N * N N N * * *

micradenium (Weatherby) Nesom H SH * * * * * * * * * * * N * *

(Gnaphalium helleri Britton var. micradenium (Weatherby) Mahler)

(Gnaphalium obtusifolium var. micradenium Weatherby)

Heller's Everlasting

obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & Burtt S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.)

Sweet Everlasting

Ratibida

columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.

Prarie Mexican-hat

SNA

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

pinnata (Vent.) Barnh. SNA W * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Grey-headed Prairie-coneflower

Rudbeckia

bicolor Nutt.

Pinewoods Coneflower

SNA

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

hirta L. var. hirta SNR I? * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Black-eyed Susan, Yellow Daisy

hirta L. var. pulcherrima Farw. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Rudbeckia serotina Nutt.)

Black-eyed Susan

laciniata L. var. laciniata SNR N N N N N N N N N I * * * *

(Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. hortensis Bailey)

Tall Coneflower, Green-headed Coneflower

subtomentosa Pursh SNA W

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

Sweet Coneflower


112

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Rudbeckia

triloba L. var. triloba

Three-lobed Coneflower

Santolina

chamaecyparissus L. .

Lavender-cotton

Schkuhria

pinnata (Lam.) Kuntze

Threadleaf

Sclerolepis

uniflora (Walter) B.S.P.

One-flowered Hardscale

Scorzoneroides

autumnalis (L.) Moench ssp. autumnalis

(Leontodon autumnalis L.)

(Leontodon autumnalis L. ssp. pratensis (Link) Arcangeli)

(Leontodon autumnalis L. var. pratensis (Link) W.D.J. Koch)

Fall-dandelion, Hawkbit

autumnalis (L.) Moench ssp. pratensis

(Link) Holub

Senecio

(Leontodon autumnalis L. ssp. pratensis (Link) Arcangeli)

(Leontodon autumnalis L. var. pratensis (Link) W.D.J. Koch)

Fall-dandelion, Hawkbit

spartioides Torrey & A. Gray

(Senecio multicapitatus Greenm. ex Rydb.)

Status S-Rank

(Senecio spartioides var. multicapitatus (Greenm. ex Rydb.) Welsh)

Broomlike Ragwort

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

SNA

S1

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

*

*

I

I I I * * * * * * * * I *

* * * * * * * * * I I * *

* * * * * * * W * * * * *

* * * N * * * * * * * * *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

SNA * * * * * * I I I * I I * I

SNA

*

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

suaveolens (L.) Ell. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

(Synosma suaveolens (L.) Raf. ex Britton)

(Hasteola suaveolens (L.) Pojark.)

(Cacalia suaveolens L.)

Sweet-scented Indian-plantain

viscosus L. SNA * * * * * W * W W * * * * *

Sticky Groundsel

vulgaris L. SNA I * I I I I I I I I I I * I

Common Groundsel

Sericocarpus

asteroides (L.) B.S.P.

(Aster paternus Cronq.)

(Aster asteroides (L.) MacMillan)

(Conyza asteroides L.)

Toothed White-topped Aster

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

linifolius (L.) B.S.P. S4 * * N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Aster solidagineus Michaux)

(Conyza linifolia L.)

Narrow-leaved White-topped Aster


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Silphium

perfoliatum L. var. perfoliatum

Silybum

Cup-plant

marianum (L.) Gaertner

Solidago

(Carduus marianus L.)

Blessed Milk-thistle

aestivalis Bicknell

(Solidago rugosa P. Miller var. sphagnophila Graves)

Sphagnum-goldenrod

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

S4

113

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

*

*

* I I I I I I * I * * * *

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * N N N N N N N N N N N

altissima L. ssp. altissima S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torrey & A. Gray)

Tall Goldenrod

arguta Aiton var. arguta S4 N N N N N N N N N * * * * *

Sharp-leaved Goldenrod

×asperula Desf. SNR * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Solidago rugosa × S. sempervirens)

bicolor L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Silverrod

caesia L. var. caesia S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Bluestem-goldenrod

caesia L. var. caesia × S. rugosa P. Miller SNR N N N * N N * N * * * * * *

canadensis L. var. canadensis S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

Canada Goldenrod

canadensis L. var. hargeri Fern. H SH N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Harger's Goldenrod

erecta Pursh H SH * * * * * * * * * * * N * *

(Solidago speciosa Nutt. var. erecta (Pursh) MacM.)

Slender Goldenrod

flexicaulis L. S4S5 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Zigzag Goldenrod

gigantea Aiton S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Solidago gigantea Aiton var. serotina (Kuntze) Cronq.)

Late Goldenrod

hispida Muhl. ex Willd. H SH N

N N * * * * * * * * * * *

(Solidago bicolor var. concolor Torrey & A. Gray)

Hispid Goldenrod


114

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Solidago

juncea Aiton

Early Goldenrod

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

latissimifolia P. Miller S4 * * * * * * N N N N N N N *

(Solidago elliottii Torrey & A. Gray var. ascendens Fern.)

Elliott's Goldenrod

macrophylla Pursh T S2 N N * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Solidago macrophylla Pursh var. thyrsoidea (E. Meyer) Fern.)

Large-leaved Goldenrod

nemoralis Aiton ssp. nemoralis S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Gray Goldenrod

odora Aiton ssp. odora S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Sweet Goldenrod

patula Muhl. ex Willd. var. patula S4 N N N N N * * * * * * * * *

Rough-leaved Goldenrod

puberula Nutt. var. puberula S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Downy Goldenrod

rugosa P. Miller var. aspera (Aiton) Fern. S4 * N N N N N N * N N N N N N

(Solidago aspera Aiton)

(Solidago rugosa ssp. aspera (Aiton) Cronq.)

Rough Goldenrod

rugosa P. Miller var. rugosa S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Solidago rugosa P. Miller var. villosa (Pursh) Fern.)

(Solidago villosa Pursh)

Rough-stemmed Goldenrod, Wrinkle-leaved

Goldenrod

sempervirens L. var. mexicana (L.) Fern. H SH * * * * * * * * * * * N * *

Seaside Goldenrod

sempervirens L. ssp. sempervirens S5 I * * I I N N N N N N N N N

Seaside-goldenrod

simplex Kunth. ssp. randii (Porter) Ringius

var. monticola (Porter) Ringius

(Solidago simplex Kunth ssp. randii (Porter) Ringius var. randii

(Porter) Ringius)

(Solidago glutinosa Nutt. ssp. randii (Porter) Cronq.)

Rand's Goldenrod

E

S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

speciosa Nutt. var. speciosa WL S2S3 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Showy Goldenrod

squarrosa Muhl. S4 N

N N N * N N * * * * * * *

Stout Goldenrod


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Solidago

uliginosa Nutt.

(Solidago uliginosa Nutt. var. linoides (Torrey & A. Gray) Fern.)

(Solidago purshii Porter)

Swamp-goldenrod

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

115

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

ulmifolia Muhl. ex Willd. var. ulmifolia S4 N N N N N N * N N N N * * I

Sonchus

Elm-leaf Goldenrod

arvensis L. ssp. arvensis

Field Sow-thistle, Corn Sow-thistle

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

arvensis L. ssp. uliginosus (Bieber) Nyman SNA I I I I I * I I I I I I * *

(Sonchus arvensis L. var. glabrescens Günther)

Swamp Sow-thistle

asper (L.) Hill SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Spiny Sow-thistle

oleraceus L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Annual Sow-thistle

Symphyotrichum

×amethystinum (Nutt.) Nesom

(Aster ×amethystinus Nutt.)

(Symphyotrichum ericoides × S. novae-angliae)

Amethyst-aster

SNR

N

N N * N N N * * N * * * *

boreale (Torrey & A. Gray) Nesom SNA * * * I? * * * * * * * * * *

(Aster borealis (Torrey & A. Gray) Prov.)

(Aster junciformis Rydb.)

Rush Bog-aster

ciliolatum (Lindl.) A. & D. Löve SNA I? * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Aster ciliolatus Lindley)

Lindley's Heart-leaf Aster

concolor (L.) Nesom var. concolor E S1 * * * * * * * * * * N * N N

(Aster concolor L.)

Eastern Silvery Aster

cordifolium (L.) Nesom S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * N *

(Aster cordifolius L.)

(Aster cordifolius L. var. furbishiae Fern.)

(Aster cordifolius L. var. polycephalus Porter)

Blue Heart-leaf Aster

dumosum (L.) Nesom S5 * * * * N N N N N N N N N N

(Aster dumosus L. var. coridifolius (Michaux) Torrey & A. Gray)

(Aster dumosus L. var. subulifolius Torrey & A. Gray)

Bushy, Long-stalked Aster, Rice-button Aster

dumosum (L.) Nesom × S. racemosum (Ell.)

Nesom

SNR *

N * * N N N * N N N N N *


116

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Symphyotrichum

ericoides (L.) Nesom var. ericoides

Heath-aster

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

laeve (L.) A. & D. Löve var. laeve S4 N N N N N N N N N N * I * I

(Aster laevis L.)

Smooth Aster

lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom ssp.

lanceolatum var. latifolium (Semple &

Chmielewski) Nesom

(Aster lanceolatus Willd. var. latifolius Semple & Chmielewski)

lanceolatum (Willd.) Nesom ssp.

lanceolatum var. lanceolatum

(Aster lanceolatus Willd.)

