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Download presentation - Jamal Cheema

An Industry Perspective on the Emergence of Smart

Electricity Grids

Jamal Cheema


Introduction

• Overview of smart grids and the key drivers

• Summary of major projects being undertaken

locally and around the world

• Career opportunities and skills

• Potential research areas that are emerging as a

result of smart grids


Current State of Grid Monitoring

Transmission Distribution Customer

Protection Relays at Kuringai 132kV

STS

11kV Substation in Sydney East

Instrumentation

Inner West Customer Meter

The pictures above are somewhat representative of the current in-service instrumentation widely

used to manage and operate the electricity grid across Sydney today… it is representative of the

electricity grid across Australia… and it is representative of the electricity grid around the world.

Technology is NOW available to replace this instrumentation with smarter, integrated sensors. This

replacement across transmission, distribution and the customer is the starting point for any smart

grid deployment roadmap.


Future Grid Characteristics

20 th Century Grid 21 st Century Smart Grid

Electromechanical Digital

One-way communications (if any) Two-way communications

Built for centralised generation Accommodates distributed generation

Radial topology Network topology

Few sensors (limited to Zone SCADA) Monitors and sensors at all levels of T&D network

“Blind” Self-monitoring & timely

Manual restoration Semi-automated restoration and, eventually self-healing

Prone to failures and blackouts Adaptive protection and islanding

Check equipment manually Monitor equipment remotely

Emergency decisions by committee and phone Decision support systems, predictive reliability

Limited control over power flows Pervasive control systems

Limited price information Full price information

Few customer choices Many customer choices


Definition of a Smart Grid

What it is.

The electricity industry is poised to make the transformation

from a centralised, producer-controlled network to one that

is less centralised and more consumer-interactive. The

move to a smarter grid promises to change the industry’s

entire business model and its relationship with all

stakeholders, involving and affecting utilities, regulators,

energy service providers, technology and automation

vendors and all consumers of electric power.

Data Analytics

Enable

Customer Tools

Smart

Metering

Smart

Grid

Secure 2 Way

Communications

Integrated

Sensors

Enable Connecting

of new Energy

Solutions

Typical Components of a Smart Grid for a T&D Business

What it is NOT.

People are often confused by the terms “smart grid” and

“smart meters”. Are they not the same thing? Not exactly.

Metering is just one of hundreds of possible applications

that constitute a smart grid; a smart meter is a good

example of an enabling technology that makes it possible to

extract value from two-way communication in support of


The Evolution of Smart Grids

Overlay New Technology Across the

Electricity Grid

Step 1: The foundation infrastructure to build

the Smart Grid is available NOW.

Replacing the supervisory equipment at

substations, on the powerlines and at the

customer with two way communicating sensors

and intelligent analytics will address a range of

challenges that are easily identified. Many of

these benefits can be realised today.

Enable Broader Industry Capabilities

Step 2: Leveraging the Smart Grid for the

broader industry extends these capabilities 10-

20 years into the future

To provide the required energy solutions to meet a

carbon constrained future will leverage the smart

grid. The smart grid will provide other stakeholders

with the platform to achieve these policy outcomes.

This will require the Smart Grid to integrate with

renewable energy sources, energy storage, electric

vehicles and greener homes as these technologies

become available.


Drivers of Change

2. Improve

network

reliability

3. Create

innovative

customer

solutions

1. Make the

organisation more

productive


Smart Grid Framework for the Core Platform

Smart Sensors

Key Element Description

1 2 3

Telecommunications

1. Transmission Enhancing the existing monitoring and control capabilities that exist at zone and subtransmission

substation and along transmission cables.

2. Distribution Deploying new monitoring and control sensors at distribution substations and along identified

feeders, whilst enabling the optimal connection of new energy storage and generation devices.

3. Customer Deploying new metrology and monitoring capabilities to enhance the customer experience,

enable connection of customer solutions and control load.

4. Telecommunications Providing two way communications between sensors in the field and back-office systems.

5. Operational Technology Collecting, storing, analysing and converting data into knowledge in a timely fashion to assist in

various business uses and for our customers.

6. New Energy Sources Enabling distributed energy generation and storage solutions on the grid. Including electric

vehicles.

7. Security Protecting the grid from both cyber and physical attack.

4

5

6

Back Office OT Systems


Context – Activities to Date

Smart Device

Telecommunications

Operational

Technology

Transmission Distribution Customer

Transmission

Enhancement

Program

Deployed Pinc

network completed

over 3 years

Extend to deliver

Transmission

Enhancement

program

Distribution

Automation Program

Telecommunications

Smart Village

Program

Deployment of a 4G wireless solution as tested in

pilots in Newcastle and Newington

OT Foundations are

Built

Established a university partnership program

$10M

Developed new

support environment

options as part of

Smart Grid, Smart

City initiative

Smart Grid Security


Current State

Maximum Demand Indicator

Measures only 1Ø current to

+/- 20% at Transformer,

manually read every 6 months

Slide 10

Kiosk

Earth Fault Indication

Mechanical flag drops with the presence

of an earth fault, manually used to restore

supply and manually reset


DM&C Solution Overview

Setup to add remote control

capabilities in the future

Remotely measures 3Ø voltage

to +/- 3% (i.e. LV Bus)

Slide 11

Kiosk

A

Smart

Device

Other

Remotely measures 3Ø

current and θ to +/- 2%

(bi-directional and no

saturation)

Various communications options

including 3G and WiMAX

Remotely measures 4 x 3Ø current

to +/- 3% (i.e. each distributor)


DM&C Visualisation Tool


DM&C Visualisation Tool

Slide 13


EnergyAustralia’s Experience at the Customer

2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016

ToU Pricing

World leading

deployment of ToU

pricing.

