Video Dubbing Projects in the Foreign Language Curriculum - Calico

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Video Dubbing Projects in the Foreign Language Curriculum - Calico

Jack Burston 79

Video Dubbing Projects in the Foreign

Language Curriculum

ABSTRACT

JACK BURSTON

University of Cyprus

The dubbing of muted video clips offers an excellent opportunity to develop the

skills of foreign language learners at all linguistic levels. In addition to its motivational

value, soundtrack dubbing provides a rich source of activities in all language

skill areas: listening, reading, writing, speaking. With advanced students,

it also lends itself to creative collaborative scenario production. Video dubbing

thus offers essentially the same pedagogical benefits of full video production,

but without completely taking over the curriculum or bogging students down in

the technical logistics of movie making. The production of dubbed videos raises

numerous practical issues—pedagogical as well as technical. Pedagogically,

successful projects require considerable in-class as well as out-of-class preparation.

Technologically, they require both instructors and students to learn basic

video editing skills. The management of a video dubbing project involves several

stages: video selection, scene cropping and muting, initial class presentation of

the target video, group listening comprehension (or scenario creation) activities,

individual practice, group rehearsal and, finally, soundtrack dubbing.

KEYWORDS

Video, Dubbing, Task Based, Learner Centered, Collaborative, Discovery Learning

INTRODUCTION

Video production affords foreign language students an excellent opportunity to

develop linguistic skills through task-based activities. Instructors who have engaged

their students in video production concur in its high motivational value

and positive effects on language output (Biegel, 1998; Melillo, 2000; Scruggs &

Reed, 2001; Brooke, 2003; Dubreil, 2003). Equally clear in reports on student

video projects, however, is the extent to which they can dominate the curriculum.

More worrisome, such projects always run the risk of technology taking precedence

over pedagogy. Not surprisingly, even innovative language teachers have

been hesitant to try their hand at student-produced video.

Notwithstanding potential problems, engaging students in video production can

be accomplished without completely taking over the curriculum or bogging down

CALICO Journal, 23 (1), p-p 79-92. © 2005 CALICO Journal


80 CALICO Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1

students in the technical logistics of movie making. The more modest activity of

video dubbing, that is, the simple substitution of the soundtrack of an existing

video, offers essentially the same pedagogical benefits of full video production

with substantially less investment of time and effort. The basic resources for such

an activity are readily available. Nearly all textbooks these days are accompanied

by some video material. Foreign language commercials are another rich source

of video clips. Excerpts from television broadcasts can also be adapted for this

purpose. There are, of course, copyright considerations when using existing video

resources, but permissions can be obtained from book publishers and the TEACH

act provides exemptions for bone fide pedagogical applications.

TECHNOLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS

Technologically, anyone with a headphone/microphone and a computer running

Windows XP or Mac OS X has all that is required to dub digital videos. Each of

these operating systems includes a basic video editor, Windows MovieMaker on

the PC and iMovie on the Mac. If the video source is not already in digital format,

one workstation needs to be equipped with a video capture card connected to a

VCR. Depending on computer platform, an inexpensive software program might

also be required to convert video formats (e.g., QuickTime MOV to Microsoft

WMV or vice versa). In terms of expense, it is possible to equip a workstation for

video clip preparation for as little as $200. 1

PEDAGOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Pedagogically, before engaging students in video dubbing, it is essential to address

the central question of its purpose. In particular, what is to be gained through

video manipulation that could not just as well (and more easily) be accomplished

by traditional role play activities? One important difference is the nature of the

potential audience and the effect the audience can have upon student performance.

When role plays take the form of a substantial end-of-course project, they tend

to be performed for the benefit of the instructor, who often may be the only audience.

Time permitting, students can perform in front of an entire class, though

retaining the attention of those who are not performing can be problematic. The

potential audience of a video performance, even if it only involves dubbing of the

soundtrack, is by its nature much more intrinsically public. The finished product

can not only be shown in class but also, if the means exist to do so, put up on a

course web site for all to see. The greater the audience, the greater the stimulus to

put on a good public performance.

