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Press Corps Study Guide - World Model United Nations

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<strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong><br />

<strong>World</strong> <strong>Model</strong> <strong>United</strong> <strong>Nations</strong> 2013<br />

<strong>Study</strong> <strong>Guide</strong><br />

Sponsored by RMIT University


Contact Us<br />

<strong>World</strong> <strong>Model</strong> united <strong>Nations</strong> 2013<br />

info@worldmun.org<br />

www.worldmun.org<br />

Letters<br />

Letter from the Secretary General 04<br />

Letter from the Under-Secretary General 05<br />

Letter from the Chair 06<br />

CONteNtS<br />

Introduction<br />

Why News Matters 07<br />

Role of Gatekeeprs, Past and Present 08<br />

The Modern Evolution of Journalism<br />

10 Social Networks Democratize Journalism<br />

12 Comedy as Honesty and Changing Face of the<br />

Public Trust: Colbert and Stewart<br />

13<br />

Committee Overview<br />

From TPA to Today<br />

14 Media Types<br />

15 Publications: Online and Daily<br />

15 The <strong>World</strong>MUN Gazette<br />

16 The News Agencies<br />

18 Agency Structure<br />

18 <strong>Press</strong> Conferences<br />

18 A Note on Journalistic Integrity<br />

19<br />

Conclusion<br />

Position Papers<br />

19 Closing Remarks<br />

22 Bibliography<br />

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Letters<br />

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Letter from the Secretary-General<br />

dear delegates,<br />

it is my pleasure and honor to welcome you to the 22nd session of <strong>World</strong> <strong>Model</strong> united<br />

<strong>Nations</strong>! My name is Charlene Wong, and i am the Secretary-General of <strong>World</strong>MuN 2013.<br />

Within this document you will find the study guide for your committee. The conference<br />

staff for <strong>World</strong>MUN 2013 has been working tirelessly over the past months to provide<br />

you with an unparalleled conference experience, beginning with this guide. Each Head<br />

Chair has researched extensively to provide you with a foundation for each committee’s<br />

topic areas.<br />

We encourage you to use this study guide as the starting point for your exploration of<br />

your committee’s topics, and your country or character’s policies. The <strong>World</strong>MUN Spirit<br />

invites you to step into the shoes of your country or character, and to immerse yourself in<br />

the committee by researching and developing a full understanding of the issues, perspectives,<br />

and possible solutions on the table. We offer several additional resources online,<br />

including our <strong>World</strong>MuN 101 <strong>Guide</strong> and Rules of Procedure, updated for this year. Both<br />

are available at www.worldmun.org. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to<br />

contact your Head Chair or Under-Secretary-General.<br />

Please enjoy reading this study guide, and I look forward to meeting you in Melbourne<br />

in March!<br />

Sincerely,<br />

Charlene S. Wong<br />

Secretary-General<br />

<strong>World</strong> <strong>Model</strong> united <strong>Nations</strong> 2013<br />

secretarygeneral@worldmun.org<br />

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4


Letter from the Under-Secretary-General<br />

dear delegates,<br />

it is with the utmost honor and pleasure that i welcome you to the Specialized Agencies.<br />

the SA holds a special place in the heart of <strong>Model</strong> united <strong>Nations</strong>; it is here that<br />

crises are born and delegates rise to the challenge to address quickly evolving issues in<br />

real-time. With an average size of 20 delegates per committee, the SA promises to deliver<br />

an intimate and tight-knit environment where every delegate’s voice can be heard and<br />

appreciated.<br />

The SA has always made a firm commitment to substantive excellence and lifelike simulations.<br />

The first measure of that promise starts here with this study guide. Your chair has<br />

worked tirelessly over these past few months pouring over books in deep Harvard dungeons<br />

to breathe life into these topics. I am so proud of their work and hope you make<br />

the most of this initial resource to inspire and guide your preparation for <strong>World</strong>MuN.<br />

Come March, your chair and the junior staff will be working to deliver a MUN simulation<br />

that raises the bar of your delegate experience.<br />

All that being said, the SA would be nothing without you, her committed delegates, who<br />

challenge and dedicate themselves to addressing head-on the world’s greatest problems,<br />

both past, present, and future. With ample preparation, devotion, and creativity,<br />

you will find success in this SA home.<br />

As a former MUN delegate and SA staffer, I know what it means to live and breathe a<br />

thrilling and informative MUN experience. Along with our chairs and junior staff, I hope<br />

to deliver that same experience to you all. Take care, and I cannot wait to meet you in<br />

person in Melbourne!<br />

Sincerely,<br />

Michael Chilazi<br />

under-Secretary-General of the Specialized<br />

Agencies<br />

<strong>World</strong> <strong>Model</strong> united <strong>Nations</strong> 2013<br />

sa@worldmun.org<br />

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5


Letter from the Chair<br />

dear delegates,<br />

My name is Beau Feeny and I would like to say a few words to welcome you to <strong>World</strong>-<br />

MuN 2013, and especially, to the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong>!<br />

I am a senior at Harvard College studying History and Computer Science. Originally from<br />

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, I have spent the great bulk of my time at Harvard working to<br />

foster a sense of belonging among our community members. In my non-<strong>World</strong>MUN time,<br />

I tutor first graders, advise freshmen, write for a technology blog, lead camping trips,<br />

and plan large-scale events like concerts, dances, and carnivals. In my spare time, I enjoy<br />

reading, writing, and running.<br />

If you’ve participated in a <strong>Model</strong> UN <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> or Third Party Actors (TPA) committee<br />

before, I encourage you to leave your notions of how they operate at the door—the<br />

<strong>World</strong>MUN 2013 <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> should prove a more interactive, creative, engaging, and<br />

hopefully, fulfilling committee than most. In Melbourne, the committee will serve as the<br />

glue that provides continuity and cohesion the conference. In small, tight-knit teams, you<br />

will serve as members of one of five news agencies of global renown. As staffers of publications<br />

ranging from Al Jazeera to The New York Times, you will be charged with the duty<br />

of producing multiple kinds of content each day, including online blog posts, video, and,<br />

for the first time, a beautiful final publication to be distributed amongst all <strong>World</strong>MUN<br />

delegates to commemorate our work and their time at conference.<br />

I am excited to work with you all in the months leading up to the conference, and to<br />

finally meet you in March. I know that the <strong>World</strong>MUN <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> will prove a fun, challenging,<br />

and fulfilling experience for you all. In the time leading up to the conference, I<br />

encourage you to critically examine the role the news media play in your home country.<br />

As this study guide will demonstrate, the way coverage of world events is represented to<br />

members of the global society affects their interpretation, and further, their reaction to<br />

them. Journalism is a key driver of the progress of world events, and at <strong>World</strong>MUN, the<br />

<strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> has, for the first time in conference history, the chance to truly reflect that<br />

reality.<br />

I encourage you to contact me with any questions you might have before conference!<br />

