Untitled - Elliott School of International Affairs - The George ...


Untitled - Elliott School of International Affairs - The George ...

advancing undErstanding

of global issuEs


Expert scholars, dynamic research institutes and a commitment to creating and sharing

knowledge combine to make the Elliott School a leading institution for the analysis of

important global issues. Drawing on individual and collaborative research, our faculty

develops innovative analyses that sharpen international affairs debates. Our research

institutes facilitate this work, bringing together leading thinkers from academic and policy

communities. These intellectual centers contribute vital knowledge on issues ranging from

the dynamics of major world regions to international economic policy and international

security problems. Complex questions demand smart answers. Our scholars provide them.

conDucting reseArch

on gloBAl issues

research creaTes KnoWledGe

In 2006-2007, our faculty members published

hundreds of books, scholarly articles and policy

essays related to international affairs. hossein

askari published Middle East Oil Exporters: What

Happened to Economic Development? (Edward

Elgar). Jennifer Brinkerhoff co-edited Converting

Migration Drains into Gains: Harnessing the Resources

of Overseas Professionals (Asian Development

Bank). amitai etzioni published Security First: For a

Muscular, Moral Foreign Policy (Yale). James lebovic

published Deterring International Terrorism and

Rogue States: U.S. National Security Policy After 9/11

(Routledge). steven livingston co-authored When

the Press Fails: Political Power and the News Media

from Iraq to Katrina (Chicago). Kristin lord published

The Perils and Promise of Global Transparency: Why

the Information Revolution May Not Lead to Security,

Democracy, or Peace (SUNY). Walter reich coauthored

State of the Struggle: Report on the Battle

against Global Terrorism (Council on Global Terrorism

and Brookings Institution).

12 AnnuAl report 2006-2007

Faculty members received numerous honors in

2006-2007. James Goldgeier held the Henry

Kissinger chair at the U.S. Library of Congress and

then resided as a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson

Center. henry hale won the American Political

Science Association’s 2007 Leon Epstein Prize.

dina Khoury received a Guggenheim award for

her research on Iraq. George moose received a

fellowship from Harvard’s Institute of Politics. holger

schmidt was awarded a grant by the Sweden-based

Folke Bernadotte Academy for a project on United

Nations conflict management. ronald spector was a

Fulbright visiting professor at the National University

of Singapore. emmanuel Teitelbaum won the 2007

American Political Science Association’s Gabriel A.

Almond Award for the best doctoral dissertation in

the field of comparative politics.

With support from GW’s board of trustees, the Elliott

School created a new research and policy program on

diaspora communities; hosted major conferences on

topics such as microfinance, deterring rogue states,

and Islamic political movements; and launched an

event series on the future of democracy.

michael moore dina Khoury James Goldgeier amb. david shinn

analYsis informs PolicY

Our faculty’s policy analyses inform policymaking

and decision making. nathan Brown published

“Living with Palestinian Democracy” in Carnegie

Policy Brief and “Palestine: Hamas in Power” in Arab

Reform Bulletin. cynthia mcclintock and James

lebovic published an article on democracy in Latin

American Politics and Society. amb. John miller

published “Does ‘Freedom’ Mean Freedom from

Slavery?” in the National Review. michael moore

published an analysis of U.S. anti-dumping decisions

in the European Journal of Political Economy. marie

Price and Lisa Benton-Short co-authored “Counting

Immigrants in Cities across the Globe” in Migration

Information Source.

Elliott School faculty exchanged insights and

expertise through conferences, seminars and

workshops. harry harding served on a Council

on Foreign Relations task force that produced the

report “U.S.-China Relations: An Affirmative Agenda,

A Responsible Course.” John logsdon spoke about

miriam Bates, who received an MA in European and Eurasian studies in

2007, won the Elliott School’s John henry cowles Prize, which recognizes

the student with the best overall scholastic achievement and leadership

potential. Bates now works at the Department of Defense, where she focuses

on European affairs.

international cooperation in space exploration at

the International Astronautical Congress in Valencia,

Spain. Jerrold Post gave presentations at the National

Defense University. amb. david shinn testified before

the Senate Subcommittee on African Affairs.

our research looKs forWard

The Elliott School will continue to promote

international affairs research by:

Launching two new research centers, the Institute

for International Economic Policy and the Institute

for Middle East Studies, in fall 2007

Preparing to launch a new Institute for Security

and Conflict Studies in 2008-2009

Seeking named endowments for our

research institutes

Pursuing funding to expand support for

faculty research, scholarly collaboration

and visiting scholars

James lebovic cynthia mcclintock ronald spector henry hale

elliott school of internAtionAl AffAirs 13

center for internAtionAl science

AnD technology policy

The Center for International Science and Technology

Policy (CISTP) examines the impact of science and

technology on international affairs. CISTP conducts

research and policy analysis on comparative science

and technology policies; technology and industry;

the role of information technology in international

politics; national research and development

programs; and space policy.

science and TechnoloGY shaPe

our fuTure

Research by CISTP faculty examined key issues

involving science and technology policy. henry

farrell published “Regulating Information Flows:

States, Private Actors and E-Commerce” in the

Annual Review of Political Science, and wrote blog

posts on the impact of communication technologies

on politics. david Grier published a monthly

column in Computer magazine and served as

editor-in-chief of the IEEE (Institute of Electrical

and Electronics Engineers) Annals of the History of

Computing. henry hertzfeld published “The Case

John logsdon, director of the space Policy institute, received

the Barry m. Goldwater space educator award of the American

Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Professor logsdon (center) served as a member of the NASA

Advisory Council, the space agency’s top advisory group, and is

featured with fellow NASA Advisory Council members Apollo 11

astronaut neil armstrong (right) and Apollo 17 astronaut and

former senator harrison (Jack) schmitt.

14 AnnuAl report 2006-2007

for Multinational Private Sector Cooperation in

Developing New Launch Vehicle Technology” in

Space Policy. CISTP Director nicholas Vonortas

co-edited Knowledge Flows in European Industry

(Routledge). ray Williamson published “The Moon

is a Land without Sovereignty: Will it be a Business-

Friendly Environment?” in the U.S. Air Force’s High

Frontier Journal. Space Policy Institute Director

John logsdon co-edited Collective Security in Space:

European Perspectives (Space Policy Institute, 2007).

The space Policy institute also convened the first

multilateral conference in the Asia-Pacific region

on “collective security in space” and will publish

conference papers in a forthcoming book.

CISTP encouraged the professional development

of the next generation of science and technology

policy leaders. In March 2007, the seventh annual

Graduate student conference, which CISTP hosted

with George Mason University, Virginia Tech and

Arizona State University, welcomed 90 students from

around the world to exchange ideas.

cisTP analYsis shaPes PolicY

CISTP faculty evaluated the research and

development programs of government agencies

in the United States and abroad. Clients included

Greece’s ministry of development, nasa, the

national institutes of standards and Technology

and the u.s. department of energy and programs

in the european union, Japan and Korea. nicholas

Vonortas also co-authored a report for the European

Union on entrepreneurship, innovation and the

information society.

Elliott School students produced incisive policy

analyses of their own. A report on the opportunities

and challenges of “Near Earth Objects” was used

by a blue-ribbon group drafting an international

agreement for the United Nations Committee on the

Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.

Space policy students had

the opportunity to meet

with NASA Administrator

michael Griffin, the American

Museum of Natural History’s

Hayden Planetarium Director

neil deGrasse Tyson,

Apollo 9 astronaut rusty

schweikardt, National

Security Council Director for

Space Policy Phil ritcheson

and others.

CISTP MA student audrey schaffer (MA’07, second from

right), a Boeing award winner, with colleagues at NASA.

cisTP encouraGes dialoGue amonG

scholars and The PuBlic

CISTP advanced understanding of science and

technology policy among experts and the general

public. CISTP hosted workshops for the Korea

science and engineering foundation and Korean

institute for science and Technology evaluation

and Planning.

CISTP launched a seminar series on the Politics and

Policy of information and continued to host the

Technology and innovation seminar. Other seminar

topics included “Do Visas Kill? The Development

Effects of Skilled-Worker Emigration from Africa”

and “The Puzzling Politics of Entrepreneurial State

Economic Development Policy.”

Visiting scholars from Brazil, china, hungary, Korea,

mexico, norway, sweden and the united Kingdom

and officers from the U.S. Department of State and

U.S. Air Force worked at the center.