(Aster simplex Willd.)

(Aster simplex Willd. var. ramosissimus (Torr. & Gray) Cronq.)

Tall White or Panicled Aster

SNR * N N * * * * N * * * * * *

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

lateriflorum (L.) A. & D. Löve S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britton; A. vimineus Lam.)

(Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britton var. angustifolius Wiegand)

(Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britton var. horizontalis (Desf.) Farw.)

Calico Aster, Goblet-aster

novae-angliae (L.) Nesom S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

(Aster novae-angliae L.)

New England Aster

novi-belgii (L.) Nesom var. elodes (Torrey &

A. Gray) Nesom

New York Aster

S4 * N N N N N * * * * * N * *

novi-belgii (L.) Nesom var. novi-belgii S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Aster novi-belgii L. var. novi-belgii)

(Aster johannensis Fern.)

(Aster novi-belgii L. var. johannensis (Fern.) A.G. Jones)

New York Aster

patens (Aiton) Nesom var. patens S5 * N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Aster patens Aiton var. patens)

Skydrop Aster, Clasping Aster

pilosum (Willd.) Nesom var. pilosum S4? N * * * * N N * N N N N * *

(Aster pilosus Willd. var. pilosus)

Hairy Aster, Awl-aster

pilosum (Willd.) Nesom var. pringlei (A.

Gray) Nesom

(Aster pilosus Willd. var. pringlei (A. Gray) Blake)

(A. pringlei (A. Gray) Britton)

Pringle's Aster

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Symphyotrichum

praealtum (Poir.) Nesom var. angustior

(Wieg.) Nesom

(Aster praealtus Poiret)

Willow Aster

Status S-Rank

H

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SH

117

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * * * N * * * * * *

prenanthoides (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nesom SC S3 N N N * * * * * * * * * * *

(Aster prenanthoides Muhl. ex Willd.)

Crooked-stemmed Aster

puniceum (L.) A. & D. Löve var. puniceum S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

(Aster puniceus L. var. puniceus)

(Aster puniceus L. var. firmus (Nees) Torrey & A. Gray)

(Aster puniceus ssp. firmum (Nees) A. G. Jones)

Bristly Aster, Swamp Aster

racemosum (Ell.) Nesom S4 * N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Aster fragilis, auct. non Willd.)

(Aster vimineus, auct. non Lam.)

Small White Aster

subulatum (Michaux) Nesom var. subulatum S4 * * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Aster subulatus Michaux var. subulatus)

(Aster subulatus Michaux var. euroauster Fern. & Griscom)

Small-flowered Aster, Annual Saltmarsh-aster

×tardiflorum (L.) Greuter, M.V. Agab., &

Wagenitz

(Symphyotrichum cordifolium × S. puniceum)

(Aster novi-belgii L. var. tardiflorus (L.) A.G. Jones)

(Aster tardiflorus L.)

Late Aster

SNR * * * * * * * N N * * * * *

tenuifolium (L.) Nesom var. tenuifolium S4 * * * * * * N N N N N N N N

(Aster tenuifolius L.)

Large-flowered Aster

tradescantii (L.) Nesom T S2 * N * N * * * * N * * * * *

(Aster tradescantii L.)

(Aster lateriflorus var. hirsuticaulis, auct. non (Lindley ex DC.) Porter)

Tradescant's Aster

undulatum (L.) Nesom S4S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Tagetes

erecta L.

(Aster undulatus L.)

(Aster undulatus L. var. loriformis Burgess)

Wavy-leaved Aster

Aztec Marigold

SNA

*

* * * W * * * * * W * * *

minuta L. SNA * * * * W W * * W * * * * *

Muster John Henry

Tanacetum

parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip.

(Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh.)

Feverfew

SNA

*

* I I I I I I I I I I I I


118

Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Tanacetum

vulgare L.

(Chrysanthemum uliginosum Pers.)

Tansy

Taraxacum

laevigatum (Willd.) DC.

(Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. ex Besser)

Red-seeded Dandelion

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

latilobum DC. SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

(Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers ssp. vulgare (Lam.)

Schinz & R. Keller)

Broad-lobed Dandelion

officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Dandelion

Thymophylla

tenuiloba (DC.) Small var. tenuiloba

(Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC.) B.L. Robinson)

Bristle-leaf Dogweed

Tragopogon

dubius Scop.

(Tragopogon major Jacq.)

Pale Goat's Beard

SNA

SNA

*

I

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

I I I I I * I * I I * I *

porrifolius L. SNA * I * * * I I * I * * * * *

Oysterplant

pratensis L. SNA I I I I I I I * I I I I * I

Yellow Goat's Beard

Tripleurospermum

inodorum (L.) Schultz-Bip.

(Matricaria perforata Mérat)

(Matricaria maritima var. agrestis (Knaf) Wilmott)

Scentless Chamomile

SNA

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

maritimum (L.) W.D.J. Koch ssp. maritimum SNA * * * * W W * W W * * * * *

(Matricaria maritima L.)

Seaside-chamomile

Tussilago

farfara L.

Colt's-foot

Verbesina

alternifolia (L.) Britton

Wingstem

encelioides (Cav.) Bentham & Hooker f. ex

A. Gray ssp. exauriculata (Robinson &

Greenman) Coleman

Golden Crownbeard

Likely

Invasive

WL

SNA

SNA

I

*

I I I I I I I I I I I * I

I? * I? * * * * * * * * * *

SNA *

* * * W * W * W * * * * *


Tricolpates

ASTERACEAE

COMPOSITE FAMILY

Vernonia

fasciculata Michaux

Prairie-ironweed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

119

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

glauca (L.) Willd. SNA * * * * * * * * * W * * * *

Broad-leaved Ironweed

missurica Raf. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Missouri Ironweed

noveboracensis (L.) Michaux S4 * * N N N N * N N N N * * *

New York Ironweed

Xanthium

spinosum L.

Spiny Cocklebur

strumarium L. var. canadense (P. Miller)

Torrey & A. Gray

(Xanthium echinatum Murray)

(Xanthium italicum Moretti)

Cocklebur

SNA

I

* * * I I I I I * * * * *

S5 N * N N N N N N N N N N N N

strumarium L. var. glabratum (DC.) Cronq. S4 N N N * * N * N * * * * * *

(Xanthium chinense P. Miller)

Sandbar Cocklebur

strumarium L. var. strumarium SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

European Cocklebur, European Clotbur

Xerochrysum

bracteatum (Vent.) Tzvelev

(Helichrysum bracteatum (Vent.) Andr.)

(Xeranthemum bracteatum Vent.)

Strawflower

BALSAMINACEAE

TOUCH-ME-NOT FAMILY

Impatiens

capensis Meerb.

Orange Jewelweed

SNA

S5

*

N

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

glandulifera Royle SNA I * * * I * I I * * * * * *

Purple Balsam

pallida Nutt. S4 N N N N N I * * * * * * * *

Yellow Jewelweed

BERBERIDACEAE

BARBERRY FAMILY

Berberis

×ottawensis Schneider

(Berberis thunbergii × B. vulgaris)

SNA

I

I I I I I * * I * * * * *


120

Tricolpates

BERBERIDACEAE

BARBERRY FAMILY

Berberis

thunbergii DC.

Japanese Barberry

Status S-Rank

Invasive

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

vulgaris L. Likely

Invasive

SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

European Barberry

Caulophyllum

giganteum (Farw.) Loconte & Black

WL

(Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michaux var. giganteum Farw.)

Early Blue Cohosh

S2S3

N

N * * * N * * * * * * * *

thalictroides (L.) Michaux S4 N N N N N N N * * N * * * *

Late Blue Cohosh

Epimedium

×youngianum Fischer & Meyer

peltatum L.

(Epimedium diphyllum × E. grandiflorum)

Podophyllum

May-apple

BETULACEAE

BIRCH FAMILY

Alnus

glutinosa (L.) Gaertner

Black Alder

incana (L.) Moench ssp. rugosa (Du Roi)

Clausen

(Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng.)

WL

(Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng. var. americana (Regel) Fern.)

Speckled Alder

SNA

SNA

*

N?

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * W

I * I I I * * * * I I * *

* * * * I * * I * I I * *

S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

serrulata (Aiton) Willd. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

(Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd. var. subelliptica Fern.)

Smooth Alder

viridis (Vill.) Lam. & DC. ssp. crispa (Aiton)

Turrill

Betula

(Alnus crispa (Aiton) Pursh)

(Alunus crispa (Aiton) Pursh var. mollis (Fern.) Fern.)

Mountain Alder, Green Alder

alleghaniensis Britton

(Betula lutea Michaux f.)

(Betula alleghaniensis Britton var. macrolepis (Fern.) Brayshaw)

Yellow Birch

T

S2 N N N * * * * * * * * * * *

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

×caerulea Blanch. SNA * W W * * * * * * * * * * *

(Betula cordifolia × B. populifolia)

(Betula ×caerulea-grandis Blanch.)

Blue Birch


Tricolpates

BETULACEAE

BIRCH FAMILY

Betula

cordifolia Regel

(Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia (Regel) Fern.)

Heart-leaf Paper-birch

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4?