Best,<br />

Beau Feeny<br />

Chair, <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong><br />

<strong>World</strong> <strong>Model</strong> united <strong>Nations</strong> 2013<br />

presscorps@worldmun.org<br />

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6


Introduction<br />

This year marks the first that the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong><br />

has been split into its own committee, complete<br />

with its own dedicated staff and resources. This<br />

new configuration deliberately places an increased<br />

emphasis on the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> as the medium by which<br />

the conference is strung together; the product we<br />

produce in committee will be consumed by the rest of<br />

the conference. It is in the simple fact of that product’s<br />

dissemination that our work’s importance becomes<br />

clear: it will influence the conference not only in the<br />

sense that it will contribute to the experience of other<br />

delegates, but it will provide the unique opportunity<br />

to experiment with a microcosm of the press, and<br />

explore its ability to have a meaningful impact on the<br />

substantive element of the conference as well.<br />

The <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> newsroom likely won’t be quite this busy, but it will have a<br />

dozen times more energy!<br />

The <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> will be composed of five umbrella<br />

news agencies, each composed of five delegates.<br />

the agencies, Agence-France <strong>Press</strong>e, Al Jazeera,<br />

the New York Times, the Times of India, and The<br />

Australian, some of the world’s premier journalistic<br />

organizations. At <strong>World</strong>MUN 2013, you will be<br />

responsible for assuming the role of these groups<br />

and doing the kind of investigative, expository, and<br />

cultural work they routinely cover.<br />

in addition, this year, we are introducing The<br />

<strong>World</strong>MUN Gazette, a beautiful multipage wrapup<br />

document that will provide closure both to the<br />

conference’s substantive and social elements. In<br />

other words, the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> will be responsible for<br />

producing a real newspaper (though admittedly of<br />

magazine-like quality) that will serve as a timeless<br />

keepsake for every delegate.<br />

The <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> will prove a whirlwind of creative<br />

energy, press conferences, humor, learning,<br />

collaboration, productive disagreement, and so much<br />

more—the committee offers the chance to explore<br />

the weighty mandates of journalism and its effects on<br />

world policy…and, of course, to have fun doing it.<br />

Why News Matters<br />

Patchwork Public Discourse: Gatekeepers<br />

and the Changing of the Guard<br />

An academic look at the nature of the press reveals<br />

a greater role than just providing factual retelling of<br />

local, national, and world events. Indeed, the closer<br />

one examines the press, the clearer it becomes<br />

that by its very nature the objectivity it aspires<br />

to is impossible, but that that aspiration is only<br />

a means to an even loftier ambition. The role<br />

of news in society is to provide space for—and<br />

often shape—the public discourse.<br />

In an encyclopedia article based on his larger<br />

1962 book Strukturwandel der Oeffentlichkeit,<br />

Jürgen Habermas argued as governments<br />

shift to become more democratic, the way the<br />

public sphere is constructed changes, too. As<br />

government switched from a model of power<br />

before the people, as with feudal lords wielding<br />

power over their serfs, to a model of power for<br />

the people, the accompanying societal changes<br />

both spurred the creation and transformation of<br />

the public sphere.<br />

As styles of government shifted, popular<br />

involvement increasingly became a feature of<br />

successful states. Frequently, that process of<br />

governmental shift—that is, of policy-making—<br />

was fueled by the discussion and theory-building of<br />

individuals in the society. It is useful here to define the<br />

public sphere. According to Habermas, “by ‘the public<br />

sphere,’ we mean first of all a realm of our social life<br />

in which something approaching public opinion can<br />

be formed. Access is guaranteed to all citizens.” 1 the<br />

world’s citizens have today realized this principle in<br />

greater numbers than at any other point in human<br />

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history.<br />

While Habermas’s piece has its shortcomings<br />

when viewed in the framework of the <strong>World</strong> <strong>Model</strong><br />

<strong>United</strong> <strong>Nations</strong> conference—namely, that its views<br />

are predicated on the teleology of the rise of western<br />

methods of governance—the ideas presented therein<br />

are still useful for the purposes of the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong>.<br />

Indeed, as <strong>World</strong>MUN holds dearly among its values<br />

the fostering of productive discourse among people<br />

of different backgrounds and forging solutions<br />

among those with disparate viewpoints, Habermas’s<br />

idea of the public sphere can, and should be, seen as<br />

well-aligned with our goals for the <strong>World</strong>MuN 2013<br />

<strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong>. the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong>, then, should aim to<br />

foster its own public discourse at <strong>World</strong>MUN, one<br />

that connects and involves delegates from all over<br />

the world.<br />

indeed, these notions of connectedness more<br />

readily apply to the current era than they have to<br />

any in history. Habermas asserted, “a portion of the<br />

public sphere comes into being in every conversation<br />

in which private individuals assemble to form a public<br />

body.” 2 The sphere represented the space between<br />

the state and society. And though Habermas could<br />

not have predicted in the 1960s what the Internet<br />

would become, by his logic the Web might just<br />

constitute the largest public sphere in human history.<br />

It is the medium that has offered the greatest number<br />

of people a say—not a representative say, but a real<br />

opportunity for any individual to broadcast to an<br />

audience (so long as they can attain one). Everyone<br />

(for a loose definition of everyone) now has the<br />

opportunity to contribute to the public sphere. In<br />

earlier eras, one of the largest challenges someone<br />

who wanted to spread an opinion faced was getting<br />

access to one of the key networks—whether print<br />

distribution, radio, or television—required for such<br />

broadcast. The challenge now, rather than to gain<br />

access, is to be heard. One element of that challenge is<br />

the quest for quality—in a just world, the best content<br />

would secure the greatest number of viewers and<br />

engender the most productive debate. In this world,<br />

however, content quality represents only a sliver of<br />

the battle. In 2012, as in the 1700s, contributors to the<br />

public sphere contend with gatekeepers.<br />

Creating the Media & Understanding the Gatekeeper<br />

“As of the early 1850s, no one in France could send<br />

a telegraph without government permission”—Paul<br />

Starr, The Creation of the Media<br />

In media, a gatekeeper serves as the entity<br />

that filters the information provided by content<br />

producers, and ultimately decides what reaches that<br />

medium’s audience. Understanding gatekeepers<br />

proves an essential component of understanding<br />

the history of news because they have, in every era,<br />

helped define acceptable content and served as<br />

framers of the public discourse. Recall that fostering<br />

that public discourse proves one of the high aims the<br />

journalist. understand that comfort with the role of<br />

yesterday’s gatekeeper provides what is necessary<br />

for recognizing the covert—but all-important—<br />

nature of today’s.<br />

In some instances, government could be the<br />

gatekeeper. For example, at one point during the<br />

American Civil War, the northern administration<br />

favored the Associated <strong>Press</strong> (AP) with exclusive<br />

stories, leaving other agencies out and effectively<br />

installing the AP as an organ of propaganda. 3 At least<br />

as often, though, large businesses like the AP have<br />

served as gatekeepers in order to maintain their<br />

hegemony. Sometimes businesses would collude: the<br />

onetime AP rival, the <strong>United</strong> <strong>Press</strong>, actually created<br />

a secret deal with the AP dictating that they would<br />

resist beating each other’s prices to keep profits high.<br />

It would not be until 1945 that the US Supreme Court<br />

ruled such actions illegal. 4<br />

While those are US-specific examples, there are<br />

many like them throughout history and the world. The<br />

idea of a gatekeeper is a multinational one, and with<br />

notable exceptions like China, whose government<br />

continues to serve as a gatekeeper, the holder of that<br />

role has changed significantly over time. Governments<br />

once held the keys to the gates, like the legal printing<br />

monopolies in europe and stamp taxes in the united<br />

States. 5 The advent of the telegraph introduced<br />

new gatekeepers like Western Union and asked<br />

governments to consider how to regulate them. 6<br />

The rise of radio and television empowered certain<br />

networks to dictate what content they provided and<br />

which events received coverage. Cable television<br />

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weakened those networks’ hegemonic roles as<br />

