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Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school - Lincolnshire ...

Dealing with and

reporting racist incidents

in school

Guidance for

schools in Lincolnshire

2006


Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Dealing with and

reporting racist incidents

in school

Guidance for

schools in Lincolnshire

2006


Dealing with and

reporting racist incidents

in school

Guidance for

schools in Lincolnshire

2006

Published by:

Lincolnshire County Council

Newland

Lincoln LN1 1YQ

Lincolnshire County Council 2006

Further copies may be obtained from:

The Ethnic Minority Achievement Support (EMAS ) Service

Children’s Services

The EMAS Centre

The Primary School

Sturton by Stow

Lincoln

LN1 2BY

Tel: 01427 787190

This guidance was written by Essex County Council EMAS Advisors and adapted by Jill Chandar-Nair

(Lincolnshire EMAS) and Lyn O’Neill (School Liaison Officer) for use in Lincolnshire schools.

Lincolnshire County Council would like to express their gratitude to Essex County Council and those

services and schools who were consulted in the production of the original guidance.


Introduction

Lincolnshire as a local authority (LA) opposes all racism and is totally committed to

equal opportunities and treating people equally regardless of race, ethnicity and

culture. The LA considers that all manifestations of racism are wholly unacceptable and

will act positively to eradicate racism where it occurs. The LA will aim to identify the

effects of racism and take effective and systematic action to address racial, ethnic and

cultural inequalities.’

There is a firm commitment within Lincolnshire to address racism of all kinds.

The County Council confirms this commitment in its core values by respecting and

including everyone with equality of opportunity and celebration of diversity.

Compared with many authorities, Lincolnshire has relatively few residents from

minority ethnic groups; but we know that racist incidents occur both in our schools and

in the wider community. Research has highlighted the fear and intimidation felt by

those who encounter racist attitudes and behaviour, and studies have made clear that

such harassment is part of a wider climate of racism and discrimination against certain

groups in society. As Lincolnshire continues to welcome a growing number of people

from different cultural backgrounds, the County Council endeavours to provide a safe,

secure environment for them to live in.

The inquiry led by Sir William Macpherson into events following the murder of the

Black teenager Stephen Lawrence found that what it termed ‘institutional racism’

affected the Metropolitan Police Service and Police Services elsewhere. The Stephen

Lawrence Inquiry Report 1

defines institutional racism as: ‘The collective failure of an

organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of

their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes

and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance,

thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people’.

The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report sounded a wake-up call to all public institutions

and organisations, alerting them to the possibility that they were institutionally racist:

‘Our conclusions as to Police Services should not lead to complacency in other

institutions and organisations. Collective failure is evident in many of them.

It is incumbent upon every institution to examine their policies and the outcome of

their policies and practices to guard against disadvantaging any section of our

communities’. Furthermore, education was seen as having a crucial role in combating

racism within society: ‘If racism is to be eradicated there must be specific and coordinated

action both within the agencies themselves and by society at large,

particularly through the education system, from pre-primary school upwards and

onwards’.

As a result of recommendations made in The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report, new

legislation was introduced in the form of the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000,

accompanied by Home Office guidance 2

on responding appropriately to racist incidents.

Both the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 and the Home Office code of practice

apply to schools. Key extracts from these are provided in section 1 of this document.

1 The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: report of an inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny, The Stationery Office, 1999

2 The Code of Practice on Reporting and Recording Racist Incidents in Response to Recommendation 15 of The Stephen Lawrence

Inquiry Report, Home Office, 2000

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report defines racism as: ‘Conduct or words which

advantage or disadvantage people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin.

In its more subtle form it is as damaging as in its more overt form’. The House of Lords

has defined the term ‘ethnic group’ as people who have a:

• long shared history;

• cultural tradition of their own;

• common geographical origin or descent from a small number of common

ancestors;

• common language;

• common religion.

The definition of racism contained in The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report makes it

clear that every single person can be a victim of racism. This applies equally to

members of certain groups (for example, Black people, White people, Irish people,

German people, Asian people, Travellers, Muslims, Jews or people of mixed heritage).

It is recognised that some groups (such as Travellers and refugees or asylum seekers)

may be more likely to experience racism than other groups across a number of different

societies.

It is important to note at the outset that this guidance is not concerned solely with

pupils but with all members of the school community. Teachers, non-teaching members

of staff, governors, parents and carers may all suffer the effects of, or regrettably be the

cause of, racist behaviour. Having said that, teachers need to be especially aware of the

implications of such incidents for the pupils they teach, and the effects on their social

development and academic achievement. Many racist incidents do not simply represent

an attack on an individual but on their family and cultural heritage as well.

It is therefore essential that schools take seriously the experiences of their pupils and

deal with racism firmly and consistently.

For this to be achieved, headteachers, teachers, governors and others in the school must

have a clear and sympathetic understanding of the issues. This guidance is intended to

enable members of the school community to come to a shared understanding of the

issues involved in racist incidents and of their responsibilities in relation to such

incidents. It is also a highly practical document in that it provides schools with clear

procedures for dealing with, reporting and recording racist incidents.

This document supports the information provided in the School Administration

Handbook 3

. It is based on Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in schools from

Essex County Council who during the production of the document took full account of

legislation and the Home Office code of practice as well as consulting with a wide range

of relevant agencies and seeking legal advice throughout the process.

As part of the adaptation of the original document, consultation took place with

agencies including the Ethnic Minority Achievement Service, the Traveller Education

Service, the Racial Equality Council, the County Council Diversity Steering Group,

the Police and Community Supporters.

3 (School Administration Handbook) Lincolnshire County Council Education & Cultural Services Directorate, 2005

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


We know that children from a very early age are profoundly influenced by their

families, by the communities in which they live and by the media. Educational practice

based on equality and justice is good educational practice and involves developing

relationships built on trust, respect and an understanding and appreciation of diversity.

It involves challenging expressions of racism clearly and consistently. It also involves

addressing those expressions of racism and prejudice that pupils encounter in the

media, the wider community and possibly within their own families. This will entail

schools helping pupils and other members of the school community to unlearn the

prejudices and discriminatory attitudes they absorb from the world around them.

Combating deeply ingrained attitudes is not easy, and great sensitivity will be required.

Those of us engaged in this task can find inspiration in the following words of Nelson

Mandela, a man who retained his belief in the essential goodness of human nature

despite the prejudice that he and his people had to endure for so long: ‘No one is born

hating another person because of the colour of his skin, or his background or his

religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to

love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite’ 4 .

4 From Nelson Mandela’s inaugural speech as President of South Africa, 1994

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Contents

Responding to racist incidents in school: key points

Responding to racist incidents in school: flow chart

Part I To be taken into account when responding to racist incidents

1 Why schools must take all racist incidents seriously: key documents

2 Definition of a racist incident

3 The need to respond differently to different types of incident

4 Principles, protocols and procedures

Part II What to do when a racist incident occurs

5 Responding to racist incidents: the process

6 Investigating racist incidents

7 Taking appropriate actions with pupils (victims and perpetrators)

8 The role of outside agencies

Part III Developing an anti-racist climate and curriculum

9 Addressing racism through the ethos and culture of the school

10 Addressing racism through the curriculum

Appendices

1 Form RI 1

2 Form RI 2 (annual return to LA)

3 Ethnicity categories and codes used within Lincolnshire LA

4 Checklist for school race equality co-ordinator and named governor for race

equality

5 Glossary of terms

6 Further reading and resources

7 Contacts and support agencies

8 Sample letter


Responding to racist incidents in school: key points

• Schools, in common with the rest of the public sector, are

expected to adopt the following definition of a racist incident:

‘Any incident which is perceived to be racist by the victim or

any other person’.

• The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 and the Home

Office code of practice require schools to treat all racist

incidents seriously and to take certain specific actions when

racist incidents occur.

• Every school must incorporate policy and procedures

regarding racist incidents into its Race Equality Policy. All

schools are required by law to have a Race Equality Policy,

which is subject to inspection by OFSTED.

• Schools should keep written records of all racist incidents,

including the date, the name of perpetrators and victims,

the nature of the incident and actions taken in response.

Form RI 1 is provided for this purpose and is available

electronically.

• Schools themselves are to handle low-level, day-to-day

incidents. It is recommended that the school seek support

for incidents of a serious and/or persistent nature.

• Incidents of a serious and/or persistent nature are to be

reported through the School Liaison Officer to the LA

and the Police, if the are of a serious and/or persistent nature.

• Incidents that may constitute a criminal offence must always

be reported to the Police.

• A named member of the school senior management team

should be given responsibility for racist incidents.

• Parents and governors are to be informed of the number and

nature of racist incidents, and the action taken to deal with

them.

• Governing bodies are to inform Lincolnshire LA of the

number of incidents in their school. This will be done through

the completion and return of an electronic version of Form

RI 2 at the end of the academic year.

• Schools can contact EMAS Service or the School Liaison

Officer for advice and support.

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

See 2.1

See 1.2 & 1.3

See 1.41 & 4.13

See 1.3.4, 5.1, 5.2

& Appendix 1

See 3.2

See 3.3, 5.3

See 3.3 & 5.3

See 5.1.1

See 5.4

See 5.4 &

Appendix 2

Appendix 7

1


2

Responding to racist incidents (see section 5)

Possible racist incident occurs.

Form RI 1 completed and returned to headteacher/named member of SMT.

Does the alleged incident constitute a child protection issue?

YES

School Administration

Handbook procedures to

be followed.

YES

Appropriate actions taken.

Those involved seen/contacted.

Form RI 1 used to report incidents to the School Liaison Officer, who may inform

the Police. School may also contact Police directly, especially where incident

constitutes a possible crime.

Number and nature of substantiated racist incidents, and actions taken to

deal with them, reported to parents and governors.

Number of racist incidents (including unsubstantiated incidents) reported

annually to LA through Form RI 2.

All Forms and supporting documentation kept secure.

NO

Alleged incident investigated.

Those involved informed of outcome.

Allegation substantiated?

NO

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Part l

To be taken into account

when responding to racist

incidents

Part l


1 Why schools must take all racist incidents seriously: key

documents

1.1 Lincolnshire C.C. Race Equality Scheme including the County’s

commitment to tackling racism and promoting multicultural

awareness

1.1.1 The LA “Stamp Out Racism in Schools’ leaflet supports schools and their

communities to act positively to eradicate racism where it occurs.

1.2 Legislation

1.2.1 The Race Relations Act 1976 prohibits schools from discriminating on grounds

of colour, race, nationality or ethnic or national origin.

1.2.2 The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 requires schools to take active steps

to eliminate unlawful racial discrimination, to promote equality of opportunity

and to promote good relations between persons of different racial groups.

1.3 Extracts from the Home Office code of practice 5

1.3.1 All agencies involved in dealing with racist incidents should ensure that their

staff receive good quality training (4.10).

1.3.2 Schools’ behaviour policies should cover racial harassment and make clear how

staff and pupils should deal with it (4.11).

1.3.2 Schools should themselves handle low-level, daily occurrences (4.11).

1.3.4 Each school should record all racist incidents, including the date, the names of

perpetrators and victims, the nature of the incident and action taken in

response (4.11).

1.3.5 Parents and governors should be informed of the number and nature of such

incidents and the action taken to deal with them (4.11).

1.3.6 Governing bodies should inform LAs annually of the pattern and frequency of

any incidents (4.11).

1.3.7 Schools should pass on information about serious and/or persistent incidents or

perpetrators to the Police as this may provide useful intelligence (4.12).

1.3.8 Schools should always advise the Police of any criminal activity; this includes

racist incidents that are categorised as crimes (4.12).

1.3.9 Although minor incidents may not result in court proceedings, it is still

important to log these incidents (4.13).

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Part I

5 The Code of Practice on Reporting and Recording Racist Incidents in Response to Recommendation 15 of The Stephen Lawrence

Inquiry Report, Home Office, 2000. This code does not have statutory force as such, but it represents best practice and there is

an expectation that schools will comply with its recommendations. Schools will find themselves in a vulnerable position if

allegations of racism are made against them and they are found to be failing to implement guidance contained in the code.