In addition to the nature of the audience, video performances also differ fundamentally

from role plays in the manner in which they are performed. By their

very nature, when the time comes for evaluation, role plays have to be done from

beginning to end with no retakes. The dubbing of video tracks, on the other hand,

can be done and redone as often as needed to get the best possible final results.

Students can self-monitor and improve their oral performance in a way that is

just not possible in real time. To the extent that accurate lip synchronization is involved,

audio track dubbing requires students to pay particular attention to timing,


Jack Burston 81

which fosters more native-like speech delivery. The video images themselves,

especially the display of gestures and facial expressions, make it much easier for

students to put themselves into the persona of the characters whose voices they

are dubbing. Moreover, because they are able to take refuge behind their screen

persona, students find working with video much less intimidating than performing

live and can thus engage in the project with a much lower affective filter.

VIDEO DUBBING OPTIONS

Video dubbing can take two basic forms. At its simplest, it need only involve

substituting student voices for an existing soundtrack. For those who are new to

video manipulation, this is a good place to start, especially with beginning level

learners. The preparation of soundtracks affords substantial listening and reading

comprehension activities as well as abundant pronunciation practice. It also

provides practical training, for instructors as well as students, for more ambitious

video projects.

More linguistically advanced students, and those with some prior video-dubbing

experience, can take a muted video clip and create from scratch their own

storyline and accompanying script. Matching a dialog to a scenario requires students

not only to use the lexicon and grammar learned through the course syllabus,

but, even more so, to supplement what they have learned in the course with

new vocabulary and grammatical structures appropriate to the context. This is

very much a form of task-based discovery learning, one which readily lends itself

to written as well as oral practice. Transcribing the dialog is essential to ensuring

correctness and providing an explicit script that can be used for pronunciation

practice.

CREATING A MUTED VIDEO

Whether doing simple soundtrack substitutions or creative scenarios, the production

of dubbed videos raises numerous practical issues, pedagogical as well as

technical. First, there is the question of video clip length. Video projects, even

those involving the simplest dubbing activities, are time consuming and thus need

to be kept short. Certainly first-time projects should be limited to no more than 5

minutes, for the benefit of instructors no less than students. The selection of the

video clip that is to serve as the basis of the project is critical and is very much

influenced by the nature of the task demanded of students. With straightforward

dubbing, scenes involving frontal shots of participants increase the need to pay

close attention to lip synchronization, which has its pedagogical advantages. Dubbing

totally invented scenarios, on the other hand, is facilitated by profile shots or

scenes not involving obvious lip movement. When working with beginning level

students, the transparency of the scenes depicted assists in comprehending the

context of a video clip. On the contrary, ambiguity fosters creativity and group

interaction for more advanced students engaged in the production of their own

scenarios.

The actual production of a muted video clip is a relatively straightforward un-


82 CALICO Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1

dertaking. If the original video source is in analog format (i.e., a VHS tape), it

must first be digitized. This is where a video capture card is required. Some help

may be needed to get the card installed on a workstation, but it is a job any competent

technical assistant can do in a few minutes. Once the card is installed,

digitizing a video is just a matter of connecting a VCR to the card and running the

selected video sequence through a software program that then saves it to a hard

disk. As with all audio-video production, it is advisable to save the master version

in the best quality possible. Doing so always results in large file sizes and usually

also necessitates conversion to a more compact format for the final distributed

version.

Whatever the format, video files require a lot of hard disk storage space. Besides

the master file, the video-editing process involves the creation of working

copies. As a rule of thumb, it is a good idea to have at least one gigabyte of free

space available on the workstation for each minute of video, that is, about 5 gigabytes

for a 5-minute video clip project. A similar amount of hard disk storage

space is needed as well to hold student media for a class of 20: the muted video

clip, associated project files, and eventually their finished product. Each group of

students should have its own project folder. While student folders can reside on

local computers, it is much more practical to store them on a central server, if one

is available, because the server allows students to work on any computer on the

network and avoids having to manually harvest files later.