gatekeepers by providing, eventually, a vast increase<br />

in the number of gates. 7 Only in the past decade has<br />

television’s status as a haven for (an albeit large<br />

number of) gatekeepers been obviated. Indeed, the<br />

Internet’s rise to importance in the spread of news<br />

has marked the next great shift in its consumption<br />

and the public’s ability to access it. The Internet, or<br />

more accurately, the <strong>World</strong> Wide Web, has arguably<br />

democratized information. With a new medium,<br />

however, has come a new gatekeeper.<br />

The company’s “mission is to organize the world’s<br />

information and make it universally accessible and<br />

useful,” reads the about page for Google Inc. 8 the<br />

company has for over a decade devoted itself to<br />

indexing the Web in order to make it possible to<br />

search for things—whether recipes, games, or<br />

news—and to find them more easily. There is an ironic<br />

tension between the company’s subscription to that<br />

ideal, then, and its role as what is potentially history’s<br />

largest and most important gatekeeper.<br />

Where Starr notes in his excellent the Creation of<br />

the Media that “broadcasting also raised questions<br />

about property rights—for example, whether<br />

broadcasters had to obtain permission and pay for<br />

the right to broadcast performances of copyrighted<br />

music or play-by-play reports of professional sports<br />

games,” one sees that these same issues have<br />

plagued the internet age. 9 The main difference<br />

has been that those questions were answered in a<br />

dangerously scattershot way, one whose inconsistent<br />

construction and application rearranged, and<br />

continues to reconfigure, industries. If today’s Web<br />

resembles a library, though, the one of the pre-search<br />

engine era bore more semblance to an open-air<br />

bazaar. Enter Google.<br />

History’s Largest Gatekeeper<br />

In his book The Googlization of Everything (And<br />

Why We Should Worry), Siva Vaidhyanathan writes<br />

that in seeking to organize the world’s information,<br />

it has inherently editorialized it, commoditized it,<br />

in a way that endangers the public discourse. For<br />

being so often credited with making the world’s<br />

information accessible, this is a weighty claim.<br />

indeed, in those countries where Google or similar<br />

engines are accessible, the website offers a wealth of<br />

information—arguably a payload greater than what<br />

any library system in the world carries on its shelves.<br />

However, rather than surfacing that information<br />

through a transparent system of indices and shelving<br />

This cartoon satirizes China’s censorship of the media and sheds<br />

light on governmental gatekeeping.<br />

locations, Google’s system, the algorithm, is oblique<br />

by economic necessity. The vast majority of the<br />

company’s revenues derive from advertisements.<br />

These advertisements are targeted at users based on<br />

their perceived interests, which are gleaned through<br />

tracking Internet browsing history, email content, and<br />

especially, Google searches. this model is particularly<br />

potent because Google charges companies to use its<br />

advertising services on a per-click basis; it behooves<br />

Google to serve relevant advertisements to people<br />

searching for things like products and services on the<br />

Internet. The algorithms work—and quite well, to<br />

the tune of billions of dollars in profit every quarter.<br />

Breaking the secrecy of those algorithms would<br />

make publicly accessible the mechanisms that have<br />

powered the Internet’s most successful company,<br />

advertising or otherwise.<br />

Viewed in that way, the dangers of ceding the<br />

role of world librarian to Google suddenly reveal<br />

themselves: as gatekeeper to the world’s news<br />

and, consequently, guardian of its public discourse,<br />

an advertising company might not have the health<br />

of that discourse at the forefront of its priorities.<br />

Indeed, Vaidhyanathan argued, “Overwhelmingly, we<br />

now allow Google to determine what is important,<br />

relevant, and true on the Web and in the world.” 10<br />

this does not mean Google maliciously refuses to<br />

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9


surface articles that do not benefit it—consumers<br />

and experts alike have no solid reason to believe<br />

that. in fact, the truth is far more mundane. it has<br />

everything to do with the nuanced competition of<br />

Google’s economic desire to give us what we want,<br />

versus the public sphere’s mandate to give us what<br />

we need.<br />

To build a product that more closely aligns with<br />

users’ expectations, Google has spent years modifying<br />

Google may be the biggest public discourse gatekeeper in the<br />

history of communication.<br />

its algorithms to give more weight to results that<br />

meet certain qualifications within an individuals’<br />

personal context, ranging from the obvious, like<br />

language and geographic region, to the esoteric, like<br />

browsing history and Internet service provider. Even<br />

when not logged into a Google account, the service<br />

still uses dozens of signals to determine the results<br />

it serves. This matters because personalization, by<br />

design, returns information specific to the individual<br />

looking for it. In other words, the more data a user<br />

deposits in Google’s vast repositories, the more likely<br />

Google is to offer results that align more closely to<br />

that user’s apparent mode of thinking. That pattern,<br />

critics fear, creates an echo chamber that blinds users<br />

to alternative perspectives and necessarily weakens<br />

their ability to participate in the public discourse.<br />

Habermas wrote that in the public sphere, in its ideal<br />

definition, “access is guaranteed” to all citizens. 11<br />

Personalization threatens that egalitarian principle by<br />

creating spheres shared only by those of like minds,<br />

with the Google juggernaut mightily guarding the<br />

gate of each.<br />

this information is presented here with an eye<br />

toward both providing background about journalistic<br />

philosophy and fostering a session of critical thinking<br />

about the values each agency at <strong>World</strong>MUN should<br />

adopt. At the beginning of the conference, you<br />

will work with the other members of your agency<br />

to adopt a set of guiding values and group norms,<br />

which will serve the dual purpose of guiding your<br />

journalistic output as well as your team dynamic.<br />

Thinking about the importance of the history of<br />

news proves an irreplaceable component of actually<br />

producing it, for understanding where we are today<br />

provides guidance for where we’ll go tomorrow. The<br />

modern example of Google (or another ad-based<br />

search engine) as a gatekeeper is only an example<br />

of the larger historical trend: that large, powerful<br />

institutions, whether governments or private<br />

corporations, generally impose borders on the public<br />

discourse. As a journalist at <strong>World</strong>MuN, your duty is<br />

to open those confines and add new, under-explored<br />

angles to the discussion. indeed, 2013 presents more<br />

tools to do so than ever in human history.<br />

The Modern Evolution of<br />

Journalism<br />

Social Networks Democratize Journalism<br />

the emergent world of internet journalism has<br />

had the dual effect of illuminating new stars while<br />

blacking out many of the old ones. In broad strokes,<br />

print media has suffered greatly from the rise of free<br />

and online journalistic content. In large part, a lack of<br />

foresight doomed many of these old-world outlets:<br />

many papers in the united States alone failed in the<br />

final years of the last decade because they did not<br />

anticipate the precipitous declines in revenues that<br />

offering their content online for free would cause. On<br />

the one hand, print revenues had flowed plentifully<br />

until that point, and on the other, internet access<br />

had not proliferated extensively enough to yet<br />

give them pause. The survivors of that era, like the<br />

Wall Street Journal and the New York Times—which<br />

announced in July 2012 that subscription revenues for<br />

the first time exceeded those from advertising—have<br />

emerged different institutions, ones that compete<br />

with upstarts with minimal start-up costs and whose<br />

business models were never predicated on the idea<br />

10<br />

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of selling an expensive physical good. The Huffington<br />