1


Part I

1.4 Guidance from the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) 6

1.4.1 The school Race Equality Policy should address the following questions:

• How do you publicly promote good personal and community relations, and

what steps do you take to prevent racial discrimination?

• How do you record, investigate and report racist incidents and racial

harassment to your local LA?

• What training do you give staff to make sure they know how to deal firmly,

consistently and effectively with racist incidents, racial harassment and

bullying?

• How do you make sure that pupils, parents, guardians and staff know the

procedures for dealing with racist incidents and racial harassment?

• How do you work with the LA and others to tackle racism and racial

harassment in your school and in the local area?

1.4.2 Update 38, issued by the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) in Spring

2002, states that ‘inspectors must take account of the CRE’s code of practice and

evaluate the quality and impact of the school’s policy and practice in promoting

race equality’.

1.5 OFSTED framework 7

1.5.1 The statutory OFSTED framework for inspecting schools requires inspectors to

assess the extent to which:

• pupils are free from bullying, racism and other forms of harassment (3.2);

• the school promotes good relationships, including racial harmony (3.2);

• the school deals effectively with incidents such as bullying, racism and

other forms of harassment (3.2);

• the governing body fulfils its statutory duties, including promoting

inclusive policies in relation to special educational needs, race equality,

disability and sex (8).

1.6 Guidance document on Evaluating Educational Inclusion (OFSTED

2002)

1.6.1 The guidance suggests that the following are appropriate questions for

OFSTED inspectors to ask of the school, and the school to ask of itself, in respect

of racism and racist incidents:

• What action is being taken by the school to prevent and address racism?

(p6)

• How effectively are pupils taught to understand the need for mutual

respect in a diverse society? (p20)

2

6 The Duty to Promote Race Equality: a Guide for Schools, Commission for Racial Equality, 2002

7 Inspecting Schools: the Framework for inspecting schools in England from September 2003, OFSTED, 2003

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


• Does the school promote respect and understanding of diverse cultures,

languages and ethnic groups including faith groups, Travellers, asylum

seekers and refugees? (p20)

• How effectively does the school develop pupils’ understanding of the

effects of stereotyping, prejudice and racism? (p20)

• How effectively does the school deal with conflicts between different ethnic

groups in the community? (p25)

• What steps do the head and senior management team, supported by the

governors, take to prevent and address racism and to promote racial

harmony? (p27)

• To what extent do the head, senior managers and where appropriate

governors ensure all staff challenge, correct and deal with racist behaviour

and remarks, in all schools including those serving areas which are not

ethnically diverse where such remarks may go unchallenged? (p27)

• To what extent do the head, senior managers and where appropriate

governors communicate orally and in writing their commitment to

inclusive policies? (p27)

• How effectively does the school deal with either neutral or hostile

reactions by parents or others who believe it is not a priority, particularly

in schools which are not diverse ethnically? (p20)

• Do any pupils experience racial harassment? (p11)

• What happens if bullying or harassment has been observed by staff or

reported to them? (p22)

• Do staff deal effectively and rapidly with any verbal comments in lessons

or outside to do with pupils’ racial background? (p22)

• Do staff appear to condone racism by turning a blind eye, or through

dismissive remarks, “kids will be kids”? (p15)

• What training and access do staff have to external organisations to help

them understand and deal effectively with such incidents? (p22)

• What support is provided for victims of harassment? (p22)

• How effective are procedures for dealing with the offenders of such

incidents? (p22)

• Are trends in incidents and their causes analysed by the school? (p22)

• Are racial incidents reported annually to the governing body, parents and

the LA? What explanations are given if these requirements are not met?

(p22)

1.6.2 The guidance suggests that the following are appropriate questions for

OFSTED inspectors to ask of the school, and the school to ask of itself, in respect

of pupils from minority ethnic groups:

• How well is the school informed about pupils’ languages, cultures, values

and customs? (p21)

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Part I

3


Part I

4

• Is the school alert to cultural differences in manner and demeanour in

pupils expressing emotions? (p23)

• Do teachers show respect to pupils by using culturally sensitive language,

and are they alert to the cultural differences in non-verbal

communication? (p15)

• How do staff modify their approaches when chastising pupils from

different ethnic groups? (p23)

• Do learning resources show sensitivity to different groups and cultures

and do not, through the use of inappropriate images and stereotypes,

demotivate or offend pupils or more generally reinforce the prejudiced

views that some pupils may hold? (p16)

• How effective are the steps taken by the school to make sure its

assessment methods are free from cultural or linguistic bias to ensure fair

and equitable treatment of groups of pupils? (p23)

• How effectively does the school induct new pupils and ensure the needs of

particular pupils are being met, for example, by supporting refugee

children and recognising the effect of their education being interrupted?

(p21)

• How effectively does the school help Traveller parents to maintain

continuity in the education of their children? (p25)

• How effectively does the school enable the observance of religious customs

and practices such as Ramadan? (p25)

• How effectively does the school find solutions to enable Asian girls to

participate in sport? (p25)

• What does the school do in monitoring the incidence of the use of

sanctions? Is there over-representation of a particular group, for example

Black Caribbean boys who are often over-represented in exclusions? (p22)

1.7 Race Equality in Education - good practice in schools and

local education authorities (OFSTED 2005)

1.7.1 This report illustrates good practice in race equality, including the handling and

reporting of race-related incidents, in a sample of schools and local education

authorities.

2 Definition of a racist incident

2.1 The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report defines a racist incident as: ‘Any

incident which is perceived to be racist by the victim or any other

person’. According to the Home Office code of practice, this definition of a racist

incident should be used by all agencies, including schools.

2.2 The purpose of this definition is not to prejudge the question of whether a

perpetrator’s motive was racist or not. It is rather to ensure that investigations

take full account of the possibility of a racist dimension to the incident.

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


2.3 The overwhelming majority of public authorities, including Lincolnshire LEA

and the Police, accept this definition and advise that all incidents which may be

perceived as racist must be reported, recorded, investigated and followed up

with appropriate actions.

2.4 Racist behaviour can take many forms, for example:

Physical assault

This includes a range of violent actions, from criminal attacks involving hitting,

kicking and possibly the use of weapons, to pushing someone or tripping them

up.

Physical intimidation

This includes persistent ‘minor’ intimidation which may be cumulative in effect,

such as jostling in a queue or using offensive gestures and mimicry.

Verbal abuse

This includes derogatory name-calling, insults and overtly racist ‘jokes’; threats

and incitement of others to behave in a racist way; and ridicule of a person’s

speech, background, religion and/or culture (including a person’s dress, smell,

appearance and diet).

Insensitive/inappropriate remarks/comments/jokes

This includes thoughtless remarks and general comments; jokes which reinforce

negative stereotypes; and insensitive or inappropriate use of terminology and

language.

Racist graffiti

This includes offensive writing and/or drawings in places where they can be

widely seen, such as on walls, on desks and in lavatories.

Written comments/drawings (not graffiti)

This includes offensive writing and/or drawings in places where they cannot be

widely seen, such as on pieces of paper, in exercise books, emails or on mobile

phones (text messaging).

Abuse of/damage to personal property

This includes hiding a pupil’s bag, spoiling or destroying a piece of work,

deliberately breaking something, damaging clothing, etc.

Non co-operation/disrespect/ostracism

This includes failing to show respect to someone because of their race. Forms of

disrespect may relate to cultural and religious differences regarding food,

music, dress, etc. Such forms of disrespect are sometimes inadvertent, resulting

from a lack of awareness or knowledge on the part of the perpetrator.

Perpetrators could also be expressing received messages from the media,

parents/carers and other groups in the wider community. Other examples

include wearing racist badges or insignia and turning away from or ostracising

a person.

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Part I

5


Part I

6

Other incidents

These may include bringing racist material such as leaflets, comics, magazines

or computer software into school, or attempting to recruit others to racist

organisations and groups. This may extend to the distribution of racist

literature or posters within the school community.

2.5 Perpetrators and victims of racist incidents can be any members of the school

community. They may also be visitors to the school or people contracted to work

at the school.

2.6 It is important to recognise that racist incidents may not have a specific target

or victim and may include telling racist jokes, chanting, writing graffiti, wearing

racist insignia or making negative comments about a group based on biased or

prejudicial attitudes.

2.7 A ‘racist incident’ should be distinguished from a ‘racial incident’. A racial

incident involves conflict between individuals or groups perceived to be ‘racially’

different but with no underlying racist motivation.

3 The need to respond differently to different types of incident

3.1 Paragraphs 4.11 to 4.14 of the Home Office code of practice deal specifically

with racist incidents in schools. The Home Office code of practice distinguishes

between two types of incident: those that are ‘low-level, daily occurrences’ and

those of a ‘serious and/or persistent’ nature. Members of senior management

teams with responsibility for racist incidents will need to use their professional

judgement in determining into which of these two broad categories each

incident falls. If a school is uncertain, advice can be sought from advisers with

the Ethnic Minority Achievement Service (EMAS) (see Appendix 7).

3.2 Paragraph 4.11 of the Home Office code of practice advises that low-level, dayto-day

occurrences should be dealt with by the schools themselves. In dealing

with such incidents, there should be no need for outside agencies to become

involved. This is not to say that schools should not take these incidents

extremely seriously. All racist incidents, however trivial or minor, should be

reported and recorded using RI 1 and followed up with appropriate actions.

Parents and governors should be informed about all incidents, and governing

bodies should ensure that all incidents are recorded on Form RI 2 when they

make their annual return to the LA (see Appendix 2).

3.3 Paragraph 4.12 of the Home Office code of practice states that schools should

pass on information about serious and/or persistent incidents or perpetrators to

the Police as this may prove useful intelligence. It adds that schools should

always advise the Police of racist incidents that are categorised as crimes.

Schools must inform the School Liaison Officer who may also report the incident

to the Police.

3.4 In order to answer the question ‘When does a racist incident constitute a

crime?’, it is helpful to refer to Home Office guidance8 on ‘racially aggravated’

offences related to the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. The following table,

adapted from the guidance, shows how sentences are increased if the offence is

racially aggravated.

8 Crime and Disorder Act 1998: Racially Aggravated Offences, Home Office, 1998

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Existing offence Maximum penalty for Maximum penalty for

basic offence racially aggravated

offence

Common assault 6 months imprisonment 2 years imprisonment

and/or level 5 fine (£5,000) and/or an unlimited fine

Assault occasioning

actual bodily harm

5 years imprisonment 7 years imprisonment

Malicious wounding 5 years imprisonment 7 years imprisonment

Causing fear of 5 years imprisonment 7 years imprisonment

violence and/or an unlimited fine and/or an unlimited fine

Threatening behaviour 6 months imprisonment 2 years imprisonment

and/or level 5 fine (£5,000) and/or an unlimited fine

Harassment/intentional 6 months imprisonment 2 years imprisonment

harassment and/or level 5 fine (£5,000) and/or an unlimited fine

Criminal damage 10 years imprisonment 14 years imprisonment

Disorderly behaviour Level 3 fine (£1,000) Level 4 fine (£2,500)

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Part I

The offences listed in the left-hand column provide a useful guide as to the type

of incident that constitutes a crime, and which therefore needs to be reported to

the Police. To this list should be added a further offence: that of inciting racial

hatred.

3.5 In Britain, the minimum age of criminal responsibility is 10. However, for

intelligence gathering purposes, Lincolnshire Police have made it clear that

they feel it is appropriate for them to be informed about children under 10 who

are perpetrators of serious racist incidents, incidents for which if they were 10

years old or more they could be held criminally responsible.

3.6 It is important to recognise that what might start as low-level, day-to-day

occurrences may progress to something more serious if the incidents become

persistent, either on the part of the perpetrator(s) or the victim(s). A series of

seemingly insignificant incidents directed against a particular person or group

is likely to constitute racial harassment; and, although each incident in itself

may appear unimportant, the cumulative effect may have serious consequences

for the victim or victims and should not be underestimated.