Depending on the output of video-capture-card software or the original source

of an existing digital video clip, the format of a master recording may need to be

converted (to WMV or MOV) before it can be edited in Windows MovieMaker

or iMovie, respectively. Most video capture cards are bundled with entry-level

video-editing software capable of saving to these formats. It is also possible to

purchase an inexpensive software program for this purpose; all users have to do is

point the program to the desired file and choose the required format.

Once a video clip in the proper format has been imported into a video editor, it

can be easily cropped to the desired sequence, its soundtrack muted, and the new

version saved with a few mouse clicks. In addition, if the video is intended for a

straight dubbing project, a copy of the edited version with its soundtrack needs to

be saved to provide a dialogue model. So, too, the soundtrack should be extracted

from the video and saved to an external audio file for pronunciation practice. This

is a very simple procedure in both Windows MovieMaker and iMovie.

SIMPLE VIDEO DUBBING

With beginning level learners, a straightforward dialogue substitution project can

be exploited to foster linguistic development in all skill areas. Starting off a project

with the showing of the muted video clip requires students to pay close attention

to visual details, especially paralinguistic features such as facial expressions

and body gestures. Learning to tune into such contextual clues is an important part

of listening comprehension. As soon as students are able to give simple descriptions—a

stage typically reached after a few weeks of classes, it is possible to use

the muted video clip as the stimulus for a description exercise. Working together


Jack Burston 83

in the target language, the whole class can be called upon to make sense of the

scenario. Who are the participants? Are they men, women, children? Are they

young or old? Are they students or workers? Where is the action taking place?

Inside, outside? Is it in a park, a restaurant, a classroom, doctor’s office? What are

the participants doing? Studying, eating, talking, watching television, and so on,

and so forth? A discovery session like the one described here can easily take up

an entire class hour. It really should not be rushed since its purpose is to provide

students with task-based practice using vocabulary and grammatical structures

they have been learning. It is also a prime occasion to teach new material relevant

to the video-dubbing task.

In a follow-up session, students can be shown the target video clip with its

soundtrack as a listening comprehension and pronunciation exercise. Were their

guesses correct about what is going on in the sequence? What are the participants

actually doing and saying? Unless the video clip has been specifically selected

to strictly conform to the course syllabus, which is not at all a requirement, its

soundtrack will almost certainly contain unfamiliar linguistic material. Even when

a video clip is taken chapter and verse from the textbook, if the speech delivery

is at all natural, most students find listening comprehension a challenge. Making

the link between the foreign language as it is presented in a textbook and what

it sounds like in actual usage requires considerable practice. In order for listening

comprehension to succeed, learners have to be able to identify recognizable

chunks in the stream of speech. To help students do this with the soundtrack of the

video clip, it is useful to ask them to try to repeat what they have heard. Usually

different students will recognize different chunks, though they may not make the

connection to their meaning. These bits and pieces can be written on the board

and, if need be, resolved with the assistance of the instructor. Once an utterance

has been understood, it is good practice to have students repeat it themselves.

Such pronunciation practice is also essential preparation for the eventual dubbing

activity. It is to be noted that most, if not all, of these listening comprehension and

pronunciation activities can be undertaken in the target language. In principle,

recourse to the L1 should be needed only when new vocabulary or grammatical

structures are encountered. Once students understand the video soundtrack and

have confirmed or modified their original guesses about what is happening, they

can be given a written transcript of it for reading practice. It is this transcript

which will then serve as a prompt to help them learn their dialogue parts.

SCENARIO CREATION

When a muted video clip is used for the creation of entirely original scenarios, the

procedure followed for its first showing is by nature different from that used when

an existing soundtrack is being dubbed. In the former case, the students’ task is

to use the visual stimulus to hatch a plot of their own. Working in small groups

(three or four persons at most), students are free to use their imaginations to create

their own storyline. Unlike the first viewing of a simple dubbing project, which is

essentially an undertaking by a whole class, students working in groups need to be

able to gather around a common computer so as to control themselves the playing


84 CALICO Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1

of the video. The linguistic challenge here, needless to say, is to have as much as

possible of the ensuing group discussion take place in the target language. In their

excitement to express themselves, to bounce ideas off each other, students are almost

certain to revert to their native language. This is particularly so the lower the

level of their L2 competence. In order not to stifle creativity at this early stage, instructors

may have no choice but to allow the brainstorming session to take place

in the native language. In any event, it would be naive to expect students to work

together on the project in the L2 outside of the classroom. This is not as limiting as

it may appear, however, since students still have abundant opportunity (and need)

to use the foreign language in completing other parts of the project.