Post and the Philadelphia Inquirer play the same game,<br />

but by vastly different rules. 12 , 13 Still, though, the rules<br />

of print and the Web have much more in common<br />

with each other than they do with those of the public<br />

sphere’s twenty-first century darling, Twitter.<br />

twitter, one could argue, is the telegraph of<br />

today. used for transmission of short messages<br />

(though arbitrarily, rather than economically limited),<br />

the service offers its users (and onlookers) the<br />

opportunity to view in real time the updates other<br />

users provide—about anything. These range from the<br />

mundane to the truly groundbreaking. Its role as the<br />

social media tool of the Arab Spring helped reveal its<br />

international use. News frequently breaks on Twitter<br />

and then is further explicated on an agency’s own<br />

site. However, not only has the medium where news<br />

is broken changed—from print to television to the<br />

Web to Twitter—but so too have the people doing<br />

it. The Internet, and broadcast systems like Twitter<br />

especially, have birthed a new kind of reporter: the<br />

citizen-journalist.<br />

The nature of Twitter’s network as a one-tomany<br />

broadcast network, combined with its core<br />

gimmick, the 140-character limit, have propelled it<br />

to such a prominent place in today’s public sphere.<br />

While Twitter resembles most of history’s broadcast<br />

networks in that it allows one person to disseminate<br />

information to many without providing a clear<br />

interface for conversation, it differs from them in<br />

one essential way: like the Internet, Twitter invites<br />

anyone to participate. in two main ways, though, it<br />

is even better suited for the purpose of kindling the<br />

public discourse because: a) it represents a single<br />

destination where global trends are algorithmically<br />

tracked and b) it is even more accessible than the<br />

Web. Designed for a world before smartphones and<br />

utilized in the developing countries where those<br />

devices’ penetration remains minimal, that “core<br />

gimmick” had and still has a real purpose: enabling<br />

the global broadcast of messages small enough to<br />

fit in a single SMS. The prepaid phones of the Third<br />

<strong>World</strong>, where present, have allowed the rest of the<br />

planet to follow in real-time the political strife of, for<br />

instance, the Arab Spring.<br />

Twitter has proven the most prominent vehicle<br />

of the citizen-journalist’s rise, but others exist and<br />

continue to grow in importance. Among them,<br />

YouTube, and to a lesser extent, Facebook, rank high.<br />

The Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in<br />

Journalism in July 2012 highlighted the ascendancy of<br />

YouTube on its journalistic merits. The rise of videocapable<br />

phones, coupled with YouTube’s massive<br />

Twitter has allowed outsiders to follow major world events in real<br />

time and was a popular tool used by protestors in the Arab Spring.<br />

network, has resulted in the deployment of citizenjournalist<br />

news teams across the earth. After the<br />

March 2011 earthquake in Japan, people viewed news<br />

coverage of the disaster on the video site almost 100<br />

million times across the top 20 videos. In the Pew<br />

study, 39 percent of the top-viewed videos were<br />

“clearly identified as coming from citizens.” 14 those<br />

pieces vary in length, and at 2 minutes and 1 second,<br />

are on average (median) longer than local newscasts<br />

(41 seconds) and shorter than nationally-broadcast<br />

ones. Pew’s findings indicate that the YouTube citizenjournalist<br />

does not yet subscribe to a particular set of<br />

rules, whether in length of footage or specificity of<br />

content. Even US President Barack Obama, the figure<br />

most frequently mentioned in the videos studied in<br />

the Pew document, figured into only 4 percent of<br />

them. In other words, the most-viewed news videos<br />

on YouTube—of which almost two-fifths are the<br />

products of citizen-journalist—do not exhibit the<br />

kinds of overarching foci that traditional broadcast<br />

networks do.<br />

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In democratizing content production, YouTube too<br />

has democratized, to a large extent, its consumption.<br />

Therein is the somewhat startling truth revealed: the<br />

broadcast model of news dissemination, premised<br />

on blockbuster stories and sensational headlines,<br />

does not function in the internet age, in which a<br />

3-megapixel camera and harried unprofessional<br />

commentary are enough to garner eyeballs. The<br />

broadcast model has not been comprehensively<br />

upturned, but the lesson is clear: the next era of media<br />

will substantially integrate citizen-journalists using<br />

democratized, web-based consumption and creation<br />

platforms like YouTube and Twitter. Meanwhile, the<br />

role and tone of broadcast will shift, as the unlikely<br />

scrutiny of comedians ushers in the practice’s future.<br />

Understanding the modern evolution of journalism<br />

will prove key to the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> this year. As Twitter<br />

and YouTube have emerged as dominant platforms<br />

of the citizen-journalist’s rise, their importance<br />

in organizations like <strong>World</strong>MUN has increased.<br />

delegates will use twitter to disseminate information<br />

to fellow conference attendees, as well as MuN<br />

enthusiasts who choose to follow <strong>World</strong>MuN<br />

remotely. <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong>-produced videos will appear<br />

on YouTube and enable their broader sharing on the<br />

Web.<br />

Comedy as Honesty and the Changing Face<br />

of the Public Trust: Colbert and Stewart<br />

The democratization of journalism reads like the<br />

story of the Internet’s proliferation. As its reach<br />

increased, the Internet invited more participants,<br />

both producers and consumers. The rise of the<br />

Web certainly enabled the citizen-journalist’s work,<br />

characterized by its rawness and honesty, first to<br />

exist and then to matter. However, the worldwide<br />

expansion of the internet does not account for the<br />

other participatory trend of modern journalism: its<br />

sense of humor.<br />

Humor has proven an unlikely catalyst for the<br />

criticism and democratization of modern journalism.<br />

A limited amount has been written about this<br />

phenomenon, but Geoffrey Baym’s excellent From<br />

Cronkite to Colbert: The Evolution of Broadcast<br />

Journalism offers an insightful and much needed<br />

critique to the broadcast landscape leading up to<br />

the debut of “comedy news” shows. According<br />

to Baym, the three eras of broadcast television—<br />

network, multichannel, and post-network—have<br />

demarcated both the industry’s increasing inclusivity<br />

and its growing penchant for drama. 15 this tendency<br />

toward dramaturgy has manifested itself in broadcast<br />

newscasters’ shift from critics of news content<br />

to proponents of it. Where newscasters before<br />

would question what politicians said, highlighting<br />

problematic elements and suggesting viewers<br />

question their beliefs, their emphasis has moved to<br />

the creation of narrative stories.<br />

In Baym’s view, comedic programs like The Daily<br />

Show and The Colbert Report, which satirize “real”<br />

news programs, politicians, and current events,<br />

have once more cast government and the media’s<br />

coverage of it in a critical light. Indeed, the book<br />

argues “Parodying the ‘real’ news that has become<br />

so often fake, The Daily Show illustrates the flip<br />

side of infotainment: the emergence of innovative<br />

approaches to political television enabled by the<br />

fusion of ‘field logics’ and the multiplication of<br />

media forms.” 16 This approach appeals to viewers<br />

emotionally by being humorous, but nonetheless<br />

encourages the critical insight essential to the public<br />

discourse. Baym examines this a handful of times,<br />

including the coverage of the resignation of CIA<br />

Director George Tenet, in which he describes the<br />

presentation The Daily Show gave of then-President<br />

George Bush’s reaction to it: the major news outlets<br />

selected short quotes that conveyed a Bush who was<br />

self-assured and purposeful, while the footage Jon<br />

Stewart offered was strung together with “um”s and<br />

awkward pauses. 17 Although Stewart’s treatment of<br />

the event was designed to elicit laughter, it certainly<br />

was no cheap humor. In offering a different, less-thanflattering<br />

account of the President’s handling of the<br />

tenet resignation, Stewart inherently highlighted the<br />

absurdity of Bush’s inability to clearly communicate,<br />

and asked: should this man be in charge? It was a<br />

fresh approach to asking a very pointed question.<br />

Stewart’s approach has been so successful that<br />

it has spawned a spinoff, The Colbert Report. these<br />

programs, which make no pretense of objectivity—<br />

have garnered the trust of their audiences for<br />

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precisely that reason. Stewart’s opinions have figured<br />

prominently in his program, but he never pretends<br />

his content is anything else: his straightforward,<br />

conversational and confrontational style invites<br />

reasoned consideration in a way that pseudo-objective<br />

news presented as fact simply cannot. In an interview<br />

The success of Stewart illustrates the evolving forms of media outlets and the<br />