3.7 Victims of racial harassment may begin to perceive that all negative incidents

and events in their lives emanate from racial prejudice. They might well begin

to over-react to low-level conflict situations, even when it is clear that these are

not racially motivated. Parents/carers of pupils who have been victims of racial

harassment become quite naturally very sensitive to their children’s accounts of

negative experiences within the school situation. Members of staff within

schools need to be aware of this and respond appropriately to all parents’/carers’

concerns, ensuring that they receive accurate, clear and current information

about what actions are being taken when an incident occurs, however trivial it

may seem.

7


Part I

4 Principles, protocols and procedures

4.1 A whole-school approach articulated through a clear policy

4.1.1 In respect of racist incidents, a whole-school approach to policy development

and implementation is essential. The involvement of the headteacher, the staff

(teaching and non-teaching), the governing body, pupils and parents/carers is

necessary to ensure that all members of the school community have a shared

understanding of what constitutes racist behaviour and a commitment to

responding appropriately to all manifestations of racism through the school’s

agreed procedures.

4.1.2 Procedures for responding to racist incidents should be set clearly within the

context of individual school policies regarding behaviour, bullying, harassment

and child protection. It should, however, be recognised that racist behaviour has

specific factors associated with it. These require special consideration and need

to be explained separately.

4.1.3 Procedures and strategies for dealing with, recording and reporting racist

incidents should be clearly explained within the school Race Equality Policy (a

statutory school policy required by the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000).

Key aspects of the Race Equality Policy (including the section covering racist

incidents) will need to be disseminated to all members of the school community,

including new members of staff. In accordance with legislation, schools must

monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of their policy and the policy should be

reviewed at regular intervals.

4.1.4 The checklist in Appendix 4 of this document can be used as a starting point for

monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of school’s procedures regarding

racist incidents. It is adapted from the section related to racism, racial

discrimination and racial harassment contained in Learning for All 9 , which the

Commission for Racial Equality distributed to all schools in 2001.

4.2 General principles

4.2.1 Racism is directed at people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin.

Everyone is therefore a potential victim of racism.

4.2.2 Any member of the school community and any visitor to the school can be a

victim, a perpetrator or a witness to a racist incident.

4.2.3 If there is a possibility that an incident could be perceived as racist by the

victim or any other person, it should be treated as a racist incident.

4.2.3 All possible racist incidents, however minor, should be treated seriously and

reported, recorded and followed up with appropriate actions as contained in this

guidance.

8

9 Learning for All: Standards for Racial Equality in Schools, Commission for Racial Equality, 2000

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


4.3 Reporting and recording

4.3.1 Within the school, all racist incidents should be referred and recorded in

writing, together with brief details of how each incident was investigated and

what actions were taken if the incident was substantiated. Form RI 1 (see

Appendix 1) is provided as a model referral form. By completing Form RI 1,

any member of the school community can notify the headteacher or other

appropriate member of the school senior management team that a racist

incident may have occurred.

4.3.2 Schools should use Form RI 1 (see Appendix 1) to pass on information about any

incidents to the School Liaison Officer (see Appendix 7).

4.3.3 Governors should be regularly informed of the number and nature of racist

incidents and the actions taken to deal with them.

4.3.4 Parents should be informed of the number and nature of racist incidents and

the actions taken to deal with them. It is suggested that this should be done

through the governors’ annual report to parents.

4.3.5 Governing bodies should inform Lincolnshire LA annually of the pattern and

frequency of any incidents. This can be done through the completion and return

of an electronic version of Form RI 2 (see Appendix 2).

4.4 Confidentiality

4.4.1 Consistent with the Data Protection Act 1998, all completed forms and other

records and written information relating to racist incidents should be treated as

confidential and locked in a secure place.

4.4.2 Where pupils are concerned, records relating to low-level, day-to-day

occurrences should be retained until the relevant pupils leave the school.

Current advice is that records relating to serious and/or persistent incidents

should be kept in a secure place until all of the pupils involved reach the age of

24. Information relating to serious and/or persistent incidents should remain on

individual pupil files, transferring with them from school to school.

4.4.3 Details of incidents involving teachers, governors or parents/carers should be

kept until their active involvement with the school ends.

4.4.4 A school can record names and other relevant personal details on the forms that

it uses internally; but written reports to other agencies, such as the LEA, and

the Police, should omit information that could identify individuals.

The exception to this is that, according to the Home Office code of practice,

schools should pass on information about perpetrators involved in serious

and/or persistent incidents to the Police and other appropriate agencies.

Schools can also pass on details about victims, provided they have obtained

their consent (or, in the case of victims under the age of 15, the consent of their

parents/carers). When passing on information about perpetrators or victims

who are pupils, it is important that parents/carers are informed. Form RI 1 (see

Appendix 1) has been designed to take account of these considerations.

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4.5 Child protection procedures

4.5.1 When a school is made aware that a pupil has been a victim of a racist incident,

the first consideration is whether this constitutes a child protection issue. If it is

suspected that the child or young person is suffering or is likely to suffer

‘significant harm’ as a result of the incident, then the matter must be referred

immediately to the person within the school who is responsible for child

protection. Procedures laid out in The School Administration Handbook must

then be followed. ‘Harm’ is defined by The Children Act 1989 as ill-treatment,

which includes physical, sexual and psychological abuse; the impairment of

health, which includes physical and mental health; and/or the impairment of

development, which includes physical, intellectual, emotional, social and

behavioural development. In determining whether the degree of harm is

‘significant’, the standard of health and/or development of the child or young

person should be compared with the standard of health and/or development

that could be reasonably expected of a similar child or young person.

4.6 When a parent/carer has a concern or makes a complaint

4.6.1 The School Administration Handbook provides guidance for schools on how to

respond when parents/carers complain about aspects of the school, including

making allegations of racism. It makes reference to guidance contained in this

document. If parents/carers wish to make a formal complaint they should first

contact the headteacher and then if still dissatisfied ask for a copy of the

school’s complaints policy.

4.7 When members of staff feel they are subject to harassment, bullying or

victimisation

4.7.1 This is becoming an important issue for our schools. Increasing numbers of

teachers from abroad are obtaining posts in Lincolnshire schools, and some of

them believe themselves to be victims of racism. Teachers should refer to their

school bullying and harassment policy which will provide guidance for members

of staff who feel they have been subject to harassment, bullying or victimisation

(including that motivated by racism), and also for senior managers and

governors on how to respond when such allegations are made.

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Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Part ll

What to do when a racist

incident occurs

Part ll


5 Responding to racist incidents: the process

The flow chart provided near the start of this document gives an overview of

recommended courses of action following a possible racist incident. A fuller explanation

of the process, and how Forms RI 1 should be used, is given below.

5.1 Form RI 1 (see Appendix 1): the school’s mechanism for referring

incidents to the appropriate member of the school senior management

team (SMT) and then to the School Liaison Officer.

5.1.1 Whenever an incident that could be perceived as racist occurs (however trivial it

may appear), it should be reported as soon as possible to the headteacher or

member of the SMT with responsibility for racist incidents (hereafter referred

to as the named member of SMT) and recorded in writing. This includes

incidents that take place when pupils are travelling to and from school and to

incidents that occur on school trips.

5.1.2 It is recommended that the person reporting the incident, whether a child or an

adult, uses a version of Form RI 1 on which to record brief details about the

incident, those involved and any actions that may have been taken immediately

following the incident. It may well not be possible to complete all sections.

5.1.3 Some people (for example, young children or pupils and adults with poor

literacy skills and those for whom English is not their first language) may need

assistance with the completion of Form RI 1.

5.1.4 It is suggested that a supply of RI 1 forms is kept in the school office and that all

members of the school community are informed about their purpose and

location and are encouraged to make use of them.

5.1.5 When a copy of Form RI 1 is taken for completion, a member of the office staff

should enter a reference number in the box on the form and log that the form

has been taken. The reference number then becomes the reference number for

that particular incident. It will be entered onto all forms and other

documentation relating to that incident.

5.1.6 Once completed, Form RI 1 will need to be submitted as soon as possible to the

named member of SMT.

5.2 Investigating the alleged incident

5.2.1 As soon as the named member of SMT is informed about a possible racist

incident, the immediate priority is to decide whether the incident could

constitute a child protection issue (see 4.5 for clarification). If it is deemed to be

a child protection issue, then the incident must not be investigated further by

the school. Instead, the incident must be referred immediately to the person in

the school who is responsible for child protection. Procedures identified in The

School Administration Handbook must then be followed. The incident will need

to be logged as a racist incident if substantiated.

5.2.2 If the incident does not constitute a child protection issue, then an internal

investigation can take place. The main purposes of the investigation will be to

establish whether the incident happened as reported and to determine whether

or not the incident was racially motivated. Guidance on investigating racist

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incidents is provided in section 6 of this document. Details of the investigation

into each incident, which may be brief, should be recorded on Form RI 1.

5.2.3 If the details and nature of the incident are substantiated, the school will need

to take appropriate actions in respect of both perpetrator(s) and victim(s). These

will vary depending on the seriousness of the incident, the effect on the victim

and whether the perpetrator and victim are pupils, members of staff, other

members of the school community or members of the wider community.

Guidance on taking appropriate actions in respect of those involved in racist

incidents is provided in section 7 of this document. Brief details of actions taken

in response to each substantiated incident should be recorded on Form RI 1.

5.2.4 If pupils are involved, it will be important to keep parents/carers fully informed

of actions taken in response to the incident.

5.3 Reporting racist incidents to the LA and other agencies

5.3.1 In section 3 of this document, the distinction between low-level, day-to-day

occurrences and incidents of a serious and/or persistent nature was explained.

Low-level, day-to-day occurrences should be dealt with by the school itself; but

incidents of a serious and/or persistent nature should be referred to other

agencies, including the Police, as appropriate.

5.3.2 All racist incidents should be reported to the LA as and when they occur using

Form RI 1.

5.3.3 Names of perpetrators, victims and others involved in incidents, including

witnesses, those doing the reporting and those involved in investigation and

follow-up activities shall be removed from RI 1 before it is forwarded to the LA

officer unless the permission of the individuals (or their parents/carers if the are

under the age of 15) has been obtained. If the incident is of a serious and/or

persistent nature and the Police or other agencies have been informed, names of

known perpetrators may be provided.

5.3.4 The LA needs to be informed of all racist incidents so that the pattern of racist

incidents in schools can be compared with the pattern of incidents in the wider

community.

5.3.5 Section 3 of this document explained that, according to the Home Office code of

practice, schools should pass on information about serious and/or persistent

incidents or perpetrators to the Police. The Police will investigate each incident

according to their procedures.

5.3.6 Section 3 of this document also explained that, according to the Home Office

code of practice, schools should always advise the Police of racist incidents that

are categorised as crimes. It is likely that where a racist incident constitutes a

possible crime, schools will want to report such incidents directly to the Police. If

schools do this, they should also return a completed version of Form RI 1 to their

School Liaison Officer.

5.4 Reporting racist incidents to governors, parents and the LA

5.4.1 According to the Home Office code of practice, governors and parents should be

informed of the number and nature of all racist incidents and the action taken

to deal with them.

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5.4.2 It is recommended that headteachers provide regular updates on racist

incidents as part of their report to governors at governing body meetings.

5.4.3 It is recommended that information about the number and nature of all racist

incidents that took place during the preceding year and the action taken to deal

with them is included in the governors’ annual report to parents.

5.4.4 According to the Home Office code of practice, governing bodies should inform

LAs annually of the pattern and frequency of racist incidents. This will be done

through the annual return of an electronic version of Form RI2 (see Appendix

2). It is suggested that the school keeps a ‘running record’ of racist incidents.