The space Policy institute has been a leading voice in the international space community since

1987. The Boeing Company has supported the institute since its earliest days. Boeing’s support has

funded a range of activities, such as research, dinner discussions for the Washington space policy

community, workshops and conferences. Over the past two years, Boeing has donated $40,000 for

student scholarships. audrey schaffer, a Boeing fellow who earned her MA in international science and

technology policy this spring, interned at NASA’s Exploration Systems Missions Directorate, and upon

graduation was accepted as a Presidential Management Fellow.

“We’re happy to have played a role in supporting training for exceptional students

interested in pursuing careers in space policy and management. We know

that the Space Policy Institute provides a unique educational experience.”

— roger Krone, president of Boeing Network and Space Systems

elliott school of internAtionAl AffAirs 15

Numerous organizations

funded CISTP’s research,

including: the Greek

ministry of development,

u.s. office of naval

research, the macarthur

foundation, nasa,

the national oceanic

and atmospheric

administration and the

rockefeller foundation.

The Space Policy Institute

received support for its

activities from Boeing,

lockheed martin, The

aerospace corporation

and the united space


James millar and the millar family fund

institute for europeAn,

russiAn AnD eurAsiAn stuDies

The Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian

Studies (IERES) sponsors innovative undergraduate

and graduate teaching programs, research and collaboration

with the global academic and policy communities.

Twenty full-time faculty members, visiting

scholars, student fellows and research assistants

study the history, politics, economies, societies and

cultures of this diverse, dynamic region.

scholars analYZe a reGion

in TransiTion

IERES faculty members published research that

advanced understanding of Europe, Eurasia and

Russia. henry hale contributed a chapter on the

political, economic and social dynamics of postcommunist

transition in Patrons, Clients, and Policies

(Cambridge). elliot Posner published “Sources of

Institutional Change: The Supranational Origins

of Europe’s New Stock Markets” in World Politics.

James millar published a chapter on “Putin and the

Economy” in Putin’s Russia (Rowman and Littlefield).

The Millar Family Fund was established in April 2007 to honor professor

James Millar and his two children Leo Schaeg Millar and Mira Millar

Brownfield. Mira graduated from GW’s School of Education and Human

Development in 1998. Tragically, Leo was killed in an automobile accident

the day before his graduation from Oberlin College in 1988. The fund will

support research by faculty and students associated with IERES.

The Millar family chose to create a program that would honor

Jim Millar’s commitment to academic research. We hope that

the Millar Family Fund will continue Jim’s important legacy

of encouraging research by faculty and students.”

— Gera millar and mira millar Brownfield

James millar (center) with dean Brown and hope harrison

16 AnnuAl report 2006-2007

sharon Wolchik co-wrote “Favorable Conditions and

Electoral Revolutions” in the Journal of Democracy.

IERES also supported student research. IERES and

The George Washington Cold War group (GWCW)

hosted the annual international Graduate student

conference on the cold War. Nineteen Ph.D.

students, selected from a pool of 75 applicants,

presented papers. The conference received generous

support from the henry luce foundation.

Our faculty earned recognition from numerous

organizations. daina eglitis won a Fulbright grant

to lecture on comparative sociology at Riga Stradins

University in Latvia. henry hale won a Fulbright grant

to conduct research on Russia’s presidential election in

Moscow. James hershberg continued to serve on the

editorial board of the Cold War International History

Project Bulletin and to edit the Cold War International

History Project Book Series. James millar won the

American Association for the Advancement of Slavic

Studies’ Distinguished Contributions to Slavic Studies

Award in 2006 for his lifelong dedication to the study

of Soviet and Russian economics.

ieres faculTY eValuaTes PolicY

ToWard euroPe, russia and eurasia

IERES faculty members contributed to current

policy debates. James Goldgeier co-authored

“Global NATO” in Foreign Affairs with Ivo Daalder.

Taras Kuzio published op-eds on Ukraine in The

Washington Post, The Washington Times, UPI, The

Ukraine Observer and the Kyiv Post. Kristine offerdal

published opinion essays in Images of Russia: New

Op-ed Articles on Neighbors in the North (Fridtjof

Nansen Institute, Norway).

IERES experts provided informed and intelligent

commentary. National Public Radio, Radio Sweden

and Vatican Radio interviewed harvey feigenbaum

on U.S.-French relations and the French elections.

