Turkey and the European Union - ETUC

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Turkey and the European Union - ETUC

Acknowledgements

This survey was carried out as part of a Civil Society Dialogue project: Bringing

workers together from Turkey and the European Union through a shared culture of

work.

Thanks are due to all the project partners who took part in this exercise, both in

Turkey and the European Union.

More specifically thanks are due to the survey assistant, Ahmet Murat Aytaç the

Turkish assistant, Kazim Ates, the administrative assistants of the Turkish trade

union confederations, Uğraş Gök, Osman Yildiz, Yasin Ayyildiz, and the coordinators

of all the EU trade union confederations, who distributed and collected the

questionnaires.

Finally, thanks are due to all the trade union officers, representatives and members

who agreed to share their views on these important issues.

1


Contents

Summary

1. Introduction

2. Views on Turkey’s membership of the EU

2.1. Whether in favour of Turkey becoming a full member

2.2. Whether Turkey will ever become a full member of the EU

2.3. How views have changed in the last five years about Turkey becoming a

member of the EU

2.4. Whether in favour of the free movement of Turkish workers if Turkey

becomes a member of the EU

2.5. Summary

3. The effects of Turkish membership

3.1. Perceived benefit to the EU

3.2. Perceived benefit to Turkey

3.3. Who benefits?

3.4. Summary

4. The meaning of the EU

4.1. Image of the EU

4.2. Views on the EU – particular issues

4.3. Summary

5. Knowledge of the EU

5.1. Own assessment of understanding how the EU works

5.2. Knowledge of the EU

5.3. Summary

6. Trust in the EU and EU level institutions

6.1. Trust in the EU as a whole

6.2. Trust in particular EU level institutions

6.3. Trust in the United Nations and the EU

6.4. Trust in specific national and EU institutions

6.5. Summary

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7. The future role of the EU

7.1. Support for different EU futures

7.2. Turkish respondents’ support for the idea that the EU should cease to exist.

7.3. Summary

Annexes

Annex A - Tables

Annex B - Description of sample of trade unionists in Turkey

Annex C - Description of sample of trade unionists in seven EU member states

References

List of Charts

Chart 2.1 Whether Turkish respondents are in favour of Turkey becoming a full

member of the EU

Chart 2.2 Whether Turkish respondents think Turkey will eventually be accepted as

a member of the EU

Chart 2.3 How Turkish respondents’ views have changed in last five years on Turkey

becoming a member of the EU

Chart 2.4 Net differences in Turkish respondents’ views of whether Turkey should

become a member

Chart 2.5 Whether Turkish respondents are in favour of the free movement of

Turkish workers if Turkey becomes a member of the EU

Chart 3.1 Turkish respondents’ views of benefit to the EU through Turkish accession

Chart 3.2 Turkish respondents’ views on effects of EU membership on particular

issues in Turkey

Chart 3.3 Turkish respondents’ views on benefit to employers and workers from EU

membership for Turkey

Chart 3.4 Views of respondents in Turkey and seven EU countries on how workers in

Turkey and in their own countries would benefit from Turkey joining the EU

Chart 4.1 Turkish respondents’ general image of the EU

Chart 4.2 Characteristics of Turkish respondents with strong positive and negative

images of the EU

Chart 4.3a Agreement with conventionally held positive associations concerning the

EU

Chart 4.3b Agreement with conventionally held negative associations concerning the

EU

4


Chart 5.1 Turkish respondents’ claimed understanding of how the EU works

Chart 5.2 Turkish respondents’ knowledge of the EU

Chart 6.1 Turkish respondents’ trust in the European Union

Chart 6.2 Turkish respondents’ trust in particular EU institutions

Chart 6.3 Turkish respondents’ trust in the United Nations

Chart 6.4a Turkish respondents’ trust in specific national and EU institutions –

justice/the national legal system and the European Court of Justice

Chart 6.4b Turkish respondents’ trust in specific national and EU institutions –

national political parties and EU level political parties

Chart 7.1 Turkish respondents’ positive endorsements for the future of the EU

List of Tables

Table A2.1 Whether in favour of Turkey becoming a full member of the EU (Turkish

respondents)

Table A2.2 Whether in favour of Turkey becoming a full member of the EU

(respondents from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Table A2.3 Whether Turkey will ever be accepted as a member of the EU (Turkish

respondents)

Table A2.4 Whether Turkey will ever be accepted as a member of the EU

(respondents from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Table A2.5 How views have changed in the last five years on Turkey joining the EU

(Turkish respondents)

Table A2.6 How views have changed in the last five years on Turkey joining the EU

(respondents from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Table A2.7 Whether in favour of the free movement of Turkish workers if Turkey

becomes a full member of the EU (Turkish respondents)

Table A2.8 Whether in favour of the free movement of Turkish workers if Turkey

becomes a full member of the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU

countries)

Table A3.1 Whether Turkish membership will benefit the EU through increased

economic growth (Turkish respondents)

Table A3.2 Whether Turkish membership will benefit the EU through increased

cultural diversity (Turkish respondents)

Table A3.3 Whether Turkish membership will benefit the EU through increased

political stability (Turkish respondents)

Table A3.4 Benefit to EU generally of Turkish membership (respondents from Turkey

and seven EU countries)

Table A3.5 Benefit to own country of Turkish membership (respondents from Turkey

and seven EU countries)

5


Table A3.6 Benefit to Turkish workers of EU membership (Turkish respondents)

Table A3.7 How EU and Turkish employer and worker interests would benefit if

Turkey became a member of the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU

countries)

Table A4.1 General image of EU (Turkish respondents)

Table A4.2 General image of the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU

countries)

Table A5.1 Claimed understanding of the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven

EU countries)

Table A5.2 Knowledge of the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Table A6.1 Trust in the European Union (Turkish respondents)

Table A6.2 Trust in the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU countries

Table A6.3 Trust in particular EU institutions (respondents from Turkey and seven

EU countries)

Table A6.4 Trust in the UN (respondents from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Table A6.5 Trust in particular national institutions (respondents from Turkey and

seven EU countries)

Table A7.1 What the EU should do in future (Turkish respondents)

Table A7.2 Whether the EU should do more to improve workers’ rights (Turkish

respondents)

Table A7.3 Whether the EU should concern itself more with environmental issues

(Turkish respondents)

Table A7.4 Whether the EU should do more to make labour markets flexible (Turkish

respondents)

Table A7.5 Whether the EU should do more to bring together people of different

cultures, religions and histories (Turkish respondents)

Table A7.6 Whether the European Union should cease to exist (Turkish respondents)

Table A7.7 What the EU should do in future (respondents from Turkey and seven EU

countries)

Table A7.8 Whether in favour of Turkey becoming a full member of the EU and

views about whether the EU should cease to exist (Turkish respondents)

Table B1 Trade union characteristics of Turkish respondents

Table B2 Individual characteristics of Turkish respondents

Table B3 Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics of Turkish

respondents

Table C1 Contribution of various trade union confederations to EU member state

samples

6


SUMMARY

Based on a survey of 6,614 Turkish trade unionists and 1,949 trade unionists from

Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, Sweden, Slovakia and the United Kingdom, this

survey addresses a number of issues related to the relations between Turkey and

the EU. The main findings are summarised below.

On full EU membership for Turkey

Over half the Turkish respondents are in favour of Turkey becoming a full

member of the EU. Members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ are more likely to be

in favour; so are shop stewards; and, among occupational groups, managers.

Support for membership increases with age.

Opposition to membership is highest among those who work in agriculture, those

who identify themselves as non European; and those who work for companies

that are part of European multinational companies.

Swedish trade unionists are more in favour of Turkish membership than the

Turks themselves; in the UK, support is at a similar level to that in Turkey;

support is lower than in Turkey in Greece, Slovakia, France, Belgium and Italy.

On whether Turkey will eventually be accepted

There is a low level of expectation among the Turkish respondents that Turkey

will ever be admitted; less than a third think that it will be.

Members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ are most likely to think Turkey will gain

acceptance eventually.

In France, Belgium, Italy and Sweden a higher percentage of trade unionist

thought Turkey would be eventually accepted than Turkish trade unionists did.

There were lower expectations in Greece and Slovakia.

On changes in attitudes to Turkey joining the EU over the last five years

Over half the Turkish trade unionists had not changed their mind on Turkey

becoming a member over the last five years (2004-2009). Of those that did, in

the case of nearly every characteristic examined, rather more had changed in

favour than against. Members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ were most likely to

have become more in favour.

Those on the political left did not fit this pattern.

In all seven EU countries there appears to have been less change on the issue of

whether Turkey should join the EU than in Turkey.

On restrictions on Turkish workers if Turkey did join the EU

Over three quarters of Turkish trade unionists favour the free movement of

Turkish workers if Turkey joins the EU.

7


In the seven EU countries the percentage of those in favour of restriction on

Turkish workers ranges from 8 per cent in Sweden to 44 per cent in Slovakia and

is always less than 50 per cent; in three countries around half or more of the

trade unionists declared themselves against such restriction (Italy 49 per cent,

France 58 per cent and the UK 61 per cent).

On benefits to the EU generally

Turkish trade unionists were likely to see the EU would benefit respectively

through increased economic growth, cultural diversity, and to a lesser extent,

increased political stability.

Groups in Turkey who were likely to see benefits to the EU in all these respects

were:

8

o members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ

o shop stewards

o managers

o older workers

o those who identified themselves as European

Groups in Turkey who were most likely to disagree there would be benefits

included

o those employed in education, health and social work

o those who work for European Multinational companies

o those who work in agriculture

Trade unionist in most of the EU countries were more likely to rate the

contribution of increased cultural diversity higher than economic growth and

political stability.

On the benefits of EU membership to Turkey and the seven EU countries

Turkish trade unionists were most likely to expect benefits to Turkey for health

and safety at work, job security and trade union rights.

Members of HAK-İŞ unions were more likely to expect benefits would result than

members of TÜRK-İŞ and DİSK respectively.

Trade unionists in all seven EU countries saw less benefit would accrue in their

own countries than would accrue in Turkey.

Relative to other benefits, increased religious tolerance was more likely to be

rated by trade unionists in EU countries as a benefit of Turkey’s EU entry in their

own country than it was by Turks for Turkey.


On who would benefit from Turkish accession to the EU

Turkish trade unionists thought that big employers (first EU ones, then Turkish)

would be the biggest beneficiaries of Turkish accession.

With the exception of Slovakia, clear majorities in the seven EU member states

also expected big employers to benefit most, either European or Turkish ones.

Trade unionists in the seven EU countries, with the exception of Sweden, thought

that workers in the EU countries would benefit less from Turkey’s accession than

small and medium employers and big employers

Turkish trade unionists expected Turkish workers to benefit more than Turkish

small and medium employers – and this view of who would benefit in Turkey was

shared by trade unionists in all seven EU countries.

Turkish workers believed that they would have more to gain from EU entry than

EU workers. This view about Turkish workers was also shared by trade unionists

in all the seven EU countries and in most cases it was more widely held.

On how respondents feel about the EU in general terms

Just under half of Turkish respondents feel positive about the general image of

the EU. Members of HAK-İŞ unions are more likely to feel positive than those in

DİSK or TÜRK-İŞ respectively.

Members of HAK-İŞ trade unions are also among those with the highest incidence

of very positive images of the EU, as are older workers and those who have been

to a EU country for a holiday or to work.

Among those who have the highest incidence of very negative images are young

workers, those who work for European Multinational companies and those

employed in agriculture.

Turkish respondents are more likely to have a positive image of the EU than

those in France, are not dissimilar to those in Belgium and Greece, but are

considerably less likely to have a positive image of the EU than those from

Sweden, Slovakia and the UK.

On what the EU means in particular

Half or more of Turkish respondents associated the EU with political rights, rights

at work, democracy and economic prosperity.

Less than half Turkish respondents associated the EU with religious tolerance. It

was most likely to be associated (but never by as many as half the respondents)

by members of HAK-İŞ trade unions, followed by those in DİSK and then those in

TÜRK-İŞ.

The association of the EU with religious tolerance was much more likely in all

seven countries than in Turkey.

Members of TÜRK-İŞ unions were more likely to associate the EU with loss of

sovereignty than those in HAK-İŞ and DİSK respectively.

On understanding how the EU works

9


The majority of Turkish trade unionists say that they do not understand how the

EU works very well or not very well at all. They are the least confident about

what they understand of those in all eight countries.

They are less knowledgeable about the EU than those in the seven EU countries.

On the limited test conducted, Turkish trade unionists are also Turks who live in

rural areas, women, those employed in smaller workplaces, those with limited

formal education and young workers are among the worst informed.

On trust in the EU as a whole

Seven out of ten of the Turkish trade unionists lacked confidence in the EU,

either saying that they tended not to trust it or that they did not know whether

to trust it or not.

They were more likely to be sceptical than trade unionists in most of the EU

countries.

On trust, in particular EU institutions

Under half of the Turkish trade unionists tended to trust the four institutions they

were asked about - EU level trade unions; the European Court of Justice; the EU

Parliament; and EU level political parties.

EU level trade unions tended to be the most widely trusted EU institution, both

by Turks and trade unionists in the seven EU countries, though the level of

support was considerably higher in the latter.

Of the three Turkish trade union confederations members of TÜRK-İŞ were the

least likely to support any one of the institutions.

On trust, in the United Nations and the European Union

If anything Turkish trade unionists were less inclined to trust the UN than they

were the EU but there is a low level of trust in both.

Turkish trade unionists were less likely to trust the UN than those in the seven

EU countries.

On trust, in specific national and EU institutions

In contrast to trade unionists in most of the seven EU countries trade unionists in

Turkey do not seem to regard the EU as providing a more trustworthy legal

system than their own.

Only a minority of Turks trusted their national political parties and even fewer

trusted parties at EU level (which trade unionists in most of the seven EU

countries tended to do).

10


On support for increased EU attention to particular issues

There were very high levels of support among Turkish trade unionists for the EU

doing more about workers’ rights and environmental issues; and high levels of

support for the EU doing more about labour flexibility and bringing peoples of

different cultures and religions together.

Members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ were the most likely out of the

three confederations to endorse all of the above prescriptions for EU policy,

especially the one related to cultural and religious togetherness.

On whether the EU should cease to exist

Turkish trade unionists were more likely than those in any of the seven EU

countries to agree that the EU should cease to exist.

About one third of Turkish trade unionists indicated that the EU should cease to

exist; about another third indicated that it should not cease to exist; and about

another third that they did not know whether it should cease to exist or not.

This finding appears to contradict the fact that the majority of Turkish trade

unionists were in favour of Turkey having full membership of the EU. The

frustration associated with Turkey’s long standing application to join the EU may

partly account for this apparent contradiction – wanting Turkey to join the EU

and wishing the EU to cease to exist or being undecided about this.

11


INTRODUCTION

This survey was carried out as part of a project Civil Society Dialogue: Bringing

workers together from Turkey and the European Union through a shared culture of

work (TR0604.04) within the context of Grant Contract-External Actions of the

European Community.

This survey was carried out in the period between May and July 2009.

1.1. Turkish data

The sample of Turkish 6,614 trade unionists came from three Turkish trade union

confederations (TÜRK-İŞ, HAK-İŞ and DISK). The target number of respondents

having been fixed at 8,000, the three Turkish trade union confederations which

participated only did so on the understanding that each of them would contribute

the same number of respondents (2,667).