6 Investigating racist incidents

6.1 The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report made clear that ‘there is a need to ensure

that nobody obscures the approach to incidents involving racism because of a

lack of appreciation or willingness to accept that racism is involved’. Therefore,

where it is the perception of a victim or any other person that an incident is

racist, it must be recorded as such and measures taken to confirm the details of

the incident. It is important that all incidents are taken seriously and that all

alleged racist incidents are investigated and followed up appropriately.

6.2 In most cases, it will be the responsibility of the headteacher or named member

of SMT to carry out the investigation. It is essential that all actions undertaken

when carrying out an investigation are recorded. Records should be simple and

concise and confidentiality should be maintained at all times.

6.3 It will be important from the outset of an investigation to clarify the main

details of the reported incident as different procedures for an investigation may

be required for different types of incidents. If the complaint refers to a concern

over the organisation of the school or the implementation of the curriculum, the

area of complaint must be made clear. If it refers to a specific incident, victim(s)

or perpetrator(s), then witnesses need to be questioned. If an incident is clearly

a child protection issue then the school must follow procedures outlined and

must not carry out its own investigation. If the incident involves a member of

staff either as the perpetrator or as a victim, then reference should be made to

the school’s bullying and harassment at work policy. The context, the age of the

children involved and the seriousness of the incident will obviously influence

the manner in which it is investigated.

6.4 Questions for possible consideration when investigating an alleged racist

incident:

1. When and where did the incident take place?

2. Who was involved?

3. Who witnessed the incident?

4. How did it start?

5. What happened?

6. Was it intentional or unintentional?

7. To what extent did the incident affect the victim and/or others?

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8. In what way did the victim and/or others suffer?

9. Is there any history or relevant background to this incident?

10. Has the alleged victim or alleged perpetrator been involved in incidents of

this kind before?

11. Do any of those directly involved perceive the incident to be racist?

12. Do the participants recognise that the incident might be perceived as racist?

6.5 In order to find out the answers to the above questions, the person leading the

investigation will need to conduct interviews and have discussions with alleged

victims, alleged perpetrators and any witnesses of the incident. The interviews

may be conducted on an informal basis depending on the nature of the incident

and the age of the pupils. Some interviews will have to be conducted on a more

formal basis when a more serious incident has taken place. In all cases, where

possible, conversations should take place away from where the incident

occurred.

6.6 In most situations, the first person to be interviewed should be the alleged

victim or victims. They should be listened to carefully and it will be important to

establish if this is an isolated incident or whether they have been subjected to

racist behaviour before but have not reported it.

6.7 As regards alleged perpetrators, their version of events needs to explored

carefully and sensitively. Questions about why they said or behaved in a certain

way need to be asked to find out possible reasons for their actions.

6.8 When speaking with witnesses, they should be encouraged to describe the event

or incident in their own words and without too much prompting. It might also be

necessary to talk to relevant staff to gather more background information.

6.9 Throughout the process, all parties concerned should be kept informed of

actions that the school is taking. The school will generally want to inform

parents/carers of all pupils involved immediately an allegation has been made.

On occasions, parents/carers of alleged victims will allude to other situations

when their child has been a victim and this will need to be recorded.

6.10 Where the parents/carers of an alleged perpetrator react in a negative way, the

school may need to remind them of its policy on racism and the type of

behaviour expected of all pupils. Depending on the nature of the incident and

the age of those involved, the way in which parents/carers are informed about

the incident will vary. Obviously, in serious cases, the parents/carers need to

know that other parties, such as the Police, will be informed and may become

involved.

6.11 In order to reassure the person or people making the complaint that the

incident has been dealt with appropriately, it will be important to discuss the

results of the investigation and to identify actions that will be taken to prevent

a recurrence of the incident. Many parents/carers become frustrated when they

have contacted a school about their concerns but have received no information

about the actions the school has taken or is proposing to take. They may feel

that their concerns have not been taken seriously and may approach other

groups and organisations for advice as to how to take the matter further.

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Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


6.12 The result of the investigation may be that a racist incident was not proved to

have taken place. However, offence was still caused since the complaint was

made. This should be made clear to all those involved in order to prevent a

similar situation arising in the future. In the event that the person making the

complaint is not satisfied with the outcome of the investigation, then he or she

should be advised of the school’s formal complaints procedure.

6.13 Where the investigation corroborates the allegation, perpetrators who are

pupils should be dealt with firmly and appropriate actions taken (see section 7).

These actions, which might include the imposition of sanctions, should be

recorded on Form RI 1. Victims may need to receive pastoral support for a

period of time, and schools should remain vigilant about situations in which

victims might feel vulnerable.

6.14 Investigations might highlight issues relating to the effectiveness of the school’s

race equality policy. For example, the need for racism to be addressed more

effectively through the curriculum; the need for a clearer explanation of the

school’s stance on racism; the need for better communication with

parents/carers; and the need for greater consistency when dealing with racist

incidents.

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7 Taking appropriate actions with pupils (victims and

perpetrators)

Advice around wider issues of bullying and harassment can be found in the Schools

Administration Handbook. There are particular legal requirements and other

considerations that apply in the context of racist bullying and harassment, but schools

should always endeavour to ensure that actions taken are consistent with the guidance..

7.1 In order to achieve a measure of consistency, some appropriate short-term and

long-term actions that can be taken with pupil victims and pupil perpetrators of

different types of racist incidents10 are suggested below. These actions are to be

taken in addition to the procedures outlined in section 5, which include

reporting and recording all incidents and, where the incident is of a serious or

persistent nature, involving outside agencies. It is important to recognise that

some racist incidents may not have a specific target or victim. In these cases it is

still important to comply with the recommended procedures.

7.1.1 Physical assault and physical intimidation

Short term

• Do not ignore any incident of physical assault or physical intimidation, or

you will appear to be condoning the behaviour.

• Persistent ‘minor’ intimidation, such as pushing or tripping up an

individual, will have a cumulative effect and may – if ignored – develop

into more violent forms of behaviour such as hitting, kicking and possibly

the use of weapons. Such behaviour can constitute a criminal offence and

may lead to a charge of criminal assault with intent to cause bodily harm.

• Explain clearly to the perpetrator why the behaviour is unacceptable and

encourage the perpetrator to appreciate the consequences of his/her

actions and to apologise and make reparation for them.

• Do not attribute blame to the pupil who has been racist in a personal

manner or imply that the pupil as a person is wrong. Condemn the action,

not the person.

• Punish and support the perpetrator in accordance with the school’s

behaviour policy.

• Make sure that, where necessary, the victim receives appropriate medical

attention and that this is recorded.

• Make sure the victim is safe, feels safe and receives support.

• Inform and seek the support of parents/carers of both victim and

perpetrator.

6

10 See section 2 for explanation of types of racist incident listed

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Long term

• Monitor both the behaviour and emotional state of both perpetrator and

victim.

• Make time to talk with the perpetrator and reinforce the comments you

made earlier.

• Work with the perpetrator’s parents/carers to ensure that they understand

the school’s position on behaviour. Stress that the school will not accept

abuse against any individual, pointing out how this can damage the

individual.

• Provide further opportunities for the victim to discuss his/her feelings if

he/she demonstrates a need to do so and make sure the victim knows how

to access further support and what to do if the incident recurs.

• Keep parents/carers informed of developments.

7.1.2 Verbal abuse, insensitive/inappropriate remarks/comments/jokes and written

comments/drawings (not graffiti)

Short term

• Do not ignore any form of verbal racist abuse or you will appear to be

condoning the behaviour and therefore agreeing with the

comments/remarks. Failure to respond to low-key behaviour will not help

the perpetrator to appreciate the possible offence or hurt that could be

caused and is likely to result in an escalation into more serious verbal

abuse.

• State your position clearly by condemning the words/images as

unacceptable.

• Explain clearly to the perpetrator why the words/images were wrong and

hurtful or offensive. Sometimes it will be obvious why what was said,

written or depicted will cause offence, but it may need to be explained why

certain jokes, expressions and images are inappropriate.

• Encourage the perpetrator to appreciate the consequences of his/her

actions and to apologise and make reparation for them.

• Do not attribute blame to the pupil who has been racist in a personal

manner or imply that the pupil as a person is wrong. Condemn what was

said, not the person that said it.

• Where appropriate, punish and support the perpetrator in accordance

with the school’s behaviour policy.

• Make sure the victim receives support and does not feel threatened.

• Inform and seek the support of parents/carers of both victim and

perpetrator.

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Long term

• Monitor both the behaviour and emotional state of both perpetrator and

victim.

• Make time to talk with the perpetrator and reinforce the comments you

made earlier.

• Work with the perpetrator’s parents/carers to ensure that they understand

the school’s position on anything that demeans a person’s race, ethnicity,

culture or religion. Stress that the school will not accept abuse against any

individual, pointing out how this can damage the individual.

• Provide further opportunities for the victim to discuss his/her feelings if

he/she demonstrates a need to do so and make sure the victim knows how

to access further support and what to do if the incident recurs.

• Keep parents/carers informed of developments.

• Where number of incidents appear to be escalating, a letter to all parents

outlining the school zero-tolerance approach and action taken, should be

sent (see Appendix 8 for sample letter).

• Through the curriculum, address the issue of racist language and

stereotyping, giving pupils opportunities to study such issues through the

use of Persona dolls, literature and film and by bringing in outside

speakers, artists and others.

7.1.3 Racist graffiti

Short term

• Report all racist graffiti to the named member of SMT and remove such

graffiti immediately.

• State your position clearly by condemning the graffiti as unacceptable.

• Explain clearly to the perpetrator (if known) and other pupils why the

graffiti was wrong and hurtful or offensive. Sometimes it will be obvious

why what was written or depicted will cause offence, but it may need to be

explained why certain jokes, expressions and images are inappropriate.

• Encourage the perpetrator (if known) to appreciate the consequences of

his/her actions and to apologise to any targeted individual and make

reparation, possibly paying for any damage.

• Do not attribute blame to the pupil who has been racist in a personal

manner or imply that the pupil as a person is wrong. Condemn what was

done, not the person that did it.

• If known, punish and support the perpetrator in accordance with the

school’s behaviour policy.

• Make sure any targeted victim receives support and does not feel

threatened.

• Inform and seek the support of parents/carers of both victim and

perpetrator, if known.

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Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Long term

• Regular checks should be made and steps taken to discourage the

reappearance of graffiti.

• Monitor both the behaviour and emotional state of both perpetrator and

victim.

• Make time to talk with the perpetrator and reinforce the comments you

made earlier.

• Work with the perpetrator’s parents/carers to ensure that they understand

the school’s position on anything that demeans a person’s race, ethnicity,

culture or religion. Stress that the school will not accept abuse against any

individual, pointing out how this can damage the individual.

• Provide further opportunities for the victim to discuss his/her feelings if

he/she demonstrates a need to do so and make sure the victim knows how

to access further support and what to do if the incident recurs.

• Keep parents/carers informed of developments.

• Through the curriculum, explore the issue of racist graffiti and its effect on

individuals and groups.

7.1.4 Abuse of/damage to personal property

Short term

• Do not ignore any instances of abuse of or damage to personal property, or

you will appear to be condoning the behaviour.

• Persistent minor abuse, such as emptying a pencil case or kicking a bag,

will have a cumulative effect and may – if ignored – lead to more serious

damage being done to property. At worst, damage to property can

constitute criminal damage. This is viewed as a very serious crime.It

carries a maximum penalty of 14 years imprisonment if it is racially

aggravated (see 3.4).

• Explain clearly to the perpetrator why the behaviour is unacceptable and

encourage the perpetrator to appreciate the consequences of his/her

actions and to apologise and make reparation for them, possibly paying for

any damage.

• Do not attribute blame to the pupil who has been racist in a personal

manner or imply that the pupil as a person is wrong. Condemn the action,

not the person.

• Punish and support the perpetrator in accordance with the school’s

behaviour policy.

• Make sure that, where necessary, the victim receives appropriate medical

attention and that this is recorded.

• Make sure the victim receives support and does not feel threatened.

• Inform and seek the support of parents/carers of both victim and

perpetrator.