121

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

* * * * I I * * * * * * *

lenta L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Black Birch

nigra L. WL S3 * * I * * N N * I I * * * I

River-birch

papyrifera Marsh. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N I I

Paper-birch

papyrifera Marsh.× B. populifolia Marsh. SNR N * N N N N * N N N * N * *

pendula Roth SNA I * * I * I * I * * * I I I

Silver Birch

platyphylla Sukatschev SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

(Betula mandshurica (Regel) Nakai var. szechuanica (Schneid.)

Rehd.)

(Betula platyphylla Sukaczev var. szechuanica Schneid.)

Broad-leaved Birch

populifolia Marsh. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Gray Birch

pubescens Ehrh. ssp. pubescens SNA * * * * * * * W * * * W W *

(Betula alba L. var. pubescens (Ehrh.) Spach)

Downy Birch

pumila L. E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Swamp-birch

×raymundii Lepage SNR * * * * N * * * * * * * * *

Carpinus

(Betula populifolia × B. pumila)

caroliniana Walter ssp. virginiana (Marsh.)

Furlow

Corylus

Ironwood

americana Walter

American Filbert

S5

S5

N

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

cornuta Marsh. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Ostrya

Beaked Hazelnut

virginiana (P. Miller) K. Koch

Hop-hornbeam

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *


122

Tricolpates

BIGNONIACEAE

TRUMPET-CREEPER FAMILY

Campsis

radicans (L.) Seemann ex Bureau

Catalpa

Trumpet-creeper

bignonioides Walter

Indian Bean-tree

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

* * I I I I * * * I I * *

I * I I I * I I * I * I I

ovata G. Don SNA * I I I * * * * * * * * * *

Chinese Catalpa

speciosa (Warder) Warder ex Engelm. SNA I I I I I I I * I * * * * *

Cigar-tree

BORAGINACEAE

BORAGE FAMILY

Amsinckia

eastwoodiae J.F.Macbr.

Eastwood's Fiddleneck

SNA

*

W * * * * * * * * * * * *

lycopsoides Lehman SNA * * * W W W * * * * * * * W

(Amsinckia barbata Greene)

Bugloss Fiddleneck

menziesii (Lehm.) A. Nels. & J.F. Macbr.

var. intermedia (Fischer & C.A. Mey.)

Ganders

(Amsinckia intermedia Fischer & C.A. Meyer)

Rough Fiddleneck

menziesii (Lehm.) A. Nels. & J.F. Macbr.

var. menziesii

(Amsinckia parviflora Heller)

(Amsinckia rugosa Rydb.)

(Amsinckia micrantha Suksdorf)

Rough Fiddleneck

Anchusa

arvensis (L.) Bieb.

(Lycopsis arvensis L.)

Small Bugloss

SNA * * * * * * * * W * * * * *

SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * W

SNA

*

* * * * W W * * * * * * *

azurea P. Mill. SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

(Anchusa italica Retz.)

Italian Bugloss

officinalis L. SNA * * * * * W * W * * * * * *

Alkanet

Asperugo

procumbens L.

Borago

Madwort

officinalis L.

Borage

SNA

SNA

*

*

* * * * W W W * W * * * *

* W * * * W W * * * * * *


Tricolpates

BORAGINACEAE

BORAGE FAMILY

Buglossoides

arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnston ssp. arvensis

(Lithospermum arvense L.)

Corn-gromwell

Cryptantha

ambigua (A. Gray) Greene

Basin-cryptantha

Cynoglossum

amabile Stapf & Drummond .

Chinese Forget-me-not

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

SNA

123

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

*

*

* * I I I I I I I I I * I

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * W * W * * * * * W *

microglochin Bentham SNA * * * * W W * * * * * * * *

Himalayan Hound's Tongue

officinale L. SNA I I I I I I I I I * * * * *

Hound's Tongue

virginianum L. var. boreale (Fern.)

Cooperrider

Echium

Northern Wild Comfrey

creticum L.

(Echium australe Lam.)

Cretian Viper's Bugloss

E

S1 N N N * N * * * * * * * * *

SNA

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

plantagineum L. SNA * * * * * * W * W * * * * *

Purple Viper's Bugloss

pustulatum Sibth. & Sm. SNA * * * * * W * W * * * * * *

Viper's Bugloss

vulgare L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Ellisia

Viper's Bugloss

nyctelea (L.) L.

Aunt Lucy

Hackelia

virginiana (L.) I.M. Johnston

Woodland Hound's Tongue

Heliotropium

amplexicaule Vahl

Clasping Heliotrope

SNA

S4

SNA

*

N

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N * * * * *

* * * * W * * W * * * * *

europaeum L. SNA * * * * W W * * * * * * * *

European Heliotrope

indicum L. SNA *

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

Indian Heliotrope


124

Tricolpates

BORAGINACEAE

BORAGE FAMILY

Hydrophyllum

canadense L.

Broad Waterleaf

Status S-Rank

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S1

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N * * I * * * * * * * * *

virginianum L. S4 N N N N I I * * I * * * * *

Lappula

Virginia Waterleaf

occidentalis (S. Wats.) Greene var.

occidentalis

(Lappula echinata Gilib. var. occidentalis (S. Watson) Boivin)

(Lappula redowskii (Hornem.) Greene var. occidentalis (S. Wats.)

Rydb.)

(Lappula redowskii, auct. non (Hornem.) Greene)

Flat-spined Stickseed

SNA

*

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort. SNA I I I * I I I I I * * * * I

(Lappula echinata Gilib.)

Two-row Stickseed

Lithospermum

officinale L.

European Gromwell

Mertensia

maritima (L.) S.F. Gray var. maritima

Oysterleaf

E

SNA

S1

I

*

I * * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * N N * N

virginica (L.) Pers. ex Link SNA * * * * * * * * W * * * * *

Myosotis

Virginia Cowslip

arvensis (L.) Hill

Field Scorpion-grass

SNA

*

* * I I I I I I * * * I I

discolor Pers. SNA * * * * I * * * * * * * * *

(Myosotis versicolor (Pers.) Sm.)

Yellow-and-blue Forget-me-not

laxa Lehm. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

Smaller Forget-me-not

scorpioides L. Likely

Invasive

SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

True Forget-me-not

stricta Link ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes SNA * I I I I I * I I I I I * *

(Myosotis micrantha, auct. non Pallas ex Lehm.)

Blue Scorpion-grass

sylvatica Ehrh. ex Hoffm. SNA I * I * * * I * I * I * * *

Garden Forget-me-not

verna Nutt. S4 *

N N N N N N N N N N * N *

Spring Scorpion-grass


Tricolpates

BORAGINACEAE

BORAGE FAMILY

Onosmodium

virginianum (L.) A. DC.

Phacelia

False Gromwell

brachyloba (Bentham) A. Gray

Short-lobed Phacelia

Status S-Rank

H

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SH

SNA

125

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

* * N * * * * * N * N N N

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

distans Bentham SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Common Phacelia

egena (Greene ex Brand) Greene ex J.T.

Howell

(Phacelia magellanica (Lam.) Coville, pro parte)

Phacelia

SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

minor (Harvey) Thellung ex F. Zimmerman SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

(Phacelia whitlavia A. Gray)

California Bluebell

Plagiobothrys

reticulatus (Piper) I.M. Johnston

Popcorn-flower

SNA

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

trachycarpus (A. Gray) I.M. Johnston SNA * * W * * * * * * * * * * *

(Allocarya trachycarpa (A. Gray) Greene)

San Joaquin Popcorn-flower

Symphytum

asperum Lepechin

Prickly Comfrey

SNA

I

I I * * I I * I * * * * I

officinale L. SNA I I I * I I I I I I * I * *

Comfrey

tuberosum L. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Tuber-comfrey

BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Alliaria

petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande

Alyssum

(Alliaria officinalis Andrz.)

Garlic-mustard

alyssoides (L.) L.

Pale Alyssum

Arabidopsis

lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz ssp. lyrata

(Arabis lyrata L.)

Lyre-leaved Rock-cress

Invasive

E

SNA

SNA

S1

I

*

N

I I I I I I I I I I I * *

* * I I I I I I I * I * I

* * N I? * * * * * * * * *

thaliana (L.) Heynh. SNA I

I I I I I * I I I I I I I

Mouse-ear Cress


126

Tricolpates

BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Arabis

procurrens Waldst. & Kit.

Hungarian Rock-cress

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

pycnocarpa M. Hopkins S4? N N N * N? * * * I * * * * *

(Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. var. pycnocarpa (M. Hopkins) Rollins)

Hairy Rock-cress

Armoracia

rusticana Gaertner, Meyer, & Scherb.

(Armoracia lapathifolia Gilib.)

Horse-radish

Aurinia

saxatilis (L.) Desv.

(Allysum saxatile L.)

Goldentuft

Barbarea

stricta Andrz.

Upright Yellow Rocket

SNA

SNA

SNA

I

*

I

I I I I I I I I * I I I I

* * * * * I * * * * * * *

I I I * I I I I * * * * *

verna (P. Miller) Ascherson SNA * * I * I I I I I * * I I I

Early Winter-cress

vulgaris Aiton f. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Berteroa

(Barbarea vulgaris Ait. f. var. arcuata Opiz ex Presl Fries)

Winter-cress

incana (L.) DC.

Hoary Alyssum

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

mutabilis (Vent.) DC. SNA * * * * * * * * W * W * * *

Flatpod-alyssum

Boechera

canadensis (L.) Al-Shehbaz

(Arabis canadensis L.)

