Participatory Plant Breeding Fetien Abay

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Participatory Plant Breeding Fetien Abay

Participatory Plant Breeding

Fetien Abay

ICARDA


History of Participatory Plant

Breeding (PPB)

Begins in the early eighties (Rhoades and Booth,

1982)

Has become very popular in the last few years

Rhoades RE and Booth RH (1982) Farmer-back-to-farmer: a model for

generating acceptable agricultural technology.

Agricultural Administration, 11: 127-137

ICARDA


The PRGA Program

CGIAR - System Wide Program on Participatory

Research and Gender Analysis for Technology

Development and Institutional Innovation

(established in 1997)

PPB has been a central focus of the PRGA Program

since it was established

ICARDA


Participatory Plant Breeding in the

World Bank

“A complementary institutional development

in low and uncertain rainfall regions of marginal

production potential is participatory varietal

selection and breeding approaches that involve

farmers in the early stages of plant breeding.”

“Decentralized and participatory approaches

allow farmers to select and adapt technologies to

local soil and rainfall patterns and to social and

economic conditions, using indigenous knowledge

as well.”

“In the very poor, rainfed rice-growing areas of

South Asia that the green revolution passed by,

participatory plant breeding is now paying

off with strong early adoption of farmer-selected

varieties that provide 40 percent higher yields in

farmers’ fields.”

ICARDA


Research Portfolio

ICARDA places special emphasis on resource-poor

farmers because they are especially vulnerable to

natural or man-made threats to their livelihoods.

Considering the complex nature of the challenges of

agriculture in dry areas, the Center's research agenda is

multi-institutional, multi-thematic, multidisciplinary,

participatory, and implemented in collaboration with

farmers and a wide range of other partners, while

linking research to development.

Farmer-participatory plant

breeding

ICARDA uses participatory plant breeding as a tool

to build on the indigenous knowledge of farmers, and to

make them full partners in research.

Awards for Excellence in Research

ICARDA's research has won several international awards. In addition to the awards won by

individual scientists, the Center has won CGIAR awards for …… farmer-participatory research

in barley, …….

ICARDA


Participatory Research

Targets the clients more effectively by

involving them in technology development

Improves the relevance of research and

hence the probabilities of impact

ICARDA


Plant breeding has not been successful in

dry areas and for poor farmers

The most spectacular yield increases are a consequence

of changing the environment to fit cultivars with higher

yield potential (the “Green Revolution” type of plant

breeding)

This type of agricultural development has by-passed

large areas of Asia, Africa, Central and South America

Genotype x Environment interactions are one of the

possible reasons

ICARDA


Yield

E 1

Types of Genotype x Environment

Interactions

Variety A

No Interaction

Variety B

E 2

Yield

E 1

Variety A

Interaction

Variety B

E 2

ICARDA


Yield

Genotype x Environment Interaction

(cross-over type)

Low yielding

marginal

Cross-over

High yielding

favorable

Variety A

Variety B

Most selection work takes place in relatively favorable

environments, typically in well managed research stations

ICARDA


Variety grain yield (kg/ha)

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0

-500

500

1000

Shege

Local

Himblil

Demhay

1500 2000 2500 3000

Environmental index (kg/ha)

Misrach

HB42

Specific adaptation of barley varieties in

different locations in Ethiopia

by

Fetien Abay and Asmund Bjørnstad

ICARDA


Breeding for specific adaptation

Positive use of repeatable G x L

interactions

ICARDA


Breeding for specific adaptation

Specific Adaptation in Space and Wide

Adaptation in Time

ICARDA


What is Participatory Plant

Breeding?