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Long term

• Monitor both the behaviour and emotional state of both perpetrator and

victim.

• Make time to talk with the perpetrator and reinforce the comments you

made earlier.

• Work with the perpetrator’s parents/carers to ensure that they understand

the school’s position on behaviour. Stress that the school will not accept illtreatment

of anyone’s personal property, pointing out how this can damage

the owner.

• Provide further opportunities for the victim to discuss his/her feelings if

he/she demonstrates a need to do so and make sure the victim knows how

to access further support and what to do if the incident recurs.

• Keep parents/carers informed of developments.

7.1.5 Non co-operation/disrespect/ostracism

Short term

• Explain clearly to the perpetrator why the behaviour is unacceptable and

encourage the perpetrator to appreciate the consequences of his/her

actions and to apologise and make reparation for them.

• Do not attribute blame to the pupil who has been racist in a personal

manner or imply that the pupil as a person is wrong. Condemn the action,

not the person.

• Punish and support the perpetrator in accordance with the school’s

behaviour policy.

• Make sure that the victim receives support and does not feel threatened.

• Ensure that the victim receives immediate support from suitable peers, for

instance, through a ‘buddy’ system.

• Inform and seek the support of parents/carers of both victim and

perpetrator.

Long term

• Monitor both the behaviour and emotional state of both perpetrator and

victim.

• Make time to talk with the perpetrator and reinforce the comments you

made earlier.

• Work with the perpetrator’s parents/carers to ensure that they understand

the school’s position on behaviour. Stress that the school will not accept the

ill treatment of any individual, pointing out how this can damage the

individual.

10

• Ensure that the victim receives continued support from suitable peers, for

instance, through a ‘buddy’ system.

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


• Provide further opportunities for the victim to discuss his/her feelings if

he/she demonstrates a need to do so and make sure the victim knows how

to access further support and what to do if the incident recurs.

• Keep parents/carers informed of developments.

• Through the curriculum, explore issues related to human rights.

Emphasise the right of every pupil to be included in all school activities.

• Remain alert to the possibility of a pupil being ostracised by peers. This

can be hard to detect.

8 The role of outside agencies

There are a number of individual agencies, each having a particular role to play in

supporting victims of racism. However, it is often helpful for an agency to work with

others with different expertise to help resolve an incident or series of incidents. Each

agency has a set of protocols that it follows in reporting, recording and dealing with

racist incidents.

8.1 Lincolnshire Police

8.1.1 Hate crime in all its forms has an impact on victims, communities and others.

Hate crime is defined as any crime which constitutes a criminal offence,

perceived by the victim or any other person, as being motivated by prejudice or

hate. The definition is broad, inclusive and considers factors which encompass

race, religion, sexuality, disability, gender, age and status, but not that of

domestic violence which is covered by a different policy.

8.1.2 Lincolnshire Police are committed to acting positively in recording and

investigating any hate incident, whether or not it constitutes a crime.

Lincolnshire Police will:

• Place a high priority on dealing with Hate crime/Incidents and

performance by staff will be closely monitored and appropriate entries

made on personal performance records;

• Adopt a pro-active approach in the investigation of every incident in

accordance with the victim’s wishes;

• Use a partnership approach with other local agencies to help try to resolve

problems and explore initiatives to help repeat victims;

• Involve Community Policing Teams in dealing with incidents and

supporting victims.

8.1.3 Each Police Division has a designated Hate Crime Champion who has overall

responsibility for the monitoring of Hate Crime incidents.

All Lincolnshire Police Officers and front line support staff, such as town

enquiry officers and call takers, have been trained in the Lincolnshire Police

Hate Crime Policy and issued with a manual of operating guidance to ensure

that Hate Crimes and Incidents are properly identified and dealt with in the

correct manner at all stages of the investigation.

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8.1.4 Independent Advisory Groups

Each Division in Lincolnshire has a panel of citizens drawn from the community

known as the Independent Advisory Group (IAG). The membership is intended

to be representative of the local community and specifically includes members

of minority groups.

The IAG are consulted with regard to

• Advice on policy and strategy

• Assistance with critical incidents

• Participation in training, particularly raising awareness of issues for

minority groups.

• maintaining transparency of decision making, keeping processes open,

honesty and fairness

• Acting as community intermediary

• Mediating between victims/witnesses and police

• Visiting scenes of crime.

8.1.5 Lincolnshire Criminal Justice Board

The Lincolnshire Criminal Justice Board, which comprises members from all

Criminal Justice service agencies, such as Police, Courts, Prison, Probation,

CPS, Youth Offending Teams, etc. have a diversity sub group who regularly

monitor the performance and activities of their member agencies in order to

ensure prejudice or discrimination is eliminated and provide up to date training

with regard to diversity matters.

8.2 Lincolnshire Racial Equality Council

8.2.1 At regional and national levels, Lincolnshire Racial Equality Council works in

partnership with other Racial Equality Councils, other voluntary organisations

and the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE). Lincolnshire Racial Equality

Council seeks to eliminate racial discrimination in all forms, so that members of

all communities in Lincolnshire can enjoy freedom from injustice. It aims to

achieve justice for all individuals, whatever their race, colour, religion, disability

or gender, in the provision of employment and the provision of public, local

authority and private services, especially housing, education, health, social

services and criminal justice.

8.2.2 To achieve its primary purpose effectively, Lincolnshire Racial Equality Council

utilises its human and financial resources to:

• assist and support individuals and groups who have suffered

discrimination;

• campaign and develop strategies to influence public opinion, legislation

and practices and procedures in favour of racial equality;

• work closely with Black and minority ethnic communities to enable them

to develop their own organisations and strengths.

12

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


8.3 Lincolnshire County Council

8.3.1 The Corporate Objectives for Lincolnshire are:

• enrich lifestyle

• achieve excellence

• improve access

• promote diversity and

increase security.

Equality and diversity is at the core of all these objectives and is recognised as

crucial in order for the County Council to meet its vision of Lincolnshire

LEADS: 11 healthy; prosperous; safe by 2009

8.3.2 The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 places a general duty on all public

bodies, including county councils and schools, to promote race equality. This

means that the Council is taking a more pro-active approach to race equality

and is considering the needs of its customers and local communities. The three

parts of the general duty are to:

• eliminate unlawful racial discrimination;

• promote equality of opportunity;

• promote good relations between persons of different racial groups.

8.4 District Councils

8.4.1 Each local Council has a Code of Guidance that ensures that all racist incidents

that are reported are properly recorded and monitored. If the victim so wishes, a

Council officer will be asked to investigate the matter and to agree with the

victim an appropriate course of action to take to resolve it.

8.4.2 Every case is dealt with in strict confidence. Each service area/department will

have a named officer who is responsible for the recording and monitoring of

racist incidents.

8.5 Ethnic Minority Achievement Support (EMAS) Service

8.5.1 EMAS forms part of the Lincolnshire County Council’s Children’s Services.

It supports minority ethnic pupils in Lincolnshire schools by:

• promoting greater awareness of their needs;

• working with schools to help minority ethnic pupils achieve across the

whole-school curriculum;

• helping teachers understand some of the difficulties which pupils for

whom English is an additional language may experience;

• providing training for school staff on race equality issues;

• assisting schools in tackling racism and promoting intercultural

awareness;

11 Lincolnshire LEADS: healthy; prosperous; safe, 2006

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

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• offering advice and support to pupils and their families who are victims of

racial harassment or bullying;

• working with other agencies, including the Police.

8.6 Traveller Education Service (TES)

8.6.1 The TES is a countywide peripatetic team working with schools, families and

other agencies to ensure full access to education for Traveller children. The TES

offers:

• advisory support to all school staff;

• training on issues related to cultural awareness;

• curriculum development materials;

• support with planning and provision for distance learning;

• support for pupils with fragmented education;

• support for families in accessing education;

• a joint agency approach.

8.7 Victim Support

8.7.1 Victim Support is a national organisation set up to offer emotional support and

practical advice to victims of crime and other traumatic events, including racist

incidents. The service offers:

• locally based offices;

• trained volunteer visitors who listen to the victim in a safe place without

making judgements;

• practical advice about the steps the victim may wish to take;

• support, for example by accompanying the victim to court;

• a free and confidential service.

8.8 Citizens Advice Bureaux (CAB)

8.8.1 The CAB service is for all sections of the community and is an agent for change.

Its whole ethos is about helping people to exercise their rights and to obtain fair

treatment under the law thereby improving their lives. The CAB can advise on

all issues including referrals to the Police, solicitors and self-help groups.

Trained CAB staff will also just listen if a person needs someone impartial to

talk to before taking action. The CAB works with other agencies such as

Housing Officers, the Police, and Victim Support to provide a linked programme

of support.

8.9 CALL Advocacy

8.9.1 CALL is a voluntary agency providing independent advocacy for people in

Lincolnshire. Working with older people, disabled people,migrant workers and

other vulnerable people, CALL offers a “voice” to support people to get their

views heard and their choices respected.

14

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Part lll

Developing an anti-racist

climate and curriculum

Part lll


9 Addressing racism through the ethos and culture of the

school

9.1 The main purpose of this document has been to provide guidance as to how

schools may deal effectively and appropriately with racist incidents as and

when they occur. But it is important to recognise that however well a school

responds to particular incidents, the actions taken will have only a limited and

temporary effect unless the school develops an ethos and culture that are

antipathetic to racism. The most effective way of dealing with racism is to create

and maintain a school climate in which racist attitudes and actions neither take

root nor find means of expression.

9.2 Establishing an appropriate ethos is fundamental in providing a foundation for

a supportive approach to inclusion and equality issues in general, and tackling

racism in particular. A school community that is genuinely inclusive, promotes

equality of opportunity, values each member of the school community, sees

diversity as enriching, promotes good relationships, has clear and consistent

expectations in terms of behaviour, and treats each member of the school

community with fairness and justice, is unlikely to be one in which racist

attitudes flourish.

9.3 The enemy of such an ethos is what The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report refers

to as ‘institutional racism’. As we have already seen in the introduction to this

document, the report defines institutional racism as: ‘The collective failure of an

organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people

because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in

processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through

unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which

disadvantage minority ethnic people’.

9.4 The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report continues: ‘Institutional racism persists

because of the failure of the organisation openly and adequately to recognise

and address its existence and causes by policy, example and leadership. Without

recognition and action to eliminate such racism it can prevail as part of the

ethos and culture of an organisation. It is a corrosive disease’.

9.5 The important point to note about institutional racism is that it is generally

unwitting, unintended. It permeates the fabric of an institution in subtle ways

and becomes the accepted norm. People within the institution are generally

unaware of the degree to which it is institutionally racist. Even if they are made

aware, they tend to underestimate the effects of institutional racism and to be

complacent about identifying and addressing it.

9.6 There is a story about a headteacher who stated: “We never had any problems

with racism until that Black child joined the school”. This comment makes it

apparent that the school had always had a problem with racism. It just wasn’t

aware of it. The arrival of the Black child highlighted the fact that the school

had always been institutionally racist.

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9.7 The Race Relations Act 1976 makes a distinction between ‘direct’ andindirect’

forms of discrimination. Some schools have implemented indirect forms of

discrimination. For instance, a school that bans all forms of jewellery will be

discriminating against Sikhs, many of whom have a religious duty to wear a

steel bangle on the wrist. Schools that apply indirect forms of discrimination

may be termed institutionally racist.

9.8 Institutional racism is highly insidious, and if schools are to avoid it they need

to be vigilant, taking nothing for granted and subjecting themselves to constant

self-examination. As part of the process of self-evaluation, in addition to using

the checklist in Appendix 4 of this document, schools may also wish to use the

checklist related to ethos which may be found on pages 39 and 40 of Learning

for All12 . This auditing tool for standards for racial equality was distributed to

all schools in 2001. The Moderated School Self Evaluation Review (MSSR) 13 may

also be used. Schools should state in their Race Equality Policy how they intend

to audit their race equality work.