The first opportunity to really require students to use the L2 in a creative videodubbing

project comes at the end of the first viewing session, when they can be

asked to report back to the class ideas they have discussed. As with simple video

dubbing, a whole class hour is needed in order to fully exploit the linguistic potential

of the first video showing. An essential follow-up task is to have students

write up a detailed scenario in the L2 for submission to the instructor and oral

presentation in class. Preparation for such activities requires students to collaborate

outside of the classroom, which can be accomplished through the kind of discussion

forum found in many computer-managed communication systems (e.g.,

Blackboard® or WebCT®) or simply through email.

The last preparatory phase of a creative video-dubbing project is to have students

write up their dialogues. This is one of the most demanding parts of the

project for students because it must not only be linguistically correct, but also

contextually appropriate and synchronized with the video. On-going consultation

with the instructor, drafting, and redrafting are essential to success. Once students

have the scripts of their dialogues in order, in practical terms they are at the same

stage of project development as those doing a straight dubbing exercise from an

existing script.

DIALOGUE REHEARSAL

Whichever type of video-dubbing project they are working on, students need to

seriously rehearse the delivery of their scripts. Because video dubbing can be done

as often as necessary to get it right, students involved in such projects can reasonably

be held to a much higher standard than is possible in a traditional role play.

The goal should be to come as close to a native speaker proficiency as possible.

Phonetic accuracy, stress placement, intonation, rhythm, timing as well as paralinguistic

voice features (surprise, sadness, joy, impatience, frustration, etc.) need to

be well practiced. In this regard, those dubbing from an existing soundtrack have

the advantage of a readily accessible model to follow. Students who create their

own scenarios need to rely on the coaching of their instructor for guidance.

Ultimately, while group members have to rehearse together, a great deal of

practice can in fact be done independently. This is of particular importance since

class time is a precious commodity, and the logistics of organizing group work

out of class is always problematic. The more students can do on their own out of

class, the easier it is for everyone.


Jack Burston 85

Effective pronunciation practice requires audio recording to allow students and

instructors to monitor performance. The recording of dialogue practice can be

independently done by students entirely out of class on any computer equipped

with a headset/microphone. Windows XP includes a basic sound recorder that

is quite adequate for this purpose. Mac OS X lacks a bundled audio recorder;

however there do exist a number of simple freeware programs, one of the most

popular being Audacity (see http://audacity.sourceforge.net/index.php?lang=en),

for which a Windows version is also available. Practice recordings can be sent

to the instructor (e.g., via the digital drop box found in many computer-managed

communication systems) or otherwise retrieved by the instructor from a central

server location. Because of their large file sizes, it is not advisable to send practice

session recordings as email attachments.

While simple digital audio recorders are all that is needed to provide monitored

practice for students who are creating their own scenarios, such recorders are

less than sufficient for those who are reproducing an existing soundtrack. Ideally,

these students need access to a dual track recorder that allows the original

dialogue, extracted from the video clip, to be modeled on a master track and the

student’s practice to be recorded for comparison on a second track. Such recorders

exist as a component of many commercial digital language lab programs (e.g.,

SANS, SANAKO, CAN-8, and Genesis). In the absence of a digital lab program,

a basic two-track digital recording system (e.g., the Dartmouth Language Recorder)

can be acquired for as little as $200 for a site license (see http://www.tjp.

washington.edu/lp). Equally affordable—$500 for an entire lab (see http://schiller.dartmouth.edu/dl-recorder),

the Language Partner program allows students to

interact directly with the audio track of a video clip by either repeating/recording

their dialogue part after a model or by assuming one of the roles in a dialogue.