Participatory Variety Selection (PVS)

Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB)

ICARDA


Participatory Variety Selection

(PVS)

Selection among (usually few) finished or

nearly finished varieties

For example farmers choosing from onfarm

variety trials

It is a linear process (little empowerment

effect)

ICARDA


Participatory Plant Breeding

(PPB)

Farmers participate in selection when

genetic variability is at or near its maximum

For example, selection between or within

early segregating populations or between

clones

It is a cyclic process leading to increased

knowledge (large empowerment effect)

ICARDA


Participatory plant breeding maintains

the cyclic feature of a conventional

plant breeding program

ICARDA


PVS precedes PPB

PVS is a good starting

point because it identifies

-Parental material

-Farmers needs & constraints

PVS follows PPB

Immediately we have

varieties we test them with

farmers in PVS trials

Hence each PPB cycle starts &

finishes with PVS

ICARDA


Why CB is failing in less

potential areas?

ICARDA


Examples of currently implemented

PPB programs-

EXPERIENCES FROM TIGRAY

ICARDA


-Only the poorer

research

station environments

overlap with the

farmers’ fields

(a) Few varieties are

released & recommended

- even fewer are adopted

Farmers’

Environment

Breeders’

Environment

Why?

-Mismatching of

breeders’ & farmers

environments in

field management

and/or physical env.

(b) No variety released &

adopted

Breeders’

Environment

Farmers’

Environment

ICARDA


HH based Varietal

selection

• Only few

farmers Involved

• based on Mass &

Single Plant

Selection

• recognised as

Local Seed Bank

of the Village

• FDVs have been

used as starting

point for PVS

Farmers Varietal Selection

Kahsay & His Varieties

DemhayHimblil

ICARDA


Varietal differences associated

with adaptation & Use

• PC1, straw yield, & utility

related traits & number

of seeds/spike.

• PC2 earliness, drought

resistance and beer

quality (Siwa) were

explained

ICARDA


The Mother-Baby Trial Design

• The Mother Trial is a researcher-managed,

single replicate/replicate

& all varieties

• The Baby Trial is a farmer-managed,

replicated & sub set of all varieties

• A community grows one/two Mother Trial &

a set of Baby Trials with the help of the

researcher & partner

ICARDA


F1

F1

Village level distribution of baby trials

F1

F3

F5

F4

Rie

F5

F4

9 test varieties x 5 = 45 farmers/village

F5

F2

MIS

F2

Dimtu

F3

F4

F3

F2

F1

F5

F1

45 x 4 villages =180

F5 n= 180

F4

F2

F2

HIM

Shege

F4

F3

F3

ICARDA


Mother Trial

Mis

1

Sihu

9

Aton

2

Local

10

She

3

Himb

4

Dimt

5

Dem

6

HB

7

Rie

8

ICARDA


Local

Baby trial

Dimtu

ICARDA


Comparing FDV (Himblil),

& IV (HB-42)

ICARDA


Women in Barley

Selection

ICARDA


Regression of grain yield

(kg/ha) of ten varieties on

environmental Index

In low yielding

environments

– FDV (‘Himblil’) had the

highest general mean, &

βi


What are the differences between

environments

• Grain Yield was significantly

& positively correlated

(r=0.645, P=


GGE2: The which won where

polygon view of barley

varieties

ICARDA


The GGE and Multidimensional upsacling Plots

Grain yield, disease/insect resistance and number of grain on

average position of the joint plot.

Himblil and Misrach are on the preferred position where as

the late varieties are on the negative side of the vertical

ICARDA


PPB in Tigray

ICARDA


Output so far achieved

• 3 candidate genotypes

selected for verification

• 1 candidate variety

released by NVRC

• PPB expanded over 16

locations from

Akabseat-Sirinka

(WELLO)

.

ICARDA


• Representative of

Technical committee of

National Varietal

Release Committee

(NVRC) during her

evaluation of candidate

variety

ICARDA


ICARDA


37

PPB can be combined with marker

assisted selection (MAS)

CAZS (UK) Experience

o By targeting root QTL

with drought & aroma

in rice.

o Farmers prefer bulks

& lines with QTL (up

to 25% more than the

check)

ICARDA Experience

ICARDA


Success of PPB is Not only in marginal

areas: case of swedes at UMB-Norway

ICARDA


Conclusions

Greatest technical challenges for PPB

are

1) Scaling up this approach to reach

millions of farmers, and

2) Sustaining gains in second, third or

further cycles of breeding work.

ICARDA