In the event, TÜRK-İŞ obtained 2,747 respondents (103 per cent of target); HAK-İŞ

obtained 2,235 (84 per cent of target); DİSK obtained 1,632 (61 per cent of

target). The resulting distribution of respondents (TÜRK-İŞ 42 per cent; DİSK 25

per cent; HAK-İŞ 34 per cent) meant that trade unionists who belong to TÜRK-İŞ

are under represented in the sample when compared to their presence nationally

and those who belong to HAK-İŞ and DİSK are over represented. Unless stated

otherwise, the data for Turkey in this report has been weighted to correct for this.

Sample weights were calculated from Ministry of Labour and Social Security data for

July 2008 cited by Emekdunyasi on the national distribution of members between

the three trade union confederations (Emekdunyasi 2009). These differ very slightly

from data displayed on the Ministry of Labour and Social Security web site at the

end of 2009 (Ministry of Labour and Social Security 2009): TÜRK-İŞ July 2008

2,216,000 (displayed by Ministry of Labour and Social Security end of 2009

2,230,015); DISK July 2008 380,000 (displayed end 2009 422,785); HAK-İŞ July

2008 400,000 (displayed end 2009 418,424).

These differences have no significant effect on the weighted results. For instance,

weighted results to one decimal place for Chart 2.1 ('Whether in favour of Turkey

becoming a full member of the EU') were 'Yes' 53.2 per cent (using the end 2009

displayed data 53.1 per cent); 'No' 37.5 per cent (for end 2009 displayed data also

37.5 per cent); 'Don't know' 9.3 per cent (for end 2009 displayed data 9.4 per

cent).

Ministry of Labour data for the membership of the three confederations at July 2009

is as follows: TÜRK-İŞ 2,239,341, HAK-İŞ İŞ 441,917, DİSK 426,232.

Unweighted data on the distribution of various characteristics of the Turkish

respondents is presented in Annex B.

12


1.2. European data

A target of 8,000 was fixed for trade union respondents from seven EU countries -

Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, Slovakia, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Overall

EU country trade union confederations only provided 1,949 responses from the

8,000 and the targets, and the extent to which they were achieved, varied between

countries.

No attempt has been made to subject these limited sets of data to cross sectional

analysis within each EU country and even when figures for particular countries are

presented they need to be considered with caution because of small numbers and

the possibility of strong bias in selection.

Further limited information on the countries, their targets, number of respondents

contributed and their breakdown between different national trade union

confederations is provided in Annex C.

13


VIEWS ON TURKEY’S MEMBERSHIP OF THE EU

This section considers the answers to four questions in the survey that relate to

Turkey’s application to become a member of the EU

Are respondents in favour of Turkey becoming a full member of the EU?

Do they think Turkey will eventually be accepted as a full member of the EU?

Compared to five years ago, how have respondents’ views changed on Turkey

becoming a member of the EU?

Are they in favour of restrictions on the movement of Turkish workers if Turkey

becomes a full member of the EU?

1.3. Whether in favour of Turkey becoming a full member

Respondents were asked

14

‘Are you in favour of Turkey becoming a full member of the EU?’

A weighted sample suggests that at national level just over half the trade unionists

in the three Turkish confederations combined were in favour of Turkey becoming a

member of the EU. Nearly four out of ten were against this and less than 10 per

cent said that they did not know (Chart 2.1).

A Eurobarometer survey of the Turkish population, conducted in Spring 2009, asked

a slightly different question and found that 48 per cent of the general Turkish

population thought Turkish membership of the EU would be a ‘good thing’

(Eurobarometer 2009a:93). The reference to full membership in the present survey

does of course permit the possibility that some of those who did not think the EU a

‘good thing’ might also feel that if Turkey were to be accepted it should be as a full

member, not on an inferior basis.

Chart 2.1 Whether Turkish respondents are in favour of Turkey becoming a

full member of the EU

yes

no

don't know

9%

38%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

The question arises whether there are important differences between, say, those

who belong to the different trade union confederations or between older and

53%


younger workers or between those with some other characteristic. Detailed

information on such questions is provided in Annex A (Table A2.1). This presents

the answers grouped according to different trade union characteristics, different

individual characteristics and different sector, industry, workplace and

organisational characteristics. Analysis of these characteristics suggests:

trade union characteristics that are particularly likely to be associated with being

in favour of Turkey joining the EU include

o being a member of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ (64 per cent). This

compares to TÜRK-İŞ (53 per cent) and DİSK (46 per cent).

o being a shop steward rather than a rank and file union member (60 per cent)

individual characteristics that are particularly likely to be associated with being in

favour of Turkey joining the EU include

o being aged 51 or older (64 per cent). Support increases with age, so that

those in the 15-25 age group are the least likely age group to support Turkish

entry.

o being a manager (62 per cent)

o having left full time education at 13 years old or younger (60 per cent)

o living in small or medium sized towns (59 per cent)

o and, unsurprisingly, identifying oneself as ‘European’ (72 per cent).

sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics that are particularly

likely to be associated with being in favour of Turkey joining the EU include

o being employed in transport (63 per cent).

The above results have in common with Eurobarometer survey data on general

populations in EU Member States that managers are more likely to be supporters of

EU membership but they differ in that, in Turkey, it is older respondents who are

more in favour and those who have little formal education, not vice versa

(Eurobarometer 2009a: 94). With some exceptions, this pattern recurs throughout

the report; so too the lack of enthusiasm for the EU from those who work for

multinational companies.

15


There are few characteristics associated with 50 per cent or more of respondents

being opposed to Turkey’s EU entry. Characteristics associated with higher levels of

opposition to Turkish entry include

o working in agriculture 1 (53 per cent)

o identifying oneself as ‘non European’ (49 per cent)

o working for a company that is part of a European multinational company (49 per

cent)

o working for a company that is part of a non European multinational company (47

per cent)

o living in a village or rural area (47 per cent)

o being aged 15-25 years old (44 per cent)

o working in education, health and social work (43 per cent)

o having left full time education at 22 or older (42 per cent)

Views of trade unionists in the seven EU countries.

Support for Turkey to join the EU is notably lower in most of the countries which

participated in the survey than it is in Turkey, but there are exceptions (Table

A2.2).

For five countries the proportion in favour ranges from 13 per cent in Greece to

45 per cent in Italy with the other of these countries in between (Slovakia 15 per

cent, France 36 per cent, Belgium 39 per cent)

In Sweden 78 per cent of trade unionists are in favour – a figure considerably

higher than that for Turkish trade unionists.

In the UK the proportion of trade unionists in favour (53 per cent) is on a par

with that in Turkey.

1.4. Views on whether Turkey will eventually be accepted as a

full member of the EU?

Respondents were asked

16

‘Do you think Turkey will eventually be accepted as a full member of the EU?’

Less than a third of Turkish trade unionists think that Turkey will eventually be

accepted as an EU member. Over half think that this will not happen and one in six

say they do not know (Chart 2.2).

Chart 2.2 Whether Turkish respondents think Turkey will eventually be

accepted as a member of the EU

1 Note that of the trade unionists in agriculture 38 per cent had been educated to the

age of 22 or older (whole sample 14 per cent); only 50 per cent were manual workers

(compared to 64 per cent for the sample as a whole).


yes

no

don't know

16%

30%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Cross sectional analysis of the data suggests that there are few characteristics that

are associated with as many as four out of ten respondents thinking that Turkey will

eventually join the EU (Table A2.3).

Trade union characteristics that are associated with respondents being most

likely to think that Turkey will join the EU relate to:

o membership of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ (43 per cent). This compares

to 29 per cent for those in in TÜRK-İŞ and 32 per cent for those in DİSK

In the case of members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ, the percentage of those who

do not think Turkey will ever join the EU is much the same (42 per cent) as for

those who think it will do so.

Individual characteristics that are associated with respondents being most likely

to think that Turkey will join the EU include

o being a manager (38 per cent)

o identifying oneself as ‘European’ (38 per cent) or being inclined to do so (34

per cent)

54%

o having worked in an EU country (36 per cent)

o having been to a EU country for a holiday (35 per cent)

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics that are associated

with respondents being most likely to think that Turkey will join the EU relate to

o working in micro workplaces of 1-9 employees (39 per cent)

o being employed in information and communication (36 per cent)

Characteristics particularly associated with the view that Turkey will never join the

EU include

o being employed in agriculture (67 per cent)

17


18

o working in a company that is part of a European multinational company (59

per cent)

o identifying oneself as non European (58 per cent)

o identify oneself as on the left politically (57 per cent)

o being employed in mining and quarrying (57 per cent)

Generally, there is a low level of expectation amongst Turkish trade unionists that

Turkey will ever join the EU.

Views of trade unionists in the seven EU countries

In France, Belgium, Italy and Sweden between 41 and 47 per cent of trade

unionists who answered the survey reported they thought Turkey would

eventually be admitted to the EU. This is a higher percentage than that for

Turkish trade unionists (Table A2.4).

In the UK over half thought Turkey would be eventually admitted (53 per cent)

Expectations of such an outcome were much lower in Greece (17 per cent) and to

a lesser extent Slovakia (30 per cent)

How views have changed in last five years on Turkey becoming

a member of the EU

Respondents were asked

Compared to five years ago, how has your view changed on Turkey

becoming a member of the EU?

Over half the Turkish trade unionists had experienced no change in their view on

Turkey becoming a member of the EU over the last five years (2004 – 2009). Of the

rest more had become in favour (over one in four) than had turned against the idea

(less than one in five) (Chart 2.3).


Chart 2.3 How Turkish respondents’ views have changed in last five years

on Turkey becoming a member of the EU

more in favour

no change

more against

18%

27%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

The highest percentages of those who have become more in favour over the last

five years are as follows (Table A2.5):

trade union characteristics

55%

o members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ (46 per cent)

o shop stewards (30 per cent)

Individual characteristics

o living in a small or medium sized town or city (38 per cent)

o being a manager (37 per cent)

o identifying oneself as European (35 per cent)

o having worked in a EU country (34 per cent)

o identifying oneself as on the political right (33 per cent) or centre right (35 per

cent). Generally, the further across the political spectrum from left to right the

bigger the shift to being in favour

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

o being employed in transport (39 per cent)

o being employed in information and communication (39 per cent)

o working in a micro workplace (33 per cent)

19


The direction of change over the last five years is toward being more in favour for

nearly all of the 70 or so characteristics in Table A2.5. This clearly shows a net

difference between ‘more in favour’ and ‘more against’ in the direction of the

former. An interesting exception to this (though limited in extent) is the case of

those who identify themselves as on the left politically or on the centre left.

The extent of the net differences for various characteristics is detailed in Chart 2.4.

Chart 2.4 Net difference in Turkish respondents views of whether Turkey

should become a member

20

Highest percentage net difference Lowest percentage net difference

members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ

(33 per cent)

those who identify themselves as on the

left politically (left -2 per cent; centre

left -1 per cent)

managers (24 per cent) those employed in electricity, gas and

water (0 per cent)

those employed in transport (24 per

cent)

those employed in information and

communication (21 per cent)

those who identify themselves as on

the right politically (centre right 21 per

cent, right 17 per cent)

those employed in micro workplaces

(20 per cent)

those who identify themselves as

European (18 per cent)

those who completed full time

education at 13 or earlier (18 per cent)

those who live in small and medium

towns (17 per cent)

those who have been to a EU country

to work (16 per cent)

those employed in a European

multinational company (2 per cent)

those employed in agriculture (3 per

cent)

those employed in a non European

multinational company (4 per cent)

members of unions affiliated to DİSK (5

per cent); TÜRK-İŞ 8 per cent

women (5 per cent)

those who identify themselves as non

European (6 per cent)

It was seen above (section 2.1) that members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ

were more likely to be in favour of Turkish entry. It can now be seen that they are

more likely to have become more in favour over the last five years and that

members of unions affiliated to DİSK and TÜRK-İŞ have done so to a much smaller

extent.


Generally the biggest shifts toward favouring Turkey joining the EU have occurred

among those who are most in favour. A case in point concerns political orientation

(for which support for EU entry increased from left to right). Those self categorised

as ‘left’ have not become more in favour than against over the last five years; nor

have those categorised as centre left; whereas those in the self assigned political

centre have become 8 percentage points more in favour than against; those on the

centre right have become 21 percentage points more in favour than against; and for

those on the political right the difference is 17 points.

Views of trade unionists in the seven EU countries

In all seven countries the views of trade union respondents seem to have

undergone less change than has been the case in Turkey (Table A2.6)

In each country more than 60 per cent of the trade union respondents report no

change in their view over the last five years

Exceptionally, in Sweden 90 per cent report no change

In Greece and Slovakia more of those who report a change in their views over

the last five years say they are now more against

In Belgium, France, Italy and the UK more of those who report a change in their

views over the last five years say they are more in favour

In Sweden those who report changes of mind are evenly split but in total they

amount to only ten per cent of the sample

Whether in favour of the free movement of Turkish workers if

Turkey becomes a full member of the EU

Respondents were asked

‘Are you in favour of the free movement of Turkish workers if Turkey

becomes a full member of the EU?’

Over three quarters of all the Turkish trade unionists are in favour of the free

movement of Turkish workers if Turkey becomes a full member of the EU (Chart

2.5).

21


Chart 2.5 Whether Turkish respondents are in favour of the free movement

of Turkish workers if Turkey becomes a member of the EU

22

in favour

against

don't know

9%

14%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Out of all the characteristics examined in Table A2.7 there are very few for which

the percentage in favour of free movement falls below 70 per cent (a notable

exception is the 59 per cent of those who live in rural areas or villages who favour

this). Members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ are, however, somewhat more likely to

favour free movement (81 per cent) than those in TÜRK-İŞ (78 per cent) and are

clearly more likely to do so than members of unions affiliated to DİSK (62 per cent).

Views of trade unionists in the seven EU countries

The percentage of trade unionists in the seven EU countries who favour

restriction of movement on Turkish workers is in all cases less than 50 per cent

and ranges from 8 per cent in Sweden to 44 per cent in Slovakia (Table A2.8).

In three countries around half or more of trade unionists declared themselves

against restriction (Italy 49 per cent, France 58 per cent and the UK 61 per

cent).

Summary

On full EU membership for Turkey

Over half the Turkish respondents are in favour of Turkey becoming a full

member of the EU. Members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ are more likely to be

in favour; so are shop stewards; and among occupational groups managers

Support for membership increases with age

Opposition to membership is highest among those who work in agriculture; those

who identify themselves as non European; and those who work for companies

that are part of European multinational companies (Multinational companies)

Swedish trade unionists in the sample are more in favour of Turkish membership

than the Turks themselves; in the UK support is at a similar level to that in

77%


Turkey; support is lower than in Turkey in Greece, Slovakia, France, Belgium and

Italy

On whether Turkey will eventually be accepted

There is a low level of expectation that Turkey will ever be admitted among the

Turks: less than a third think that it will be

Members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ are more likely to think Turkey will gain

acceptance eventually

In France, Belgium, Italy and Sweden a higher percentage of trade unionist think

Turkey will be eventually accepted than Turkish trade unionists do. There were

lower expectations in Greece and Slovakia

On changes in attitudes to Turkey joining the EU over the last five years

Over half the Turkish trade unionists had not changed their mind on Turkey

becoming a member over the last five years (2004-2009). Of those that did, in

the case of nearly every characteristic examined, rather more had changed in

favour than against. Members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ were more likely to

have become more in favour

Those who identified themselves to be on the political left did not fit this pattern

In all seven EU countries there appears to have been less change on the issue of

whether Turkey should join the EU than in Turkey

On restrictions on Turkish workers if Turkey did join the EU

Over three quarters of Turkish trade unionists favour the free movement of

Turkish workers if Turkey joins the EU

Among the seven EU countries the percentage of those in favour of restriction on

Turkish workers ranges from 8 per cent in Sweden to 44 per cent in Slovakia and

is always less than 50 per cent. In three countries around half or more of the

trade unionists declared themselves against such restriction (Italy 49 per cent,

France 58 per cent and the UK 61 per cent).

