Cooperative Artifacts - About

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Cooperative Artifacts - About

Cooperative Artifacts

Seminar: Advances in Human Computer Interaction

15.11.2007

Lecturer: Michael Gerke

Chair: Sven Steudter

Supervisor: Michael Schmitz


1) Taxonomy for Collaborative Context-Aware

Systems

Trinity College Dublin, Ireland,

2) Examples of CCA-Systems

3) Concept of Cooperative Artifacts

Lancaster University, UK

4) Enhancement of CAs through infrastructure

Lancaster University, UK


What are Cooperative Artifacts?

Artifacts[, that] cooperatively assess their

situation in the world”

quoted from [2],

chapter 1, page 2


What are Cooperative Artifacts?

Artifacts[, that] cooperatively assess their

situation in the world”

quoted from [2],

chapter 1, page 2


What are Cooperative Artifacts?

A Taxonomy of

Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Collaborative: Communication, cooperation

Context-Aware: Sensors, inference

and actuation


What are Cooperative Artifacts?

A Taxonomy of

Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Collaborative: Communication, cooperation

Context-Aware: Sensors, inference

and actuation


What are Cooperative Artifacts?

A Taxonomy of

Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Collaborative: Communication, cooperation

Context-Aware: Sensors, inference

and actuation


What are Cooperative Artifacts?

A Taxonomy of

Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Collaborative: Communication, cooperation

Context-Aware: Sensors, inference

and actuation


A Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

What is the aim of the system?


A Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Objects decide locally

Decisions taken together


A Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Sensors for the context


A Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Create knowledge from raw data


A Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Infer actions (and execute them)


A Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Reason about knowledge


A Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

With the other objects


A Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

Actions or sensing

done by “fittest” object


Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

● Smart Its, Smart Its Friends:

– Generic, modular design

– Small, embedded in everyday objects

– Friend: proximity, similarity

● Millibots:

– Modular sensors: infrared, sonar, vision

– Small mobile robots

– Collaborative mapping


Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

● Smart Its, Smart Its Friends:

– Generic, modular design

– Small, embedded in everyday objects

– Friend: proximity, similarity

● Millibots:

– Modular sensors: infrared, sonar, vision

– Small mobile robots

– Collaborative mapping

Lancaster University, UK

University of Karlsruhe, Germany

ETH Zurich, Switzerland

Interactive Institute, Sweden

VTT Electronics, Finland


Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

● Smart Its, Smart Its Friends:

– Generic, modular design

– Small, embedded in everyday objects

– Friend: proximity, similarity

● Millibots:

– Modular sensors: infrared, sonar, vision

– Small mobile robots

– Collaborative mapping


Collaborative Context-Aware Systems

● Smart Its, Smart Its Friends:

– Generic, modular design

– Small, embedded in everyday objects

– Friend: proximity, similarity

● Millibots:

– Modular sensors: infrared, sonar, vision

– Small mobile robots

– Collaborative mapping

Carnegie Mellon University, USA

with funding from DARPA (Defense Advanced Research

Projects Agency) which is part of US-Department of Defense


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Cooperative Artifacts architecture

shared

knowledge

sensors

perception

measurements

knowledge base

rules domain

knowledge

inference

actuators

actions

observations

observational

knowledge

shared

knowledge


Example: Chemical Containers

● Chemical Containers:

– Sensing (infrared, ultrasonic)

– LED alarm

– Shared knowledge base


Example: Chemical Containers

Motivation:

Reactive chemicals: safety distance

Hazardous chemicals: special storage

Some chemicals dangerous in large quantities


Example: Chemical Containers

● Chemical Containers:

– Sensing (infrared, ultrasonic)

➔Range, area

– LED alarm

➔Save / unapproved / hazardous

– Shared knowledge base

➔Query-response protocol


Hardware: module 1

PIC18F252 microcontrollers


Hardware: module 1

PIC18F252 microcontrollers

Knowledge base


Hardware: module 1

PIC18F252 microcontrollers

Inference engine


Hardware: module 1

PIC18F252 microcontrollers

Infrared perception


Hardware: module 2

PIC18F252 microcontrollers


Hardware: module 2

PIC18F252 microcontrollers

relative position

perception


Hardware: wireless links

queries

PIC18F252 microcontrollers

synchronization


Hardware: logics

1: observation

PIC18F252 microcontrollers


Hardware: logics

2: inference

1: observation

PIC18F252 microcontrollers


3: actuation

Hardware: logics

2: inference

1: observation

PIC18F252 microcontrollers


module 1

RS232 serial line

Hardware: container

module 2


Hardware: testbed

infrared beacons

approved

area

unapproved

area


Container LEDs

green LED:

save

yellow LED:

unapproved

red LED:

hazardous


antenna

Container module1

LEDs

battery


Container module2

antenna sensors


Beacon

emitter


Four situations:

(a) Normal storage

(b) Unapproved area

(c) Reactive chemicals

(d) Critical mass

Demonstration


Normal storage


Unapproved area


Unapproved area


Unapproved area


Unapproved area


Reactive chemicals


Reactive chemicals


Reactive chemicals

hazard_incompatible:

hazard_incompatible

content(me, CH1) Λ

proximity(me, C) Λ

content(C, CH2) Λ

reactive(CH1, CH2)

Container A1 Container A2 Container B

content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“acid”)

mass(me,20) mass(me,20) mass(me,40)

reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”)

critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) -

critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“acid”, 3600)

proximity(me, b) - proximity(me, a1)

location(me, in 142) location(me, in, 154) location(me, in, 147)


Reactive chemicals

hazard_incompatible:

hazard_incompatible

content(me, CH1) Λ

proximity(me, C) Λ

content(C, CH2) Λ

reactive(CH1, CH2)

Container A1 Container A2 Container B

content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“acid”)

mass(me,20) mass(me,20) mass(me,40)

reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”)

critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) -

critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“acid”, 3600)

proximity(me, b) - proximity(me, a1)

location(me, in 142) location(me, in, 154) location(me, in, 147)


Reactive chemicals

hazard_incompatible:

hazard_incompatible

content(me, CH1) Λ

proximity(me, C) Λ

content(C, CH2) Λ

reactive(CH1, CH2)

Container A1 Container A2 Container B

content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“acid”)

mass(me,20) mass(me,20) mass(me,40)

reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”)

critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) -

critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“acid”, 3600)

proximity(me, b) - proximity(me, a1)

location(me, in 142) location(me, in, 154) location(me, in, 147)


Reactive chemicals

hazard_incompatible:

hazard_incompatible

content(me, CH1) Λ

proximity(me, C) Λ

content(C, CH2) Λ

reactive(CH1, CH2)

Container A1 Container A2 Container B

content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“acid”)

mass(me,20) mass(me,20) mass(me,40)

reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”)

critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) -

critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“acid”, 3600)

proximity(me, b) - proximity(me, a1)

location(me, in 142) location(me, in, 154) location(me, in, 147)


Reactive chemicals

hazard_incompatible:

hazard_incompatible

content(me, CH1) Λ

proximity(me, C) Λ

content(C, CH2) Λ

reactive(CH1, CH2)

Container A1 Container A2 Container B

content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“acid”)

mass(me,20) mass(me,20) mass(me,40)

reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”)

critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) -

critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“acid”, 3600)

proximity(me, b) - proximity(me, a1)

location(me, in 142) location(me, in, 154) location(me, in, 147)


Reactive chemicals

hazard_incompatible:

hazard_incompatible

content(me, CH1) Λ

proximity(me, C) Λ

content(C, CH2) Λ

reactive(CH1, CH2)

Container A1 Container A2 Container B

content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“peroxide”) content(me,“acid”)

mass(me,20) mass(me,20) mass(me,40)

reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”) reactive(“peroxide”, “acid”)

critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) critical_mass(“peroxide”, 30) -

critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“peroxide”, 3600) critical_time(“acid”, 3600)

proximity(me, b) - proximity(me, a1)

location(me, in 142) location(me, in, 154) location(me, in, 147)


Reactive chemicals


Reactive chemicals


Critical mass


Critical mass


Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems


CCA-Taxonomy: Cooperative Artifacts

Safety


CCA-Taxonomy: Cooperative Artifacts

Safety


CCA-Taxonomy: Cooperative Artifacts

Safety


CCA-Taxonomy: Cooperative Artifacts

Safety


CCA-Taxonomy: Cooperative Artifacts

Safety


CCA-Taxonomy: Cooperative Artifacts

Safety


CCA-Taxonomy: Cooperative Artifacts

Safety


CCA-Taxonomy: Cooperative Artifacts

?

Safety


Alarm system

LEDs very “weak” alarm!