Sickle-pod

S4

N

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Al-Shehbaz SC S3 N * N N N * * * * * * * * *

(Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poiret)

Smooth Rock-cress

missouriensis (Greene) Al-Shehbaz T S2 * N N N * N N N * N * * * *

(Arabis missouriensis Greene)

Green Rock-cress

stricta (Graham) Al-Shehbaz WL S2S3 N N N * N N N N N I? * * * *

Brassica

(Arabis drummondii A. Gray)

Drummond's Rock-cress

juncea (L.) Czern.

Brown Mustard

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I


Tricolpates

BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Brassica

napus L.

Rutabaga

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

127

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

W * W W * * * * * W * * *

nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch SNA I * * I I I I I I I I I I I

Black Mustard

oleracea L. SNA I * * I * I I * I I * * * I

(Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.)

(Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.)

Cabbage

rapa L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I *

(Brassica rapa L. ssp. campestris (L.) Clapham)

(Brassica rapa L. ssp. olifera DC.)

(Brassica campestris L.)

Turnip

Bunias

orientalis L.

Cakile

Turkish Rocket

edentula (Bigelow) Hooker ssp. edentula

var. edentula

Sea-rocket

Camelina

microcarpa Andrz. ex DC.

Small-seeded False Flax

SNA

S4S5

SNA

*

*

*

* W * * * * * * * * * * *

* * * * N N N N N N N N N

I I I I I I I I I I I * *

sativa (L.) Crantz ssp. sativa SNA * * * * I I I I I * * I * I

Capsella

Gold-of-pleasure

bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.

Shepherd's Purse

Cardamine

bulbosa (Schreber ex Muhl.) B.S.P.

(Cardamine rhomboidea (Pers.) DC.)

Spring-Cress

WL

SNA

S2S3

I

N

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

* N * N N N N N * * * * *

concatenata (Michaux) Sw. S4 N N N N * N * * * * * * * *

(Dentaria laciniata Muhl. ex Willd.)

(Dentaria concatenata Michaux)

Cut-leaved Toothwort

dentata Schult. T S1 N * N N * * N * * * * * * *

(Cardamine pratensis L. var. palustris Wimmer & Grab.)

Fen Cuckoo-flower

diphylla (Michaux) Wood S4 N N N N N I * * I * * * * *

(Dentaria diphylla Michaux)

(Denaria incisa Small)

Two-leaved Toothwort


128

Tricolpates

BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Cardamine

douglassii Britton

Purple Cress

Status S-Rank

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S1

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

flexuosa With. SNA W * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Cardamine hirsuta L. ssp. flexuosa (With.) Forbes & Hemsl.)

(Cardamine sylvatica Link)

Wavy Bittercress

hirsuta L. SNA I * * * I * * * * * * I * I

Hairy Rock-cress

impatiens L. Likely

Invasive

SNA I I * I I * * * * * * * * *

Bushy Rock-cress

longii Fern. E S1 * * N N * N? * * * N N * * *

Long's Bittercress

maxima (Nutt.) Wood WL S2? N N * * * N * * * * * * * *

(Dentaria maxima Nutt.)

(Dentaria anomala Eames)

Three-leaved Toothwort

parviflora L. var. arenicola (Britton) O.E.

Schulz

Small-flowered Bittercress

S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Cardamine pensylvanica var. brittoniana Farw.)

Pennsylvania Bittercress

pratensis L. SNA I * I * I I I * * * * * * *

Cuckoo-flower

Chorispora

tenella (Pallas) DC.

Blue Mustard

Conringia

orientalis (L.) Dumort.

Treacle-mustard

Descurainia

pinnata (Walter) Britton ssp. brachycarpa

(Richardson) Detling

(Descurainia pinnata var. brachycarpa (Richardson) Fern.)

Northern Tansy-mustard

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

I

*

* * * * W W * * * * * * *

* I * I I I I I * * I * *

* * * W W * * * * * * * *

sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl SNA * I I I I I I I I * * * * *

Herb-sophia

Diplotaxis

muralis (L.) DC.

Wall-rocket

SNA

*

* * * I * * I * * * * * I


Tricolpates

BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Diplotaxis

tenuifolia (L.) DC.

Draba

Cutleaf Wall-rocket

reptans (Lam.) Fern.

Carolina Whitlow-grass

Status S-Rank

H

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SH

129

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

* * * * N N * * * * * * *

verna L. SNA * I I I I I I * I I I I I I

Eruca

(Erophila verna (L.) Besser)

(Draba verna L. var. boerhaavii van Hall)

(Erophila verna (L.) Besser ssp. praecox (Stevens) S.M. Walters)

Longpod Whitlow-grass

vesicaria (L.) Cav. ssp. sativa

Garden-rocket

Erucastrum

gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz

French Rocket

Erysimum

cheiranthoides L.

Wormseed-mustard

SNA

SNA

SNA

W

I

I

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

I I * I I * I I * * * * *

I I I I I I I I I I * * I

hieracifolium L. SNA * * * W * * * * * * * * * *

(Erysimum strictum P.G. Gaertn., B. Mey., & Scherb.)

European Wallflower

inconspicuum (S. Watson) MacM. var.

inconspicuum

Prairie-rocket

SNA * * * * W * * * W * * * * *

odoratum Ehrh. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

(Erysimum pannonicum Crantz)

Fragrant Wallflower

repandum L. SNA * * * * * W * * W * * * * *

Treacle-mustard

Euclidium

syriacum (L.) Aiton f.

Syrian-mustard

Hesperis

matronalis L.

Iberis

amara L.

Dame's Rocket

Rocket-candytuft

Lepidium

campestre (L.) Aiton f.

Cow-cress

Invasive

SNA

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

I

W

I

* * * * * * * W * * * * *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

* * * * W * W * W * * * W

I I I I I I I I I I I I I


130

Tricolpates

BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Lepidium

densiflorum Schrader var. densiflorum

Prairie-peppergrass

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I * I

didymum L. SNA * * * * * I * I I * * I * I

(Coronopus didymus (L.) J. E. Smith)

Lesser Swine-cress

draba L. SNA * * * * * * * I * * * I * *

(Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.)

Heart-podded Pepperweed

latifolium L. Invasive SNA * * * * I * I I I * I * * *

Broad-leaved Pepperweed; Tall Pepperweed

perfoliatum L. SNA * * I * I I I I * * * * * *

Clasping Peppergrass

ruderale L. SNA * * I * * I I I I I I I * *

Stinking Peppergrass

sativum L. SNA * * * * W * * * * W * * * W

Garden-cress Peppergrass

squamatum Forsk. SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

(Coronopus squamatus (Forsk.) Ascherson)

Swine-cress

virginicum L. var. virginicum S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Poor-man's Pepper

Lobularia

maritima (L.) Desv.

Lunaria

annua L.

Sweet Alyssum

Honesty

Nasturtium

microphyllum Boenn. ex Reichenb.

(Rorippa microphylla (Boenn. ex Reichenb.) Hyl. ex A. & D. Löve)

(Nasturtium officinale Aiton f. var. microphyllum (Boenn. ex

Reichenb.) Thellung)

Watercress

SNA

SNA

SNA

*

*

I

* * I * I I I * * I I I I

* * I I I I * I I * I * *

I * I * I I I I * I I I *

officinale Aiton f. SNA I * I I I I I I I I * I I I

Neslia

(Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek)

Water-cress

paniculata (L.) Desv.

Ball-mustard

SNA

W

* * * * W * W W * * * * *


Tricolpates

BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Raphanus

raphanistrum L.

Wild Radish

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

131

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

sativus L. SNA W * * W W W W W W W * * W W

Garden-radish

Rapistrum

rugosum (L.) All. ssp. rugosum

Rorippa

(Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All. var. venosum Pers. DC.)

Grenade

amphibia (L.) Besser

Water Yellowcress

Likely

Invasive

SNA

SNA

*

*

* * * * * W W * * * * * *

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

aquatica (Eaton) Palmer & Steyerm. SNR N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Armoracia lacustris (A. Gray) Al-Shehbaz & V. Bates)

(Armoracia aquatica (Eaton) Wiegand)

Lake-cress

globosa (Turcz. ex Fischer & Meyer) Hayek SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Round-fruited Yellowcress

palustris (L.) Besser var. fernaldiana

(Butters & Abbe) R. Stuckey

(Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser ssp. fernaldiana (Butters & Abbe)

Jonsell)

(Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbás ssp. fernaldiana Butters & Abbe)

Marsh Yellowcress

palustris (L.) Besser var. hispida (Desv.)

Rydb.

(Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser ssp. hispida (Desv.) Jonsell)

(Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbás var. hispida (Desv.) Butters &

Abbe)

Marsh Yellowcress

S4 N * N N N N N N N N N N N N

S4 N N N N N N N N N * * N N N

palustris (L.) Besser var. palustris SNA * * I I I I * * * * * * * *

(Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbás var. microcarpa (Regel) Fern.)

Marsh Yellowcress, Common Yellowcress, Yellow

Wate

×prostrata (Bergeret) Schinz & Thellung SNA * * I * * * * * * * * * * *

(Rorippa amphibia × R. sylvestris)

Prostrate Yellowcress

sessiliflora (Nutt.) A.S. Hitchc. SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

Sessile-flowered Yellowcress

sylvestris (L.) Besser SNA I I I I I I I * I * I I * I

Sinapis

alba L.