23


THE EFFECTS OF TURKISH MEMBERSHIP

This section considers respondents views on three issues that relate to the effects of

possible Turkish membership

Whether Turkish membership might benefit the EU generally

How it might affect Turkey

How particular EU and Turkish interest groups might be served

Benefit to the EU through Turkish accession

In order to discover whether Turkish trade unionists thought Turkish membership

might benefit the EU generally they were asked whether they tended to agree or

disagree with three statements

24

‘Turkish accession would benefit the European Union through increased

economic growth’

‘Turkish accession would benefit the European Union through increased cultural

diversity’

‘Turkish accession would benefit the European Union through increased political

stability’

Around half or more of Turkish trade unionists tended to agree that the EU generally

would benefit in each of the above respects but they were more likely to agree that

it would benefit from increased economic growth and cultural diversity than from

political stability (Chart 3.1).

Chart 3.1 Turkish respondents’ views of benefit to the EU through Turkish

accession

Increased economic growth

Details of which characteristics are associated with the idea that Turkish

membership would benefit the EU by increased economic growth are reported in

Table A3.1.

The highest levels of support are as follows:

Trade union characteristics

o members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ (69 per cent compared to TÜRK-

İŞ 60 per cent and DİSK 51 per cent)

o shop stewards (68 per cent)

Individual characteristics

o identifying oneself as European (72 per cent) or being inclined to do so (68

per cent)

o being a manager (69)


o being 46 or older (65 per cent)

o identifying oneself as on the right politically (centre right 66 per cent; right 63

per cent)

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

o working in transport (68 per cent)

The highest levels of disagreement that Turkish membership would benefit the EU

through increased economic growth included

o those employed in education, health and social work (37 per cent)

o those who work in agriculture (33 per cent)

o those who identify themselves as non European (32 per cent)

o those who had been to an EU country for a holiday (32 per cent)

o those who work for a European multinational company (31 per cent)

o those who live in a rural area (31 per cent)

Increased cultural diversity

Details of which characteristics are associated with the idea that Turkish

membership would benefit the EU by increased cultural diversity are reported in

Table A3.2.

The highest levels of support are as follows:

Trade union characteristics

o members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ (67 per cent compared to TÜRK-

İŞ 58 per cent and DİSK 54 per cent)

o shop stewards (64 per cent)

25


Individual characteristics

26

o identifying oneself as European (70 per cent) or being inclined to do so (64

per cent)

o being a manager (65)

o being an older worker (aged 41-45 63 per cent; 46-50 60 per cent; 51 or

older 63 per cent)

o living in a rural area or village (62 per cent)

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

o working in mining and quarrying (62 per cent)

o working in transport (62 per cent)

The highest levels of disagreement that Turkish membership would benefit the EU

through increased cultural diversity include those

o working in agriculture (38 per cent)

o those employed in education, health and social work (38 per cent)

o working for a non European or European multinational company (31 per cent)

o identifying themselves as non European (34 per cent)

o being a professional or technical worker (33 per cent)

o being employed in a workplace with 10-49 employees (32 per cent)

Increased political stability.

Details of which characteristics are associated with the idea that Turkish

membership would benefit the EU by increased political stability are reported in

Table A3.3.

The highest levels of support are as follows:

Trade union characteristics

o members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ (57 per cent compared to TÜRK-

İŞ 48 per cent and DİSK 44 per cent)

o shop stewards (54 per cent)

Individual characteristics

o identifying oneself as European (60 per cent) or being inclined to do so (55

per cent)

o being a manager (58 per cent)

o being an older worker (41-45 years old 56 per cent; 46-50 years 55 per cent;

51 years or older 53 per cent)


o identifying oneself as on the right politically (52 per cent)

o living in a small or medium sized town (52 per cent)

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

o working in transport (59 per cent)

o being employed in electricity, gas and water (55 per cent)

o being employed in the public sector (52 per cent)

o being a semi skilled worker (52 per cent)

The highest levels of disagreement that Turkish membership would benefit the EU

through increased political stability include

o those who do not identify themselves as European (42 per cent)

o those who work in professional/technical occupations (41 per cent)

o those who live in a rural area (41 per cent)

o those who worked for Multinational companies (European 40 per cent; non

European 38 per cent))

o those who identify themselves as on the political left (left 39 per cent; centre

left 43 per cent)

o those who work in information and communications (41 per cent)

o those who work in agriculture (40 per cent)

Whether economic prosperity, cultural diversity or political stability is considered the

following groups tend to be among those who are most likely to see the most

benefit to the EU generally

members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ

shop stewards

managers

older workers

those who identify themselves as European

These groups are also among those who are most likely to be in favour of Turkish

entry (section 2.1).

The following groups are amongst those who are most likely to disagree that there

are such benefits

those who work in education, health and social work

those who work for European Multinational companies

27


those who work in agriculture

These groups are also amongst those who are most opposed to EU entry.

Views of trade unionists in seven EU countries

Trade unionists in the seven EU countries were asked the same questions that

Turkish workers were asked about increased economic growth, cultural diversity and

political stability as possible benefits to the EU of Turkish membership.

The main points to emerge are as follows:

The responses of Swedish trade unionists stand out from those in all the other

countries (detailed responses are presented in Table A3.4). Over seven out of ten

of them tend to think that the EU would benefit generally in terms of economic

growth, in terms of political stability and in terms of cultural diversity. These

percentages are higher than for trade unionists in other EU countries; they are

also higher than for Turkish trade unionists themselves

For the trade unionists from the other six member states the contribution to be

made by cultural diversity is rated higher than that for either economic growth or

political stability (though in the case of Greece this amounts to only 27 per cent)

Respondents from Slovakia and Greece show little tendency to see either political

or economic benefit (for Slovakia 7 and 10 per cent do so respectively; for

Greece 16 per cent and 16 per cent)

Responses from Belgium, France and Italy range between 21 per cent for Italy

and 34 per cent for France for political stability; for economic growth the range is

from 26 per cent for France to 35 per cent for Belgium

Responses from the UK are higher than for this last group and are closer to

Sweden. Of the UK respondents 60 per cent tend to agree that Turkey’s entry to

the EU would be benefit cultural diversity, 45 per cent tend to agree it would

promote economic growth and 40 per cent that it would contribute to political

stability

How EU membership might benefit Turkey and the seven EU

countries

Respondents were asked

28

‘How do you think that membership of the EU would be likely to affect

[particular issues] in [your country]?’

For Turkey, the particular issues are listed in Chart 3.2 where respondents’ answers

are presented in terms of whether EU entry would make them better, worse or

make no change.

About six out of ten of all the Turkish trade unionists think there would be

improvements in Turkey in health and safety at work, job security and trade union

rights.

About five out of ten would expect improvements in women’s rights, employment

opportunities and political freedom; rather fewer expected improvement in the

justice/legal system and pay; and fewer still in religious tolerance or national

integrity.


Chart 3.2 Turkish respondents’ views on effects of EU membership on

particular issues in Turkey

Health and safety at work

Job security

Trade union rights

Women’s rights

Employment opportunities

Political freedom

Justice/legal system

Pay

Religious tolerance

National integrity

29

34

48

46

51

50

55

60

59

68

37

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ are most likely to think that particular

issues will improve following EU entry and members of TÜRK-İŞ are more likely to

think this compared to members of DİSK. For example, with respect to trade union

rights 66 per cent of members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ think the situation

would get better compared to 59 per cent for TÜRK-İŞ and 52 per cent for DİSK.

39

Percentages

36

33

35

34

30

26

27

23

25

18

9

10

10

8

8

9

7

5

8

8

9

9

6

7

7

7

8

5

Better

No change

Worse

Don’t know

29


Confidence is less widespread among members of HAK-İŞ unions that EU entry

would improve religious tolerance in Turkey (41 per cent) but they are a little more

sanguine than members of DİSK (37 per cent) or TÜRK-İŞ (33 per cent). Members

of HAK-İŞ unions are still less confident that national integrity will be improved (34

per cent) but so are members of DİSK unions (33 per cent) and of TÜRK-İŞ (27per

cent).

Views of trade unionists in seven EU countries

The views of respondents in the EU countries about the effects of Turkish entry on

their own countries differ in several respects from the views of Turkish workers

(detailed information is provided in Table A3.5). The broad picture is

for all seven EU countries, on all issues, the percentage who see benefits for

those countries from Turkish accession is lower than that seen by Turks for

Turkey, usually by a considerable margin

51 per cent of Turks expected improved employment opportunities but in Sweden

and the UK only 27 and 33 per cent did so and in the other five countries the

proportion expecting such benefit ranged between 2 and 14 per cent

60 per cent of Turks expected improved job security in Turkey but only 15 per

cent of Swedes and 24 per cent of UK respondents expected this. In Belgium,

France, Italy, Greece and Slovakia the proportion expecting improved benefit was

miniscule, ranging from 0 per cent to 3 per cent

One of the least expected outcomes of EU entry for Turks was that religious

tolerance would improve in Turkey (34 per cent)

Respondents from most of the seven EU countries had relatively high

expectations that this would improve in their own countries. With the exception

of Slovakia (5 per cent) and Sweden (where 75 per cent expected no change) in

the other five countries those expecting improvement ranged between 17 and 34

per cent.

Who benefits?

In order to examine which interest groups respondents thought would benefit from

EU membership trade unionists in Turkey and the seven EU countries were asked

30

Taking everything into account, how do you think [particular group] would

benefit from Turkey becoming a member of the EU?’

The particular groups included EU and Turkish big employers; EU and Turkish small

and medium employers; and EU and Turkish workers.

Most Turkish trade unionists think that the biggest beneficiaries would be big

employers, most of all big EU employers and then Turkish ones (Chart 3.3). Fewer

think small and medium employers would benefit but again EU employers are seen

as more likely to do so than Turkish ones who are seen the least likely to benefit out

of all the capital and labour categories examined. In the case of workers the

situation is reversed: over half Turkish trade unionists think Turkish workers would

benefit: fewer think that EU workers would.


Chart 3.3 Turkish respondents’ views on benefit to employers and workers

from EU membership for Turkey

big employers [EU]

big employers

[Turkey]]

small and medium

employers [EU]

small and medium

employers [Turkey]

workers [EU]

workers [Turkey]

40

43

49

54

60

68

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Percentages

Specifically with respect to the question on the benefits to Turkish workers from EU

membership 54 per cent of Turkish trade unionists thought Turkish workers would

benefit; 23 per cent expected no change; 15 per cent expected Turkish workers not

to benefit; and 9 per cent did not know.

A detailed examination of characteristics associated with thinking that Turkish

workers would benefit is provided in Table A3.6. This suggests that the highest

levels of support for this view are to be found among those with the following

characteristics:

Trade union characteristics

o membership of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ (63 per cent) compared to

TÜRK-İŞ (54 per cent) and DİSK (46 per cent).

o being a shop steward (61 per cent)

Individual characteristics

o identifying oneself as European (71 per cent); inclined toward European

identity (59 per cent)

o being a manager (61 per cent)

o having completed full time education aged 22 or older (59 per cent)

o being 51 or older (58 per cent)

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

o being employed in part of a larger Turkish company (58 per cent)

31


Characteristics associated with more widespread views within the minority who

think Turkish workers would not benefit include:

Trade union characteristics

32

o members of trade unions affiliated to DİSK (18 per cent)

Individual characteristics

o identifying oneself as on the political left (18 per cent)

o identifying oneself as not European (21 per cent

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

o working for a non European multinational company (30 per cent); European

multinational company (17 per cent)

o being employed in agriculture (23 per cent)

o being employed in education, health and social work (22 per cent)

o being employed in electricity, gas and water (19 per cent)

Views of trade unionists in seven EU countries

Chart 3.4 Views of respondents in Turkey and seven EU countries on how

workers in Turkey and in their own countries would benefit from Turkey

joining the EU

Per cent who think workers in the EU would benefit Per cent who think workers in Turkey would benefit

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1

0

68

45

13

16

19

10

11

6

Turkish trade unionists judged, with respect to employers and workers in the EU,

that the biggest beneficiaries of Turkish accession would be big EU employers,

followed by small and medium EU employers, followed by EU workers (Chart 3.3).

Detailed information on the views of trade union respondents in the seven EU

countries about who would benefit from Turkey joining the EU are presented in

2

0

42

43

55

54

59

3

0

71

78

81

4

0

5

0

6

0

7

0

8

0

9

0

TR

BE

EL

FR

IT

SE

SK

UK

100


Table A3.7. A review of these data and comparison with the data for Turkey

suggests

trade union respondents in the seven EU countries, with the exception of

Sweden, share the view of respondents in Turkey that workers in EU countries

would benefit less from Turkish accession than small and medium employers and

big employers respectively

Turkish trade unionists considered, with respect to Turkey, that Turkish workers

would benefit slightly more than Turkish small and medium employers

trade union respondents in all seven of the EU countries also see Turkish workers

benefiting more from EU entry than small and medium Turkish employers - but

the margin of difference is in most cases considerably greater

For example, 40 per cent of Turkish respondents thought Turkish small and medium

employers would benefit compared to 54 per cent of Turkish workers. In Belgium 40

per cent see small and medium Turkish employers benefiting but 78 per cent see

Turkish workers doing so, in France the respective figures are 30 and 54 per cent, in

Italy 41 and 59 per cent, in Slovakia 15 and 43 per cent, in Sweden 38 and 71 per

cent, in the UK 56 and 81 per cent. Only in Greece is the difference very slight

(small and medium Turkish employers to benefit 40 per cent, Turkish workers 42

per cent).

In Belgium, Slovakia and the UK respondents even saw workers in Turkey being

likely to benefit more than big employers.

Last, Turkish workers’ own belief that they have more to gain from EU entry than

EU workers is shared by respondents in all the seven EU countries and in most

cases they hold this belief more widely (Chart 3.4).

3.4 Summary

Benefits to the EU generally:

Turkish trade unionists were likely to see the EU would benefit respectively

through increased economic growth, cultural diversity, and to a lesser extent,

increased political stability

Groups in Turkey who were likely to see benefits to the EU in all these respects

were

o members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ

o shop stewards

o managers

o older workers

o those who identified themselves as European

Groups in Turkey who were most likely to disagree there would be benefits

included

o those employed in education, health and social work

33


34

o those who work for European Multinational companies

o those who work in agriculture

Trade unionist in most of the EU countries were more likely to rate the

contribution of increased cultural diversity higher than economic growth and

political stability

Benefits of EU membership to Turkey and the seven EU countries

Turkish trade unionists were most likely to expect benefits to Turkey for health

and safety at work, job security and trade union rights.

Members of HAK-İŞ unions were more likely to expect benefits would result than

members of TÜRK-İŞ and DİSK respectively.

Trade unionists in all seven EU countries saw less benefit would accrue in their

own countries than would accrue in Turkey.

Relative to other benefits, increased religious tolerance was more likely to be

rated by trade unionists in EU countries as a benefit of Turkey’s EU entry in their

own country than it was by Turks for Turkey.

Who benefits?