James Goldgeier was interviewed by BBC, Fox News,

Al-Jazeera English and Reuters on Russian politics.

hope harrison, director of IERES, appeared on CNN’s

The Situation Room with Wolf Blitzer to discuss

Russia’s growing power as an energy provider. James

millar discussed Russia on CNN International.

Joanna Brucker, an IERES student fellow, won the hart award for George

Washington University’s best undergraduate thesis in anthropology. Brucker’s

research drew from her experience living in Athens and interning at a local

refugee rights NGO. She is featured here on a trip to Ireland’s Ring of Kerry.

ieres adVances KnoWledGe

and eXPands deBaTe

IERES hosted more than 60 events and

conferences including a new lecture series on EU

Challenges Ahead, with John Bruton, European

Union ambassador to the United States, and a

conference co-hosted with the state department

on “Transforming the Cold War: The United States

and China, 1969-80,” at which IERES released

an electronic briefing book of newly declassified


The William and helen Petrach endowment

provided support for the study of Ukraine and

IERES residency for Yuriy fedun and Khrystyna

Pavlyk, both from Ivan Franko National University.

The norway-america association supported the

annual amb. robert d. stuart fellowship for

a visiting scholor from Norway. eva Kvelland, a

student at University of Oslo, studied at the Elliott

School and interned on Capitol Hill.

a. michael hoffman, a member of the Elliott School’s International Council and the son of a former

IERES fellow, funded two $7,500 dissertation fellowships, which were awarded to Ph.D. students

nancy meyers (political science) and Varad mehta (history). He also generously supports faculty

and student research.

“While not a graduate of GW, I am committed to supporting IERES, which is making great strides

toward becoming one of the leading centers for the study of international affairs in the U.S.”

— a. michael hoffman

elliott school of internAtionAl AffAirs 17

IERES won a $50,000, twoyear

grant from the andrew

mellon foundation to fund its

fifth annual summer institute

on conducting archival

research (SICAR). The fiveday

course for Ph.D. students

received 99 applications for

20 spots and offered advanced

research training.

institute for gloBAl AnD

internAtionAl stuDies

The Institute for Global and International Studies

(IGIS) promotes intellectual exchange and

collaborative research across academic disciplines.

In particular, IGIS supports research that addresses

contemporary world challenges such as global

governance, international law and organizations,

trade regimes, international development and

international security.

iGis scholarshiP confronTs

GloBal challenGes

IGIS faculty members published their research

in numerous books and journals. deborah avant

published a chapter on “Political Institutions

and Military Effectiveness: Contemporary United

States and United Kingdom” in Creating Military

Power (Stanford). martha finnemore published

a chapter in International Law and International

Relations: Bridging Theory and Practice (Routledge).

henry nau published a chapter on “The Political

18 AnnuAl report 2006-2007

Reasons for Global Economic Imbalances” in

Sharing the Economic Burden of World Order (Stiftung

Wissenschaft und Politik). susan sell published

an article on intellectual property rights and access

to medicine in the Liverpool Law Journal and

“Intellectual Property and the Doha Development

Agenda” in Global Social Policy.

Building on an IGIS workshop, faculty members

Jennifer Brinkerhoff, stephen smith and

hildy Teegen co-edited NGOs and the Millennium

Development Goals: Citizen Action to Reduce Poverty

(Palgrave Macmillan). martha finnemore contributed

a chapter on “The Politics of Global Partnership.”

iGis enGaGes leadinG scholars

IGIS hosted 12 research seminars featuring leading

experts on a diverse range of topics including

international organizations, counterinsurgency

strategies, global diaspora communities, Iraqi police

Jennifer Brinkerhoff susan sell stephen smith Gina lambright

training and welfare policy in developing countries.

IGIS co-hosted a book launch for Governance in

Post-Conflict Societies: Rebuilding Fragile States

(Routledge) by GW professor derick Brinkerhoff.

As part of the future of democracy initiative, IGIS

hosted two conferences—one on corruption and

democracy, and another on hybrid regimes that

combine democratic and authoritarian elements.

Both conferences highlighted the expertise of Elliott

School faculty members such as deborah avant,

nathan Brown, henry hale, Gina lambright and

cynthia mcclintock, who shared their expertise with

scholars from Georgetown, Harvard, University of

British Colombia and Yale.