9.9 In order to develop a climate that is antipathetic to racism, schools may like to

consider the extent to which the following are met:

• The school’s aims, reflected in policies on inclusion, equal opportunities,

race equality and behaviour, explicitly state the school’s commitment to

inclusion, equal opportunities, valuing each member of the school

community, valuing diversity and tackling racism whenever, wherever and

however it occurs.

• The home-school agreement clearly sets out the school’s intolerance of all

forms of racist behaviour.

• The culture and climate of the school express and support cultural, ethnic

and religious diversity so that each individual pupil knows that everyone

is valued equally.

• Clear and consistent standards are established for the way in which all

members of the school community are expected to behave towards each

other.

• Through the physical environment and visual materials (for example,

displays, library materials and resources), all pupils see that a range of

cultures, ethnic groups and religions are positively valued.

• The school celebrates achievements, both of individuals and groups, so

that all pupils and parents/carers feel they can participate in and

contribute to the life of the school.

• The school affirms and nurtures the identity of all members of its community

and ensures that home language, culture and religion are valued.

• The school ensures that all members of its community (teachers, nonteaching

staff, governors, pupils, parents and other adults) understand

that they have a responsibility to contribute to a climate in which racism

of any kind is regarded as unacceptable.

• All of the above is fully supported by the governing body which seeks to

recruit members of minority ethnic groups when opportunities arise.

2

12 Learning for All: Standards for Racial Equality in Schools, Commission for Racial Equality, 2000

13 Moderated School Self Evaluation Review (MSSR), School Improvement Service

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


10 Addressing racism through the curriculum

10.1 ‘No one is born a racist; you become one. What you learn can be good or bad. It

depends on who’s doing the teaching, at school and at home’ 14 . The introduction

to this document made reference to the fact that racist behaviour is a reflection

of racist views, practices and prejudices in society. Research evidence shows that

children as young as three have learned positive and negative feelings about

racial groups and demonstrate an awareness of racial hierarchy in line with the

perceptions of adults with whom they have close contact.

10.2 The school curriculum has a central role to play in the process of enabling pupils

to develop the ability to recognise and respond appropriately to inequality,

injustice, racism, stereotypes, prejudice and bias. All subjects have a

contribution to make; but as the following extracts illustrate, education against

racism has particular prominence in the requirements and suggestions for

citizenship and personal, social and health education (PSHE) within the

national curriculum:

At Key Stage 1, pupils should be taught:

• to realise that people... have needs, and that they have responsibilities to

meet them (2e);

• to identify and respect the differences and similarities between people (4c);

• to consider social and moral dilemmas that they come across in everyday

life [for example, aggressive behaviour, questions of fairness, right and

wrong, simple political issues...] (5g).

At Key Stage 2, pupils should be taught:

• to realise the consequences of anti-social and aggressive behaviours, such

as bullying and racism, on individuals and communities (2c);

• to appreciate the range of national, regional, religious and ethnic

identities in the United Kingdom (2i);

• to think about the lives of people... with different values and customs (4b);

• to realise the nature and consequences of racism, teasing, bullying and

aggressive behaviours, and how to respond to them and ask for help (4d);

• to recognise and challenge stereotypes (4e).

At Key Stage 3, pupils should be taught:

• about the diversity of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in

the United Kingdom and the need for mutual respect and understanding

(citizenship 1b);

• about the world as a global community, and the political, economic,

environmental and social implications of this... (citizenship 1i);

• to use their imagination to consider other people’s experiences and be able

to think about, express and explain views that are not their own

(citizenship 3a);

14 Racism Explained to My Daughter, Tahar Ben Jalloun, The New Press, 1999

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

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• to respect the differences between people... (PSHE 1b);

• about the effects of all types of stereotyping, prejudice, bullying, racism

and discrimination and how to challenge them assertively (PSHE 3a);

• how to empathise with people different from themselves (PSHE 3b);

• to consider social and moral dilemmas [for example, how the choices they

make as consumers affect other people’s economic choices and

environments] (PSHE 4g).

At Key Stage 4, pupils should be taught:

• about the origins and implications of the diverse national, regional,

religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom and the need for

mutual respect and understanding (citizenship 1b);

• about the wider issues and challenges of global interdependence and

responsibility (citizenship 1j);

• to use their imagination to consider other people’s experiences and be able

to think about, express, explain and critically evaluate views that are not

their own (citizenship 3a);

• about the diversity of different ethnic groups and the power of prejudice

(PSHE 3a);

• to challenge offending behaviour, prejudice, bullying, racism and

discrimination assertively and take the initiative in giving and receiving

support (PSHE 3c).

10.3 It is essential that work to address racism should take place through the taught

curriculum as an integral part of a whole-school approach. This is particularly

important in schools with low numbers of ethnic minority pupils and staff.

Practical guidance on how this can be achieved is provided in the document

Aiming high: Understanding the needs of Minority Ethnic Pupils in mainly

white Schools15 .

10.4 There are many strategies which teachers can adopt to deal with the issue of

racism in their classrooms. These could include:

• developing topics and using stories and materials which raise issues of

racial similarities and differences;

• providing positive images and role models in resources and displays which

reflect the experiences and backgrounds of children in the school and in

society at large;

• developing global dimensions of the curriculum which value Black

contributions to world culture and encourage pupils to critically address

issues of world development;

involving people from diverse and varied backgrounds to assist in the

delivery of the curriculum by inviting visitors to the school who can

demonstrate and share their skills and knowledge;

4

15 Aiming high: Understanding the needs of Minority Ethnic Pupils in mainly white Schools, DfES, 2004

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


• regularly examining resources critically to ensure that they do not present

biased or stereotypical images and viewpoints;

• encouraging pupils to discuss and develop strategies for dealing with

conflict, racist incidents and racial harassment;

• encouraging pupils to work co-operatively and collaboratively in their

learning;

• calling attention to other points of view and encouraging pupils to listen to

each other’s opinions in a positive manner;

• valuing each individual’s cultural and linguistic background/experience

and having high expectations of all children.

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6

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendices

Appendices


Appendix 1

Form RI 1

(Racist Incident Referral Form)

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 1

1


CONFIDENTIAL

RACIST INCIDENT REFERRAL FORM Form RI 1

Used to notify headteacher/named member of SMT as soon as possible after incident has taken place.

Each incident to be referred separately. Forms to be collected from/returned to school office, and forwarded

to School Liaison Officer. All names should be removed unless permission to provide this information Ref. no.

has been obtained from victim or their parents if they are under the age of 15.

(Office to enter ref. no.)

Details of alleged incident

2

Name(s) of alleged victim(s) Name(s) of alleged perpetrator(s)

Alleged ✓ M/F Further information

victim(s)

Pupil

Teaching staff

Other staff

Parent/carer

Governor

Visitor

Other

(e.g. year, group, ethnicity

of pupil)

Alleged ✓ M/F Further information

perpetrator(s)

Pupil

Teaching staff

Other staff

Parent/carer

(e.g. year, group, ethnicity

of pupil)

Governor

Visitor

Other

Name(s) of possible witness(es) Name of person reporting incident

Alleged ✓ M/F Further information

witness(es)

Pupil

Teaching staff

Other staff

Parent/carer

Governor

Visitor

(e.g. year, group, ethnicity

of pupil)

Other

Person ✓ M/F (e.g. year, group, ethnicity

reporting of pupil)

incident

Pupil

Teaching staff

Other staff

Parent/carer

Governor

Visitor

Other

* Ethnicity should conform to one of the categories identified in Appendix 4

• Did the person reporting the incident witness the incident? Yes No

• Was racist behaviour directed at the person reporting the incident? Yes No

• Did the person reporting the incident hear about it from someone else? Yes No

If ‘Yes’ to the last question, who informed the person? How did the person get to hear about it?

• Has the person reporting the incident notified anyone else? Yes No

If ‘Yes’ to the last question, who else has it been referred to?

Signed by person reporting incident Date

Signed by person completing this section Date

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Date/time of incident

Type of Incident

Tick (✓) all boxes in table below that apply.

See over (lower part of page) for explanation of categories.

Physical assault

Physical intimidation

Verbal abuse

Insensitive/inappropriate remarks/comments/jokes

Racist graffiti

Written comments/drawings (not graffiti)

Abuse of/damage to personal property

Non-co-operation/disrespect/ostracism

Other

What happened?

If there is insufficient space below, further sheets may be attached to this form.

Types of incident

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Place where incident occurred

Ref. no.

Involvement of other agencies

Tick (✓) all boxes in table below that apply.

Police

EMAS Service

Racial Equality Council

Victim Support

Traveller Education Service

Other

Form RI 1

Physical assault includes a range of violent actions, from criminal attacks involving hitting, kicking and possibly

the use of weapons, to pushing someone or tripping them up.

Physical intimidation includes persistent ‘minor’ intimidation which may be cumulative in effect, such as jostling

in a queue or using offensive gestures and mimicry.

Verbal abuse includes derogatory name-calling, insults and overtly racist ‘jokes’; threats and incitement of others to

behave in a racist way; and ridicule of a person’s speech, background, religion and/or culture (including a person’s

dress, smell, appearance and diet).

Insensitive/inappropriate remarks/comments/jokes includes thoughtless remarks and general comments;

jokes which reinforce negative stereotypes; and insensitive or inappropriate use of terminology and language.

Racist graffiti includes offensive writing and/or drawings in places where they can be widely seen, such as on walls,

on desks and in lavatories.

Written comments/drawings (not graffiti) includes offensive writing and/or drawings in places where they

cannot be widely seen, such as on pieces of paper, in exercise books, emails or on mobile phones (text messaging).

Abuse of/damage to personal property includes hiding a pupil’s bag, spoiling or destroying a piece of work,

deliberately breaking something, damaging clothing, etc.

Non co-operation/disrespect/ostracism includes failing to show respect to someone because of their race. Forms of

disrespect may relate to cultural and religious differences regarding food, music, dress, etc. Such forms of disrespect

are sometimes inadvertent, resulting from a lack of awareness or knowledge on the part of the perpetrator.

Perpetrators could also be expressing received messages from the media, parents/carers and other groups in the wider

community. Other examples include wearing racist badges or insignia and turning away from or ostracising a person.

Other incidents may include bringing racist material such as leaflets, comics, magazines or computer software into

school, or attempting to recruit others to racist organisations and groups. This may extend to the distribution of

racist literature or posters within the school community.

Does the alleged incident reported on Form RI 1 constitute a child protection issue? Yes No

If ‘Yes’, then the incident must not be investigated further by the school, in which case the rest of this form becomes

irrelevant. Instead, the incident must be referred immediately to the person in the school who is responsible for

child protection and procedures identified in The School Administrative Handbook. The incident will need to be

logged as a racist incident if substantiated.

3


1. Investigation of alleged incident

1.1 How was the allegation investigated?

If there is insufficient space in the grid below, further sheets may be attached to this form.

4

Date/time Action Outcome

1.2 Names of those involved who have been informed of the outcome of the investigation (e.g. the alleged

victim(s)/perpetrator(s); parents/carers; the person who reported the incident):

1.3 As a result of the investigation, was the allegation substantiated? Yes No

If the allegation was substantiated, section 2. overleaf should be completed

2. Actions taken in response to substantiated incident

2.1 Record of actions taken.

If there is insufficient space in the grid below, further sheets may be attached to this form.

Date/time Action Outcome

2.2 Victim(s) spoken with Yes No 2.3 Perpetrator(s) spoken with Yes No

2.4 Witness(es) spoken with Yes No 2.5 Parents/carers spoken with Yes No

2.6 Others seen or contacted:

Name of School: Named contact within the School: Date:

Form RI 1

Ref.no.