Creeping Yellowcress

(Brassica hirta Moench)

White Mustard

SNA

*

* * * I I I I I I * * I I


132

Tricolpates

BRASSICACEAE

MUSTARD FAMILY

Sinapis

arvensis L.

(Brassica kaber (DC.) Wheeler)

Charlock

Sisymbrium

altissimum L.

Tumbling Mustard

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I

I I I I I I I I I I I * I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

irio L. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

London Rocket

loeselii L. SNA * * * * W W * * * * * * * *

Loesel's Mustard

officinale (L.) Scop. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. var. leiocarpum DC.)

Hedge-mustard

orientale L. SNA * * * * W * * * W * * * * *

Eastern Rocket

Teesdalia

nudicaulis (L.) Aiton f.

Thlaspi

Shepherd's Cress

arvense L.

Penny-cress

Tropidocarpum

gracile Hooker

Turritis

glabra L.

Slender Keelfruit

(Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh.)

Tower-mustard

BUXACEAE

BOXWOOD FAMILY

Pachysandra

terminalis Sieb. & Zucc.

Japanese Pachysandra

CACTACEAE

CACTUS FAMILY

Opuntia

humifusa (Raf.) Raf.

Eastern Prickly Pear

CAMPANULACEAE

BLUEBELL FAMILY

Campanula

aparinoides Pursh

(Campanula uliginosa Rydb.)

Marsh-bellflower

E

SNA

SNA

SNA

S5

SNA

S1

S4

*

I

*

N

I

*

N

* * * * * * * * * I I * I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N * * * *

* I I * * * * I I * * * *

* * * * I * * * * I I N N

N N N N N N * N N * N N *


Tricolpates

CAMPANULACEAE

BLUEBELL FAMILY

Campanula

glomerata L.

Clustered Bellflower

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

133

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * *

lanata Friv. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Bulgarian Bellflower

persicifolia L. SNA * I I I * * * * * * * * * *

Willow-bellflower

rapunculoides L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I * I

Creeping Bellflower

rotundifolia L. S4S5 N N N N I N N * * I * I * *

Harebell

trachelium L. SNA * * * * * W W * W * * * * *

Jasione

Canterbury Bells

montana L.

Lobelia

Sheep's Bit

cardinalis L.

Cardinal-flower

SNA

S4

*

N

* * I * I I * I I I I * I

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

dortmanna L. S4 N N N N N N N * N N N N N *

Water-lobelia

inflata L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * *

Indian Tobacco

kalmii L. WL S2S3 N N N * * * * * I * * * * *

Brook-lobelia

siphilitica L. var. siphilitica E S1 N I I I I I * * I * I * * I

Great Blue Lobelia

spicata Lam. var. campanulata McVaugh S? N * * N * * * * * * * * * *

Spiked Lobelia

spicata Lam. var. spicata S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Spiked Lobelia, Pale-spike Lobelia

Triodanis

perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.

(Specularia perfoliata (L.) A. DC.)

Venus's Looking-glass

S4

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N


134

Tricolpates

CANNABACEAE

HEMP FAMILY

Cannabis

sativa L.

Celtis

Marijuana, Hemp

occidentalis L.

(Celtis occidentalis L. var. canina (Raf.) Sarg.)

Hackberry

Humulus

(Celtis occidentalis L. var.pumila (Pursh) A. Gray)

japonicus Sieb. & Zucc.

Japanese Hops

Status S-Rank

Likely

Invasive

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S4

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

N

I

I I I I I I I I I I * * I

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

I * I I I I I I I * * I I

lupulus L. var. lupuloides E. Small SNR * * N * * * N * * * * * N N

(Humulus americanus Nutt.)

(Humulus lupulus L. ssp. americanus (Nutt.) A. & D. Löve)

American Hops

lupulus L. var. lupulus SNA I I I I I I I * I I I I I I

Common Hops

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY

Cephalaria

gigantea (Ledeb.) Bobrov

Diervilla

(Scabiosa gigantea Ledeb.)

Yellow Scabious, Giant Scabious

lonicera P. Miller

Bush-honeysuckle

Dipsacus

fullonum L.

(Dipsacus sylvestris Hudson)

Common Teasel

SNA

S5

SNA

*

N

I

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N * * *

* I I I I I * * * * I * *

laciniatus L. . SNA * * W * * W * * * * * * * *

Knautia

Cut-leaved Teasel

arvensis (L.) Coulter

Blue Buttons

Kolkwitzia

amabilis Graebner

Linnaea

Beauty-bush

borealis L. ssp. americana (Forbes) Hultén

ex Clausen

Lonicera

Twinflower

×bella Zabel

(Lonicera morrowii × L. tatarica)

Hybrid Honeysuckle

WL

Invasive

SNA

SNA

S3

SNA

I

*

N

I

* I I I I I * * I I * I *

* W W * * * * * * * * * *

N * N N N N * N * N N * I

I I I I I I I I * I I * *


Tricolpates

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY

Lonicera

canadensis Bartram ex Marsh.

Fly-honeysuckle

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

135

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N * * * * * * *

dioica L. S4 N N N N N N N * * N I * * *

Wild Honeysuckle

hirsuta Eaton E S1 N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Hairy Honeysuckle

japonica Thunb. Invasive SNA * I I I I I I * * I I I I I

Japanese Honeysuckle

maackii (Rupr.) Herder Potential SNA

ly

Invasive

* * I I I * * * * I * * * *

Amur Honeysuckle

morrowii A. Gray Invasive SNA I I I I I I I * I I I I I I

Morrow Honeysuckle

reticulata Raf. SNA * * W * W W * * * * * * * *

(Lonicera prolifera (Kirchner) Rehder)

Grape-honeysuckle

sempervirens L. var. sempervirens WL SNR I? * * I? I? I? I? * I? I? I? I? * *

Trumpet-honeysuckle

tatarica L. Likely

Invasive

SNA I * I I I I I I I * * * * *

Tatarian Honeysuckle

villosa (Michaux) J.A. Schultes N N N N N N * * N N * * * *

Mountain Fly-honeysuckle

xylosteum L. SNA I * * * I * I * I * * * * *

European Fly-honeysuckle

Scabiosa

atropurpurea L.

Mournful Widow

SNA

*

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

columbaria L. SNA * * * * * * * W * * * * * *

Dove Pincushions

ochroleuca L. SNA W * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Succisa

Yellowish Scabious

pratensis Moench.

(Scabiosa succisa L.)

Devil's Bit

SNA

*

* * * * * W * * * * * * *


136

Tricolpates

CAPRIFOLIACEAE

HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY

Succisella

inflexa (Kluk) G. Beck

(Scabiosa australis Wulfen)

(Succisa australis (Wulfen) Reichenb.)

Devil's Bit

Symphoricarpos

albus (L.) S.F. Blake ssp. albus

Snowberry

albus (L.) Blake ssp. laevigatus (Fern.)

Hultén

Status S-Rank

(Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake var. laevigatus (Fern.) S.F.

Blake)

Western Snowberry

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S1

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

N

* * * * * * * * I * * * *

N * * * * * * * * * * * *

SNA I I I I I I I * I I * * * *

occidentalis Hooker SNA * * * * * * * W W * * * * *

Wolfberry

orbiculatus Moench. SNA * * * * I I I * * I I I * I

Coralberry

Triosteum

aurantiacum Bicknell var. aurantiacum

Wild Coffee

S4

N

N N N N N N N N * N N * *

perfoliatum L. E S1 * * * * * * * * N N N N N N

Broad Tinker's Weed

Valeriana

officinalis L.

Garden-valerian

Valerianella

umbilicata (Sullivant) Wood

Weigela

(Valerianella intermedia Dyal)

Corn-salad

floribunda (Sieb. & Zucc.) C.A. Mey.

Crimson Weigela

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

PINK FAMILY

Agrostemma

githago L. var. githago

Arenaria

Corn-cockle

serpyllifolia L.

(Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. tenuior Mert. & Koch)

Thyme-leaf Sandwort

Cerastium

arvense L.

(Arenaria serpyllifolia L. ssp. leptoclados (Reichenb.) Nyman)

Field-chickweed

H

SNA

SH

SNA

SNA

SNA

S5

I

N?

*

I

I

N

* I * I I I I I * I I * I

* * N? * * * * * * * * * *

* * W W * W * * * * * * *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

N N N N N N N N N N N * N


Tricolpates

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

PINK FAMILY

Cerastium

fontanum Baumg. ssp. vulgare (Hartman)

Greuter & Burdet

(Cerastium vulgatum L.)

(Cerastium fontanum Baumg. var. triviale (Link) Jalas)

Mouse-ear Chickweed

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

137

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

glomeratum Thuill. SNA * * I * * * * * * * * I * *

(Cerastium viscosum, auct. non L.)

Clammy Mouse-ear Chickweed

nutans Raf. var. nutans E S1 N N N N * * * * * * * * * *

Nodding Chickweed

pumilum W. Curtis ssp. pumilum SNA * * * I * I I * I I I * * I

Dwarf Mouse-ear Chickweed

semidecandrum L. SNA * * I I I * * * * * * I * I

Little Mouse-ear Chickweed

strictum L. H SH N N * * * * N N * * * * * N

(Cerastium arvense ssp. strictum (L.) Ugborogho)

American Field Chickweed

tomentosum L. SNA * * * * I * * * * * I I * *

Snow-in-summer

Corrigiola

litoralis L. ssp. litoralis

Shore-strapwort

Dianthus

armeria L.