Currently 400,000+

meters installed.

BPL

World first pilots of

Broadband over

Powerline technology in

2002/03.

Included Newcastle

Pilot.

AMI Pilot

Two way smart

metering trials of 8,000

smart meters using

different comms

technologies (GPRS, PLC,

BPL) and multiple meter

vendors.

SPS

A multi-year strategic

pricing study has been

undertaken to

investigate and then

pilot Network tariffs

such as Critical Peak

Pricing.

Newington

A smart grid pilot to test

technology and

customer behaviour.

Key areas of

investigation include

HAN, multi-utility

metering and load

storage solutions.

4G

Newcastle WiMAX pilot,

has been a world first

wide scale mobile 4G

testing of a smart grid.


Our Newington Smart Village “Prototype”

The prototype will:

1,000 Smart

Meters

State of the Art

Battery Storage

Investigate Electric

Vehicle Technology

Multi-Utility

100 Advanced Home

Area Networks

• Collect 1 min interval reading and provide information to customers

• Investigate additional smart metering applications

• Provide data to justify assumptions within the AMI Business Case

“Showcase Home” for

smart grids & energy

efficiency

11kV Grid

Automation

• Identify new Retail products that can be further deployed on a larger scale build


Our Smart Home Showcase

Storage, DG and Electric Vehicles

Energy Efficient Appliances

Newington Smart Home

Customer Applications

Energy Efficient Appliances


Relevant Skills for Smart Grid Engineer

• Combination of:

• Power engineering, making a renaissance

• Telecommunications

• IT, Computer Science

• Photovoltaics

• Business skills (e.g. writing, commercial)

• Project management


Areas of Research for Smart Grids

Connecting to the grid, some examples:

IEC61850 Process Bus Deterministic communications capabilities with fast failover for internal

within the substation extended out to A/D conversion at the physical

Real time Control &

Protection Integration

Virtual substation

environment

Distributed & Dynamic

resource interconnection

Storage devices (e.g. high

efficiency inductor, thermal

devices) Connection of

electric cars to the

distribution network

Virtual Power Plants,

connecting multiple micro

grids

plant.

Implementation of new automation schemes for improving the

protection and control of the network through experimental

investigation of the IEC61850 standard.

Design of a virtual substation physical environment by creating a logical

presence within the substation for secondary systems and other uses.

Distributed generation sources that can be connected to the grid and

interact with other surrounding devices and the grid in a dynamic nature.

For example smart inverters and other load sources.

Investigation and development of storage options. There is a growing

trend towards electric vehicles, to the extent that in some areas these

maybe promoted to plug into the grid as part of an intelligent network.

A growing trend in smart grids is to develop methods to aggregate small

distributed generation and dispatch to optimise demand and generation

capabilities.


Areas of Research for Smart Grids

Developing telecommunications, some examples:

Traffic profiling of smart grid

applications

High gain antenna design for

electricity network devices

(e.g. inside faraday cage

substation or meter box)

Home Area Network

communications - Open

Systems Development

Intelligent network cyber

security architecture &

testing

Radio mesh algorithms for

self forming and self healing

networks using various

physical radios

Develop traffic modelling to deliver security, control and latency

requirements of smart grids.

For smart devices located in utility specific locations such as pad mount

substations, on poles or in meter boxes requires investigation of low cost

high gain antennas that can be installed with minimal aesthetic impact.

The concept of a “” for in home connectivity to deliver electricity services

has seen a range of different communications solutions emerge. These

include Zigbee and Homeplug. Adapting these networks to the utility

network or telecom network operator with regard to services and

security, whilst also thinking of new products is an area of interest for all

utilities. Especially as this design needs to be confirmed prior to a major

rollout of smart meters.

There is a need to build intelligent network specific security architecture,

build and test this to validate the design.

Smart devices for intelligent networks are unusual in that they have a 15

year life and may utilise a range of physical technologies. The ability to

organise networks in a secure way that allows for millions of devices to

be managed over a long timeframe without having to revisit the devices.


Areas of Research for Smart Grids

Utilising data, some examples:

Advanced forecasting With more sophisticated IT capabilities there is an emerging concept of

detailed asset modelling to produce dynamic, near real time and state

based intelligence for network operations. This can ultimately be used for

predictive and preventive management. The use of artificial intelligence to

make decisions based on network learning. Extending the more generic

concept above, the use of neural networks to learn the network and then

make localised, intelligent decisions for switching and balancing loads on

the network. This includes automated grid segmentation and integration

with micro grids. The use of widespread predictive weather monitoring

used to rate overhead cables and take preventive action for certain

weather conditions. With detailed information in real time coming from

the network the use of this to measure and prevent network stability

issues. Optimisation of workforce activities using advanced algorithms

that compute location, logistics, etc. Implementing the CIM standard

power model for enabling integration and system development – creating

a platform for intelligent electricity network development.

Fault Detection, Isolation, Looking at both centralised and decentralised control algorithms to

Response

restore power and improve reliability.

Integrated Volt, Var Control Optimise electrical power quality, reduce losses through monitoring and

power electronics to correct power quality issues.

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