Views
5 years ago

PhD Thesis (PDF) - Department of Astronomy - University of Virginia

PhD Thesis (PDF) - Department of Astronomy - University of Virginia

PhD Thesis (PDF) - Department of Astronomy - University of

LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES, DIFFUSE GAS, AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES Gregory Robert Sivakoff Wilmington, Delaware B.S./B.A., Brandeis University, 2000 M.S., University of Manchester, 2001 M.S., University of Virginia, 2003 A Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Virginia in Candidacy for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Astronomy University of Virginia August, 2006 Craig L. Sarazin Kelsey E. Johnson Robert T. Rood Bradley B. Cox Joel N. Bregman

  • Page 2 and 3: Abstract Chandra X-ray Telescope ob
  • Page 4 and 5: Acknowledgements My decision to att
  • Page 6 and 7: and help with revisions. Additional
  • Page 8 and 9: course, I have never gotten the han
  • Page 10 and 11: students. I can not recall the coun
  • Page 12 and 13: 2.5.3 Total X-ray Spectra . . . . .
  • Page 14 and 15: 6.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . .
  • Page 16 and 17: 5.1 Raw X-ray Greyscale X-ray Image
  • Page 18 and 19: xviii B.2 Optical Properties of Glo
  • Page 20 and 21: luminosity, LB, the X-ray luminosit
  • Page 22 and 23: (including dark-matter) of a galaxy
  • Page 24 and 25: Much of the work in this thesis con
  • Page 26 and 27: of a galaxy, the low density implie
  • Page 28 and 29: Table 1.1. Galactic Low-Mass X-ray
  • Page 30 and 31: 1.7 Contents of the Thesis In this
  • Page 32 and 33: “X-ray faint.” Hot (kT ∼ 1 ke
  • Page 34 and 35: 2.2 Observation and Data Reduction
  • Page 36 and 37: kindly provided by Alexey Vikhlinin
  • Page 38 and 39: 24:00 22:00 7:20:00 18:00 16:00 18:
  • Page 40 and 41: Table 2.1—Continued Source d Coun
  • Page 42 and 43: Table 2.1—Continued Source d Coun
  • Page 44 and 45: Table 2.2—Continued Source d Coun
  • Page 46 and 47: 2.4 Resolved Sources 2.4.1 Detectio
  • Page 48 and 49: y an amount that is consistent with
  • Page 50 and 51: ulation. We fit the luminosity func
  • Page 52 and 53:

    eak at greater than 5 × 10 38 ergs

  • Page 54 and 55:

    side of the curve. Assuming that th

  • Page 56 and 57:

    Fraction of Counts 1 1 NGC 4365 Src

  • Page 58 and 59:

    log N(

  • Page 60 and 61:

    2.5 Spectral Analysis We extracted

  • Page 62 and 63:

    Table 2.3. X-ray Spectral Fits of N

  • Page 64 and 65:

    the corresponding isophote did not

  • Page 66 and 67:

    tracted the spectrum from an ellipt

  • Page 68 and 69:

    Fig. 2.10.— Top panels: Cumulativ

  • Page 70 and 71:

    source accounts for ∼ 1 4 of the

  • Page 72 and 73:

    for the total emission. The total e

  • Page 74 and 75:

    with ∼40% of the point-source cou

  • Page 76 and 77:

    was still an unacceptable fit (χ 2

  • Page 78 and 79:

    were between ≈(0.9-3.1) ×10 39 e

  • Page 80 and 81:

    sources in spiral and elliptical ga

  • Page 82 and 83:

    3.2 Observation and Data Reduction

  • Page 84 and 85:

    coding red for soft, green for medi

  • Page 86 and 87:

    02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00

  • Page 88 and 89:

    Table 3.1—Continued d a Count Rat

  • Page 90 and 91:

    is, these diffuse features are not

  • Page 92 and 93:

    tected sources may be foreground or

  • Page 94 and 95:

    of 4.12 × 10 42 ergs count −1 .