growing role of comedy to hold the news accountable.<br />

with National Public Radio, Stewart admitted, “You<br />

know, so much of what The Daily Show is, is just a<br />

deconstruction of the way that news, or the way that<br />

a political campaign, is put together.” 18 this mentality<br />

has resonated with the public body that consumes his<br />

program.<br />

in 2009, time, once the American magazine of<br />

record, revealed its “most trusted newscaster”<br />

poll’s results, and Jon Stewart, rather than Brian<br />

Williams, was selected by the largest percentage of<br />

voters. 19 While ostensibly a comedy show, Stewart’s<br />

program doesn’t just present the news; humor<br />

inherently requires toying with the unexpected and<br />

highlighting the absurd, and for that reason, Stewart<br />

critiques the news in a way that few programs have<br />

offered over the past several decades. Perhaps most<br />

importantly, Stewart has played an important role<br />

in highlighting the absurdities of the American news<br />

media: NewsFlavor writes, “Stewart has become<br />

the watchdog of the watchdogs. He keeps his eyes,<br />

and ours, glued on the happenings of not only the<br />

politicians, but of those who are supposed to be<br />

covering the politicians.” 20 Stewart critiques the<br />

news, and offers, in any episode, the chance to think<br />

deeply about world events in the moment. However,<br />

he also provides a framework for thinking more<br />

critically about the news more generally, for those<br />

times when he cannot be there to analyze it.<br />

While Stewart’s program clearly embraces<br />

personal opinions, <strong>World</strong>MuN journalists<br />

should avoid a model that rejects objectivity<br />

outright. the story that news presents, in<br />

its ideal form, provides the facts and poses<br />

the questions needed to form one’s own<br />

judgment. the Neo-modern style Stewart<br />

and Colbert embrace is only in its infancy.<br />

They are not journalists, but comedians.<br />

They thrive on criticizing other news<br />

outlets’ coverage. While delegates are<br />

discouraged from criticizing other agencies<br />

for the pure sake of it, they are urged to<br />

respond to others’ coverage constructively<br />

should it prove deficient. Delegates can and<br />

should highlight absurdities that arise on<br />

the floor, but their primary focus should be<br />

on exposing the unanswered questions the debates<br />

present, and helping move the conference along.<br />

The <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> is responsible not only for covering<br />

what goes on at the conference, but for helping<br />

expose what is not taking place and helping move the<br />

discussions toward more informed resolutions.<br />

Committee Overview<br />

From tPA to today<br />

In previous years, the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> was a component<br />

of the Third Party Actors (TPA). Composed of 25 nongovernmental<br />

organizations (NGOs), from Amnesty<br />

international to the <strong>World</strong> Wildlife Fund, two Goodwill<br />

Ambassadors (last year’s were Yo-Yo Ma and Giorgio<br />

Armani), and three reporters for the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong>.<br />

Essentially, NGOs would serve as lobbyists, Goodwill<br />

Ambassadors as civilian representatives of certain UN<br />

causes, and the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> as investigative reporters<br />

whose goal was to expose the issues that were not<br />

getting sufficient attention in committee.<br />

this year, in transitioning from this third Party<br />

Actors model, we wanted to highlight the positive<br />

aspects of that committee while capitalizing on<br />

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unspent potential. <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> borrows TPA’s<br />

applicability to the overall conference, but<br />

infuses it with the resources—both human and<br />

technological—necessary to increase its influence on<br />

other committees and value to its participants. It may<br />

be obviated in name, but TPA passes to its successor<br />

agency the values of giving voices to the weak,<br />

shedding light on the dark corners of world policy,<br />

and most of all, seeking truth as a conduit for justice.<br />

Media types<br />

each journalistic organization in the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong><br />

will be responsible for producing several different<br />

types of media each day, ranging from written articles<br />

to videos.<br />

Articles: each agency will produce at least one<br />

long-form expository news piece per day. these<br />

pieces should introduce an issue, explaining in<br />

about a paragraph the main pain points and players<br />

around the topic in a manner accessible to someone<br />

only nominally familiar with the issue. From there,<br />

the article should explain the developments that<br />

have occurred in committee and cover outstanding<br />

questions it presents—both those aired in committee<br />

and those the journalist raises. Such articles will be<br />

based on committee sessions as well as daily press<br />

conferences.<br />

in addition to these long-form expository pieces,<br />

agencies will produce two other articles each day.<br />

These can be shorter expository pieces, profiles,<br />

satirical essays (but written in the spirit of journalistic<br />

inquiry), editorials, or even another format not<br />

mentioned here (so long as the writer pitching it can<br />

demonstrate its value).<br />

• Expository pieces: Live by the mantra that<br />

a writer should always dig deeper—aim to<br />

expose the intents of delegates on other<br />

committees, reveal voting intent, and unearth<br />

hidden agendas.<br />

• Profiles: While strong expository pieces take<br />

advantage of comments from a variety of<br />

sources, interviews can serve as excellent<br />

pieces of standalone content. Rather than<br />

simple line-by-line transcriptions of the<br />

conversation, interviews should present its<br />

salient points while building context around<br />

it. Candidates for profiles could include<br />

anyone from delegates to expert witnesses to<br />

<strong>World</strong>MUN staff—use your imagination!<br />

• Editorials: these opinion pieces present the<br />

agency viewpoint—reached by consensus<br />

Infographics are proving to be an extremely intiutive and simple way to convey information and is a tool at your disposal in the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong>.<br />

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on a per-issue basis—on chosen topics in a<br />

concise, straightforward manner. they should<br />

advocate for a cause and call specific players—<br />

individuals, governments, or non-government<br />

agencies—to action.<br />

Videos: Each agency must produce two news<br />

videos of approximately one to one-and-a-half<br />

minutes each day. Videos should cover subject matter<br />

similar in scope to that of articles, but they should<br />

take advantage of conference elements that cannot<br />

be as readily or fully conveyed in text: crises, expert<br />

witnesses, and press conferences could provide great<br />

footage for an agency video.<br />

Photography: Photographers will capture the<br />

essence of <strong>World</strong>MUN 2013 in still frames—both<br />

sessions and social events—and incorporate them<br />

into well-written articles produced by the writing<br />

subteam. Photographs should enhance the article<br />

they accompany by providing a sense of the action.<br />

A picture of a room of people sitting in committee<br />

is not interesting; a close-up of someone delivering<br />

an impassioned speech is. Capture action, not its<br />

absence.<br />

Other graphics: Produce other graphics where<br />

possible—explain a conflict using an infographic; take<br />

advantage of polls and use them to produce charts<br />

and graphs that lend visibility to the conference’s<br />

participatory nature. draw political cartoons,<br />

add clever Photoshop effects to pictures taken in<br />

conference or at nightly social events. Use your<br />

imagination!<br />

Online Publication<br />

Word<strong>Press</strong>: Each agency will be responsible for<br />

maintaining a section of a Word<strong>Press</strong>-powered blog<br />

(tutorial to follow in the Software <strong>Guide</strong>). The blog will<br />

contain all the content—images, articles, videos, and<br />

more—that the team produces at the conference.<br />

Additionally, the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> conference staff will<br />

work with delegates to leverage the conference<br />

venue. <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> work will be visible on the<br />

internet, paper, and throughout the conference on<br />

screens and at other strategic points.<br />

Social media: More information about Social Media<br />

expectations will be included in the Software <strong>Guide</strong>,<br />

to be distributed in February.<br />

twitter: during the conference, the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong><br />

feed will be used for conference logistical news,<br />

amusing happenings, and linking to new content.<br />

News agencies will be given access to Twitter<br />

account(s) and use the medium for creating and<br />

linking to their content.<br />

Facebook: Delegates will have the opportunity to<br />

post content to the <strong>World</strong>MUN Facebook page.<br />

Daily Publication<br />

Each day of the conference, a different team of<br />

people (not an agency, but a group selected from<br />

among the entire committee) will be responsible for<br />

producing a daily news insert in .pdf format that will<br />

be distributed to all conference attendees via email<br />

and also displayed at strategic points throughout the<br />

conference venue using available print and digital<br />

technologies. The daily publication will aggregate<br />

strong written work from the day’s reporting across<br />

all agencies, as well as some original content (about<br />

75% things from earlier in the day—or the week, if<br />

they help bring context or can be viewed in a new<br />

light from that day’s proceedings—and 25% things<br />

from the team brainstorming session).<br />

One of <strong>World</strong>MUN’s goals with this year’s <strong>Press</strong><br />