Unfortunately, however, Language Partner does not save student recordings and

is limited to just two dialogue roles.

Once the practice recording phase of a project is complete, students need to

come together to rehearse their roles. While it is possible to ask students to rehearse

together out of class, the instructor’s presence is essential to guide pronunciation.

By having students work together in their project groups, a whole

class can practice all at once. It is certainly noisy, but students pretty much only

hear what is taking place in their own group. This can be a very hectic time for

the teacher, who must move around from group to group listening and correcting

pronunciation very much in the manner of a drama coach. More than one in-class

rehearsal session may be needed, especially with creative video dubbing projects

that, by definition, lack a dialogue model to imitate.

STUDENT VIDEO EDITING

Up to the class rehearsal stage of a video-dubbing project, technology can be

kept very much in the background for students. The instructor will have had to

work on the preparation of the source video clips, possibly including the extraction

of the soundtrack; but student use of technology up to this point is limited to

operating a media player to view clips and a digital audio recorder for pronuncia-


86 CALICO Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1

tion practice. If language lab recorders or Language Partner are used to support

two-track dialogue practice, some operating instructions need to be given, though

the learning curve for these kinds of devices is quite modest. Once actual video

dubbing begins, however, technology must come to the forefront as students learn

to use a video editor. With beginning level learners, it is most expedient for such

instruction to be given in the L1. More advanced students may be able to handle

it in the L2.

Fortunately, Windows MovieMaker and iMovie are commendably user friendly.

Moreover, instruction can be limited to just what is needed to accomplish the task

at hand. The first video-editing session, which can be done in a class hour, serves

to give students hands-on experience with the basics of video editing. Students

need to understand that a video editor works with copies of media files that are

imported into a project assembly workspace. Usually a video clip is composed of

numerous shots, each one of which is imported into the project assembly area as

a separate thumbnail icon (see Figures 1 and 2).

The editing of a video clip is accomplished by dragging these icons to a video

track to form a continuous sequence of scenes. Besides the video track, Windows

MovieMaker and iMovie also have two types of audio tracks: one internal to the

video clip and the other external to it. The internal audio track holds the original

soundtrack. In a muted video clip the internal soundtrack is empty and cannot be

manipulated. The external audio track is intended to allow users to insert narrations

(e.g., to comment home movies). It is on this track that the muted video clip

can be dubbed with student voices.

Figure 1

MovieMaker Project File


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Figure 2

iMovie Project File

The dubbing of a muted video clip can either be done by recording directly to

the narration soundtrack, which then gets saved as an external file, or by importing

existing sound files into this audio track. As with the video clips they can

handle, Windows MovieMaker and iMovie only work with certain audio formats,

though the formats can be readily converted if need be. For initial demonstration

purposes, it is easiest to begin by having students work individually and do some

short recordings within the video editor. Just a couple of lines of dialogue is all

that is needed. Since the recordings automatically get saved as external files, they

can then be imported back into the narration soundtrack to demonstrate how this

is done. The object at this stage is not to produce a polished soundtrack but rather

to let students experiment with the video editor. In particular, students need to

gain experience positioning audio files on the external soundtrack since this is

how they will eventually synchronize their own voices to the video.

VIDEO DUBBING

Logistically, the recording of two or more dialog parts to the same audio track is

the most challenging part of a video-dubbing project, all the more so in that significant

portions of the recordings may need to be synchronized with lip movements.

In a professional recording environment, this would normally be accomplished

through real-time dubbing using multiple microphones, one for each speaker, connected

to a mixer box. In a computer lab, an inexpensive alternative is to use

Y-cables to join headsets and microphones together before connecting them to a

computer’s sound card. While technically either approach will give the desired


88 CALICO Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1

results, both have the considerable disadvantage of requiring students to meet

at the same place and time to do the recording. This can be doubly problematic

since it can consume considerable class time and/or require frequent out-of-class

meetings.