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 2

Form RI 2

(annual return to LA)

Appendix 2

1


2

RI 2 ANNUAL RETURN FOR 2005/6

School

Total number of racist incidents (substantiated)

Number of incidents of a serious and/or persistent nature (see section 3)

Type of incident (see 2.4 for further explanation) No. of incidents

Indicate numbers within each category

Physical assault

Physical intimidation

Verbal abuse

Insensitive/inappropriate remarks/comments/jokes

Racist graffiti

Written comments/drawings (not graffiti)

Abuse of/damage to personal property

Non-co-operation/disrespect/ostracism

Other

Details of victims

Female

Male

Appendix 2

Students Staff Parent/Carer Visitor Governor Other

Ethnicity categories (Appendix 3) Total within this category

Details of perpetrators

Female

Male

Ethnicity categories (Appendix 3) Total within this category

Number of incidents that were internally referred but not substantiated

Completed by

Students Staff Parent/Carer Visitor Governor Other

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Appendix 3

Ethnicity categories and codes used

within Lincolnshire LA

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 3

1


2

Appendix 3

Main

categories and

sub categories

White

British

Irish

Traveller of Irish

Heritage

Gypsy/Roma

Albanian

Kosova

Italian

Greek/Greek

Cypriot

Turkish/Turkish

Cypriot

White Eastern

European

White Western

European

White Other

DfES

and RM

code

WBRI

WIRI

WIRT

WROM

WALB

WKOS

WITA

WGRE

WTUR

WEEU

WWEU

WOTW

Black or Black British

Caribbean

Nigerian

Other Black

African

Any other Black

background

BCRB

BNGN

BAOF

BOTH

Asian or British Asian

Indian

Pakistani

Bangladeshi

African Asian

Nepali

Other Asian

AIND

APKN

ABAN

AAFR

ANEP

AOTA

SIMS

code

WHB

WHR

WHT

WRO

WAB

WKO

WIT

WGR

WTU

WEA

WES

WOW

BLB

BNI

BAO

BLG

AIN

APK

ABA

AAF

ANE

AOT

Additional information

Excluding Kosovan

Including Bugarian, Czech, Romanian, Latvian,

Lithuanian, Polish, Russian, Slovak, Ukrainain

Including French, German, Spanish, Portuguese,

Scandinavian

White people not represented in the categories

above.

Including Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas,

Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica,

St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and

Grenadines, Trinidad, Tobago

Including Angolan, Black South African,

Ethiopian, Ghanaian, Rwandan, Sierra Leonian,

Somali. Sudanese, Ugandan, Zimbabwean

Black people not represented in the categories

above, including Black Canadian, Black

European, Black North American

Including Mirpuri Pakistani, Kashmiri

Pakistani, other Pakistani

Including East African Asian and South

African Asian

Asian people not represented in the categories

above, including Kashmiri other, Sinhalese,

Sri Lankan Tamil

Pupil

Tracking

Code

WhBritish

WhIrish

WhTrvIri

WhGypRom

WhAlbani

WhKosova

WhItalia

WhGreek

WhTurkis

WhEasEur

WhWesEur

WhOthWhi

BlCaribb

BlNigeri

BlOtBlAf

BlOther

Asindian

AsPakist

AsBangla

AsAfrica

AsNepali

AsOthAsi

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Chinese

Hong Kong

Chinese

Other Chinese

Mixed/Dual Background

White and Black

Caribbean

White and Black

African

White and Asian

White and any

other ethnic group

Other mixed

MWBC

MWBA

MWAS

MWOE

MOTM

MWB

MBA

MWA

MWO

MOM

Any Other Ethnic Background

Afghanistani

Filipino

Thai

Vietnamese

Any other

ethnic group

Other Categories

Refused

Information not yet

obtained

CHKC

COCH

OAFG

OFIL

OTHA

OVIE

OOEG

REFU

NOBT

CHK

COH

OAF

OFI

OTI

OVI

OOE

REF

NOT

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Chinese people not represented in the

categories above, including Malaysian Chinese,

Singaporean Chinese, Taiwanese

Including White and Blangladeshi, White and

Pakistani, White and any other Asian

Background

People of mixed race not represented in the

categories above including Asian and Black,

Asian and Chinese, Asian and other ethnic

group, Black and Chinese, Black and other

ethnic group, Chinese and other ethnic group

People of mixed race not represented in the

categories above, including Palestinian, Kuwaiti,

Jordanian, Saudi Arabian, Egyptian, Iranian,

Iraqi, Japanese, Korean, Kurdish (from Iraq, Iran,

Turkey), Central American, South American,

Cuban, Belize, Lebanese, Malaysian (other than

Malaysian Chinese). Moroccan, Polynesian, Fijian,

Tongan, Samoan, Tahitian, Yemeni

People who do not wish an ethnic background to

be recorded

Appendix 3

ChHoKoCh

ChOthChi

MiWhBlCa

MiWhBlAf

MiWhAsi

MiWhOtEt

MiOthMix

OtAfghan

OtFilipi

OtThai

OtVietna

OtEthnic

Refused

NotObtnd

3


Appendix 4

Checklist 16 for school race equality

co-ordinator and named governor

for race equality

16 Adapted from Learning for All: Standards for Racial Equality in Schools, Commission for Racial Equality, 2000

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 4

1


Appendix 4

A. Clear procedures are in place to ensure that racist incidents are dealt

with promptly, firmly and consistently

2

• The headteacher, members of staff (teaching and non-teaching), governors,

pupils and parents/carers are involved in the development of policy and

procedures in respect of racist incidents.

• The school Race Equality Policy provides a clear explanation of what

constitutes a racist incident17 .

• Procedures for dealing with, recording and reporting racist incidents are

included in the school Race Equality Policy.

• Procedures indicate how specific types of racist incidents should be addressed.

• Procedures for dealing with, recording and reporting racist incidents are

disseminated to all members of the school community, including new

members of that community.

• Staff are vigilant with regard to racist behaviour amongst pupils, colleagues,

parents/carers and visitors to the school. Staff treat all reports of racist

incidents seriously and deal appropriately with racist incidents whenever

they occur.

• Active steps are taken to protect staff from racist bullying or harassment by

other members of staff, pupils, parents or anyone else18 .

• All members of the school community are encouraged to report all racist

incidents and know the procedures to follow.

• A named member of the senior management team has overall responsibility

for dealing with racist incidents. This role is widely publicised among the

school community.

• There is a named governor for Race Equality issues, including racist

incidents.

• All allegations of racist incidents are formally recorded, including the date,

the names of victims and perpetrators, the nature of the incident and the

action taken in response.

• Incidents that may also constitute a child protection issue are dealt with in

line with guidance contained in The School Administration Handbook.

• All reported racist incidents are promptly investigated.

• The school identifies key agencies, groups and organisations to work with

(including the LA) in order to tackle racism and racial harassment in the

school and the local community.

• Incidents of a serious and/or persistent nature are reported to the Police and

other relevant agencies.

17 The definition recommended by Lincolnshire LA and the Home Office is that provided by The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry

Report: ‘Any incident which is perceived to be racist by the victim or any other person’

18 Employers are responsible for protecting their employees from racial harassment, whether they are subjected to it by other

employees or by third parties

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


• Incidents that may constitute a criminal offence are reported promptly to the

Police, in liaison with EMAS advisers.

• All incidents and their resolution are regularly reported to the governing

body.

• All incidents and their resolution are regularly reported to parents/carers.

• The governing body reports number and matter of all incidents to the LA on

an annual basis.

• Parents/carers and other relevant members of the school community are kept

informed of any action taken to deal with racist incidents.

• Action is taken to prevent racist incidents from recurring.

• Racist graffiti on school property is removed within 24 hours of its being

reported.

• All racist incidents are monitored and the effectiveness of the action taken to

address incidents is assessed.

• Policy and procedures for dealing with racist incidents are regularly

reviewed.

B All staff are trained to deal effectively with racist incidents

• Staff induction covers the school’s policy and procedures for dealing with

racist incidents.

• Staff in predominantly White schools are alerted to the possibility of racism,

racial harassment, prejudice and stereotyping.

• All staff (including contract staff) receive regular training on how to

implement the school’s racist incident policy and procedures.

• All staff who are involved in supporting victims and perpetrators are given

appropriate training.

• Staff are aware of the sanctions that will be applied to perpetrators of racist

incidents and impose these consistently.

• Staff understand that any act of racial discrimination or harassment on their

part constitutes gross misconduct and as such would be dealt with under the

school’s disciplinary procedure.

• Staff effectiveness in dealing with racist incidents is monitored and

evaluated.

C A sensitive and structured system of support is available to victims of

racism

• All members of the school community, including pupils, staff and parents, are

able to obtain appropriate support if they are subjected to racism or racial

harassment.

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 4

3


Appendix 4

• A designated member of staff coordinates the support that is offered to victims.

• Staff are trained and able to provide support for victims.

• Parents/carers of pupils who are victims are always informed of incidents and

of the actions taken to deal with the incidents.

• Action is taken to prevent the victim being subjected to further incidents;

• Perpetrators are removed from situations which might upset or antagonise

the victim.

• A variety of strategies are in place to support victims of racial harassment.

These include:

• Asking victims what support they would like;

• Giving victims the option of receiving support from outside the school;

• Enabling victims to access peer support schemes;

• Providing mentors who can support victims;

• Encouraging pupils who witness racist behaviour to report it.

D The school has clear procedures for dealing with perpetrators of racist

incidents

4

• The procedures for dealing with racist incidents are described in the Home-

School Agreement.

• Parents/carers of pupils who are responsible for racist conduct are

encouraged to play an active role in dealing with it.

• Perpetrators are disciplined appropriately and consistently.

• Perpetrators are encouraged to participate in activities aimed at: promoting

intercultural awareness; challenging stereotypes and media myths; and

changing racist attitudes and behaviour.

• A variety of strategies are in place to support perpetrators of racial

harassment. These include:

• Enabling perpetrators to recognise the effect of their behaviour on

others;

• Enabling perpetrators to explore ways of preventing future occurrences

of racist behaviour;

• Using outside agencies as appropriate;

• Identifying mentors who can provide guidance to perpetrators and act

as appropriate role models.

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 5

Glossary of terms

Appendix 4

19 Most of the definitions are taken from Learning for All: Standards for Racial Equality in Schools, Commission for Racial

Equality, 2000

1


Appendix 5

Black

Black is sometimes used as a general term for people of African, Caribbean, South

Asian and other Asian origin. It includes Caribbeans, Africans and others who wish to

describe themselves as Black.

Discrimination

The Race Relations Act 1976 states that: ‘A person discriminates against another.... if....

on racial grounds he treats that other less favourably than he treats or would treat

other persons’.

The Race Relations Act 1976 legislates against two distinct types of discrimination:

direct or indirect. Direct discrimination occurs when someone is treated less

favourably because they are, or are perceived to be, a member of a particular ethnic or

‘racial’ group. Indirect discrimination occurs when something has a disproportionate

negative impact on a particular racial group which cannot be justified on non-racial

grounds.

Ethnicity

Ethnicity refers to a person’s identification with a group which shares some or all of the

same culture, lifestyle, language, religion, nationality, geographical region and history.

Everybody belongs to at least one ethnic group, including, for example, the English,

Irish, Scottish and Welsh. An individual’s ethnic identity is often complex, for example,

a person may be Scottish, Black and Roman Catholic.

Ethnic monitoring

The process of collecting and comparing data by ethnic group. In the school

environment, ethnic monitoring might cover attainment and progress, recruitment and

promotion, behaviour, discipline and exclusion, attendance, involvement in activities

and the use of services, and parental involvement in the school.

Institutional racism

The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report defines institutional racism as: ‘The collective

failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people

because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes,

attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice,

ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic

people.’

Interculturalism

Interculturalism is to do with mutually enriching interactions between different

cultural groups in ways that respect and seek to maintain the distinct identity and

integrity of the cultures involved.

Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism is about recognising the value and importance of diverse cultures and

treating people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds as one’s equals.

2

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Nationality

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 5

Not to be confused with ethnicity, race or religion, a person’s nationality is defined by

the country or countries of which he or she is a citizen and in which he or she has the

right to reside.

