Lecture 1: Adolescence: A Field of Study - Apple

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Lecture 1: Adolescence: A Field of Study - Apple

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Copyright 2011, The Johns Hopkins University and Robert Blum. All rights reserved. Use of these materials

permitted only in accordance with license rights granted. Materials provided “AS IS”; no representations or

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Adolescence: A Field of Study

Robert Wm. Blum, MD, MPH, PhD

Johns Hopkins University


Outline

Denitions and historical perspective

A generation of rsts

Ecological framework

3


Section A

A Denition of Terms: An Historical Perspective


A Definition of Terms

Young People

10 24

5


A Definition of Terms

Young People

10 24

Youth

15 24

6


Terms According to WHO

Young People

10 24

Youth

10

Adolescence

15 24

19

7


Granville Stanley Hall: 1844–1924

Adolescence—its psychology

and its relations to physiology,

anthropology, sociology, sex,

crime, religion, and education

(1904)

Hall established an experimental

psychology laboratory at Johns

Hopkins University in 1882

8


Concept of Adolescence

Why was the concept of adolescence “invented” in 1904?

9


Why? Why Then?

Rousseau and a shift in the philosophy of childhood

10


Why? Why Then?

Rousseau and a shift in the philosophy of childhood

Industrial revolution

11


Why? Why Then?

Rousseau and a shift in the philosophy of childhood

Industrial revolution

Mandatory education

12


Why? Why Then?

Rousseau and a shift in the philosophy of childhood

Industrial revolution

Mandatory education

Age segregation and the evolution of a “youth culture”

13


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this

material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this site.

Copyright 2011, The Johns Hopkins University and Robert Blum. All rights reserved. Use of these materials

permitted only in accordance with license rights granted. Materials provided “AS IS”; no representations or

warranties provided. User assumes all responsibility for use, and all liability related thereto, and must independently

review all materials for accuracy and efficacy. May contain materials owned by others. User is responsible for

obtaining permissions for use from third parties as needed.


Section B

A Generation of Firsts


Today’s Youth: A Generation of Firsts

The rst generation to understand terrorism as a domestic

issue

The rst generation to fully compete in a global economy

The rst generation to experience instantaneous

communication with the world

3


Today’s Youth: A Generation of Firsts

The rst generation to grow up with the majority living a

portion of childhood in a single-parent household

The rst generation to live its entire life in the shadow of AIDS

The rst generation to witness and experience the

translocation of an entire American city

4


Social Learning vs. Gender Differences

In 1990, we believed gender-specic behaviors were

predominantly the result of social learning

Today, we know that neuroendocrine differences have a

signicant impact on gender differences related to

processing, learning, and behavior

5


A Shift of Frameworks

In 1990, we had a risk or decit model as the predominant

framework for youth programs

Today, we have a positive youth development model that

incorporates protective as well as risk factors

6


A Shift in Understanding Development

In 1990, we had an invariate, stage-based conceptualization

of adolescent development

Today, we have an ecological model that grounds

development within the contexts of a young person’s life

7


A Shift in Understanding Parental Roles

In 1990, we believed that parental inuence diminished as

peer inuence increased in adolescence

Today, we understand that parents are as critical during

adolescence as they were in childhood, even as peer

inuence increases

8


Adolescence is an Age of Opportunity

Pubertal development brings new capacities, a new body

image, and a new sense of self

Cognitive development brings with it the capacity to look at

a problem from multiple perspectives and to explore

competing options to its solution

9


Adolescence is an Age of Opportunity

Social development brings with it a broader set of inuences

than just family: peers, teachers, religious leaders

Moral development brings with it idealism, social

engagement, and volunteerism

10


Viewing Adolescents in a Social Context

To tap the potential as well as to address the problems of

youth, we need to view the adolescent nested in a wide set of

social contexts and we need to understand how they

inuence both health and morbidity

11


This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this

material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this site.

Copyright 2011, The Johns Hopkins University and Robert Blum. All rights reserved. Use of these materials

permitted only in accordance with license rights granted. Materials provided “AS IS”; no representations or

warranties provided. User assumes all responsibility for use, and all liability related thereto, and must independently

review all materials for accuracy and efficacy. May contain materials owned by others. User is responsible for

obtaining permissions for use from third parties as needed.


Section C

An Ecological Framework


An Ecological Framework: Adolescent

Adolescent

3


An Ecological Framework: Family

Adolescent

Family

4


An Ecological Framework: Peers and School

Adolescent

Family

Peers and School

Risk Protection

5


An Ecological Framework: Neighborhood

Religious

Community

Physical

Neighborhood

Cognitive

Neighborhood

Work

Setting

Adolescent

Family

Peers and School

Neighborhood

6


An Ecological Framework: National and Global

Contexts

Historical

Events

Religious

Community

Laws and Policies

Physical

Neighborhood

Cognitive

Neighborhood

Economic

Events

Work

Setting

Media

Adolescent

Family

Peers and School

Neighborhood

National and Global

Contexts

7

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