Deptford Pink

SNA

SNA

*

I

* * * * * * * * * W * * *

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

barbatus L. SNA I I I I I I I * I I * * I *

Sweet William

deltoides L. SNA I I I I I I I * * * I I I *

Maiden-pink

plumarius L. SNA * * * I * * * * * * * I I I

Garden-pink

Eudianthe

coeli-rosa (L.) Reichenb.

(Silene coeli-rosa (L.) Godron)

Rose-of-heaven

Gypsophila

(Lychnis coeli-rosa (L.) Desr.)

elegans Bieb.

Caucasus Gypsophila

SNA

SNA

*

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * * * W * * * * * * *


138

Tricolpates

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

PINK FAMILY

Gypsophila

muralis L.

Mist-gypsophila

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

I I I I I * * I * * * * *

paniculata L. SNA * * * W W * * * * * * * W *

Baby's Breath

scorzonerifolia Ser. SNA * * * * * * * * W * * * * *

Glandular Baby’s Breath

Herniaria

hirsuta L. var. hirsuta

Hairy Rupture-wort

Holosteum

umbellatum L. ssp. umbellatum

Jagged Chickweed

Honckenya

peploides (L.) Ehrh. ssp. robusta (Fern.)

Hultén

(Arenaria peploides L. var. robusta Fern.)

Seabeach sandwort

Illecebrum

verticillatum L.

Lychnis

Coral Necklace

chalcedonica L.

Scarlet Lychnis

SNA

SNA

S4

SNA

SNA

*

*

*

*

I

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * * I I I * * * * * * *

* * * * * N * * N N N N N

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

* * I I I I * I * I I * *

coronaria (L.) Murray SNA * * * I I * I * I I I I * *

Mullein-pink

flos-cuculi L. ssp. flos-cuculi SNA I I I I I I I * I I I I * *

Ragged Robin

Minuartia

michauxii (Fenzl) Farw.

(Arenaria stricta Michaux var. stricta)

Michaux's Sandwort

Moehringia

lateriflora (L.) Fenzl

(Arenaria lateriflora L.)

Grove-sandwort

T

S2

S5

N

N

N N * * * * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

macrophylla (Hooker) Fenzl E S1 N * N N * * * * * * * * * *

(Arenaria macrophylla Hooker)

Large-leaved Sandwort

Myosoton

aquaticum (L.) Moench

(Stellaria aquaticum (L.) Scop.)

Giant Chickweed

SNA

I

I I I I I * * * * * * * *


Tricolpates

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

PINK FAMILY

Paronychia

argyrocoma (Michaux) Nutt.

Status S-Rank

(Paronychia argyrocoma (Michaux) Nutt. var. albimontana Fern.)

Silverling

E

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S1

139

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * * N * * * * * * *

canadensis (L.) A. Wood S4 N N N N N N N N N N * * * *

Forked Chickweed

fastigiata (Raf.) Fern. var. fastigiata WL SNR N * * N * N N N N * * * * *

Hairy Forked Chickweed

Petrorhagia

prolifera (L.) Ball & Heywood

(Tunica prolifera (L.) Scop.)

Proliferous Pink

SNA

I

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

saxifraga (L.) Ser. ex Link var. saxifraga SNA * * * W W * * * * * * * * *

(Tunica saxifraga (L.) Scop.)

Saxifrage-pink

Polycarpon

tetraphyllum (L.) L. ssp. tetraphyllum

Sagina

(Mollugo tetraphylla L.)

Four-leaved Manyseed

decumbens (Ell.) Torrey & A. Gray ssp.

decumbens

Trailing Pearlwort

WL

SNA

SNR

*

*

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

* N N N N * * N * * * N *

japonica (Sw.) Ohwi SNA I I I I I * * * * * * * * *

Japanese Pearlwort

maxima A. Gray ssp. maxima SNA * * W * * * * * * * * * * *

Large Pearlwort

nodosa (L.) Fenzl ssp. nodosa WL SNR * * * * * * I? * * * * * * *

Knotted Pearlwort

procumbens L. SNA I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I? I?

Matted Pearlwort

Saponaria

ocymoides L.

Rock-soapwort

SNA

*

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

officinalis L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Soapwort

Scleranthus

annuus L.

Annual Knawel

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

perennis L. SNA *

* * I I * * * * * I * * *

Perennial Knawel


140

Tricolpates

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

PINK FAMILY

Silene

antirrhina L.

Sleepy Catchfly

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

armeria L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I * * I

(Atocion armeria (L.) Raf.)

Sweet William Catchfly

caroliniana Walter ssp. pensylvanica

(Michaux) Clausen

Wild Pink

WL

S2S3 N * N * N N * N N N * * * *

conica L. ssp. conica SNA * * * * * * * * * I * * * I

Striate Catchfly

csereii Baumg. SNA * W * * * W * * * * * * * *

von Cserei's Catchfly

dichotoma Ehrh. SNA I I I I I I I * I * I I * I

Forking Catchfly

dioica (L.) Clairville SNA I * * I I I I I * I I I I I

(Lychnis dioica L.)

Red Campion

gallica L. SNA * * * * * W * W * * * * * W

French Catchfly

latifolia Poir. ssp. alba (P. Mill.) Greuter &

Burdet

(Silene pratensis (Raf.) Godr. & Gren.)

(Lychnis alba P. Miller)

Evening Lychnis

SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

nivea (Nutt.) Muhl. ex Otth SNA * * * * * * W * * * * * * *

Snowy Campion

noctiflora L. SNA I I I I I I I I I * I I * I

Night-flowering Catchfly

vulgaris (Moench) Garcke SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

(Silene cucubalus Wibel)

Bladder-campion

Spergula

arvensis L.

Spurrey

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

morisonii Boreau SNA * * * I * * * * I * * * * *

Morrison's Spurry

Spergularia

canadensis (Pers.) G. Don var. canadensis

Northern Sand-spurrey

S4

*

* * * * N N N N N * N N *


Tricolpates

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

PINK FAMILY

Spergularia

diandra (Guss.) Held.

(Arenaria diandra Guss.)

(Spergularia salsuginea Fenzl.)

Alkali Sand-spurrey

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

141

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * * * * * * * I * *

marina (L.) Griseb. S4 I * * * * N N N N N N N N N

(Spergularia salina J. & K. Presl)

Saltmarsh Sand-spurrey

purpurea (Pers.) G. Don SNA * * * * * * * * * * * W * *

Purple Sand-spurrey

rubra (L.) J. & K. Presl SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Stellaria

Red Sand-spurrey

alsine Grimm

Seep-starwort

S4?

*

N * N N N N N N * N * * *

borealis Bigelow ssp. borealis WL S2S3 N N N N N N N * N * * * * *

(Stellaria calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong.)

(Stellaria calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong. vars. floribunda (Fern.) Fern.)

(Stellaria calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong. var. isophylla Fern.)

Northern Starwort

corei Shinners SNA * * * W * * * * * * * * * *

(Stellaria pubera Michaux var. sylvatica (Beguinot) Weatherby)

Great-chickweed

graminea L. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Common Stitchwort

holostea L. SNA * * * * W * * * W W * * * *

Greater Stitchwort

longifolia Muhl. ex Willd. var. longifolia S4 N N N N N N N * N N * * * *

Long-leaved Starwort

media (L.) Vill. SNA I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Vaccaria

Common Chickweed

hispanica (P. Miller) Rauschert

Viscaria

(Vaccaria pyramidata Medicus)

(Saponaria vaccaria L.)

Cow-herb

vulgaris Bernh.

(Lychnis viscaria L.)

German Catchfly

SNA

SNA

I

*

I I I I I I I I I I I * I

* * * * * W * W * * * * *


142

Tricolpates

CELASTRACEAE

STAFF-TREE FAMILY

Celastrus

orbiculatus Thunb.

Oriental Bittersweet

BITTERSWEET FAMILY

Status S-Rank

Invasive

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I

orbiculatus Thunb. × C. scandens L. SNA * * I * * * * * * * * * * *

Hybrid Bittersweet

STAFF-TREE FAMILY

scandens L. SC S3 N N N N N N N * N N N * N N

American Bittersweet

Euonymus

alatus (Thunb.) Sieb.

Winged Euonymus

Invasive

SNA

I

* I I I I I I I * I I * *

atropurpurea Jacq. var. atropurpurea SNA W * W * W W * W * * * * * *

Burning Bush

europaea L. SNA I * I I I I * * I I I I I I

European Spindle-tree

fortunei (Turcz.) Handel-Maz. var. radicans

(Sieb. ex Miq.) Rehder

Winter-creeper

fortunei (Turcz.) Handel-Maz. var. vegeta

(Rehder) Rehder

Big-leaved Winter-creeper

SNA * * I I * I I * * I I * * *

SNA * * * * * * * * * I I I * *

phellomana Loesel SNA * * * * * * * * W * * * * *

Cork-tree

CERCIDIPHYLLACEAE

KATSURA FAMILY

Cercidiphyllum

japonicum Sieb. & Zucc.

Katsura Tree

CISTACEAE

ROCKROSE FAMILY

Crocanthemum

bicknellii (Fern.) Barnh.

(Helianthemum bicknellii Fern.)