In 2006-2007, IGIS also hosted visiting scholars

from Boston, Copenhagen and Madrid.

research and PolicY ProGrams

robert Jervis, Adlai E. Stevenson professor at Columbia University,

gave the keynote speech at an IGIS conference titled “Deterring

Rogue States: Do the Old Rules Apply?”

iGis shares iTs eXPerTise

IGIS faculty members discussed their research with

national and global audiences. Jennifer Brinkerhoff

and liesl riddle participated in a UN expert meeting

on the role of diasporas in strengthening business

and entrepreneurship in developing countries. henry

farrell served as an affiliated researcher at the Max

Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods.

henry nau lectured on “Sharing the Economic

Burden of World Order” at the German Marshall Fund

of the United States. Walter reich was reappointed

as a senior scholar at the Woodrow Wilson Center.

susan sell presented her work on intellectual

property protection and access to medicine at a

University of California Law School colloquium on

globalization and law. stephen smith presented

The Millennium Development Goals and the Struggle

Against Poverty Traps” at a United Nations Economic

and Social Council meeting on eradicating poverty

and hunger.

IGIS is home to two research and policy programs. culture in Global affairs (ciGa), founded in 2003, promotes scholarly

research and sponsors policy dialogues. In 2006-2007, CIGA faculty served as expert consultants for the World Bank, USAID, and

other organizations; published 10 peer-reviewed journal articles and chapters; and delivered many presentations at national and

international conferences. The ciGa seminar series sponsored six public talks: “Must Boys Be Boys? Ending Sexual Exploitation

and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping Missions”; “What Would Gandhi Say? Gandhian Thought and Practice in Development”; “Can

Foreign Aid End World Poverty?”; “Heritage Preservation in Law and Policy: Handling the Double-Edged Sword of Development”;

“Indigenous Approaches to Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution in Africa”; and a panel event on cultural

anthropology knowledge and the U.S. military and the intelligence community. The panel presentations are being developed

into a book co-edited by CIGA Director Barbara miller and robert albro. CIGA also hosted the Margaret Mead Film Festival.

In 2007, the Elliott School launched GW diaspora Program, a research and policy program focusing on diaspora communities

worldwide—in particular, diasporas in conflict and post-conflict societies; diasporas in politics, policy and advocacy; the role

of diasporas in remittances, philanthropy and development; business investment and development; and diasporas and global

security risks. Director Jennifer Brinkerhoff chaired a session as part of Civil Society Day, a Brussels-based event sponsored by

the King Baudouin Foundation. The event was part of the first Global Forum on Migration and Development, which included 155

participating country governments.

elliott school of internAtionAl AffAirs 19

sigur center for

AsiAn stuDies

The Sigur Center for Asian Studies promotes deeper

understanding of Asia and improved links between

Asians and the rest of the world through education,

research and public programs. It is home to both

undergraduate and graduate teaching programs on

Asian studies and more than 50 full-time faculty

members. The Sigur Center is the only program in

the Washington, DC area that offers the nationally

competitive Foreign Language and Area Studies

(FLAS) Fellowships for students of East Asian affairs.

research on asia informs

scholarshiP and PolicY

Young-Key Kim-renaud published P’ung’yohan

pujae [Plentiful Absence] II, in Honor of Jin-Heung

Kim (Life and Dream Book Publishing). mike

mochizuki published Japan in International Politics:

The Foreign Policies of an Adaptive State (Lynne

Rienner) and david shambaugh edited China

Watching: Perspectives from Europe, Japan, and

the United States (Routledge).

Sigur Center scholars mike mochizuki (at

the podium), Kirk larsen, david shambaugh

and amb. Karl inderfurth (L-R) consider

North Korea from its neighbors’ perspectives

at “Dealing with North Korea: Views from

Beijing, Seoul and Tokyo,” in October 2006.

20 AnnuAl report 2006-2007

In addition to these books, Sigur faculty authored

numerous articles and book chapters. harry harding

published “Think Again: China” in Foreign Policy. Kirk

larsen contributed a chapter to Six-Party Stall: Are

South Korea and China Part of the Problem or Part of the

Solution? (Woodrow Wilson Center). mike mochizuki

published “Paradigms Lost: Japan’s Nationalist Drift”

in The American Interest and “How America Views

[the Yasukuni Shrine]” in Ronza. deepa ollapally

co-authored “Regional Security Implications of

Iranian Nuclear Weapons” at the National Bureau of

Asian Research. david shambaugh and amb. Karl

inderfurth published “China and the U.S.: To Hedge

or Engage” in Yale Global.