<strong>Corps</strong> is to encourage its delegates to learn from<br />

each other as well as from the delegates from other<br />

committees. By design, the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> encourages<br />

this by producing the agency teams that delegates<br />

work with for the entire conference, as well as these<br />

daily publication teams.<br />

The <strong>World</strong>MUN Gazette<br />

A team of delegates will lay out and populate with<br />

content a beautiful and functional document that all<br />

conference attendees will have the opportunity to<br />

experience. This document will serve to provide a<br />

wrap-up of both substantive and social portions of the<br />

conference. It will offer high-performing delegates<br />

the opportunity to have their work featured in a<br />

publication that will be viewed by thousands of<br />

people in digital formats, an item that will serve not<br />

only as a stunning conference keepsake, but also as<br />

an important model from which future <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong><br />

will be able to draw.<br />

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Delegates will be chosen to work on The <strong>World</strong>MUN<br />

Gazette on the basis of their contributions during the<br />

creation of the daily publications, and together, those<br />

members of the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> will assess what content<br />

from the past week can be successfully retooled for<br />

the purpose of illuminating important issues and<br />

connecting threads of the conference. However, the<br />

bulk of the work in this project will be creating and<br />

editing new materials—writing reflective articles,<br />

analyzing week-long polls, editing graphics, and so<br />

forth—as well determining how best to physically<br />

situate them on the paper in a visually appealing way.<br />

the News Agencies<br />

The following brief descriptions are intended as<br />

jumping-off points for further research about the<br />

agencies represented at <strong>World</strong>MuN 2013. delegates<br />

are expected to have a working knowledge of their<br />

assigned agency.<br />

Notice the differences in founding dates across<br />

agencies and their stated purpose. they tout editorial<br />

independence, and importantly, impartiality as key<br />

features and values. Consider how to reconcile<br />

these values of admittedly “old-world” agencies<br />

with the emergent values of the Neo-Modern era<br />

of journalism. How can the difficulties of previous<br />

eras like the challenges presented by impartiality be<br />

reconciled with the media the <strong>World</strong>MUN 2013 uses?<br />

Agence France-<strong>Press</strong>e<br />

Agence France-<strong>Press</strong> (AFP) was founded in Paris<br />

in 1944. 21 With over 1300 staff journalists, the agency<br />

provides reporting from 150 countries in eight<br />

Agence France-<strong>Press</strong>e is a dominant player in European journalism.<br />

Source: AFP<br />

languages. The agency finds its spiritual successor in<br />

Charles-Louis Havas’s 1835 agency, Agence Havas. 22 its<br />

stated values are “truth, impartiality, and plurality.” 23<br />

Of the agencies represented at <strong>World</strong>MuN 2013,<br />

the AFP is unique in its scope and scale, because<br />

it is actually one of the world’s three main news<br />

organizations (in addition to the Associated <strong>Press</strong> and<br />

Reuters). This role as global news powerhouse gives<br />

delegates virtual free reign over choice of material to<br />

cover, but demands a greater neutrality of tone than<br />

another agency might require. This is because AFP<br />

content is reproduced by smaller agencies around the<br />

world.<br />

Al-Jazeera<br />

Al-Jazeera launched in 1996 as an Arabic-language<br />

cable news network. 24 The network represents one of<br />

the more recent developments in the news industry<br />

among <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> agencies. its core journalistic<br />

values are “honesty, courage, fairness, balance,<br />

independence, credibility and diversity.” 25 the Middle<br />

Eastern news network is remarkable for its founding<br />

in Qatar, in a region where news organizations<br />

frequently lack the editorial independence Al-Jazeera<br />

enjoys.<br />

Today, the organization is a global institution in<br />

its own right, but it was only a decade ago that Al-<br />

Jazeera was a no-name network whose future was<br />

in question. It was the network’s coverage of the<br />

Afghan war that helped propel it into international<br />

attention and acclaim. 26 While the network’s English<br />

version, launched in 2006, has failed to gain much of<br />

an American following, it enjoys a massive presence<br />

elsewhere in the world, with some 220 million in<br />

audience members in 100 countries having access to<br />

AJe. 27,28 Al-Jazeera’s international nature has helped<br />

it focus on truly important world news; the network’s<br />

reputation for no-nonsense coverage makes it the<br />

de facto point of reference for conflict in the Middle<br />

east.<br />

<strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> Al-Jazeera journalists should aspire<br />

to produce critical coverage of major conference<br />

developments, particularly with an eye toward<br />

incorporating multiple perspectives. Reflecting the<br />

deeply international nature of the publication is<br />

paramount to performing well in this year’s <strong>Press</strong><br />

<strong>Corps</strong>.<br />

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The Australian<br />

Launched in 1964, The Australian holds Accuracy<br />

as its chief value. Its Professional Conduct policy<br />

states that “facts must be reported impartially,<br />

accurately and with integrity.” 29 Primarily a national<br />

publication, The Australian also comments frequently<br />

on matters of international concern. The Australian<br />

is the only national broadsheet newspaper and the<br />

first Australian news organization to produce a news<br />

application for tablet computers. 30<br />

The Australian was chosen this year in honor of<br />

the <strong>World</strong>MuN 2013 host country. While a mostly<br />

national publication, The Australian presents<br />

<strong>World</strong>MuN journalists the opportunity to craft a<br />

credible international agency. Use the history of news<br />

and the presentation of journalistic theory discussed<br />

throughout this guide as a set of principles to achieve<br />

this goal.<br />

The New York Times<br />

the New York Times launched in 1851 and is<br />

considered the American newspaper of record. 36<br />

The organization has been awarded 108 Pulitzer<br />

Prizes, more than any other news organization,<br />

and, as mentioned earlier in this <strong>Guide</strong>, is one of the<br />

few print publications that has made a promising<br />

transition to a digital format. the New York Times<br />

covers international news extensively, and its<br />

holding company (also owner of the Boston Globe)<br />

strives to “enhance society by creating, collecting<br />

and distributing high quality news, information, and<br />

entertainment” as its core purpose. 37<br />

the aforementioned transition to a digital format<br />

has necessitated—and made possible—all new<br />

forms of content. A typical visit to the New York<br />

Times website reveals myriad videos and interactive<br />

visualizations, methods of inserting information to<br />

the public sphere not possible in print. NYT <strong>Press</strong><br />

<strong>Corps</strong> journalists are encouraged to experiment with<br />

content that similarly could not happen in print. As<br />

the organization’s extensive trophy collection would<br />

indicate, though, investigative journalism sits at the<br />

The Australian was selected in honor of our host nation. The NYT is considered the standard of American journalism<br />

hear of the New York Times machine, and <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong><br />

journalists are further encouraged to conduct copious<br />

(and substantive) interviews. Through that medium,<br />

journalists will have the opportunity to understand<br />

who the key players around an issue are, and further,<br />

how those players are moving to (or away from) an<br />

agreement. through that exposition, delegates can<br />

demand accountability of world leaders and push the<br />

conversation forward into action.<br />

The Times of India<br />

the Times of India was founded under a different<br />

name in 1838 to serve the British colonists in western<br />

india. 38 twenty-three years later, the paper changed<br />

its name to its current one. today, the paper is part<br />

of the times Group, an indian media conglomerate<br />

whose founding mission was “to create world-class<br />

media product and services. Our mission stems from<br />

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the belief that consumer experience is critical to our<br />

success.” 39<br />

the Times of India’s massive circulation dictates<br />

that its reach alone amplifies the organization’s<br />

responsibility. 40 While it is paramount that any<br />

<strong>World</strong>MUN <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> agency fact checks its work, it<br />

could be most dangerous if the Times of India did not.<br />

The organization’s extensive following necessitates<br />

The Times of India enjoys one of the largest readerships in the<br />

world.<br />

that its journalists produce critical pieces of work that<br />

draw on multiple sources and references; indeed,<br />

injecting the public sphere with false information<br />

could prove noxious for all involved.<br />

Agency Structure<br />

Each of the five agencies will contain five members:<br />

they will be writers, videographers, and designers in<br />

ratios to be determined. Each morning, agencies will<br />

determine which committees and topics they want to<br />

cover and report to the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> conference staff<br />