Hoary Frostweed

SNA

S4S5

I

N

* * I * * * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

canadense (L.) Britton S4S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Helianthemum canadense (L.) Michaux)

Canadian Frostweed

dumosum Bicknell SC S3 *

* * * * * * * * N N N N N

(Helianthemum dumosum (Bicknell) Fern.)

Bushy Frostweed


Tricolpates

CISTACEAE

ROCKROSE FAMILY

Crocanthemum

propinquum (Bicknell) Bicknell

(Helianthemum propinquum Bicknell)

Low Frostweed

Hudsonia

ericoides L.

Golden Heather

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S4

S4

143

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

* * N N * * * * * N N N N

* * * * * * * * N N N N N

ericoides L. × H. tomentosa Nutt. SNR * * * * * * * * * * N N N N

tomentosa Nutt. S4 * * * N * * N * N N N N N N

Lechea

(Hudsonia tomentosa Nutt. var. intermedia Peck)

Beach-heather, Hudsonia, Poverty-grass

intermedia Leggett ex Britton var. intermedia

Large-podded Pinweed

intermedia Leggett ex Britton var. juniperina

(Bicknell) B.L. Robinson

Maine Pinweed

H

S4

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

SH * * * * * * N * * * * * * *

maritima Leggett ex B.S.P. var. maritima S5 * N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Beach-pinweed

minor L. WL S2S3 * * * * N * * * * N N N N N

Thyme-leaf Pinweed

mucronata Raf. S5 * N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Lechea villosa Ell.)

Hairy Pinweed

pulchella Raf. var. moniliformis (Bicknell)

Seymour

Beaded Pinweed

E

S1 * * * * * * * * * N * * N N

pulchella Raf. var. pulchella S3S4 * * * * * * * * N N N N N N

(Lechea leggettii Britton & Hollick)

Leggett's Pinweed

tenuifolia Michaux S4? * * N N N N N N N N N * * N

Slender Pinweed

CLEOMACEAE

SPIDER FLOWER FAMILY

Cleome

hassleriana Chodat

(Cleome spinosa, auct. non Jacq.)

Spider-flower

SNA

*

* I I I I I * * * * * * *

serrulata Pursh SNA *

* * * * * W W * * * * * *

Rocky Mountain Bee-plant


144

Tricolpates

CLEOMACEAE

SPIDER FLOWER FAMILY

Polanisia

dodecandra (L.) DC. ssp. dodecandra

(Polanisia graveolens Raf.)

Eastern Clammy-weed

dodecandra (L.) DC. ssp. trachysperma

(Torrey & A. Gray) Iltis

(Polanisia trachysperma Torrey & A. Gray)

Western Clammy-weed

CLETHRACEAE

SWEET PEPPER-BUSH FAMILY

Clethra

alnifolia L.

Sweet Pepper-bush

CONVOLVULACEAE

BINDWEED FAMILY

Calystegia

pellita (Ledeb.) G. Don ssp. pellita

(Calystegia pubescens Lindley)

(Convolvulus pellitus Ledeb.)

Hairy Bindweed

sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. americana (Sims)

Brummitt

(Convolvulus sepium (L.) R. Br. var. americanaus Sims)

(Convolvulus sepium (L.) R. Br. var. repens (L.) A. Gray)

Wild Morning-glory

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * W * * * * * * * * *

SNA * * W * * * W * * * * * * *

S5

SNA

N

W

* N N N N N N N N N N N N

W * * W W * * * * * * * *

S5 * N N * * * N N N N N N N N

sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. angulata Brummitt SNR * * N * N N * * N * * * * *

Wild Morning-glory

sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. appalachiana

Brummitt

Wild Morning-glory

SNR * N * N * * * * * * * * * *

sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. sepium SNA I * I * I I * I I * I I * I

(Convolvulus sepium L.)

European Morning-glory, Hedge-bindweed

silvatica (Kit.) Griseb. ssp. fraterniflora

(Mackenzie & Bush) Brummitt

(Calystegia fraterniflora (Mackenzie & Bush) Brummitt)

(Calystegia sepium var. fraterniflora (Mackenzie & Bush) Shinners)

(Convolvulus fraterniflorus (Mackenzie & Bush) Mackenzie & Bush)

Short-stalked False Bindweed

H

SH * * N? * N * * * * * * * * *

spithamaea (L.) Pursh ssp. spithamaea E S1 N N N N N N * * * * * * * *

(Convolvulus spithamaeus L.)

Upright Bindweed

Convolvulus

arvensis L.

Field-bindweed

SNA

I

I I I I I I I I I I I I I


Tricolpates

CONVOLVULACEAE

BINDWEED FAMILY

Cuscuta

campestris Yuncker

(Cuscuta pentagona Engelm. var. calycina Engelm.)

Prairie Dodder

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

145

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * * I * * * * * * * *

cephalanthi Engelm. S? * * * * * * * * * * N N * N

Buttonbush-dodder

compacta Juss. ex Choisy var. compacta S4 N N N N N N * * N N N N N *

Dense Dodder

coryli Engelm. WL S1S2 * * * * * * * * * * N N * *

Pondshore-dodder

epilinum Weihe SNA * * * * * * I * * * * * * *

Flax Dodder

epithymum L. SNA I * * * I I * * * I * I * I

Clover-dodder

gronovii Willd. ex J.A. Schultes var. gronovii S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Love-vine

indecora Choisy var. indecora H SH * * * * * * * * * * N N * *

Collared Dodder

pentagona Engelm. H SH * * * N * N * * * * * N * *

Field-dodder

polygonorum Engelm. WL S1? * * N? N? * N? * * * * * * N? *

Ipomoea

Smartweed-dodder

coccinea L.

(Quamoclit coccinea (L.) Moench)

Red Morning-glory

SNA

*

* * W W W W * * * * * * *

hederacea Jacq. SNA * W * W W W W W W W * * * *

(Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth)

Ivy-leaved Morning-glory

lacunosa L. SNA * W W * * W * * * * * * * *

Small White Morning-glory

pandurata (L.) G.F.W. Meyer SNA * * * * * * * * I * I * * *

Wild Potato-vine

purpurea (L.) Roth SNA I

* I I I I I I I I I * * I

(Ipomoea hirsutula Jacq. f.)

Common Morning-glory


146

Tricolpates

CONVOLVULACEAE

BINDWEED FAMILY

Ipomoea

tricolor Cav.

Dwarf Morning-glory

CORNACEAE

DOGWOOD FAMILY

Benthamidia

florida (L.) Spach

(Cornus florida L.)

Flowering Dogwood

Chamaepericlymenum

canadense (L.) Aschers. & Graebn.

Nyssa

(Cornus canadensis L.)

Bunchberry

sylvatica Marshall

Swida

Black Gum

alternifolia (L. f.) Small

(Cornus alternifolia L. f.)

Pagoda-dogwood

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S5

S5

S5

S5

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

N

N

N

N

* * * * W * * * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N *

amomum (P. Miller) Small var. amomum S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

(Cornus amomum P. Miller ssp. amomum)

Silky Dogwood

amomum (P. Mill.) Small var. schuetzeana

(C.A. Mey.) A. Haines

(Cornus amomum P. Miller ssp. obliqua (Raf.) J.S. Wilson)

Pale Dogwood

S4? * N N N N N N * N * * * * *

×arnoldiana (Rehd.) Soják SNR * * * * * * * N * * * * * *

(Swida amomum ssp. amomum × S. racemosa)

racemosa (Lam.) Moldenke S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

(Cornus racemosa Lam.)

(Cornus foemina P. Miller ssp. racemosa (Lam.) J.S. Wilson)

Gray Dogwood

rugosa (Lam.) Rydb. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N * * *

(Cornus rugosa Lam.)

Round-leaved Dogwood

sanguinea (L.) Opiz SNA * * * * * W * * * * W * * *

(Cornus sanguinea L.)

Red Dogwood

sericea (L.) Holub S4 N N N N N I? I? * I * * * * *

(Cornus sericea L.)

(Cornus stolonifera Michaux)

Red Osier Dogwood


Tricolpates

CRASSULACEAE

ORPINE FAMILY

Aizopsis

aizoon (L.) V. Grulich

Crassula

(Sedum aizoon L.)

Siberian Stonecrop

aquatica (L.) Schoenl.

(Tillaea aquatica L.)

Shore Pygmy-weed

Hylotelephium

erythrostictum (Miq.) H. Ohba

(Sedum alboroseum Baker)

Garden-orpine

Status S-Rank

T

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

S2

SNA

147

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

*

*

* * * W W * * * * * * * *

N N * * * N * * N N * N N

W * * W * * * * * * * * *

telephium (L.) H. Ohba ssp. telephium SNA I I I I I I I * I I I I * I

(Sedum telephium L.)

(Sedum purpureum L. Schultes)

Live-forever

Phedimus

spurius (Bieb.) 't Hart

Sedum

acre L.

(Sedum spurium Bieb.)

Caucasus Stonecrop

Wall-sedum

SNA

SNA

W

I

* * * * * * * * * * * * *

* I I I I I I I I I I I I

hispanicum L. SNA * * * * * W * * * * * * * *

Glandular Stonecrop

reflexum L. SNA * W * * W W W * * * * * * *

(Sedum rupestre L.)