Awards and grants supported the research of Sigur

Center faculty. Gregg Brazinsky received a Smith

Richardson grant to research America’s Cold War

nation-building efforts in Asia. Young-Key Kimrenaud

received the Republic of Korea Jade Order of

Culture Merit. edward mccord won a Distinguished

Alumni Award from Marian College, his alma mater.

shawn mchale edward mccord Young-Key Kim-renaud Gregg Brazinsky

Sigur Center Director shawn mchale received a

Fulbright-Hays award for his research on Vietnam.

During 2006-2007, the Sigur Center received

many gifts and grants to support its work. The

George Washington University named it a center

for academic excellence and provided funding

to support scholarly research and travel, student

scholarships and research, and study abroad for both

graduate and undergraduate students. The Sigur

Center also received flas awards from the u.s.

department of education to underwrite graduate

study of Asian languages. Funding from the Korean

steel company Posco supported a major conference

on the impact of Korean NGOs. The henry

luce foundation supported a conference, co-hosted

with the Woodrow Wilson Center, on “Globalization,

Migration and the State: East Asia’s Evolving

Landscape of Labor.” The Memory and Reconciliation

in the Asian-Pacific Program, co-directed by mike

The siGur cenTer’s research and PolicY ProGrams

The china Policy Program (cPP), directed by

david shambaugh, co-hosted three international

conferences on China. With the German Council

on Foreign Relations and the Chinese Academy of

Social Sciences, CPP convened a conference on

China and Europe. Fifteen of the papers presented

at the conference will be published in a book.

With funding from the German marshall fund,

CPP co-sponsored a dialogue on U.S.-Europe-

China with the Asia Centre at Elliott School

partner Sciences Po, Paris. CPP also sponsored

a delegation of Elliott School faculty members

martha finnemore, amb. Karl inderfurth, cynthia

mcclintock, amb. david shinn and david

shambaugh to Beijing for a dialogue with the Chinese

Foreign Ministry’s think tank. Elliott School

alumnus christopher fussner (BA’79) has been a

generous supporter of the China Policy Program.

mochizuki and daqing Yang, received support from

the Japan-u.s. friendship commission for a project

on “The Tokyo Trial: Legacy and Reassessment

at Sixty.” A grant from the Taipei economic and

cultural representative office funded a conference

on East Asian security and Taiwan, and a roundtable

on transnational collaboration and Taiwan’s challenges.

amb. James lilley (MA’69), former U.S. ambassador

to China and Korea and director of the American

Institute in Taiwan, addressed the conference.

siGur faculTY PromoTe dialoGue

on asia

The Sigur Center hosted more than 70 events during

the past academic year to promote understanding of

this rapidly changing region. The center introduced

two new lecture series—Transnational asia and

subnational asia—and a new india initiative.

The Taiwan education and research Program

(TerP) works with the Taiwan resource center

at GW’s Gelman Library to provide a comprehensive

and specialized collection of materials for advanced

study and research on Taiwan’s resources

for those seeking to understand Taiwan’s history,

politics, economy and international relations. In

2007, TERP Director edward mccord established

the Taiwan forum, which brings together visiting

scholars, academics, journalists, students and

members of the policy community for discussions

about Taiwan’s current affairs. The forum hosted

seven presentations by Taiwan experts as part of

a Taiwan Democracy and Security Seminar Series,

with support from the Taiwan foundation for

democracy. Topics included “The U.S.-Taiwan

Two-Step: Democracy and National interest” and

“U.S.-China Relations and Taiwan’s Role.”

elliott school of internAtionAl AffAirs 21

The u.s.-Japan legislative exchange Program,

led by henry nau, conducted two legislative

exchange programs last year, one between the

U.S. Congress and Japanese Diet and another

that included South Korean National Assembly

members. The exchange program brings high-level

leaders together to foster better understanding.

The Japan-united states friendship commission

has funded the program since 1989. The Korea

foundation in Seoul also provided additional

funding for the trilateral exchange program

in 2006-07. The participants cultivate strong

professional and social ties, enabling them to

debate controversial political issues. There are no

lectures or written presentations. Members lead

and sustain the conversations on their own.

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