leadership turned a blind eye to Hitler’s bullying tactics, in most cases saying Hitler wasn’t bothering them and that at least he stopped the Communists from overtaking Germany. Irritated by this “benign neglect” of human rights by his fellow countrymen, Niemoeller began speaking out against Hitler in his Sunday sermons. His thunderous sermons critical of Nazi treatment of minorities drew large crowds. Niemoeller followed up on his sermons by organizing a Pastor’s Emergency League to encourage religious leaders to speak out against the Nazi oppression. He declared that “I’d rather burn my church to the ground than preach the Nazi trinity of race, blood and soil.” Niemoeller’s actions soon drew the attention of Hitler, who became incensed by what he considered to be treasonous behavior. On January 25, 1934, Hitler summoned the German Protestant leadership to a meeting where they were warned of the consequences of their insubordination to the Nazi government. Niemoeller was one of the approximately 15 pastors who attended. Hitler told the ministers that the German society needed to be “cleansed” of minorities if order and prosperity was to be restored. He declared that any sermon that questioned his policies was seditious and that further criticism would not be tolerated. While the other pastors remained silent, Niemoeller spoke out. He told Hitler that he had no right to interfere with the business of the church and said: “We pastors have a responsibility for the people laid on us by God. Neither you or anyone else can take this away from us.” Hitler responded by chastising the ministers and warned them that their churches would be closed if they persisted. He then walked out and the ministers were told to leave. Niemoeller left the meeting and continued to speak out against the Nazi treatment of the Jews. The Nazis quickly responded. His church was raided and Niemoeller found himself without a pulpit. Undeterred, Niemoeller continued his rebellious sermons until Hitler had him arrested for seditious behavior, found guilty and sentenced to seven months in prison. The Nazis assumed that after seven months in prison, Niemoeller would learn his lesson and keep quiet. Niemoeller refused to give in, even at great risk to his life, and continued to counsel those who would listen about the evil of the Nazi activity. His actions once again attracted the attention of the Nazis, and he was soon arrested and brought to trial for sedition. The Nazi court
found Niemoeller guilty and sentenced him to death. He was initially imprisoned in Germany, but the Nazis discovered that Niemoeller’s incarceration was becoming a rallying point for dissenters. Concerned that his execution would spark further dissent, the Nazi government in 1941 transported concentration camp where the death sentence would be carried out without notice. Niemoeller languished in the camp for four years, where he contracted tuberculosis while counseling fellow prisoners. His execution was postponed, and he was eventually rescued when allied troops captured Dachau in April of 1945, one month before the German surrender. Although he was extremely ill with tuberculosis when freed from Dachau, Niemoeller stubbornly refused to give up his cause. After the war ended, he organized the Protestant churches in Germany to support human rights efforts and to oppose the proliferation of nuclear weapons. He continued his work through the 1960’s, when he served as President of the World Council of Churches. Niemoeller died in Wiesbaden, Germany on March 6, 1984. He is best remembered for his declaration (above) of why it is important that each person speak out against prejudice and injustice every time it is seen.