A more practical alternative to the real-time group dubbing of a soundtrack, and

one that for the most part can be undertaken out of class, is for students to individually

record their dialogue parts using an external digital audio recorder and

import the resulting files into the video editor afterwards. In order to synchronize

their speech to the video, students need to use a media player (e.g., Windows Media

Player, QuickTime, or RealPlayer) to watch the muted clip as they record their

soundtrack. With both the media player and audio recorder up and running on the

screen, students play the video until they get to their dialogue part and then start

their recording. It is best for students to proceed one sentence at a time since it is

much easier to lip sync several short recordings then one long one. Likewise, it is

easier to re-record individual segments to get them right. Doing recordings in this

way can produce many small files, and care needs to be taken to save them with

sequential names (e.g., Jean 1, Jean 2, etc.) to facilitate their subsequent importation

into the video editor.

Audio recordings need not be done within the students’ group folder. If students

prefer (or need) to work away from the group folder, they can simply transfer a

copy of the muted video clip to some other computer (e.g., at home) and do their

recording at that location. File transfer can be effected either by sending the video

over a network connection, copying it to a portable flash drive, or burning it on a

CD. When the audio recording is complete, students then transfer it back to the

group folder for importation into the video editor.

Like sound files that have been recorded directly within a video editor, imported

sound files appear as icons in the project file. When placed into the audio track,

these sound icons can be moved forward or backward in small increments to adjust

synchronization for lip movement (see Figures 3 and 4).

Figure 3

MovieMaker External Audio Track

Figure 4

iMovie External Audio Track


Jack Burston 89

SAVING A FINISHED VIDEO

In working on their soundtracks, students need to understand the critical difference

between saving a project file and actually creating a new video. The project

file contains all the constituents of the video, that is, its visual sequences and

audio segments (as well as title frames and scene transition effects if these are

used). It is in effect a recipe for making a video. The project file, of course, needs

to be saved as changes are made; but saving the project file does not in itself create

a video. To actually create a new video, all the constituents of the project have

to be combined and exported into the finished product. This is a simple matter

of clicking on a few menu options, giving the video a name, and saving it to the

desired location.

Whether directly recorded or imported (or some combination of the two), completed

dialogue roles can be saved to a new video in one of two basic ways: summatively

or iteratively. In the summative approach, students work together on

the same narration soundtrack and wait until everyone’s dialogue part is present

before saving the project to a new video. While students do not need to work on

the project at the same time, they do nonetheless need to work within the shared

group folder. Alternatively, it is possible to create a dubbed video in successive

stages. Using this approach, one student begins by dubbing his or her entire dialogue

role to the narration soundtrack of the muted video clip and saves the result

as a new video. In so doing, the external audio channel becomes incorporated

into the main soundtrack and is thus permanently synchronized to the video sequence.

A second student can then use this partially dubbed video as the source

of a new project, import (or directly record) the next dialogue role to its narration

soundtrack, and save the result to yet another new video clip. This process can be

repeated (with no loss of video or audio quality) as many times as needed until

all dialogue roles are completed. Unlike the summative creation of a video, iterative

saving is not restricted to working within the group folder. In fact, by having

students pass along to each other their partially dubbed video, it is possible to use

this technique to asynchronously dub a video entirely off site.

FURTHER PEDAGOGICAL EXPLOITATION

Once student-dubbed videos are complete, their pedagogical potential can be further

exploited by bringing the finished product back into the classroom as a source

of other student activities. In its simplest form, this may just involve showing

the videos publicly. Even otherwise timid students can take great pleasure seeing

themselves perform at their very best, really sounding like authentic native speakers.

Where students have created their own scenarios, a public showing of their

videos lends itself to animated class discussions in the L2, for example voting

for the funniest, the strangest, the most clever, the most professional, and so on

(everybody can be a winner!). Lastly, the archiving of student-produced videos

allows instructors to use them in projects with other classes, both as models to follow

and as challenges to other students to do better. In situations in which student

portfolios are kept, archived videos also serve as a valuable measure of progress

over time.