Turkish trade unionists thought that big employers (first EU ones, then Turkish)

would be the biggest beneficiaries of Turkish accession

With the exception of Slovakia, clear majorities in the six EU member states also

expected big employers to benefit most, either European or Turkish ones

Trade unionists in the six EU countries, with the exception of Sweden, thought

that workers in the EU countries would benefit less from Turkey’s accession than

small and medium employers and big employers

Turkish trade unionists expected Turkish workers to benefit more than Turkish

small and medium employers – and this view of who would benefit in Turkey was

shared by trade unionists in all seven EU countries

Turkish workers believed that they would have more to gain from EU entry than

EU workers. This view about Turkish workers was also shared by trade unionists

in all the seven EU countries and in most cases it was more widely held


THE MEANING OF THE EU

This section examines

How respondents feel about the EU in general terms

What it means to them in particular

How Turkish respondents feel about the EU in general terms

In order to examine how well respondents were disposed to the EU in general terms

they were asked

‘In general, what sorts of image does the EU conjure up for you?’

Answers were pre-coded into five categories from ‘very positive’ to ‘very negative’

Chart 4.1 Turkish respondents’ general image of the EU

very positive

fairly positive

neutral

fairly negative

very negative

10%

12%

16%

26%

36%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Taken together the ‘very’ and ‘fairly’ categories (Chart 4.1) suggest that more

members of the three confederations have a positive than a negative image of the

EU (46 per cent compared to 38 per cent). This result is in line with the 46 per cent

of the Turkish public found to have an overall positive image in 2009

(Eurobarometer 2009b:2).

Full results that relate the various responses to particular characteristics are

reported in Table A4.1. However, just over one in five respondents hold strong

views of either a positive or negative kind. It is worth looking at these in their own

right although it has to be remembered that even the highest incidences of very

positive or very negative responses constitute a clear minority of respondents.

It can be seen from Chart 4.2 that members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ are

amongst those with the highest percentage of very positive images (16 per cent of

members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ have very positive views, 11 per cent of

those affiliated to DİSK and 9 per cent of those affiliated to TÜRK-İŞ). Also, as with

other pro EU values, shop stewards also figure (14 per cent) so that in this respect

as in some others they are similar to managers (16 per cent).

35


The highest incidence of very positive images of the EU is found among the oldest

workers; the highest incidence of very negative images is found among the

youngest workers.

Having been to an EU country for a holiday or to work seems to be associated with

a higher incidence of very positive images; working for a European multinational

company seems to be associated with a higher incidence of very negative images.

On this evidence, therefore, contact with the EU has different effects depending on

the form that it takes.

Chart 4.2 Characteristics of Turkish respondents with strong positive and

negative images of the EU

36

Characteristics with highest

percentage of very positive images

Characteristics with highest percentages

of very negative images

aged 51 or over (18 per cent) aged 15-25 (18 per cent)

been to an EU country for a holiday

(16 per cent)

identifies self as European (16 per

cent)

works for a European multinational

company (17 per cent)

identifies self as not European (16 per

cent)

employed as a manager (16 per cent) employed in agriculture (16 per cent)

member of a union affiliated to HAK-İŞ

İş (16 per cent)

works for a non European multinational

company (14 per cent)

worked in an EU country (15 per cent) employed in education, health and social

work (14 per cent)

shop steward (14 per cent) employed in public administration (14

per cent)

employed in a workplace with 1-9

employees (14 per cent)

Views of trade unionists in seven EU countries

identifies self as on the left politically

(14 per cent)

If the ‘very positive’ and ‘fairly positive’ image categories are combined it would

seem that Turkish respondents are almost on a par with those from Belgium and

Greece (at around 50 per cent), are more positive than those from France (41 per

cent) but are clearly less likely to have a positive image of the EU than those from

Sweden, Slovakia and the UK (which range between 63 and 75 per cent) (Table

A4.2). Turkish respondents had the highest proportion of very negative images

(albeit the proportion (12 per cent) is small).

Turkish respondents’ views on what the EU means in particular

respects

In order to investigate respondents’ views on particular issues they were asked

‘What does the EU mean to you personally [with respect to particular issues]’


Ten items were listed and answers were pre coded along a five point scale strongly

agree to strongly disagree. Half of these items requested assessment of what are

often held by its supporters to be positive features of the EU (for instance political

rights);half requested assessment of what are often held to be negative features by

its critics (for instance bureaucracy).

Chart 4.3a Agreement with conventionally held positive associations

concerning the EU

Percentages

political rights

rights at work

democracy

economic prosperity

religious tolerance

38%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Chart 4.3b Agreement with conventionally held negative associations

concerning the EU

Percentages

flexibility of labour

bureaucracy

loss of sovereignty

unemployment

waste of taxpayers'money

31%

30%

38%

43%

51%

50%

47%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

For ease of presentation Charts 4.3a and 4.3b provide the combined strongly agree

and agree responses for the more positive and more negative connotations

respectively and the usual procedure in this Report of providing

extensive information on associations with individual and other characteristics is not

followed.

With respect to the items listed in Chart 4.3a the following comments are in order

60%

64%

37


With one exception, at least half the Turkish respondents associate the EU with

features commonly held to be positive ones, most especially political rights and

rights at work. The exception concerns religious tolerance

The lower level of identification of the EU with religious tolerance differs

somewhat between members of trade unions affiliated to the three main trade

union confederations; though in no case do as many as half of them associate

the EU with such tolerance. Those in trade unions affiliated to TÜRK-İŞ are the

least likely to associate the EU with such tolerance (36 per cent), then come

those in DİSK (42 per cent) and then those in the confederation HAK-İŞ (44 per

cent)

Members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ are the most likely out of those affiliated

to all the confederations to identify the EU with all the items listed in Chart 4.3a.

In the most pronounced case 70 per cent of them associated the EU with rights

at work compared to 60 per cent for TÜRK-İŞ and 55 per cent for DİSK.

The pattern of response for Turkish respondents tends to differ from that for those

from the seven EU countries in some respects

Political rights. Respondents from France and the UK (43 and 56 per cent

respectively) are less likely to associate the EU with political rights than those in

Turkey. Respondents from Belgium (61 per cent) and Slovakia (63 per cent) are

closer to those in Turkey. Respondents in Greece (69 per cent), Italy (71 per

cent) and Sweden (79 per cent) seem more likely to do so

Rights at work. In Belgium (58 per cent), Slovakia (51 per cent), Greece (50 per

cent) and especially France (29 per cent) respondents are less likely to associate

the EU with rights at work than those in Turkey. Italy is close to the Turkish

response (61 per cent); the UK (74 per cent) and Sweden (79 per cent) are

higher

Democracy. With the exception of France and the UK (44 and 48 per cent

respectively) respondents from the other five countries are considerably more

likely to associate the EU with democracy (Greece 61 per cent, Belgium 69 per

cent, Slovakia 75 per cent, Italy 76 per cent, Sweden 79 per cent)

Economic prosperity. With the exception of France and Greece (34 and 40 per

cent respectively) respondents from the other five countries are more likely to

associate the EU with economic prosperity (Belgium and the UK 58 per cent, Italy

63 per cent, Sweden 75 per cent, Slovakia 78 per cent)

Religious tolerance. The Turkish respondents’ low level of identification of the EU

with religious tolerance is not replicated by respondents in most of the seven EU

countries. In Sweden 80 per cent of respondents associated the EU with religious

tolerance; in Slovakia 71 per cent; in Italy 67 per cent; in Greece 61 per cent; in

Belgium 54 per cent; in France 48 per cent; in the UK 42 per cent

With respect to the items for conventionally held negative associations listed in

Chart 4.3b the following comments are in order:

Less than half the Turkish respondents endorse any one of these items

The most widely endorsed item as signifying the meaning of the EU is flexibility

of labour. It is more widely endorsed by members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ

(54 per cent) than TÜRK-İŞ (47 per cent) or DİSK (41 per cent)

38


Members of unions affiliated to TÜRK-İŞ are more likely to endorse loss of

sovereignty (40 per cent) than those in HAK-İŞ (34 per cent) or DİSK (30 per

cent)

In other respects the differences between members of unions affiliated to the

three confederations tend to be smaller

As with the items in Chart 4a so with those in Chart 4b the pattern of response for

Turkish respondents tends to differ from that for those from the seven EU countries

in some respects

Flexibility of labour. Respondents in all the seven EU countries are more likely to

think that the EU is associated with flexibility of labour. Proportions who think

this range from 52 per cent in Greece to 77 per cent in Sweden

Bureaucracy. Respondents in six out of the seven EU countries are more likely to

associate the EU with bureaucracy than respondents from Turkey (with a range

from 48 per cent for Greece to 73 per cent for Slovakia). Sweden is the exception

at 21 per cent but here half of the respondents replied that they did not know

Loss of sovereignty. There is no clear pattern. Respondents from France and

Sweden are more likely to associate the EU with loss of sovereignty (51 and 45

per cent respectively); Belgium and Italy have a similar proportion to that in

Turkey (38 and 34 per cent); Slovakia and the UK (both 32 per cent) and

especially Greece (24 per cent) have fewer respondents who make this

association than those in Turkey

Unemployment. Respondents in Greece and France (42 and 41 per cent) are

more likely to associate the EU with unemployment. But the respondents in the

other five countries are less likely to do so than Turkish respondents (responses

range from 27 to 16 per cent)

Waste of taxpayers’ money. Respondents in France (45 per cent), Belgium and

Slovakia (both 44 per cent) are more likely than those in Turkey to associate the

EU with this. Responses for Italy, Greece and the UK range between 34 and 22

per cent, with Sweden at 11 per cent

Summary

How respondents feel about the EU in general terms

Just under half of Turkish respondents feel positive about the general image of

the EU. Members of HAK-İŞ unions are more likely to feel positive than those in

DİSK or TÜRK-İŞ respectively

Members of HAK-İŞ trade unions are also among those with the highest incidence

of very positive images of the EU, as are older workers and those who have been

to a EU country for a holiday or to work

Among those who have the highest incidence of very negative images are young

workers, those who work for European Multinational companies and those

employed in agriculture

39


Turkish respondents are more likely to have a positive image of the EU than

those in France, are not dissimilar to those in Belgium and Greece, but are

considerably less likely to have a positive image of the EU than those from

Sweden, Slovakia and the UK

What the EU means in particular

Half or more of Turkish respondents associated the EU with political rights, rights

at work, democracy and economic prosperity

Less than half Turkish respondents associated the EU with religious tolerance. It

was most likely to be associated (but never by as many as half the respondents)

by members of HAK-İŞ trade unions, followed by those in DİSK and then those in

TÜRK-İŞ

The association of the EU with religious tolerance was much more likely in all

seven countries than in Turkey

Members of TÜRK-İŞ unions were more likely to associate the EU with loss of

sovereignty than those in HAK-İŞ and DİSK respectively

40


KNOWLEDGE OF THE EU

This section reports

Respondents’ own assessments of their understanding of how the EU works

Their knowledge of how it works

Own assessments of understanding how the EU works

Respondents were asked

‘Would you say that you understand how the EU works?’

Turkish respondents tend to think that they do not to understand how the EU works.

Half say that they do not understand ‘very well’ or ‘not very well at all’. Only 11 per

cent claim to understand how it works ‘very well’.

Chart 5.1 Turkish respondents’ claimed understanding of how the EU works

Percentages

very well

quite well

not very well

not very well at all

11%

19%

34%

36%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Claimed understanding of how the EU works by respondents from seven EU

countries.

A recent EU survey reports: ‘In both Turkey and the EU member states, people

seem unable to understand how the EU works’ (Eurobarometer 2009b:3). If the fact

that only 11 per cent of Turkish trade unionists claimed that they knew ‘very well’

how the EU works is an indication of low confidence, the same must apply to

respondents in six out of the seven EU countries. With the signal exception of

Sweden (where 67 per cent of respondents claim to know how the EU works ‘very

well’) respondents in the other countries are no more confident than those in

Turkey. Indeed, on this measure, most of them would actually be less confident

than the Turks (Table A5.1).

The situation changes in the latter respect when the ‘very well’ and ‘quite well’

responses are combined. On this perhaps more reasonable and robust combined

41


measure Turkish respondents appear the least confident of those in all eight

countries.

What, though, do Turkish trade unionists actually know about the EU?

Knowledge of the EU

A limited test was made to assess how much respondents actually knew about the

EU. They were asked to say whether each of three statements was true, false or

that they did not know

42

‘The EU has its own Parliament’

‘Norway is a member of the EU’

‘The EU currently consists of twenty one Member States’

Three out of four Turkish respondents knew that the EU has a Parliament but less

than four out of ten knew the correct answer to the statement about Norway and

only three in ten knew the correct answer to the statement about the number of

member states (Chart 5.2).

Going into further detail, with respect to the question about a EU Parliament only 8

per cent gave a wrong answer and 17 per cent said that they did not know; for the

Norway question 30 per cent gave the wrong answer and 31 per cent said they did

not know; for the question about whether the EU had 21 states 32 per cent gave

the wrong answer and 39 per cent said they did not know.

Chart 5.2 Turkish respondents’ knowledge of the EU

Percentage correct responses

EU Parliament?

Norway a member?

21 member states?

29%

39%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Respondents’ performance across all three questions was such that 17 per cent had

no correct answer; 41 per cent only one correct answer; 26 per cent two correct

answers; and only 16 per cent all three correct.

76%


Characteristics particularly associated with getting no correct answers included:

Trade Union characteristics

o members of unions affiliated to DİSK (22 per cent) compared to TÜRK-İŞ 16

per cent and HAK-İŞ 14 per cent.

Individual characteristics

o living in rural areas (28 per cent)

o being female (25 per cent)

o having left school at 13 or earlier (23 per cent)

o being younger; aged 15- 20 and 26-30 ( both 20 per cent)

o being an unskilled manual worker (20 per cent)

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

o working in a smaller workplace (1-9 employees 24 per cent, 10-49 employees

18 per cent, 50-149 employees 22 per cent)

o being employed in construction (20 per cent)

o being employed in public administration (20 per cent)

Characteristics particularly associated with getting all three answers correct

included:

Individual characteristics

o identifying with the centre left politically (29 per cent) but left (15 per cent)

o having completed full time education at 22 years of age or older 27 per cent

(19-21 years old 21 per cent)

o performing professional/technical work (26 per cent)

o identifying with centre right politically (26 per cent); but right (17 per cent)

o having had a holiday in a EU country (25 per cent)

o being a manager (24 per cent)

o inclined to identify self as European (24 per cent); identify self as European 20

per cent

o having worked in a EU country (22 per cent)

o being older (46-50 years old 22 per cent; 51 and older 23 per cent).

o living in a large town (20 per cent)

43


Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

44

o being employed by a European multinational company (34 per cent)

o being employed in agriculture (29 per cent)

o being employed in education, health and social work (24 per cent)

o being employed in electricity, gas and water (21 per cent)

o being employed in information and communication (20 per cent)

Knowledge of EU of respondents in seven EU countries

Only a limited test of an individual’s knowledge of the EU can be obtained by asking

the three questions. But whereas (at least on one measure) Turkish respondents

were more confident about their understanding of how the EU worked than those

from most of the other countries the situation is quite different when it comes to

actual knowledge.

Respondents from EU countries are at least twice as likely to answer all three

questions correctly as Turkish respondents. They are also generally less likely than

Turkish respondents to answer all of the questions incorrectly (Table A5.2).

Summary

The majority of Turkish trade unionists say that they do not understand how the

EU works very well or not very well at all. On the most robust measure they are

the least confident about what they understand of those in all eight countries

On the limited test conducted, Turkish trade unionists are also less

knowledgeable about the EU than those in the seven EU countries

Turks who live in rural areas, women, those employed in smaller workplaces,

those with limited formal education and young workers are among the worst

informed.


TRUST IN THE EU AND EU LEVEL INSTITUTIONS

This section reports the trust that respondents had in the EU and its institutions. It

considers

Trust in the EU as a whole

Trust in particular institutions

Trust in the EU compared to trust in the United Nations

Trust in the EU compared to trust in some national institutions

Trust in the EU as a whole

Respondents were asked

‘How much trust do you have in the EU?’