Possible solutions:

● Server infrastructure

● Alarm siren

● Projector system


Projector-Camera System

● Server infrastructure

– Register objects

● Camera

– Find object

● Projector system

– Project warning message on object


Projector-Camera challenges

● Find the object:

– Image recognition:

➔Color

➔Texture

➔Shape

➔Local features


Projector-Camera challenges

● Find the object:

– Knowledge of the objects:

➔Appearance knowledge, 3D-model

➔Sensor knowledge

➔Location, orientation and movement


Projector-Camera challenges

● Project the message:

– Free line of sight

– 3D orientation, shape

➔Adjust picture geometry

– Light, color, texture

➔Adjust picture color


Projector-Camera architecture


Find the object: example


Projected message


Cooperative Artifacts & Projector-Camera

?

Safety


Cooperative Artifacts & Projector-Camera

Safety


Summary: Cooperative Artifacts

● Chemical containers:

– Need a self-model

– Sensing

– Shared knowledge base

– Alarm

– Request message projection


Cooperative Artifacts & Projector-Camera

Can they be used for more

than chemical containers?


● Cars:

Cooperative Artifacts

– Share knowledge

– Calculate risks

– Adjust speed?

– Give Warning?


● Cars:

Cooperative Artifacts

– Share knowledge

– Calculate risks

– Adjust speed?

– Give Warning?

XFCD “Extended Floating Car Data”:

BMW


● Cars:

Cooperative Artifacts

– Share knowledge

– Calculate risks

– Adjust speed?

– Give Warning?

XFCD “Extended Floating Car Data”:

BMW

Invent “Intelligenter Verkehr und

nutzergerechte Technik” (Intelligent

traffic and user-friendly technology):

● FAS “Fahrerassistenz / Aktive

Sicherheit” (Driver-assistance / active

safety)

● VM2010 “Verkehrsmanagement

2010” (Traffic management 2010)

Audi, BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Opel, Ford, VW, Deutsches Zentrum

für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Bosch, Ericsson, IBM, Siemens, TÜV


● Cars:

Cooperative Artifacts

– Share knowledge

– Calculate risks

– Adjust speed?

– Give Warning?

XFCD “Extended Floating Car Data”:

BMW

Invent “Intelligenter Verkehr und

nutzergerechte Technik” (Intelligent

traffic and user-friendly technology):

● FAS “Fahrerassistenz / Aktive

Sicherheit” (Driver-assistance / active

safety)

● VM2010 “Verkehrsmanagement

2010” (Traffic management 2010)

Audi, BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Opel, Ford, VW, Deutsches Zentrum

für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Bosch, Ericsson, IBM, Siemens, TÜV

PReVENT European Project for preventive safety


Projector-Camera System

● Warehouse:

– Display content (when pointed at)

– Display warnings

● Augment objects:

– Display messages

– Offer projected interfaces


Cooperative Artifacts

Thank you

for your attention!

Literature:

[1] Salkham, A., Cunningham, R., Senart, A., Cahill, V.: A Taxonomy of Collaborative Context-Aware Systems. In: Proceedings of the

Workshop on Ubiquitous Mobile Information and Collaboration Systems (UMICS), pp. 899-911, at CAISE'06, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy

of Luxembourg, 2006, jun, TCD-CS-2006-30

https://www.cs.tcd.ie/~salkhama/CCA-Paper-LNCS.pdf

[2] Strohbach, M., Gellersen, H.W., Kortuem, G., Kray, C.: Cooperative artefacts: Assessing real world situations with embedded

technology. In: UbiComp 2004: Ubiquitous Computing: 6th International Conference,Proceedings, Nottingham, UK (2004), pp.250–267

http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/~strohbach/ca.PDF

[3] Molyneaux, D., Gellersen, H., Kortuem, G., Schiele, B.: Cooperative Augmentation of Smart Objects with

Projector-Camera Systems. In UbiComp 2007: Ubiquitous Computing. LNCS, vol. 4717, pp. 501–518, Springer, Heidelberg (2007)

http://www.springerlink.com/content/x8v7u565575424n5/fulltext.pdf

[4]http://www.ubicomp.lancs.ac.uk/~molyneau/Full2_20_mp4.mov

[5]http://www.spiegel.de/auto/werkstatt/0,1518,308417,00.html

[6]http://www.invent-online.de/

[7]http://www.prevent-ip.org/

[8]http://de.wikipedia.org/

[9]http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~cyberscout/new-www/millibots.html

[10]http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/luisn/Blank Page 02.htm

[11]http://www.agent.ai/main.php?articleID=865&ctag=articlelist&folderID=12

[12]http://smart-its.teco.edu/artefacts/artefacts_text.html

[13]http://www.smart-its.org

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