to secure those topic areas. Agencies will submit their<br />

content by the end of the day’s session. Agencies<br />

will be responsible for editing their own work, and<br />

it is therefore paramount that team members work<br />

together to produce the best content they can.<br />

<strong>Press</strong> Conferences<br />

Each agency will be responsible for interviewing<br />

witnesses and delegates from the other committees<br />

and relaying the news that emerges from such<br />

investigative processes to the larger conference.<br />

While delegates are encouraged to seek out these<br />

opportunities, they will also have the chance to<br />

attend <strong>Press</strong> Conferences featuring specific players<br />

in the conflicts and debates at <strong>World</strong>MUN. Some<br />

of these <strong>Press</strong> Conferences will be pre-scheduled,<br />

while others will arise more spontaneously as the<br />

committee discussions develop.<br />

Chairs have the option of permitting <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong><br />

members to fill non-voting contributory roles while<br />

committees are in session, but <strong>Press</strong> Conferences<br />

represent the chance for the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> to truly steer<br />

the discussion. They are important because they can<br />

be used to embellish perspectives not fully explored<br />

in committee, and they turn attention toward the<br />

important work the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> does. Prepare to ask<br />

difficult questions of your fellow delegates and to<br />

demand answers to them—the responsibility rests<br />

with you to dig for and expose the truth!<br />

Awards<br />

The teamwork-oriented nature of the <strong>World</strong>MUN<br />

2013 <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> dictates that the main <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong><br />

award will be given to the holistically best-performing<br />

team. in the spirit of <strong>World</strong>MuN, respectfully<br />

challenging each other is as important as supporting<br />

each other in the quest for producing the best<br />

possible outcomes.<br />

Software <strong>Guide</strong><br />

Please note that the Software <strong>Guide</strong> will be<br />

assembled after committee members have been<br />

assigned to news agencies. We will do our best<br />

to provide software with which delegates have<br />

experience, as well as a set of principles to keep in<br />

mind when using it. Additionally, the <strong>Guide</strong> will contain<br />

links to the best tutorials and other information<br />

around the software.<br />

A Note on Journalistic integrity<br />

Journalistic integrity dictates that you expose<br />

unavoidable conflicts of interest. Ideally, that would<br />

mean avoiding covering companies in which you<br />

have made investments, stories in which colleagues<br />

play a prominent part, or even issues that have had<br />

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a direct impact on your life. that does not mean your<br />

agency should not cover those issues, per se, but that<br />

members with conflicts should be transparent about<br />

them and offer another reporter the opportunity to<br />

lead that coverage.<br />

At <strong>World</strong>MuN, <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> journalists should<br />

similarly avoid personally reporting on issues in which<br />

a member of their delegation is playing a prominent<br />

role. if logistics dictate that passing the story along to<br />

someone else on the team is impossible, journalists<br />

should indicate such conflicts in bold typeface the<br />

first time the persons or events concerned in the<br />

conflict of interest are mentioned. For example:<br />

(Disclaimer: Jamal Jones, the Russian delegate on the<br />

Security Council, attends Le Sorbonne with reporter<br />

Axel Rodriguez).<br />

In addition to observing these basic principles of<br />

neutrality in coverage and transparency in conflict<br />

of interest disclosure, reporters must also take care<br />

not to copy others’ material. At <strong>World</strong>MUN, we have<br />

a strict no-plagiarism policy: you must credit any<br />

material that you or members of your team do not<br />

personally create for <strong>World</strong>MuN 2013. if a delegate<br />

is caught plagiarizing, he or she will be immediately<br />

expelled from the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong>. The conference will be<br />

all the more interesting and exciting for the presence<br />

and proliferation of your inspired and original work.<br />

<strong>Press</strong> Conferences will provide our correspondents an opportunity<br />

to interact more meaningfully with delegates and raise pressing<br />

questions in a more public forum.<br />

Position Papers<br />

The 2013 <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> embraces critical evaluation<br />

of conference events, and aims to expose elements<br />

overlooked elements of the topics of debate.<br />

Additionally, as the standalone <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> is<br />

an innovation of <strong>World</strong>MUN 2013, it belongs to<br />

the delegates. As with a debate in a substantive<br />

committee, the members of the committee will<br />

shape its direction. therefore, the pre-conference<br />

assignment is composed of two key elements:<br />

• In 500 words or fewer, identify a <strong>World</strong>MUN<br />

2013 committee you are eager to cover in your<br />

role on the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong>. Assemble three pieces<br />

of news (preferably from organizations listed<br />

above) related to that committee’s topics of<br />

debate, summarize the situation, and highlight<br />

an element of the situation you feel those<br />

pieces have missed.<br />

• Explain, in no more than 500 words, something<br />

you would like to see the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> do in<br />

<strong>World</strong>MUN 2013. This question is intentionally<br />

vague—use your imagination!<br />

Closing Remarks<br />

Welcome to the end of the <strong>Study</strong> <strong>Guide</strong>! Hopefully,<br />

you have found this <strong>Guide</strong> to be both interesting and<br />

helpful as you think about how to cover the important<br />

issues our world faces. the committees of <strong>World</strong>MuN<br />

2013 wrestle with challenging topics ranging from the<br />

exploitation of migrant workers to the International<br />

Criminal Court investigation of child militarist Joseph<br />

Kony. the issues <strong>World</strong>MuN 2013 will explore<br />

represent some of the most interesting, difficult, and<br />

divisive of our time—as future thought leaders, <strong>Press</strong><br />

<strong>Corps</strong> members have a duty to accessibly present and<br />

critique the events pertinent to those developments.<br />

this <strong>Study</strong> <strong>Guide</strong> was designed with the intention of<br />

highlighting the philosophy and theory behind news<br />

reporting. I urge you to consider how your unique<br />

skills can be used in this fast-paced and exciting<br />

setting to add to these conversations as <strong>World</strong>MUN<br />

delegates like you, our future world leaders, consider<br />

how to solve the daunting problems each committee<br />

presents. Those skills, coupled with a sound basis<br />

in the theories of modern journalism, should prove<br />

indispensible as you steer the conversations about,<br />

and ultimately, the solutions to, these problems.<br />

Please contact me with questions or even<br />

suggestions before conference begins (presscorps@<br />

worldmun.org). Know that you will be provided with<br />

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more of the gritty details of how the <strong>Press</strong> <strong>Corps</strong> will<br />