Their answers (like those to the rest of the questions reported in section 5) were

pre-coded ‘tend to trust’, ‘tend not to trust’ and ‘don’t know’.

Only a minority tended to trust the EU (29 per cent compared to Eurobarometer

findings (2009b: 2) for the general Turkish population of 38 per cent in 2009 and 27

per cent in 2008). Put another way: around 70 per cent said that they tended not to

trust the EU or that they did not know which is testimony to a widespread lack of

confidence.

Chart 6.1 Turkish respondents’ trust in the European Union

tend to trust

tend not to trust

don't know

12%

29%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

A detailed examination of characteristics associated with trust in the EU is provided

in Table A6.1. This suggests that those who are most likely to trust the EU have the

following characteristics:

59%

45


Trade union characteristics

46

o members of unions affiliated to DİSK (39 per cent)

o members of unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ (36 per cent)

o shop stewards (33 per cent)

Individual characteristics

o identifying oneself as European (45 per cent); inclined toward European

identity (35 per cent)

o having worked in a EU country (39 per cent)

o having had a holiday in a EU country (37 per cent)

o being on the left politically (centre left 33 per cent; left 34 per cent)

o aged 51 or older (37 per cent)

o manager (34 per cent)

o female (33 per cent)

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

o employed in construction (40 per cent)

o employed in small workplace (1-9 employees 38 per cent)

Those who are most likely to tend not to trust the EU have the following

characteristics:

Trade union characteristics

o members of unions affiliated to TÜRK-İŞ (63 per cent)

Individual characteristics

o those who identify themselves as not European (67 per cent)

o those in other white collar employment (66 per cent)

o those on the right politically (right and centre right both 64 per cent)

o workers under 40 (15-25 years old 62 per cent, 30-35 years old 62 per cent,

36-40 years old 62 per cent)

o those who completed most full time education (completion at 19-21 years old

63 per cent; at 22 or older 61 per cent)


Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

o those employed in agriculture (72 per cent)

o those employed in mining and quarrying (69 per cent)

o those employed in multinational companies (European 68 per cent, non

European 69 per cent)

o those employed in manufacturing (66 per cent)

o those employed in workplaces that are part of larger Turkish organisations (62

per cent)

o those employed in the private sector (62 per cent)

o those employed in electricity, gas and water (62 per cent)

o those employed in workplaces with 500 or more employees (62 per cent)

Trust in the EU and respondents in seven EU countries

Eurobarometer surveys (2009b: 2) found that trust in the EU was lower amongst

the general population in Turkey than in EU Member States (Turkey, 38 per cent in

2009, 27 per cent in 2008; EU Member States, 53 per cent in 2009, 47 per cent in

2008).

The comparisons in this report are for trade unionists only and for a limited number

of EU countries (just seven out of 27) and are limited in various other ways but the

same pattern is evident. With the exception of France (where 32 per cent of

respondents tend to trust the EU compared to 29 per cent for Turkey) in all the

other countries the tendency to trust the EU is much more pronounced and ranges

between 55 and 83 per cent with an average of 70 per cent (a detailed account is

provided in Table A6.2).

Trust in particular EU level institutions

Less than half the Turkish trade unionists tended to trust any of the four particular

institutions asked about – EU level trade unions; the European Court of Justice

(ECJ); the European Parliament; and EU level political parties. However, these

institutions command different levels of trust (Chart 6.2).

EU level trade unions are the most likely to be trusted, followed by the European

Court of Justice. By contrast around eight out of ten lack trust in the EU parliament

and EU level political parties.

There are some differences in trust in EU institutions between members of the three

Turkish trade union confederations. Members of unions affiliated to TÜRK-İŞ are the

least likely out of the confederations to trust any one of the four institutions. In

order of increasing lack of trust, 45 per cent of TÜRK-İŞ members tend to trust EU

level trade unions (DİSK 47 per cent, HAK-İŞ 52 per cent); 32 per cent of TÜRK-İŞ

members tend to trust the European Court of Justice (HAK-İŞ 35 per cent, DİSK 39

per cent); 20 per cent of TÜRK-İŞ members tend to trust the European Parliament

(HAK-İŞ 26 per cent, DİSK 33 per cent;); and only 14 per cent of TÜRK-İŞ

members trust EU level political parties (HAK-İŞ 18 per cent, DİSK 29 per cent).

47


Chart 6.2 Turkish respondents’ trust in particular EU institutions

Percentage

Trust in particular EU institutions and respondents in seven EU countries

EU level trade unions are among those institutions that tend to be most trusted

both by Turkish respondents and those in the EU countries (Table A6.3). France,

where EU trade unions attract a much lower level of trust is an exception (and to a

lesser extent Italy). Apart from these exceptions, however, the level of support is

considerably higher in the EU countries than it is in Turkey.

The proportion which tends to trust EU level trade unions is around six out of ten in

Belgium, Greece and the UK and around eight and nine out of ten in Slovakia and

Sweden respectively compared to just less than five out of ten in Turkey.

Turkish trade unionists are the least likely of those in all eight countries to trust the

European Court of Justice and the European Parliament.

Only in the case of EU level political parties do respondents in most EU countries

evidence similar low levels of trust to those found for Turkey and even here Sweden

(69 per cent) and Italy (36 per cent) are notably higher.

Trust in the United Nations and the EU

How do Turkish trade unionists views on whether they can trust the EU compare

with their views on the trustworthiness of other international institutions?

It is possible to investigate this question with specific reference to one such

institution, the United Nations. The answer would appear to be that Turkish trade

unionists are, if anything, less inclined to trust the EU than the UN (cf. Chart 6.1

and Chart 6.3). Only 24 per cent tend to trust the UN; 29 per cent tend to trust the

EU. Neither the EU nor the UN appear to command as much support amongst trade

unionists as it does among the general population for whom support for each of

these stood at 38 per cent in 2009 (Eurobarometer 2009c: 16-17).

48

EU Level trade unions

ECJ

European Parliament

EU Level political parties

16

22

34

46

66

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

64

Percentages

31

51

23

15

18

14

Tend to trust

Tend not to trust

Don't know


Chart 6.3 Turkish respondents’ trust in the United Nations

Percentage

tend to trust

tend not to trust

don't know

13%

Members of unions affiliated to TÜRK-İŞ are the least likely to trust the UN (22 per

cent); 28 per cent of HAK-İŞ members do so; and 35 per cent of DİSK members.

Trust in the UN and respondents in seven EU countries.

Turkish respondents are clearly less likely to trust the UN than those in the other

seven countries (Table A6.4). The proportion that tends to trust the UN ranges from

38 per cent for Swedish respondents to 62 per cent for those from Italy. 2009

survey evidence on general populations also shows a higher average for trusting the

UN among 27 EU Member States than in Turkey (Eurobarometer 2009b: 16-17).

Trust in specific national and EU institutions

24%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

Respondents were asked about their trust in two Turkish institutions - national

political parties; and justice/the national legal system. This permits a limited test of

whether they trust EU institutions more/less than their national institutions.

As far as justice and the law is concerned there is no reason to conclude that there

is any such difference. Only 34 per cent said they trusted justice/the national legal

system in Turkey. But the ECJ attracted the same level of support (Chart 6.4a).

63%

49


Chart 6.4a Turkish respondents’ trust in specific national and EU

institutions – justice/the national legal system and the European Court of

Justice

Justice/National legal

system

Trust in specific national and EU institutions and respondents in seven EU countries

- trust in the justice/legal system.

The level of trust in the Turkish national justice/legal system was higher than that

for the national justice/legal system in Slovakia; it was broadly in line with that in

France, Greece and Belgium; and lower than that in Italy (42 per cent), and yet

more so in the UK (64 per cent) and Sweden (98 per cent) (Table A6.5). But in so

far that it is valid to take a comparison of views about the national justice/legal

system and the ECJ as an indication of this the Turks did not regard the EU as

providing a more trustworthy legal system. By contrast, in all seven countries

except for Sweden and the UK the proportion in these countries that tended to trust

the ECJ was higher than that tending to trust the national justice/legal system (cf.

Tables A6.3 and A6.5).

With respect to political parties, only 24 per cent of Turkish respondents reported

that they tended to trust the national parties but even less trusted EU level political

parties (Chart 6.4b).

50

ECJ

Justice/National legal

system

34

34

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Percentages

51

57

15

9

Tend to trust

Tend not to trust

Don’t know


Chart 6.4b Turkish respondents’ trust in specific national and EU

institutions – national political parties and EU level political parties

National Political

Parties

EU Level Political

Parties

Trust in specific national and EU institutions and respondents in seven EU countries

– national and EU level political parties.

The level of trust in national political parties was lower than in Turkey for

respondents in Slovakia (13 per cent); it was about the same or somewhat lower in

Belgium, France, Italy and the UK with a range from 19 to 24 per cent; and much

higher in Sweden at 86 per cent (Table A6.5). However, out of the countries

considered here, only respondents in Italy appear to be more inclined to trust

political parties at EU rather than national level and Turkey is not exceptional in

putting less trust in political parties at EU rather than national level (cf. Tables A6.3

and A6.5).

Summary

16

24

Trust in the EU as a whole

Seven out of ten of the Turkish trade unionists lacked confidence in the EU,

either saying that they tended not to trust it or that they did not know whether

to trust it or not

They were more likely to be sceptical than trade unionists in most of the EU

countries

Trust in particular EU institutions

66

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Under half of the Turkish trade unionists tended to trust the four institutions they

were asked about - EU level trade unions; the European Court of Justice; the

European Parliament; and EU level political parties

EU level trade unions tended to be the most widely trusted institution, both by

Turks and trade unionists in the seven EU countries, though the level of support

was considerably higher in the latter

Of the three Turkish trade union confederations members of TÜRK-İŞ were the

least likely to support any one of the institutions

68

Percentages

18

8

Tend to trust

Tend not to trust

Don’t know

51


Trust in the United Nations and the European Union

If anything Turkish trade unionists were less inclined to trust the EU than they

were the UN

Turkish trade unionists were less likely to trust the UN than those in the seven

EU countries

Trust in specific national and EU institutions

In contrast to trade unionists in most of the seven EU countries trade unionists in

Turkey do not seem to regard the EU as providing a more trustworthy legal

system than their own

Only a minority of Turks trusted their national political parties and even fewer

trusted parties at EU level (which trade unionists in most of the seven EU

countries tended to do)

52


THE FUTURE ROLE OF THE EU

This section considers respondents’ views on the future role of the EU. Views on the

future of the EU were examined by asking them whether more should be done

about the issues referred to in several statements. Answers were pre-coded on a

five point scale (‘strongly agree’ to ‘strongly disagree’).

The issues and statements were as follows:

Cultural and religious issues

o ‘The EU should do more to bring together people of different cultures, religions

and histories’.

Workers’ rights

o ‘The EU should do more to improve workers’ rights’

Labour market flexibility

o ‘The EU should do more to make labour markets flexible'

Environmental issues

o ‘The EU should concern itself more with environmental issues’

Whether the EU should cease to exist

o ‘The European Union should cease to exist’

The relative support for these ideas is considered in section 7.1. Support for the

view that the EU should cease to exist is considered further in section 7.2

Support for different EU futures

A detailed presentation of Turkish trade unionists’ views on the five statements is

provided in Table A7.1. Chart 7.1 ranks the five prescriptions for the future of the

EU in order of their positive endorsement (‘strongly agree’ plus ‘agree’).

53


Chart 7.1 Turkish respondents’ positive endorsements for the future of the

EU

Percentage

54

workers' rights

environmental issues

labour market flexibility

cultural togetherness

end EU

34%

0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

It can be seen that positive endorsements (‘strongly agree’ plus ‘agree’) fall into

roughly three categories.

Prescriptions that have very high levels of support which include

o improved workers’ rights

o increased concern with environmental issues

Prescriptions that have high levels of support which include

o increased labour market flexibility

o increased concern to bring people of different cultures, religions and histories

together

Prescriptions with low levels of support, of which there is only one

o the EU should cease to exist.

The Chart confirms the importance to Turkish trade unionists of increased rights for

workers and their concern for environmental issues. Detailed information on how

those with different characteristics view the statements on workers’ rights, the

environment and the other three issues is provided in Tables A7.2, A7.3, A7.4, A7.5

and A7.6. It can be seen from these tables that members of unions affiliated to

HAK-İŞ demonstrate the highest level of support for all these statement, except for

the statement about the EU ceasing to exist. The differences between HAK-İŞ

members and those of other confederations are usually limited. The greatest

difference occurs in relation to the statement about bringing people of different

cultures and religions closer together. In this case 50 per cent of HAK-İŞ members

strongly agree that the EU should do more about this in future compared to 41 per

cent of both TÜRK-İŞ and DİSK members.

74%

72%

82%

80%


Respondents’ prescriptions for future EU policy in seven EU countries

Respondents in the seven EU countries generally ranked the various prescriptions

for future EU policies in the same order as the Turkish respondents (Table A7.7) but

two points of difference merit attention

positive endorsement of improved workers’ rights is rather higher among

respondents in the EU countries (about 90 per cent or more in six out of seven

countries compared to 81 per cent in Turkey)

a clear difference exists between Turkish and EU country respondents on the

question of whether the EU should cease to exist. In Turkey 34 per cent endorsed

the view that the EU should cease to exist. In five out of the seven EU countries

the proportion who agreed the EU should cease to exist was no more than 10 per

cent and it was only12 per cent in Greece and 18 per cent in the UK, where the

idea has the most support out of the seven countries.

The slightly lower level of support by Turkish respondents for increased attention to

workers’ rights in the EU has to be understood in the context of the different

situation in which the Turks are placed. Unlike the respondents in the other seven

countries they are not of course in an EU member state; and some of them are not

committed to Turkey becoming one. If only those Turkish trade unionists who want

Turkey to join the EU are considered the percentage who think the EU should do

more to improve workers’ rights increases to 90 per cent; for those not in favour of

Turkey joining the EU 75 per cent think this.

Turkish respondents’ support for the idea that the EU should

cease to exist

It has been seen that the level of agreement by Turkish trade unionists that the EU

should cease to exist is higher than that found for trade unionists from the seven EU

member states. This still might be interpreted as meaning that 66 per cent of

Turkish respondents did not endorse the view that the EU should cease to exist –

but such an interpretation is misleading. Closer examination of the Turkish

responses to the statement that the EU should cease to exist (Table A7.6) suggest a

rather different picture, namely

approximately one third of respondents agree the EU should cease to exist (34

per cent)

just over one third disagree that the EU should cease to exist (35 per cent)

and just under one third are undecided whether it should cease to exist or not

(31 per cent)

This suggests that the attitude of Turkish trade unionists to the EU may be rather

more nuanced than suggested by the earlier finding that 52 per cent of them were

in favour of full membership (Chart 2.1). In fact, it can be seen from Table A7.8

that around half of those in favour of membership also either thought that the EU

should cease to exist (24 per cent) or were undecided about whether it should do so

or not (27 per cent). The frustration associated with Turkey’s long standing

application to join the EU is a possible explanation of this apparent contradiction –

wanting Turkey to join the EU and wishing the EU to cease to exist or being

undecided about this.