90 CALICO Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1

CONCLUSION

To summarize, the student dubbing of video clips brings a range of pedagogical

benefits to the foreign language curriculum with modest expense and minimal

technological intrusion (see the video-dubbing project outline in the Appendix

to this article). Video-dubbing projects can be undertaken at all linguistic levels,

involve easily acquired (and useful) technical skills, and can be conducted largely

out of the classroom and/or computer lab. Aside from its motivational value, project

preparation can provide a rich source of activities in all language skill areas:

listening, reading, writing, and speaking. When students engage in scenario creation,

such activities can also foster advanced grammar and vocabulary acquisition.

Moreover, because a great deal of project work can be undertaken individually

before it is combined into a common finished product, it is relatively easy

for the instructor to assign individual grades for activities completed at various

stages along the way. So, too, all the preparation that goes into the project virtually

assures that the grade for the end result will reward the group effort. Video

production, even if it only involves the simple dubbing of an existing soundtrack,

requires a substantial amount of effort from instructors and students alike; but

then so does any pedagogically effective activity.

NOTE

1 For comparative features and prices, see the About Video Editing web site (http://www.

aboutvideoediting.com/hardware/one.shtml).

REFERENCES

Biegel, K. (1998). It is show time: Video production in the EFL classroom. Journal of the

Japanese Association for Language Teaching, 22 (8). Retrieved December 6,

2004, from. http://www.jalt-publications.org/tlt/files/98/aug/biegel.html

Brooke, S. (2003). Video production in the foreign language classroom: Some practical

ideas. The Internet TESL Journal, IX (10). Retrieved December 6, 2004, from

http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Brooke-Video.html

Dubreil, S. (2003). When students become directors: Redefining the role of the learner

in the foreign language classroom. In R. Terry (Series Ed.) & L. Lomicka & J.

Cooke-Plagwitz (Vol. Eds.), The Heinle Professional Series in Language Instruction:

Vol. 1. Teaching with technology (pp. 129-137). Boston: Heinle.

Melillo, S. (2000). Creating a news video. Paper presented at SchoolTech Expo Vault, New

York. Retrieved December 6, 2004, from http://www.techlearning.com/events/

schooltech/2000/ny

Scruggs, K., & Reed, J. ( 2001). Fluency in foreign language using iMovie. Retrieved December

6, 2004, from http://ali.apple.com/ali_sites/ali/exhibits/1000516


Jack Burston 91

APPENDIX

Video-dubbing Project Outline

Video source selection Possible sources

Textbook videos

Commercials

TV broadcasts

Technical requirements Software

PC: Windows XP

MovieMaker

Mac: OS X

iMovie

Video format converter

Audio format converter

One-track audio recorder

Two-track audio recorder

Video dubbing types Level appropriateness Preparation

Soundtrack Substitution Beginning learners

Novice video editing

Creative scenario Advanced learners

Experienced video editing

Basic characteristics

Duration (5 minutes)

± Frontal face shots (± lip sync)

± Scenario transparency

Hardware

Hard disk storage space:

Instructor workstation (5GB)

Student group folders (5GB)

Video capture card

VCR

Scenario description (-audio)

Scenario description (+audio)

Dialogue comprehension

Dialogue pronunciation practice

Dialogue rehearsal

Scenario creation (oral/written)

Dialogue creation (written)

Dialogue pronunciation practice

Dialogue rehearsal

Video dubbing procedure Group folder Completely off site

Direct recording

Sound file importation

Summative video save

Iterative video save

Direct recording

Sound file importation

Iterative video save


92 CALICO Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1

AUTHOR’S BIODATA

Jack Burston is Director of the Foreign Language Technology Center, College of

Liberal Arts, Rochester Institute of Technology. His major professional responsibilities

are in the area of foreign language faculty development in the use of educational

technology. He has a particular interest in software evaluation and is the

current Software Review Editor of the CALICO Journal and Editor of the IALLT

Language Center Design Kit.

AUTHOR’S ADDRESS

Dr. Jack Burston

CALICO Software Review Editor

Director

Language Center

University of Cyprus

75 Kallipoleos

P.O. Box 20537

1678 Nicosia Cyprus

Phone: +357 2289 2113

Fax: +357 2275 0310

Email: revieweditor@modlang.txstate.edu

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