Rock-stonecrop

sarmentosum Bunge SNA * I I I I I I * * * I * * *

Running Stonecrop

sexangulare L. SNA * * W * * * * * * * * W * *

Creeping Stonecrop

ternatum Michaux WL SNR I I I I I * I * * I * * * *

Mountain-stonecrop

Sempervivum

tectorum L.

Hen-and-chickens

CUCURBITACEAE

GOURD FAMILY

Citrullus

lanatus (Thunb.) Matsumura & Nakai

(Citrullus vulgaris Schrader)

Watermelon

SNA

SNA

*

*

* * * I I I * I * * * * *

* * W W W W W * * * * * W


148

Tricolpates

CUCURBITACEAE

GOURD FAMILY

Cucumis

anguria L.

West Indian Gherkin

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

* * * W * W * * * * * * *

melo L. SNA W * W * W W W W W * * * W *

Cantaloupe

myriocarpus E. Mey. ex Naud. SNA * * * * W * * * * * * * * *

Paddy Melon

sativus L. SNA * * * * * * W W * * * * * *

Garden-cucumber

Cucurbita

maxima Dcne.

Squash

SNA

W

* * * W W * W W W * * W *

pepo L. SNA * * * * W W * * * W * W * *

Pumpkin

Echinocystis

lobata (Michaux) Torrey & A. Gray

Wild Balsam-apple

Lagenaria

siceraria (Molina) Standl.

Sicyos

(Cucurbita lagenaria L.)

Bottle Gourd

angulatus L.

Bur-cucumber

Thladiantha

dubia Bunge

Manchu Tuber-gourd

DIAPENSIACEAE

DIAPENSIA FAMILY

Galax

urceolata (Poiret) Brummitt

(Galax aphylla, auct. non L.)

Galax

DROSERACEAE

SUNDEW FAMILY

Drosera

filiformis Raf. var. filiformis

Thread-leaf Sundew

S4

SNA

S4

SNA

SNA

S4

N

*

N

*

*

*

N N N N N N N N N N I? * I

* * * * * * W * * * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N * N

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

* * * * * I * * * * * * *

* * * * * * * * * N N N N

intermedia Hayne S4S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Spatulate-leaved Sundew

rotundifolia L. S4S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Round-leaved Sundew


Tricolpates

EBENACEAE

EBONY FAMILY

Diospyros

virginiana L.

Persimmon

ELAEAGNACEAE

OLEASTER FAMILY

Elaeagnus

angustifolia L.

Russian Olive

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

SNA

149

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

I

* * * * I * * * * * I * *

* * I I * * * * * I I I *

pungens Thunb. SNA * * * * * * * * * * W * * *

Japanese Oleaster

umbellata Thunb. var. parvifolia (Royle)

Schneid.

Autumn-olive

ELATINACEAE

WATERWORT FAMILY

Elatine

americana (Pursh) Arnott

(Elatine triandra Schkuhr var. americana (Pursh) Fassett)

American Waterwort

Invasive SNA I I I I I I I * I I I I I I

E

S1

*

N N N * N N * * * N * * N

minima (Nutt.) Fischer & C.A. Meyer S4 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

Lesser Waterwort

triandra Schkuhr WL SNR I? * * * I? * * * * * * * * *

European Waterwort

ERICACEAE

HEATH FAMILY

Andromeda

polifolia L. var. glaucophylla (Link) DC.

(Andromeda glaucophylla Link)

Bog-rosemary

Arctostaphylos

uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel

Calluna

(Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel ssp. coactilis (Fern. & MacBr.)

A. & D. Löve & Kapoor)

(Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel var. coactilis Fern. & MacBr.)

Bearberry

vulgaris (L.) Hull

Heather

Chamaedaphne

calyculata (L.) Moench

(Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench var. angustifolia (Aiton)

Rehder)

Leatherleaf

Chimaphila

(Cassandra calyculata (L.) D. Don var. angustifolia (Aiton) Seymour)

maculata (L.) Pursh

Striped Pipsissewa

S4

S5

SNA

S5

S5

N

N

*

N

N

* N N N N N * N * * * * *

N N N N N N * N N N N N N

I * * I I I * * * I I I I

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N * N N N N N N


150

Tricolpates

ERICACEAE

HEATH FAMILY

Chimaphila

umbellata (L.) W. Barton ssp. cisatlantica

(Blake) Hultén

Corema

(Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Barton var. cisatlantica Blake)

Pipsissewa

conradii (Torrey) Torrey ex Loudon

Epigaea

Broom-crowberry

repens L.

Erica

(Epigaea repens L. var. glabrifolia Fern.)

Mayflower

cinerea L.

Scotch Heath

Status S-Rank

WL

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

S3

S5

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

*

N

*

N N N N N N N N N N N * N

* * * * * * * * * N N N N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

* * * * * * * * * * * * I

tetralix L. SNA * * * * I * * * * * * I I I

Cross-leaf Heath

vagans L. SNA * * * * * * * * * * * * * I

Eubotrys

Cornish Heath

racemosa (L.) Nutt.

(Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A. Gray)

Swamp-sweetbells

Gaultheria

hispidula (L.) Muhl. ex Bigelow

(Chiogenes hispidula (L.) Torrey & A. Gray)

Creeping Snowberry

S4

S4

*

N

* * * N N N N N N N N N *

N N N N N N * N N N * * N

procumbens L. S5 N N N N N N N * N N N N N N

Wintergreen

Gaylussacia

baccata (Wangenh.) K. Koch

Black Huckleberry

S5

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

bigeloviana (Fern.) Sorrie & Weakley S4 * * * * N N N N N N N N * N

(Gaylussacia dumosa (Andr.) Torrey & A. Gray var. bigeloviana Fern.)

Dwarf Huckleberry

frondosa (L.) Torrey & A. Gray ex Torrey S4S5 * N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Dangleberry

Hypopitys

lanuginosa (Michx.) Nutt.

(Monotropa lanuginosa Michx.)

Hairy Pine-sap

SNR

*

* * * * * * * * * * N * *

monotropa Crantz S5 N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

(Monotropa hypopithys L.)

Pinesap


Tricolpates

ERICACEAE

HEATH FAMILY

Kalmia

angustifolia L. var. angustifolia

Sheep-laurel

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

S5

151

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

N

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

latifolia L. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N

Mountain-laurel

polifolia Wangenh. S4 N N N N N N N * N * * * * *

Bog-laurel

Leucothoe

fontanesiana (Steudel) Sleumer

Lyonia

(Leucothoe axillaris (Lam.) D. Don var. editorum (Fern. & Schubert)

Ahles)

(Leucothoe editorum Fern. & Schubert)

Dog-hobble

ligustrina (L.) DC. var. ligustrina

Maleberry

Moneses

uniflora (L.) A. Gray

One-flowered Pyrola

Monotropa

uniflora L.

Orthilia

Indian Pipe

secunda (L.) House

Pyrola

WL

(Orthilia secunda (L.) House ssp. obtusata (Turcz). Böcher)

One-sided Pyrola

americana Sweet

(Pyrola rotundifolia L. var. americana (Sweet) Fern.)

Glossy Shinleaf

SNA

S5

S2S3

S5

S4

S5

*

N

N

N

N

N

* * I * * * * * * * * * I

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N * * * N * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

N N N N N N * N N * * * *

N N N N N N N N N N N N N

asarifolia Michaux ssp. asarifolia H SH N * * * * * * * * * * * * *

(Pyrola asarifolia Michaux var. purpurea (Bunge) Fern.)

Pink Pyrola

chlorantha Sw. S4 N N N N N N N N N N N N * N

(Pyrola chlorantha Sw. var. convoluta (W.P.C.Barton) Fern.)

(Pyrola virens Schreb. var. convoluta (W. P.C. Barton) Fern.)

(Pyrola virens Schreb.)

Green Shinleaf

elliptica Nutt. S5 N N N N N N N N N N N N N *

Elliptic Shinleaf

Rhododendron

canadense (L.) Torrey

Rhodora

S4

N

N N N N N N N N N N N * *

carolinianum Rehd. SNA *

* * * I * * * * * * * * *

Carolina Rhododendron


152

Tricolpates

ERICACEAE

HEATH FAMILY

Rhododendron

catawbiense Michaux

Catawba Rhododendron

Status S-Rank

The Vascular Plants of Massachusetts - 2011

SNA

BE FR HS HD WO MI ES SU NO BR PL BA DU NA

*

I I I I * * * * * * * * *

groenlandicum (Oeder) Kron & Judd S4 N N * N N N N * N * * * * *

(Ledum groenlandicum Oeder)

Labrador Tea

maximum L. T S1S2 N N * N N * * * N * * * * *

Great Laurel

periclymenoides (Michaux) Shinners WL S2? * * N N N N * * N N N * * *

(Rhododendron nudiflorum (L.) Torrey)

Pinxter-flower

prinophyllum (Small) Millais S4 N N N N N N * * N * * * * *

(Rhododendron roseum (Loisel.) Rehder)

Early Azalea

vaseyi A. Gray SNA * * * * * * * * * * W * * *

Vasey's Azalea

viscosum (L.) Torrey S5 * * N N N N N N N N N N N N

Swamp-azalea

Vaccinium

angustifolium Aiton

(Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton var. hypolasium Fern.)

(Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton var. laevifolium House)

(Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton var. nigrum (Wood) Dole)

Low Sweet Blueberry, Late Sweet Blueberry,