operate as the conference draws nearer, and that<br />

I am eager to work with you all at the conference<br />

in Melbourne this (fast-approaching) March. You<br />

represent a collection of thoughtful and engaged<br />

individuals, and I look forward to watching you<br />

coalesce into the talented and insightful teams i<br />

know you will form.<br />

Endnotes<br />

1 Jürgen Habermas, “The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia<br />

Article (1964),” in New German Critique 3 (Autumn 1974)<br />

49.<br />

2 Ibid 49.<br />

3 Paul Starr, the Creation of the Media: Political Origins of<br />

Modern Communications. (New York: Basic Books, 2004)<br />

186.<br />

4 Associated <strong>Press</strong> v. <strong>United</strong> States, 326 U.S. 1,<br />

Supreme Court of the <strong>United</strong> States, 1945, Web,<br />

9 October<br />

2012.<br />

5 King, Elliot, and Medill School of Journalism. Free for all :<br />

the Internet’s Transformation of Journalism (Evanston, Ill.:<br />

Northwestern University <strong>Press</strong>, 2010) 20.<br />

6 Ibid 34-36, 40. “In 1945, three out of four radio stations in<br />

America were affiliated with a radio network.”<br />

7 Ibid 50.<br />

8 “Company Overview,” Google Inc., Web, 9 October 2012,<br />

.<br />

9 Starr 329.<br />

10 Siva Vaidhyanathan, The Googlization of Everything (And<br />

Why We Should Worry) (Berkeley: University of California<br />

<strong>Press</strong>, 2011) xi.<br />

11 Habermas 49.<br />

12 Joe Coscarelli, “The New York Times is Now Supported<br />

by Readers, Not Advertisers,” New York Magazine, 26 July<br />

2012, Web, 5 August 2012.<br />

13 Mathew Ingram, “Crossing the Newspaper Chasm: Is It<br />

Better to Be Funded by Readers?” 3 Aug. 2012, 5 Aug. 2012.<br />

14 “YouTube & News: A New Kind of Visual News,” Journalism.<br />

org, Web, 16 July 2012, 17 July 2012. .<br />

15 Geoffrey Baym, From Cronkite to Colbert: The Evolution of<br />

Broadcast News (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2010)<br />

15.<br />

16 Baym 103.<br />

17 Baym 107.<br />

18 “John Stewart: The Most Trusted Name in Fake News,”<br />

Fresh Air, National Public Radio, 4 October 2010, Web,<br />

26 July 2012. .<br />

19 Linkins, Jason. “Online Poll: Jon Stewart Is America’s Most<br />

Trusted Newsman.” Huffington Post, July 22, 2009. http://<br />

www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/07/22/time-magazine-polljon-st_n_242933.html.<br />

20 “Why Is Jon Stewart ‘America’s Most Trusted Newscaster?’”<br />

Newsflavor, Web, 5 August 2012.<br />

21 “Agence France-<strong>Press</strong>e (AFP),” Encyclopædia Britannica,<br />

Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition,<br />

Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012, Web, 14 Oct. 2012,<br />

.<br />

22 “Agence France-<strong>Press</strong>,” AFP Foundation, 14 October 2012<br />

.<br />

23 “AFP’s Values,” 14 October 2012. .<br />

24 “al-Jazeera,” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia<br />

Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia<br />

Britannica Inc., 2012, Web. 14 Oct. 2012. .<br />

25 “Code of Ethics,” About Us, Web, 14<br />

October 2012 .<br />

26 “Battle Station.” The Guardian, February 7, 2003.<br />

http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2003/feb/07/<br />

iraqandthemedia.afghanistan.<br />

27 “Al-Jazeera English Hits Airwaves.” BBC, November 15,<br />

2006, sec. Middle East. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_<br />

east/6149310.stm.<br />

28 “Facts and Figures.” Accessed December 8, 2012. http://www.<br />

aljazeera.com/aboutus/2010/11/20101110131438787482.<br />

html.<br />

29 “Professional Conduct Policy,” The Australian, Web, 16<br />

October 2012. .<br />

30 “The Australian,” NewsSpace: The Site for Media<br />

Professionals, Web, 16 October 2012 .<br />

31 “BBC - The BBC Story - History of Innovation,” Web, 16 Oct.<br />

2012. .<br />

32 “British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC),” Encyclopædia<br />

Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic<br />

Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012, Web, 16<br />

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Oct. 2012, .<br />

33 “Mission and Values,” BBC - Inside the BBC, Web, 16 Oct.<br />

2012. .<br />

34 Ibid.<br />

35 “BBC – The BBC Story.”<br />

36 “The New York Times,” Encyclopædia Britannica,<br />

Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition,<br />

Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012, Web, 16 Oct. 2012,<br />

.<br />

37 “Core Purpose & Values,” The New York Times Company,<br />

2010, Web, 16 Oct. 2012, .<br />

38 “The Times of India,” Encyclopædia Britannica,<br />

Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition.<br />

Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012, Web, 16 Oct. 2012,<br />

.<br />

39 “About the Company,” India Times, Web, 16 Oct. 2012,<br />

.<br />

40 “TOI Online Is <strong>World</strong>’s No.1 Newspaper Website.” The<br />

Times Of India. Accessed December 8, 2012. http://articles.<br />

timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-07-12/india/28166748_1_<br />

comscore-website-newspaper.<br />

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Bibliographic Essay<br />

“About the Company.” India Times. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. .<br />

“AFP’s Values.” 14 October 2012. .<br />

“Agence France-<strong>Press</strong>.” AFP Foundation. Web. 14 October 2012. .<br />

Associated <strong>Press</strong> v. <strong>United</strong> States. 326 U.S. 1. Supreme Court of the <strong>United</strong> States. 1945. Web. 9 October 2012.<br />

.<br />

“The Australian.” NewsSpace: The Site for Media Professionals. Web. 16 October 2012 .<br />

“Agence France-<strong>Press</strong>e (AFP) (French News Agency) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia.” Web. 16 Oct. 2012.<br />

“al-Jazeera (Middle Eastern Broadcast Network) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia.” Web. 16 Oct. 2012.<br />

“Al-Jazeera English Hits Airwaves.” BBC, November 15, 2006, sec. Middle East. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/<br />

middle_east/6149310.stm.<br />

“Battle Station.” The Guardian, February 7, 2003. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2003/feb/07/<br />

iraqandthemedia.afghanistan.<br />

Baym, Geoffrey. From Cronkite to Colbert : the evolution of broadcast news. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers,<br />

2010. Print.<br />

“BBC - The BBC Story - History of Innovation.” Web. 16 Oct. 2012. <br />

“British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) (British Corporation) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia.” Web. 16 Oct.<br />

2012.<br />

“Code of Ethics.” About Us. Web. 14 October 2012. .<br />

“Company Overview.” Google Inc. Web. 9 October 2012, .<br />

“Core Purpose & Values.” The New York Times Company. 2010. Web. 16 Oct. 2012. .<br />

“Facts and Figures.” Accessed December 8, 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/<br />

aboutus/2010/11/20101110131438787482.html.<br />

Habermas, Jürgen. “The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article (1964).” In New German Critique 3. Autumn<br />

1974.<br />

Ingram, Mathew. “Crossing the Newspaper Chasm: Is It Better to Be Funded by Readers?” GigaOM. 3 Aug.<br />

2012. Web. 5 Aug. 2012.<br />

“John Stewart: The Most Trusted Name in Fake News.” Fresh Air. National Public Radio. 4 October 2010. Web.<br />

26 July 2012.<br />

King, Elliot, and Medill School of Journalism. Free for all : the Internet’s transformation of journalism. Evanston,<br />

Ill.: Northwestern University <strong>Press</strong>, 2010. Print.<br />

Linkins, Jason. “Online Poll: Jon Stewart Is America’s Most Trusted Newsman.” Huffington Post, July 22, 2009.<br />

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/07/22/time-magazine-poll-jon-st_n_242933.html.<br />

“Professional Conduct Policy.” The Australian. Web. 16 October 2012. .<br />

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Starr, Paul. The creation of the media : political origins of modern communications. New York: Basic Books,<br />

2004. Print.<br />

“The New York Times (American Newspaper) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia.” Web. 16 Oct. 2012.<br />

“The New York Times Is Now Supported by Readers, Not Advertisers.” Daily Intel. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.<br />

“The Times of India (Indian Newspaper) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia.” Web. 16 Oct. 2012.<br />

“TOI Online Is <strong>World</strong>’s No.1 Newspaper Website.” The Times Of India. Accessed December 8, 2012. http://<br />

articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-07-12/india/28166748_1_comscore-website-newspaper.<br />

Vaidhyanathan, Siva. The Googlization of everything : (and why we should worry). Berkeley: University of<br />

California <strong>Press</strong>, 2011. Print.<br />

“Why Is Jon Stewart ‘America’s Most Trusted Newscaster?’” Newsflavor. Web. 5 Aug. 2012.<br />

“YouTube & News.” Web. 17 July 2012. .<br />

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PARTNERS<br />

Supported by Australian Aid, AusAID<br />

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