Race

A term used to describe a class of people distinguished by their skin colour and other

physical characteristics. there is no scientific basis for the 19th century belief that

people can be divided into four basic ‘races’ and that some were superior to others.

Racial Group

The Race Relations Act 1976 defines ‘racial group’ by race, colour, nationality (including

citizenship) and ethnic or national origin.

Racial harassment

The Commission for Racial Equality defines racial harassment as verbal or physical

violence which includes attacks on property as well as on the person, which is suffered

by individuals or groups because of their colour, race, nationality and ethnic or national

origins, and where the victim believes that the perpetrator was acting on racial grounds

and/or there is evidence of racism.

Racial prejudice

Prejudice involves prejudging people on the basis of false presumptions or inadequate

evidence. Racial prejudice, which is usually negative, involves holding opinions or

attitudes about people because of their racial or ethnic origin, based on false

presumptions or inadequate evidence.

Racial stereotyping

Racial stereotyping involves categorising a racial group based on knowledge or

experience of the actions or behaviour of a few people from that particular racial group.

Racial stereotyping can be seen in views that certain racial groups are ‘good at sport’ or

‘keep to themselves’.

Racism

The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report defines racism as: ‘Conduct or words which

advantage or disadvantage people because of the colour of their colour, culture or ethnic

origin. In its more subtle form it is as damaging as in its more overt form’.

Using this definition, Black, White or Asian people may be victims of racism. This

definition of racism is consistent with the Race Relations Act 1976. Some groups of

people (for example, Black people, Asians, Gypsies and asylum seekers) are much more

likely to suffer racism. Racism is sometimes used to refer to the power relationship

between white people and Black people. The basis for this viewpoint is that most of the

social, economic and political decisions are made by white people and that these

decisions may systematically disadvantage Black people. ‘Black’ is used politically in

this context to unite people who are not white or who are likely to be subjected to

racism (for example, Jewish people).

3


Appendix 5

Racist incident

The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report defines a racist incident as: ‘any incident which is

perceived to be racist by the victim or any other person’.

Stereotype

An over-simplified and superficial generalisation about the characteristics of a

particular group.

Travellers

The term ‘Traveller’ encompasses a number of different groups whose cultural heritage

is traditionally nomadic. Many travellers now live in houses or on permanent caravan

or mobile home sites. The term covers Gypsies and Irish Travellers (who are recognised

as racial groups under the Race Relations Act 1976), circus and fairground people,

bargees and New Travellers.

4

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Appendix 6

Further reading and resources

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 6

1


Appendix 6

2

Action for Racial Equality in the Early Years: understanding the past, thinking

about the present and planning for the future, Lane, J., New Early Years Network,

1999

All Different, All Equal, Norfolk Education and Action for Development, 1997 (a

classroom resource)

All Different, All Equal Education Pack: ideas, resources, methods and activities for

informal inter-cultural education with young people and adults, Council of Europe,

1995

All Our Children, Early Years Trainers Anti Racist Network, 1990

Challenging Racism, Valuing Difference: a facilitator's guide, Tower Hamlets, 1994

(there are two versions of this publication: one for the Primary phase and one for

the Secondary phase)

Code of Practice on Reporting and Recording Racist Incidents in Response to

Recommendation 15 of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry Report, Home Office, 2000

Combating Discrimination: Persona Dolls inAction, Brown, B., Trentham Books,

2001 (a booklet and video resource pack are also available from Persona Doll

Training, 51 Granville Road, London N12 OJH)

Dealing with Racial Harassment and Racist Incidents in Schools: professional

development materials, Northamptonshire County Council Multicultural

Education Service

Educational Inequality: Mapping Race, Class and Gender, Gillborn, D. and Mirza,

H.S., OFSTED, 2000

Equal Opportunities Policies Pack, Walsall Equal Opportunities Unit, Walsall

LEA, 1999 (guidelines for schools on the development of policies and procedures)

Evaluating Educational Inclusion: guidance for inspectors and schools, OFSTED,

2000

Exclusion from School and Race Equality: a good practice guide, Central Books,

1997

Exclusion from School and Race Equality: a research report, Central Books, 1997

Exclusion from School and Race Equality: the public cost, Central Books, 1997

Face to Face: young people explore issues around racial harassment, BIKESHED in

association with Leeds Racial Harassment Project, 1997 (video resource pack)

From Cradle to School: a practical guide to race equality in early childhood

education and care, Central Books, 1996

Global Perspectives in the National Curriculum: guidance for Key Stages 3 and 4,

Development Education Association, 1999

Global Citizenship: the handbook for Primary teaching, Chris Kington Publishing

in association with Oxfam, 2002

Hear No Evil, See No Evil, Speak No Evil: an anti-racism education pack for

children and young people, Sandwell Health Authority, 1998 (a training resource)

Homebeats: the struggle for racial justice, Institute of Race Relations, 1999 (CD-

ROM for secondary pupils)

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Improving Practice: a whole-school approach to raising the achievement of African

Caribbean youth, Weekes, D. and Wright, C., Runnymede Trust, 1998

In the Mix: tackling racial harassment, Birmingham Partnership Against Racial

Harassment and Birmingham City Council, 1999 (video resource pack)

Inclusive Schools, Inclusive Society, Richardson, R. and Wood, A., Trentham Books, 1999

Index for Inclusion, Booth, T. and Ainscow, M., Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education,

2002

Inspecting Schools for Race Equality: OFSTED's strengths and weaknesses, Osler,A. and

Morrison, M., Trentham Books, 2000

Learning for All: Standards for Racial Equality in Schools, Commission for Racial

Equality, 2000

Lessons of the Law: a casebook of racial discrimination in education, Central Books, 1991

Making the Difference: teaching and learning strategies in successful multi-ethnic schools,

Blair, M. and Bourne, J., DfEE, 1998

Minority Ethnic Pupils in Mainly White Schools, Cline, T. et aI, DfES, 2002

My England, ARC Theatre Publications, 2001 (video resource pack for secondary pupils)

On the Spot: Dealing with Racism, Early Years Trainers Anti-Racist Network, 1996

Promoting Racial Equality and Cultural Diversity, Rees, B., Pearson Publishing, 2003

Race Equality and Science Teaching: an inset manual, Association for Science Education,

1994

Race Equality and Science Teaching: a teacher's handbook, Association for Science

Education, 1994

Racetracks, Dadzie, Stella, Greenwich, 1993 (a resource pack for tackling racism with

young people and a practical guide for youth workers wanting to challenge racism in a

range of contexts)

Racism Explained to My Daughter, Ben Jalloun, T., New Press, 1999

Raising the Attainment of Minority Ethnic Pupils: school and LEA responses, OFSTED,

1999 .

Religious Discrimination: Your Rights, Commission for Racial Equality, 1996 (available in

English, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Punjabi, Turkish, Urdu and

Welsh)

Rethinking Interventions in Racism, Bhavnani, R., Trentham Books, 2001

Roots of the Future: ethnic diversity in the making of Britain, Central Books, 1996

Routes of Racism: the social basis of racist action, Hewitt, R., Trentham Books, 1996 Set to

Fail?

Setting and banding in Secondary schools, Central Books, 1992

Show Racism the Red Card, Heinemann Library, 2001 (video, CD-ROM and teaching

notes for upper KS2, KS3 and KS4)

Spanner in the Works: cross-curricular approaches to teaching children about racism,

Brown, C., Trentham Books, 1990

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 6

3


Appendix 6

4

Special Educational Needs Assessment in Strathclyde: report of a formal investigation,

Central Books, 1992

Still No Problem Here, Gaine, C., Trentham Books, 1995

The Duty to Promote Race Equality: a Guide for Schools, Commission for Racial Equality,

2002

The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: report of an inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny,

The Stationery Office, 1999

Toolkit for Tackling Racism in Schools, Dadzie, S., Trentham Books, 2000

Unlearning Discrimination in the Early Years, Brown, B., Trentham Books, 1998

When Hate Comes to Town, Searchlight, 1995 (a comprehensive resource pack)

www.bbc.co.uk/cbbc/real/sortit/racism.shtml (a young person's guide to race issues)

www.britkid.org (for pupils and teachers)

www.childline.org.uk (includes advice to pupils facing racism)

www.cre.gov.uk (a good source of general information on race equality issues)

www.globaldimension.org.uk (includes hyperlinks to many other useful websites)

www.guardianunlimited.co.ukIracism/ (lots of articles on racism)

www.magenta.nl!crosspoint/ (excellent directory of links) www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet

(pupils' website managed by Oxfam, with a section for teachers)

www.qca.org.uk/ca/inclusion/respect for all! (teaching materials for different subjects

focused on addressing racism and developing intercultural understanding)

www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/ethnicminorities/ (ethnic minority achievement)

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Appendix 7

Contacts and Support Agencies

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 7

1


Appendix 7

2

The EMAS Service

The Primary School

Sturton by Stow

LINCOLN LN1 2BY

Tel/Fax 01427787190

e-mail:

jill.chandarnair@lincolnshire.gov.uk

The Traveller Education Service

15 The Avenue

LINCOLN LN1 1 PA

Tel 01522 553320

e-mail:

pat.ingall@lincolnshire.gov.uk

Lincolnshire Police

West Parade

LINCOLN LN1 1YP

Tel 01522 532222

Minicom: 01522 558140

www.lincs.police.uk

Citizens Advice Bureau (Lincoln)

Beaumont Lodge

Beaumont Fee

LINCOLN LN1 1 UL

Tel 08701 224422

www.lincolncab.org.uk

Lincoln WELCOME

(Asylum Seekers/Refuge

Voluntary Support)

Tel: 01522 853035

Lincolnshire Gypsy Liaison Group (LGLG)

C/O Lincolnshire Racial Equality Council

The School Liaison Officer

Children's Services Directorate

Student and School Services

County Offices

Newland

LINCOLN LN1 1QY

Tel: 01522 553297

e-mail:

lin.oneill@lincolnshire.gov.uk

The Lincolnshire Racial Equality Council

The Hub

Beaumont Fee

LINCOLN LN1 1UW

Tel: 01522 551680

e-mail: info@lincs-rec.fsnet.co.uk

Crimestoppers

Tel: 0800555 111 www.crimestoppers-uk.org

Victim Support www.victimsupport.org.uk

Childline

Tel: 08001111 www.childline.org.uk

CALL Advocacy

Unit 12

Allenby Business Village

Crofton Road

Lincoln LN3 4NL

Tel: 01522 511114

office@calladvocacy.org.uk

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school


Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

Appendix 8

Sample letter

Appendix 8

1


Appendix 8

Sample letter

2

Below is a sample letter that may be send by the school to all parents following a

racist incident. The letter can be adapted to include the nature of the incidents/s,

the actions taken and future actions and commitments to support the school’s

policy.

Dear Parent/Carer,

We have recently been experiencing (the use of racist language in the classroom

and in the playground). This will not be ignored in our school and in accordance

with the Race Relations Amendment Act 2000, each incident will be recorded

and appropriate action will be taken. The immediate stages are:

• Both victim and the perpetrator will be spoken to.

• The perpetrator will be made aware of the seriousness of his/her behaviour

and encouraged to apologise.

• The victim will receive appropriate attention and support

• The perpetrator will be punished/supported in accordance with the

school’s behaviour policy.

Details of this procedure and further action can be found in our school Race

Equality Policy.

Our school recognises and respects all pupils and their families from a wide

variety of backgrounds. We are proud of our efforts to treat everyone fairly and

to provide an environment where everyone feels safe and that they belong. In

order to continue to provide this school ethos, we will make every attempt to

stamp our behaviour and actions that cause any pupil and his/her family to feel

threatened or unwelcome.

The school’s commitment to eradication racism in all forms is by dealing with

all incidences regardless of the severity. We ask you, as parents/carers to

support this commitment our of school and provide our pupils with guidance

and an understanding of equality. Hopefully we will be able to continue to

provide a safe learning environment for all the children.

Dealing with and reporting racist incidents in school

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