  • Page 96 and 97:

    other galaxies. Therefore, one must

  • Page 98 and 99:

    1.36×10 −15 ergs cm −2 s −1

  • Page 100 and 101:

    the far-IR detections do not necess

  • Page 102 and 103:

    Fig. 3.4.— Hardness ratios for th

  • Page 104 and 105:

    The hardness ratios of sources 1-3

  • Page 106 and 107:

    events. 3.5.1 Radial Profile of the

  • Page 108 and 109:

    Fig. 3.6.— Hardness ratios with 1

  • Page 110 and 111:

    02:30 -5:03:00 30 -5:04:00 30 -5:05

  • Page 112 and 113:

    Fig. 3.8.— SBPs, with 1 σ error

  • Page 114 and 115:

    Pram ≈ 1.6 × 10 −11 dyne cm

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Fig. 3.9.— Hα +[N II] contours (

  • Page 118 and 119:

    a correlation. It might be that the

  • Page 120 and 121:

    Table 3.2. X-ray Spectral Fits of N

  • Page 122 and 123:

    Fig. 3.11.— Top: Cumulative X-ray

  • Page 124 and 125:

    Fig. 3.12.— Top: Cumulative X-ray

  • Page 126 and 127:

    light, LB,80% = 8.5 × 10 10 LB⊙

  • Page 128 and 129:

    Near the same radius at which there

  • Page 130 and 131:

    the surface brightness dominating t

  • Page 132 and 133:

    in his total X-ray luminosities to

  • Page 134 and 135:

    Chapter 4 Luminous X-Ray Flares fro

  • Page 136 and 137:

    4.2 Observations and Data Reduction

  • Page 138 and 139:

    find P ′ constant for each flare.

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Table 4.1. Observed Properties of S

  • Page 142 and 143:

    two or three out of five observatio

  • Page 144 and 145:

    4.4.2 CXOU J124839.0−054750 (Sour

  • Page 146 and 147:

    explained if we are seeing this sou

  • Page 148 and 149:

    was attributed to low-mass X-ray bi

  • Page 150 and 151:

    of extragalactic SSs can exceed the

  • Page 152 and 153:

    5.2 Observations and Data Reduction

  • Page 154 and 155:

    5.2.2 Hubble Space Telescope We obs

  • Page 156 and 157:

    86 47:00.0 30.0 83 -5:48:00.0 78 30

  • Page 158 and 159:

    Fig. 5.4.— Adaptively smoothed Ch

  • Page 160 and 161:

    Table 5.1. Discrete X-ray Sources i

  • Page 162 and 163:

    Table 5.1—Continued Source R.A. D

  • Page 164 and 165:

    Table 5.1—Continued Source R.A. D

  • Page 166 and 167:

    Table 5.1—Continued Source R.A. D

  • Page 168 and 169:

    these sources may be extended or mu

  • Page 170 and 171:

    e fairly uniform over the FOV, sour

  • Page 172 and 173:

    and (a reduced χ 2 > 2 indicates t

  • Page 174 and 175:

    87 was near the limit of the S/N in

  • Page 176 and 177:

    Table 5.3. : Optical Properties of

  • Page 178 and 179:

    Fig. 5.5.— Percentage of GCs with

  • Page 180 and 181:

    two distributions. First, we compar

  • Page 182 and 183:

    same mass. Recently, Kim et al. (20

  • Page 184 and 185:

    a baseline value of the log-likelih

  • Page 186 and 187:

    Table 5.5. X-ray Spectral Fits for

  • Page 188 and 189:

    Table 5.6. Instantaneous Luminositi

  • Page 190 and 191:

    Table 5.6—Continued Source LA LB

  • Page 192 and 193:

    Fig. 5.7.— Cumulative luminosity

  • Page 194 and 195:

    Table 5.7—Continued Source Not De

  • Page 196 and 197:

    Table 5.7—Continued Source Not De

  • Page 198 and 199:

    Sample is only ∼ 1.01, we do not

  • Page 200 and 201:

    Fig. 5.9.— Completeness-corrected

  • Page 202 and 203:

    ut was not seen clearly in other sa

  • Page 204 and 205:

    5.8 Hardness Ratios The spectral pr

  • Page 206 and 207:

    1.2-2.0. On average, these sources

  • Page 208 and 209:

    power-law or bremsstrahlung models

  • Page 210 and 211:

    Fig. 5.13.— Top panel: Cumulative

  • Page 212 and 213:

    understanding of low energy calibra

  • Page 214 and 215:

    Source 1: The central source in NGC

  • Page 216 and 217:

    type star (Binney & Merrifield 1998

  • Page 218 and 219:

    Table 5.8. Possible Periodically Va

  • Page 220 and 221:

    Finally, we applied a new method de

  • Page 222 and 223:

    Fig. 5.15.— Impulse diagram indic

  • Page 224 and 225:

    Sample have a Pconstant,joint that

  • Page 226 and 227:

    Table 5.11. Sources Which Vary betw

  • Page 228 and 229:

    Table 5.11—Continued Source PL,AB

  • Page 230 and 231:

    used to calculate the probability a

  • Page 232 and 233:

    Table 5.12. States of Variable X-ra

  • Page 234 and 235:

    Table 5.12—Continued Source Obs.S

  • Page 236 and 237:

    lower-luminosity state in Sources 4

  • Page 238 and 239:

    state to the H32 selected state lea

  • Page 240 and 241:

    we do get a high absorbing column a

  • Page 242 and 243:

    absorption. In a study of variabili

  • Page 244 and 245:

    X-ray detections are not complete a

  • Page 246 and 247:

    is likely to be an AGN. The spectra

  • Page 248 and 249:

    Chapter 6 The Low-Mass X-ray Binary

  • Page 250 and 251:

    et al. 2001; Kundu et al. 2002); ea

  • Page 252 and 253:

    sample. The first three columns lis

  • Page 254 and 255:

    or chip node boundaries. The use of

  • Page 256 and 257:

    altered these overlapping regions,

  • Page 258 and 259:

    Table 6.3. GC-LMXB Matches by Galax

  • Page 260 and 261:

    6.2.3 Optical Analysis The centers

  • Page 262 and 263:

    Fig. 6.1.— Scatter plot of GC mag

  • Page 264 and 265:

    the rh,cor of the GCs in our sample

  • Page 266 and 267:

    Fig. 6.4.— Scatter plot of GC rel

  • Page 268 and 269:

    maximum cross-correlation was used

  • Page 270 and 271:

    Fig. 6.6.— The percentage of GCs

  • Page 272 and 273:

    Fig. 6.7.— The percentage of red-

  • Page 274 and 275:

    the same sample are 5.7 × 10 −13

  • Page 276 and 277:

    6.3.6 Dynamical Rates There are two

  • Page 278 and 279:

    Table 6.4. Fits of the Expected Num

  • Page 280 and 281:

    Fig. 6.8.— Identical to Figure 6.

  • Page 282 and 283:

    half-light radius and color affects

  • Page 284 and 285:

    two eigenvectors whose eigenvalues

  • Page 286 and 287:

    slope depends on metallicity, dx/d[

  • Page 288 and 289:

    Fig. 6.10.— Two-dimensional confi

  • Page 290 and 291:

    If both the formation and destructi

  • Page 292 and 293:

    For our Complete sample, LX > 3.2

  • Page 294 and 295:

    Chapter 7 Summary and Future Direct

  • Page 296 and 297:

    7.1.2 The Connection Between Globul

  • Page 298 and 299:

    Γ ∼ 1.5-1.8). From our observati

  • Page 300 and 301:

    distance compared to NGC 4365 and N

  • Page 302 and 303:

    This will allow us to better probe

  • Page 304 and 305:

    pothesis; however, one must first i

  • Page 306 and 307:

    that v ∝ (Mc/rc) 1/2 ∝ rc ρ 1/

  • Page 308 and 309:

    Appendix B Optical Properties of Gl

  • Page 310 and 311:

    Table B.1. Optical Properties of Gl

  • Page 312 and 313:

    Table B.1—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 314 and 315:

    Table B.1—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 316 and 317:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 318 and 319:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 320 and 321:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 322 and 323:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 324 and 325:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 326 and 327:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 328 and 329:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 330 and 331:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 332 and 333:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 334 and 335:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 336 and 337:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 338 and 339:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 340 and 341:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 342 and 343:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 344 and 345:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 346 and 347:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 348 and 349:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 350 and 351:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 352 and 353:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 354 and 355:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 356 and 357:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 358 and 359:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 360 and 361:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 362 and 363:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 364 and 365:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 366 and 367:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 368 and 369:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 370 and 371:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 372 and 373:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 374 and 375:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 376 and 377:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 378 and 379:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 380 and 381:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 382 and 383:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 384 and 385:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 386 and 387:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 388 and 389:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 390 and 391:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 392 and 393:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 394 and 395:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 396 and 397:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 398 and 399:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 400 and 401:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 402 and 403:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 404 and 405:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 406 and 407:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 408 and 409:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 410 and 411:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 412 and 413:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 414 and 415:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 416 and 417:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 418 and 419:

    Table B.2—Continued RA Dec. d GC

  • Page 420 and 421:

    Appendix C Optimal Preparation of B

  • Page 422 and 423:

    nade was a clear choice as this wou

  • Page 424 and 425:

    References Angelini, L., Loewenstei

  • Page 426 and 427:

    Dickey, J. M. & Lockman, F. J. 1990

  • Page 428 and 429:

    —. 1996, AJ, 112, 1487 Heinke, C.

  • Page 430 and 431:

    Knezek, P. M. & Bregman, J. N. 1998

  • Page 432 and 433:

    Muno, M. P., Baganoff, F. K., Bautz

  • Page 434 and 435:

    Sivakoff, G. R., Sarazin, C. L., &

the universe - Department of Astronomy - University of Florida
Slides - Department of Physics and Astronomy - University of ...
Studies of SOHO Comets - Department of Astronomy - University of ...
Department Seminar - Physics and Astronomy
Structure Formation - Department of Astronomy, Yale University
the lost - UMass Astronomy - Department of Astronomy - University ...
Slides (PDF) - UCL Astronomy Group
Grav Lensing 2006 - Physics and Astronomy at the University of ...
slides - Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Utah
Physics & Astronomy Alumni Newsletter PDF - Department of ...
246 - Institute for Astronomy - University of Hawaii
PDF File - X-ray Astronomy Group at ISAS
Making Silicon Lase - University of Virginia
Matters - Department of Physics and Astronomy - Washington State ...
Slide - Department of Physics and Astronomy - University of Pittsburgh
Thesis Proposal (pdf) - Department of Aerospace Engineering ...
Copyright LRA and PHD Thesis - Supervisors - University of Leicester
How to Build a Galaxy - Department of Astronomy, Yale University
Albert P. Linnell Department of Astronomy University of Washington
PDF Cover .ai - Virginia Commonwealth University Learning ...
PDF of the entire report - University of Virginia School of Law
Talk (PDF) - Physics Department - Utah State University
Quantum Computing with Ions (PDF) - University of Virginia
apply (PDF) - Marymount University in Arlington, Virginia
2007 Annual Report (PDF) - U.Va. Innovation - University of Virginia
Talk (PDF) - Physics Department - Utah State University
Talk (PDF) - Physics Department - Utah State University
Thesis Annex 1.pdf - OpenAIR @ RGU - Robert Gordon University
pdf format, 10pp, 3MB - Department of Physics and Astronomy ...