55


Summary

There were very high levels of support among Turkish trade unionists for the EU

doing more about workers’ rights and environmental issues; and high levels of

support for the EU doing more about labour flexibility and bringing peoples of

different cultures and religions together

Members of trade unions affiliated to HAK-İŞ were the most likely out of the

three confederations to endorse all of the above prescriptions for EU policy,

especially the one related to cultural and religious togetherness

Turkish trade unionists were more likely than those in any of the seven EU

countries to agree that the EU should cease to exist

About one third of Turkish trade unionists indicated that the EU should cease to

exist; about another third indicated that it should not cease to exist; and about

another third that they did not know whether it should cease to exist or not

This finding appears to contradict the fact that the majority of Turkish trade

unionists were in favour of Turkey having full membership of the EU. The

frustration associated with Turkey’s long standing application to join the EU may

partly account for this apparent contradiction – wanting Turkey to join the EU

and wishing the EU to cease to exist or being undecided about this.

56


ANNEXES

Notes on Tables

Indicator of political identity.

ANNEX A

TABLES

Respondents were presented with a five point scale labelled ‘left’ at one end and

‘right’ at the other and asked to indicate how they would describe themselves. The

terms ‘centre left’ etc have been attributed.

Indicator of European identity

Respondents were presented with a five point scale labelled ‘European’ at one end

and ‘non European’ at the other and asked to indicate how they would describe

themselves. The terms used to describe other than end point responses have been

attributed.

57


Table A2.1 Whether in favour of Turkey becoming a full member of the

EU (Turkish respondents)

Percentages yes no don’t know base

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

HAK-İŞ 64 28 9 852

TÜRK-İŞ 53 39 8 4735

DİSK 46 38 16 816

position trade union member

shop steward 59 35 6 1658

not 52 39 10 4464

Individual characteristics

Age

15-25 45 44 11 325

26-30 48 39 13 834

31-35 52 38 10 1001

36-40 51 40 9 125

41-45 58 35 7 1384

46-50 58 36 6 904

51 and over 64 28 8 281

Sex

male 55 38 8 5096

female 50 35 15 879

Birthplace

rural area/village 56 36 8 2023

small or medium sized town 53 38 9 2056

large town/city 50 40 10 1941

58


Percentages yes no don’t know base

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

rural area/village 42 47 11 191

small or medium sized town 59 32 9 1369

large town/city 52 39 9 3828

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 60 29 11 871

14-16 54 36 10 852

17-18 52 40 8 2285

19-21 54 37 10 1030

22 or over 50 42 8 820

Occupation

manager 62 34 5 265

professional/technical 51 39 10 370

other white collar 48 43 9 989

skilled manual 56 36 8 2646

semi skilled manual 55 35 11 506

unskilled manual 49 38 13 723

other 48 41 11 518

Political identity

Left 52 40 8 1237

centre left 49 38 13 363

Centre 52 39 9 943

centre right 56 34 9 424

Right 54 39 8 2013

59


Percentages yes no don’t know base

60

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

European 72 23 5 926

inclined to European 63 28 10 346

neutral 58 31 11 803

inclined to non European 51 39 10 321

non European 43 49 9 2356

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 55 36 9 406

no 53 38 9 5675

Whether been on holiday in a EU country

Yes 55 38 8 748

no 53 38 9 5367


Percentages yes no don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 53 38 9 2621

public 55 37 9 2645

other 42 45 14 379

Industry

mining and quarrying 51 40 9 322

manufacturing 50 42 8 1521

electricity, gas and water 58 35 7 828

construction 46 41 13 112

transport 63 30 7 602

financial 44 40 16 25

information and communication 59 32 9 121

public administration 57 34 9 389

education, health and social work 46 43 11 158

tourism, hotel and restaurant 51 29 20 41

agriculture 42 53 5 293

other 54 36 11 1488

Workplace status

independent 55 37 8 2813

part of nationally owned organisation 53 37 9 1600

part of European multinational company 44 49 8 418

part of non European multinational company 43 47 11 148

don’t know 53 34 13 585

61


Percentages yes no don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 54 34 13 273

10-49 53 35 12 664

50-149 52 38 11 856

150-499 53 41 6 1433

500 or more 54 37 9 2951

All 53 38 9 6402

Table A2.2 Whether in favour of Turkey becoming a full member of the EU

(respondents from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

yes 53 39 13 36 45 78 15 53

no 38 45 67 42 33 15 54 25

don’t know 9 16 21 22 22 8 31 22

base 6402 223 200 232 692 239 144 204

62


Table A2.3 Whether Turkey will eventually be accepted as a member of

the EU (Turkish respondents)

Percentages yes no don’t know base

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

HAK-İŞ 42 42 16 858

TÜRK-İŞ 29 55 16 4758

DİSK 32 48 20 817

position trade union member

shop steward 34 52 17 1658

not 30 53 17 4483

Individual characteristics

Age

15-25 32 55 13 329

26-30 32 46 21 836

31-35 30 53 17 1006

36-40 28 56 16 1254

41-45 32 54 14 1399

46-50 33 53 14 899

51 and over 34 49 17 283

Sex

male 31 54 16 5114

female 33 45 22 888

Birthplace

rural area/village 31 52 17 2030

small or medium sized town 31 53 16 2064

large town/city 31 53 17 1950

63


Percentages yes no don’t know base

64

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

rural area/village 33 44 23 194

small or medium sized town 34 51 15 1378

large town/city 30 53 17 3835

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 35 44 21 883

14-16 33 49 18 860

17-18 29 55 16 2294

19-21 27 57 16 1032

22 or over 31 54 15 823

Occupation

manager 38 50 12 269

professional/technical 26 54 20 370

other white collar 30 56 15 994

skilled manual 31 53 16 2648

semi skilled manual 31 52 17 509

unskilled manual 28 53 20 730

other 36 44 20 522

Political identity

Left 27 57 16 1249

centre left 28 54 17 357

Centre 30 52 18 944

centre right 32 46 22 422

Right 31 54 15 2034


Percentages yes no don’t know Base

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

European 38 45 17 926

inclined to European 34 52 14 349

neutral 31 48 21 803

inclined to non European 32 53 16 324

non European 27 58 15 2375

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 36 51 12 403

no 31 52 17 5705

Whether been on holiday in a EU country

yes 35 52 13 744

no 31 53 17 5399

65


Percentages yes no don’t know Base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 32 53 15 2636

public 30 53 17 2649

other 31 48 21 380

Industry

mining and quarrying 29 57 14 320

manufacturing 28 55 17 1529

electricity, gas and water 29 55 16 826

construction 29 51 20 111

transport 31 50 19 604

financial 20 40 40 25

information and communication 36 44 20 120

public administration 33 52 16 391

education, health and social work 24 52 24 161

tourism, hotel and restaurant 33 48 19 42

agriculture 23 67 10 298

other 36 47 17 1492

Workplace status

independent 31 55 15 2823

part of nationally owned organisation 31 51 18 1611

part of European multinational company 25 59 16 425

part of non European multinational company 25 52 23 149

don’t know 32 46 23 584

66


Percentages yes no don’t know Base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 39 45 16 273

10-49 33 49 18 667

50-149 32 49 19 858

150-499 30 55 15 1439

500 or more 30 54 496 2964

All 31 52 17 6431

Table A2.4 Whether Turkey will eventually be accepted as a member of

the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

yes 31 43 17 41 43 47 30 53

no 52 34 55 34 23 44 26 18

don’t know 17 24 28 26 34 10 44 29

base 6431 225 201 233 692 239 144 204

67


Table A2.5 How views have changed in the last five years on Turkey

joining the EU (Turkish respondents)

Percentages more in

favour

68

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

no change more against balance Base

HAK-İŞ 46 41 13 33 842

TÜRK-İŞ 26 56 18 8 4661

DİSK 24 57 19 5 809

position trade union member

shop steward 30 54 16 14 1637

not 28 55 18 10 4405

Age

Individual characteristics

15-25 29 55 16 13 327

26-30 26 57 18 8 821

31-35 27 56 17 10 993

36-40 29 54 17 12 1233

41-45 29 54 17 12 1374

46-50 31 50 20 11 882

51 and over 25 59 16 9 272

Sex

male 29 54 17 12 5030

female 24 58 19 5 871

Birthplace

rural area/village 29 55 16 13 2009

small or medium sized town 29 53 18 11 2030

large town/city 27 55 18 9 1907


Percentages more in

favour

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

no change more against balance base

rural area/village 29 54 18 11 192

small or medium sized town 31 55 14 17 1358

large town/city 28 54 18 10 3771

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 32 54 14 18 857

14-16 29 54 17 12 838

17-18 26 56 18 8 2260

19-21 27 55 18 9 1021

22 or over 30 52 18 12 818

Occupation

manager 37 50 13 24 264

professional/technical 24 58 18 6 367

other white collar 28 53 19 9 982

skilled manual 28 55 18 10 2606

semi skilled manual 31 52 17 14 500

unskilled manual 24 59 17 7 721

other 29 54 17 12 516

Political identity

Left 21 56 23 -2 1225

centre left 22 56 23 -1 361

Centre 25 58 17 8 937

centre right 35 52 14 21 417

Right 33 52 16 17 1985

.

69


Percentages more in

favour

70

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

no change more

against

balance base

European 35 48 17 18 917

inclined to European 30 56 14 16 346

neutral 28 56 16 12 801

inclined to non European 28 55 17 11 322

non European 25 56 19 6 2332

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 34 48 18 16 394

no 28 55 17 11 5611

Whether been on holiday in a EU country

Yes 30 50 20 10 733

no 28 55 17 11 5306


Percentages more in

favour

no change More

against

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

balance base

private 28 56 16 12 2602

public 28 53 19 9 2597

other 24 57 20 4 378

Industry

mining and quarrying 28 59 13 15 314

manufacturing 26 56 17 9 1512

electricity, gas and water 21 59 21 0 825

construction 26 55 20 6 112

transport 39 46 15 24 586

financial 20 56 24 -4 25

information and communication 39 44 17 22 119

public administration 32 47 22 10 381

education, health and social work 28 57 14 14 155

tourism, hotel and restaurant 32 42 26 6 38

agriculture 22 59 19 3 289

other 30 55 16 14 1480

Workplace status

independent 27 56 18 9 2779

part of nationally owned organisation 29 54 16 13 1593

part of European multinational company 23 56 21 2 419

part of non European multinational company 30 44 26 4 149

don’t know 33 53 15 18 564

71


Percentages more in

favour

72

no change more

against

balance base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics(cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 33 54 13 20 270

10-49 29 55 16 13 658

50-149 29 55 17 12 652

150-499 28 56 17 11 1417

500 or more 28 53 19 10 2905

All 29 54 17 12 6311

Table A2.6 How views have changed in the last five years on Turkey

joining the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

more in favour 28 23 8 18 20 5 9 25

no change 54 64 62 73 67 90 72 61

more against 17 13 30 9 13 6 19 15

base 6311 222 199 231 676 220 141 203


Table A2.7 Whether in favour of the free movement of Turkish workers if

Turkey becomes a full member of the EU (Turkish respondents)

Percentages in favour against don’t know base

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

HAK-İŞ 81 13 6 855

TÜRK-İŞ 78 14 8 4715

DİSK 62 21 17 812

position trade union member

shop steward 78 16 5 1660

not 77 14 9 4439

Individual characteristics

Age

15-25 72 14 14 326

26-30 76 13 11 828

31-35 77 14 9 998

36-40 78 12 9 1246

41-45 77 16 8 1385

46-50 80 15 5 896

51 and over 76 20 5 280

Sex

Male 79 14 8 5076

Female 71 15 14 881

Birthplace

rural area/village 78 14 9 2015

small or medium sized town 77 15 9 2062

large town/city 76 15 9 1927

73


Percentages in favour against don’t know base

74

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

rural area/village 59 28 13 195

small or medium sized town 77 15 8 1370

large town/city 78 13 9 3802

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 75 15 10 875

14-16 73 16 11 856

17-18 81 11 8 2281

19-21 74 18 8 1021

22 or over 78 15 7 616

Occupation

manager 81 13 6 267

professional/technical 70 20 10 368

other white collar 75 15 7 985

skilled manual 81 12 7 2635

semi skilled manual 72 18 10 504

unskilled manual 70 19 12 727

other 69 18 13 523

Political identity

Left 75 17 8 1240

centre left 74 17 9 359

Centre 74 16 10 943

centre right 81 12 7 414

Right 78 14 8 2016


Percentages in favour against don’t know base

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

European 85 10 5 927

inclined to European 76 18 6 351

neutral 80 11 9 798

inclined to non European 74 18 8 321

non European 73 17 10 2357

75


Percentages in favour against don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 78 13 9 2620

public 79 14 8 2634

other 69 19 12 374

Industry

mining and quarrying 71 21 8 318

manufacturing 80 12 9 1524

electricity, gas and water 78 14 8 831

construction 67 22 11 110

transport 81 13 7 604

financial 84 12 4 25

information and communication 69 18 13 120

public administration 73 19 9 386

education, health and social work 71 20 9 160

tourism, hotel and restaurant 62 19 19 42

agriculture 76 17 8 295

other 78 12 10 1478

Workplace status

independent 78 15 8 2798

part of nationally owned organisation 79 14 7 1602

part of European multinational company 74 12 15 420

part of non European multinational company 72 14 14 148

don’t know 72 15 13 580

76


Percentages in favour against don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 74 15 11 273

10-49 73 16 11 685

50-149 73 16 11 857

150-499 77 15 7 1427

500 or more 78 14 8 2937

All 76 15 9 6381

Table A2.8 Whether in favour of the free movement of Turkish workers if

Turkey becomes a full member of the EU (respondents from Turkey and

seven EU countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

In favour 76 43 26 58 49 25 38 61

against 15 39 36 21 33 8 44 25

don’t know 9 18 38 21 18 67 19 15

base 6381 224 199 231 687 239 144 203

77


Table A3.1 Whether Turkish membership will benefit the EU through

increased economic growth (Turkish respondents)

Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

HAK-İŞ 69 20 11 842

TÜRK-İŞ 60 28 13 4700

DİSK 51 29 20 811

position trade union member

shop steward 68 24 8 1642

not 58 28 14 4436

Individual characteristics

Age

15-25 60 25 15 327

26-30 58 27 15 830

31-35 60 26 13 993

36-40 57 30 13 1237

41-45 62 26 13 1389

46-50 65 26 10 894

51 and over 65 23 13 279

Sex

male 62 27 12 5064

female 53 28 19 877

Birthplace

rural area/village 62 27 11 2017

small or medium sized town 60 27 13 2045

large town/city 59 27 14 1931

78


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

rural area/village 51 31 19 190

small or medium sized town 64 24 12 1369

large town/city 59 28 14 3795

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 61 22 17 867

14-16 61 27 13 851

17-18 60 28 12 2285

19-21 59 28 13 1016

22 or over 64 26 10 819

Occupation

manager 69 25 6 266

professional/technical 61 27 12 363

other white collar 60 27 13 988

skilled manual 61 27 12 2614

semi skilled manual 59 26 15 503

unskilled manual 59 27 14 724

other 52 32 16 522

Political identity

Left 60 29 12 1236

centre left 59 26 15 362

Centre 56 30 14 944

centre right 66 23 11 422

Right 63 27 11 1997

79


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

80

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

European 72 19 9 920

inclined to European 68 23 10 346

neutral 59 26 15 810

inclined to non European 62 25 13 319

non European 56 32 13 2348

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 59 28 13 404

no 61 27 13 5646

Whether been on holiday in a EU country

yes 59 31 9 741

no 60 26 13 5338


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 61 25 13 2616

public 61 27 12 2629

other 52 28 19 376

Industry

mining and quarrying 64 22 15 321

manufacturing 60 28 12 1519

electricity, gas and water 62 29 9 808

construction 52 26 22 112

transport 68 22 11 603

financial 48 12 40 25

information and communication 61 28 11 119

public administration 59 25 16 377

education, health and social work 48 37 14 161

tourism, hotel and restaurant 48 26 26 42

agriculture 57 33 10 296

other 61 25 14 1486

Workplace status

independent 61 27 12 2803

part of nationally owned organisation 61 26 12 1587

part of European multinational company 57 29 14 419

part of non European multinational company 56 31 13 147

don’t know 57 23 20 576

81


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 59 24 17 269

10-49 59 29 12 660

50-149 55 28 17 846

150-499 60 29 12 1419

500 or more 63 25 12 2935

All 60 27 13 6352

82


Table A3.2 Whether Turkish membership will benefit the EU through

increased cultural diversity (Turkish respondents)

Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

HAK-İŞ 67 23 10 833

TÜRK-İŞ 58 30 13 4639

DİSK 54 26 20 806

position trade union member

shop steward 64 27 9 1627

not 58 29 14 4388

Individual characteristics

Age

15-25 59 27 14 327

26-30 56 27 17 821

31-35 59 29 13 985

36-40 56 30 14 1220

41-45 63 27 11 1376

46-50 60 30 10 884

51 and over 63 24 13 280

Sex

male 60 28 12 5001

female 54 29 18 870

Birthplace

rural area/village 62 27 11 1987

small or medium sized town 60 29 12 2031

large town/city 55 29 16 1916

83


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

84

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

rural area/village 50 28 22 180

small or medium sized town 60 27 13 1360

large town/city 59 29 13 3759

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 60 23 18 853

14-16 60 26 14 841

17-18 58 30 12 2262

19-21 59 29 12 1015

22 or over 60 29 11 616

Occupation

manager 65 25 11 264

professional/technical 53 33 14 360

other white collar 58 29 13 972

skilled manual 61 27 12 2597

semi skilled manual 61 24 15 492

unskilled manual 57 29 13 718

other 51 33 16 521

Political identity

Left 58 30 12 1231

centre left 56 30 15 359

Centre 57 28 15 923

centre right 61 27 12 419

Right 60 29 11 1982


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

European 70 23 8 909

inclined to European 64 24 12 336

neutral 59 23 17 802

inclined to non European 61 24 15 317

non European 54 34 12 2338

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 55 29 16 399

no 59 28 13 5591

Whether been on holiday in a EU country

yes 60 30 11 727

no 59 28 14 5287

85


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 59 28 14 2596

public 60 28 12 2603

other 50 34 17 370

Industry

mining and quarrying 62 25 14 312

manufacturing 58 29 13 1501

electricity, gas and water 60 30 10 805

construction 56 23 22 111

transport 62 27 11 597

financial 68 8 24 25

information and communication 62 26 13 119

public administration 58 28 14 380

education, health and social work 52 38 10 162

tourism, hotel and restaurant 57 24 19 42

agriculture 55 38 7 294

other 60 24 15 1467

Workplace status

independent 61 28 11 2782

part of nationally owned organisation 59 29 12 1572

part of European multinational company 58 31 12 416

part of non European multinational company 52 31 17 145

don’t know 54 24 23 564

86


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 57 23 20 267

10-49 55 32 14 647

50-149 54 29 17 844

150-499 60 30 10 1392

500 or more 60 27 13 2916

All 58 28 13 6278

87


Table A3.3 Whether Turkish membership will benefit the EU through

increased political stability (Turkish respondents)

Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

HAK-İŞ 57 28 15 836

TÜRK-İŞ 48 37 16 4659

DİSK 44 36 20 809

position trade union member

shop steward 54 35 11 1634

not 47 36 17 4403

Individual characteristics

Age

15-25 45 35 20 328

26-30 40 41 19 824

31-35 44 37 19 987

36-40 45 39 16 1378

41-45 45 39 16 1227

46-50 56 30 14 1378

51 and over 53 34 14 280

Sex

male 50 36 14 5020

female 40 36 25 874

Birthplace

rural area/village 50 36 14 1993

small or medium sized town 51 34 15 2032

large town/city 44 38 19 1925

88


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

rural area/village 39 41 20 186

small or medium sized town 52 32 16 1363

large town/city 47 37 16 3772

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 49 31 20 858

14-16 50 33 16 833

17-18 48 37 15 2274

19-21 49 36 15 1016

22 or over 49 40 12 820

Occupation

manager 58 32 11 267

professional/technical 45 41 14 362

other white collar 47 38 15 973

skilled manual 50 34 16 2594

semi skilled manual 52 33 15 501

unskilled manual 45 38 17 722

other 43 37 20 524

Political identity

Left 49 39 12 1236

centre left 39 43 18 363

Centre 44 37 19 934

centre right 49 37 14 1977

Right 52 34 14 1977

89


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

90

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

European 60 28 13 910

inclined to European 50 38 13 346

neutral 49 29 22 804

inclined to non European 43 39 18 317

non European 44 42 14 2345

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 49 37 14 396

no 49 35 16 5608

Whether been on holiday in a EU country

yes 48 39 13 738

no 49 35 16 5294


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 47 37 17 2596

public 52 35 13 2605

other 41 37 22 376

Industry

mining and quarrying 50 34 16 314

manufacturing 44 39 17 1512

electricity, gas and water 55 35 10 806

construction 44 30 12 595

transport 59 29 12 595

financial 36 12 52 25

information and communication 46 41 14 121

public administration 50 34 16 378

education, health and social work 44 38 18 160

tourism, hotel and restaurant 43 31 26 42

agriculture 47 40 13 295

other 48 35 18 1478

Workplace status

independent 49 36 15 2783

part of nationally owned organisation 49 36 16 1587

part of European multinational company 44 40 16 416

part of non European multinational company 42 38 20 147

don’t know 48 30 22 570

91


Percentages agree disagree don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 48 28 24 270

10-49 48 38 14 649

50-149 45 38 18 853

150-499 51 35 15 1402

500 or more 49 36 16 2923

All 48 36 16 6303

92


Table A3.4 Benefit to EU generally of Turkish membership (respondents

from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

Economic

growth

agree 60 34 16 26 32 74 9 45

disagree 27 40 54 47 333 15 53 23

don’t know 13 26 31 28 35 11 37 31

base 6352 224 200 230 690 238 143 201

Cultural

diversity

agree 58 50 27 52 53 73 47 60

disagree 28 29 45 28 25 14 35 17

don’t know 13 21 29 20 23 13 17 22

base 6278 222 200 230 689 239 142 201

Political stability

agree 48 29 16 35 21 72 7 40

disagree 36 47 50 35 45 15 66 29

don’t know 16 24 34 30 37 14 27 31

base 6303 221 200 232 690 239 143 200

93


Table A3.5 Benefit to own country of Turkish membership (respondents

from Turkey and seven EU countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

Health and

safety

better 68 5 9 5 5 6 0 34

no change 23 65 55 53 62 73 76 44

worse 5 23 25 34 22 11 12 13

don’t know 5 7 12 8 11 11 13 8

base 6364 219 200 229 687 239 143 202

Job security

better 60 3 3 2 3 15 0 24

no change 27 43 40 42 60 43 53 38

worse 7 43 45 42 25 19 35 28

don’t know 6 10 12 14 12 23 12 11

base 6342 221 201 229 683 238 143 202

Trade union

rights

better 59 11 7 12 16 8 7 32

no change 26 59 47 48 56 89 77 46

worse 8 18 21 28 11 4 9 9

don’t know 7 12 25 12 17 6 14 13

base 6348 224 201 228 683 239 142 201

Women’s rights

better 55 14 12 19 23 4 7 34

no change 30 51 41 42 45 91 70 36

worse 8 23 30 29 18 1 16 14

don’t know 7 12 18 11 14 7 14 17

base 6361 222 199 227 684 239 141 203

94


Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

Employment

opportunities

better 51 11 6 10 14 27 2 33

no change 34 37 38 38 45 29 54 26

worse 9 43 47 38 29 21 31 31

don’t know 7 10 10 14 13 23 13 10

base 6345 222 199 229 686 239 140 201

Political

freedom

better 50 11 19 15 18 4 4 24

no change 33 59 55 53 52 92 74 56

worse 9 20 14 17 17 1 11 8

don’t know 8 10 12 15 14 7 11 11

base 6323 224 201 227 684 239 143 201

Justice/legal

system

better 48 7 3 7 9 0 0 25

no change 35 64 74 59 59 92 73 54

worse 10 17 11 18 16 1 13 10

don’t know 8 13 12 16 17 7 14 11

base 6337 222 201 229 686 239 143 201

Pay

better 46 3 3 4 5 22 0 20

no change 36 50 48 41 61 55 64 42

worse 10 37 42 47 21 13 21 27

don’t know 8 10 8 8 13 11 15 11

base 6338 221 201 230 684 239 142 202

95


Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

Religious

tolerance

better 34 22 27 27 34 17 5 23

no change 39 35 48 31 2 75 41 43

worse 18 27 15 26 28 1 38 17

don’t know 9 11 10 15 14 6 17 19

base 6329 224 201 223 684 239 143 200

National

integrity

better 29 9 17 9 15 0 3 14

no change 37 47 37 48 49 52 64 47

worse 25 25 23 23 21 24 13 21

don’t know 9 19 23 21 16 23 20 18

base 6331 224 199 224 687 239 142 203

96


Table A3.6 Benefit to Turkish workers of EU membership

(Turkish respondents)

Percentages benefit no change not benefit don’t know base

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

HAK-İŞ 63 19 12 6 848

TÜRK-İŞ 54 23 15 9 4383

DİSK 46 26 18 11 816

position trade union member

shop steward 60 21 14 5 1594

not 52 23 15 9 4181

Individual characteristics

Age

15-25 52 28 11 9 300

26-30 57 20 12 11 760

31-35 53 22 16 9 950

36-40 51 24 16 9 1203

41-45 55 23 15 7 1319

46-50 56 22 16 5 855

51 and over 58 17 16 9 273

Sex

male 55 22 15 8 4871

female 49 25 12 14 779

Birthplace

rural area/village 55 22 15 8 1951

small or medium sized town 54 22 15 9 1958

large town/city 52 23 16 9 1794

97


Percentages benefit no change not benefit don’t know base

98

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

rural area/village 42 31 14 12 191

small or medium sized town 55 21 14 11 1359

large town/city 54 23 16 7 3548

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 52 21 16 12 864

14-16 51 25 15 10 832

17-18 54 23 15 8 2222

19-21 55 22 15 8 965

22 or over 59 22 15 5 676

Occupation

manager 61 17 16 6 252

professional/technical 58 22 13 7 290

other white collar 54 25 14 7 894

skilled manual 57 20 15 8 2561

semi skilled manual 49 30 13 8 500

unskilled manual 45 24 18 13 701

other 51 24 15 10 491

Political identity

Left 51 25 18 5 1232

centre left 55 21 16 8 350

Centre 52 23 13 12 899

centre right 61 21 11 7 370

Right 53 24 15 8 1898


Percentages benefit no change not benefit don’t know base

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

European 71 16 8 5 889

inclined to European 59 26 10 5 328

neutral 59 18 11 13 738

inclined to non European 54 24 13 9 308

non European 45 27 21 8 2264

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 52 26 15 6 383

no 54 22 15 9 5372

Whether been on holiday in a EU

country

yes 56 23 15 6 696

no 53 23 15 9 5090

99


Percentages benefit no change not benefit don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 56 21 14 9 2544

public 54 22 17 7

other 45 26 16 14 292

Industry

mining and quarrying 53 29 12 6 316

manufacturing 57 20 15 7 1506

electricity, gas and water 54 21 19 6 821

construction 49 28 14 10 104

transport 56 22 14 8 585

financial 50 19 19 13 16

information and communication 56 21 16 7 113

public administration 51 25 13 10 362

education, health and social work 47 23 22 7 112

tourism, hotel and restaurant 54 16 22 8 37

agriculture 51 19 23 7 171

other 53 23 13 11 1444

Workplace status

independent 54 23 15 8 2616

part of nationally owned organisation 58 21 13 9 1539

part of European multinational company 51 26 17 6 419

part of non European multinational

company

100

4 17 30 5 144

don’t know 50 22 16 12 562


Percentages benefit no change not benefit don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 55 24 11 10 269

10-49 50 27 13 10 608

50-149 51 25 14 10 820

150-499 55 21 17 8 1349

500 or more 55 22 15 8 2803

All 54 23 15 9 6047

101


Table A3.7 How EU and Turkish employer and worker interests would benefit if

Turkey became a member of the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU

countries)

Percentage

Saying would benefit

102

TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

big EU employers 68 62 54 78 57 90 33 63

Big Turkish employers 60 60 69 61 58 88 15 67

small and medium EU

employers

small and medium

Turkish employers

49 36 20 36 33 36 24 49

40 40 40 30 41 38 15 56

EU workers 43 14 10 10 16 68 6 19

Turkish workers 54 68 42 54 59 71 43 81


Table A4.1 General Image of EU (Turkish respondents)

Percentages very

positive

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

fairly

positive

neutral fairly

negative

very

negative

HAK-İŞ 16 47 13 18 7 788

TÜRK-İŞ 9 35 15 29 12 4428

DİSK 11 31 24 21 13 796

Position trade union member

shop steward 14 43 9 25 9 1516

not 9 35 18 27 12 4213

Individual characteristics

Age

15-25 7 34 20 21 18 317

26-30 8 36 19 25 12 794

31-35 9 35 17 28 11 963

36-40 9 37 17 26 11 1176

41-45 12 38 12 29 10 1283

46-50 9 38 12 29 11 830

51 and over 18 36 10 29 7 262

Sex

male 11 36 14 28 11 4738

female 8 39 20 23 10 851

base

103


Percentages very

positive

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Birthplace

104

fairly

positive

neutral fairly

negative

very

negative

rural area/village 10 39 15 26 10 1887

small or medium sized town 11 36 15 27 11 1931

large town/city 9 35 16 27 12 1836

Present location

rural area/village 13 31 18 24 14 176

small or medium sized town 12 40 15 24 9 1304

large town/city 8 36 16 28 12 3610

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 12 36 20 23 9 802

14-16 11 37 17 25 11 798

17-18 8 37 14 29 12 2172

19-21 9 37 16 27 11 985

22 or over 12 38 10 27 13 767

Occupation

manager 16 42 6 23 13 242

professional/technical 8 42 15 25 10 337

other white collar 7 38 12 28 12 938

skilled manual 9 38 13 28 12 2470

semi skilled manual 11 36 19 24 10 478

unskilled manual 10 29 26 23 11 682

other 13 39 21 26 10 507

base


Percentages very

positive

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Political identity

fairly

positive

neutral fairly

negative

very

negative

Left 12 34 14 26 14 1178

centre left 12 36 16 26 10 355

Centre 6 37 19 27 11 888

centre right 9 44 19 23 4 410

Right 9 38 12 29 12 1876

European identity

European 16 48 10 18 8 857

inclined to European 11 56 8 17 7 335

neutral 7 42 19 23 9 766

inclined to non European 9 33 20 31 7 308

non European 8 29 17 31 16 2227

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 15 38 13 25 9 360

no 10 37 16 27 12 5352

Whether been on holiday in a EU

country

yes 16 37 12 25 11 676

no 9 37 16 27 12 5060

base

105


Percentages ery positive fairly

positive

Sector

106

neutral fairly

negative

very

negative

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

private 9 38 16 26 12 2511

public 10 36 14 29 11 2424

other 10 30 18 28 13 360

Industry

mining and quarrying 6 42 13 25 14 302

manufacturing 8 36 14 29 13 1457

electricity, gas and water 11 36 11 34 9 728

construction 12 34 22 21 11 105

transport 11 44 15 23 8 565

financial 4 44 17 26 26 12

Information and communication 12 47 11 20 11 114

public administration 12 27 15 22 14 353

education, health and social

work

base

14 26 12 34 14 150

tourism, hotel and restaurant 2 42 10 34 12 41

agriculture 3 37 8 36 16 268

other 11 34 22 22 11 1436

Workplace status

Independent 10 38 15 26 11 2652

part of nationally owned

organisation

part of European multinational

company

part of non European

multinational company

11 36 16 27 11 1506

6 31 16 30 17 405

7 33 14 28 19 140

don’t know 11 33 29 27 10 544


Percentages very

positive

fairly

positive

neutral fairly

negative

very

negative

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 14 37 16 22 11 254

10-49 12 36 19 24 9 616

50-149 11 35 18 26 11 822

150-499 9 340 14 28 10 1385

500 or more 10 35 15 27 13 2739

All 10 36 16 26 12 6012

Table A4.2 General image of the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven

EU countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

very positive 10 3 11 4 21 12 22 15

fairly positive 36 45 42 37 49 52 63 47

neutral 16 36 28 12 23 22 11 20

fairly negative 26 15 14 38 6 7 2 11

very negative 12 1 6 9 1 8 2 6

base 6012 218 199 230 680 239 140 196

base

107


Table A5.1 Claimed understanding of the EU (respondents from Turkey

and seven EU countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

very well 11 4 11 3 4 58 6 9

quite well 34 50 56 45 45 39 69 50

not very well 36 41 27 44 44 3 26 31

not very well

at all

108

19 5 6 9 7 0 0 9

base 6317 225 202 233 686 239 144 204

Table A5.2 Knowledge of the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU

countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

no correct

answers

one correct

answer

two correct

answers

three correct

answers

17 4 6 3 3 0 0 10

40 18 19 11 27 3 8 23

26 33 27 33 39 12 17 25

17 46 49 52 32 85 75 42

base 6071 220 200 228 670 239 144 201


Table A6.1 Trust in the European Union (Turkish respondents)

Percentages tend to trust tend not to

trust

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

don’t know base

HAK-İŞ 36 52 12 847

TÜRK-İŞ 26 63 11 4697

DİSK 39 44 18 810

position trade union member

shop steward 33 57 10 1657

not 28 60 12 4414

Individual characteristics

Age

15-25 26 62 12 322

26-30 31 57 14 826

31-35 28 62 10 984

36-40 24 62 14 1245

41-45 31 58 11 1387

46-50 39 69 19 890

51 and over 37 52 12 282

Sex

male 28 61 11 5053

female 33 50 18 871

Birthplace

rural area/village 29 60 11 2006

small or medium sized town 29 59 12 2046

large town/city 28 60 12 1927

109


Percentages tend to trust tend not to

trust

110

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

don’t know base

rural area/village 31 53 16 192

small or medium sized town 31 57 12 1376

large town/city 28 61 12 3782

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 30 53 17 70

14-16 31 54 15 841

17-18 28 62 11 2262

19-21 27 63 10 1029

22 or over 30 61 10 815

Occupation

manager 34 7 11 266

professional/technical 27 61 12 367

other white collar 22 66 12 975

skilled manual 28 61 11 2621

semi skilled manual 35 52 14 507

unskilled manual 30 57 13 712

other 36 50 14 523

Political identity

Left 34 55 11 1237

centre left 33 56 11 363

Centre 28 60 11 935

centre right 23 64 13 414

Right 26 64 11 2010


Percentages tend to trust tend not to

trust

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

don’t know base

European 45 46 9 922

inclined to European 35 54 11 344

neutral 31 58 11 797

inclined to non European 27 61 12 320

non European 22 67 11 2356

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 39 50 11 403

no 28 60 12 5639

Whether been on holiday in a EU country

yes 37 55 8 748

no 28 60 13 5332

111


Percentages tend to trust tend not to

trust

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

112

don’t know base

private 26 62 12 2605

public 30 59 12 2617

other 30 55 16 379

Industry

mining and quarrying 21 69 10 321

manufacturing 25 66 9 1505

electricity, gas and water 29 62 9 820

construction 40 50 11 111

transport 30 56 14 597

financial 29 63 8 24

information and communication 32 50 19 119

public administration 32 57 12 381

education, health and social work 27 60 14 163

tourism, hotel and restaurant 34 54 12 41

agriculture 21 72 8 295

other 33 52 15 1480

Workplace status

Independent 31 59 11 2792

part of nationally owned organisation 27 62 11 1596

part of European multinational company 20 68 13 416

part of non European multinational company 22 69 9 147

don’t know 32 47 21 582


Percentages tend to trust tend not to

trust

don’t know base

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 38 49 14 274

10-49 30 55 15 659

50-149 33 55 13 857

150-499 39 61 9 1424

500 or more 27 62 12 2914

All 29 59 12 6355

Table A6.2 Trust in the EU (respondents from Turkey and seven EU

countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

tend to trust 29 59 65 32 78 79 83 55

tend not to

trust

59 26 24 51 14 10 11 28

don’t know 12 15 11 17 8 11 6 17

base 6355 209 199 218 687 238 137 196

113


Table A6.3 Trust in particular EU institutions (respondents from Turkey

and seven EU countries)

EU level

trade unions

tend to trust 46 67 65 14 41 91 78 59

tend not to

trust

114

31 9 15 80 39 2 10 11

don’t know 22 24 20 6 20 7 13 30

base 6288 189 202 263 658 239 144 202

European

Court of

Justice

tend to trust 34 65 67 58 66 46 79 61

tend not to

trust

51 19 19 25 16 24 11 16

don’t know 15 16 15 17 18 30 11 22

base 6299 190 200 263 688 238 141 202

European

Parliament

tend to trust 22 56 66 42 69 81 69 54

tend not to

trust

64 25 23 47 19 9 19 28

don’t know 14 20 10 11 12 10 13 18

base 6259 191 201 264 686 239 143 204

EU level

political

parties

tend to trust 16 24 44 20 36 69 15 23

tend not to

trust

66 48 39 62 42 12 57 48

don’t know 18 28 18 18 22 19 28 29

base 6299 188 200 262 685 238 142 204


Table A6.4 Trust in the UN (respondents from Turkey and seven EU

countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

tend to trust 24 56 42 41 62 38 59 61

tend not to trust 63 30 36 41 25 8 26 24

don’t know 13 15 22 18 13 55 15 15

base 6250 223 201 233 684 239 143 203

115


Table A6.5 Trust in particular national institutions (respondents from

Turkey and seven EU countries)

Percentages TR BE EL FR IT SE SK UK

Justice/the

national legal

system

tend to trust 34 39 38 31 42 98 20 64

tend not to trust 57 47 44 55 48 1 75 29

don’t know 9 14 19 14 10 1 5 7

base 6293 223 200 229 687 239 143 202

National political

parties

tend to trust 24 29 41 16 19 86 13 22

tend not to trust 68 57 43 71 71 3 76 61

don’t know 9 14 16 13 10 11 12 17

base 6295 223 201 226 681 239 144 202

116


Table A7.1 What the EU should do in future (respondents from Turkey)

Percentages strongly

agree

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

Increase cultural togetherness 42 30 16 7 5 6337

Increase workers’ rights 48 33 12 4 3 6337

Increase labour market flexibility 37 36 16 6 4 6313

Increase attention to environment 45 35 12 5 3 6332

EU should cease to exist 18 16 31 22 13 6298

base

117


Table A7.2 Whether the EU should do more to improve workers’ rights

(Turkish respondents)

Percentages strongly

agree

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

118

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

HAK-İŞ 52 31 12 3 2 837

TÜRK-İŞ 49 34 11 4 3 4692

DİSK 42 32 16 6 4 809

position trade union member

shop steward 56 31 8 3 2 1639

not 46 35 12 4 3 4431

Age

Individual characteristics

15-25 40 37 16 6 2 325

26-30 44 36 13 4 3 828

31-35 46 35 12 4 3 828

36-40 52 32 19 4 3 997

41-45 51 33 9 4 3 1376

46-50 52 33 9 3 4 894

51 and over 52 30 10 6 3 274

Sex

male 51 33 10 4 3 5043

female 41 38 14 5 3 883

Birthplace

rural area/village 49 33 11 5 3 2013

small or medium sized town 49 33 11 4 3 2045

large town/city 48 35 11 3 2 1929

base


Percentages strongly

agree

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

rural area/village 36 31 20 9 4 187

small or medium sized town 49 33 11 5 3 1363

large town/city 49 35 10 3 3 3801

Age ceased full time

education

13 or younger 47 28 15 6 4 861

14-16 47 32 13 5 3 840

17-18 53 33 9 3 2 2280

19-21 45 38 12 3 2 1023

22 or over 47 37 8 5 3 823

Occupation

manager 56 29 9 4 2 267

professional/technical 38 40 14 5 4 365

other white collar 46 38 12 3 2 980

skilled manual 54 30 9 4 3 2618

semi skilled manual 47 38 9 4 2 501

unskilled manual 44 35 14 4 3 722

other 41 33 19 5 2 525

Political identity

Left 55 29 9 5 3 1234

centre left 4 35 12 5 1 365

Centre 45 36 13 4 2 940

centre right 43 44 10 2 2 423

Right 49 33 11 4 3 1996

Base

119


Percentages strongly

agree

120

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

European 59 31 8 2 1 916

inclined to European 39 48 10 2 2 350

neutral 49 35 11 4 2 806

inclined to non European 43 39 14 4 1 320

non European 48 32 12 5 3 2343

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU

country

yes 43 33 18 4 3 403

no 49 34 11 4 3 5641

Whether been on holiday in a

EU country

yes 47 33 13 4 4 746

no 49 34 11 4 3 5334

base


Percentages strongly

agree

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 50 33 11 4 2 2607

public 51 33 9 4 3 2619

other 34 38 13 9 7 378

Industry

mining and quarrying 48 38 11 3 1 313

manufacturing 50 32 11 4 2 1519

electricity, gas and water 50 35 8 4 4 814

construction 38 32 19 6 5 111

transport 53 33 8 4 2 599

financial 48 32 8 8 4 25

information and communication 45 33 12 6 5 122

public administration 40 37 15 4 3 388

education, health and social

work

base

52 27 10 7 4 162

tourism, hotel and restaurant 44 35 16 2 2 43

agriculture 46 41 6 3 3 295

other 51 32 13 3 2 1484

Workplace status

independent 50 34 9 5 2 2796

part of nationally owned

organisation

part of European multinational

company

part of non European

multinational company

49 35 11 3 3 1601

52 29 13 4 2 420

52 30 14 2 3 147

don’t know 41 31 18 5 5 580

121


Percentages strongly

agree

122

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 44 37 11 5 4 266

10-49 45 34 13 5 3 662

50-149 43 35 15 4 3 851

150-499 50 35 10 4 2 1418

500 or more 51 32 11 4 3 2932

All 48 33 12 4 3 6337

base


Table A7.3 Whether the EU should concern itself more with

environmental issues (Turkish respondents)

Percentages strongly

agree

Trade union

characteristics

Trade union confederation

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

HAK-İŞ 47 35 11 5 2 835

TÜRK-İŞ 45 36 11 5 3 4690

DİSK 40 32 17 7 5 807

position trade union member

shop steward 50 34 10 3 3 1644

not 43 36 12 5 3 4422

Individual

characteristics

Age

15-25 34 35 20 7 4 323

26-30 39 38 14 6 3 824

31-35 44 38 10 4 3 996

36-40 46 35 12 5 2 1243

41-45 48 34 10 4 3 1374

46-50 51 33 10 4 3 891

51 and over 47 36 8 5 4 278

Sex

male 47 35 11 5 3 5045

female 35 40 15 7 3 876

Birthplace

rural area/village 44 37 12 5 3 2011

small or medium sized town 45 35 11 6 3 2040

large town/city 45 35 13 4 3 1927

base

123


Percentages strongly

agree

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

124

agree undecided disagree Strongly

disagree

rural area/village 34 33 19 11 3 188

small or medium sized town 45 37 10 6 3 1366

large town/city 46 36 11 4 3 3793

Age ceased full time

education

13 or younger 44 34 12 6 5 862

14-16 40 38 15 4 3 842

17-18 47 34 12 4 3 2272

19-21 45 38 10 5 2 1020

22 or over 48 37 8 4 4 823

Occupation

manager 51 32 11 5 2 266

professional/technical 42 39 10 4 5 366

other white collar 46 36 11 5 2 975

skilled manual 49 34 9 5 4 2609

semi skilled manual 41 37 14 6 2 500

unskilled manual 41 37 15 4 3 724

other 38 35 17 7 3 526

Political identity

Left 50 32 10 5 3 1234

centre left 42 37 14 6 1 362

Centre 43 38 13 4 2 941

centre right 43 40 9 5 2 424

Right 45 36 11 5 3 1998

base


Percentages strongly

agree

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

European 53 36 7 4 1 915

inclined to European 39 42 14 3 2 351

neutral 48 35 10 5 2 806

inclined to non European 35 43 13 6 3 320

non European 44 35 13 5 4 2344

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU

country

yes 38 40 14 5 4 402

no 46 35 12 5 3 5637

Whether been on holiday in a

EU country

yes 43 36 12 6 4 746

no 45 35 12 5 3 5329

base

125


Percentages strongly agree agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 44 36 11 5 3 2602

public 48 34 10 4 3 2617

other 32 40 14 9 5 378

Industry

mining and quarrying 41 38 12 6 3 313

manufacturing 49 32 12 4 3 1509

electricity, gas and

water

126

base

47 37 8 5 3 813

construction 39 41 9 6 6 110

transport 47 34 12 4 4 603

financial 44 40 4 8 4 25

information and

communication

42 40 8 4 6 121

public administration 40 38 14 4 3 384

education, health and

social work

tourism, hotel and

restaurant

47 28 14 8 4 160

36 29 31 2 2 42

agriculture 50 32 8 6 4 297

other 44 38 12 5 2 1486

Workplace status

independent 46 37 10 5 3 2800

part of nationally owned

organisation

part of European

multinational company

part of non European

multinational company

46 37 11 4 3 1594

47 31 13 7 2 419

53 26 13 7 2 148

don’t know 36 34 20 6 5 579


Percentages strongly

agree

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 38 39 12 6 5 268

10-49 42 36 15 5 3 664

50-149 39 37 15 6 4 853

150-499 45 37 12 5 2 1409

500 or more 48 34 10 5 3 2929

All 45 35 12 5 3 6332

base

127


Table A7.4 Whether the EU should do more to make labour markets

flexible (Turkish respondents)

Percentages strongly

agree

Trade union confederation

128

Trade union characteristics

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

HAK-İŞ 42 36 14 5 2 835

TÜRK-İŞ 38 37 15 6 4 4682

DİSK 31 30 24 8 6 795

position trade union member

shop steward 42 36 13 5 4 1637

not 36 37 17 6 4 4410

Age

Individual characteristics

15-25 34 33 22 7 5 328

26-30 33 40 19 5 3 824

31-35 36 39 16 5 4 990

36-40 38 37 16 6 3 1241

41-45 41 35 13 5 5 1371

46-50 38 36 15 5 5 887

51 and over 39 34 13 10 3 275

Sex

male 39 37 15 6 4 5027

female 33 36 22 6 4 875

Birthplace

rural area/village 36 38 16 6 4 1999

small or medium sized town 37 36 16 6 5 2039

large town/city 38 36 17 5 4 1921

base


Percentages strongly

agree

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

agree undecided disagree Strongly

disagree

rural area/village 28 36 21 11 5 189

small or medium sized town 38 36 16 7 3 1364

large town/city 38 38 16 5 4 3786

Age ceased full time education

13 or younger 37 32 19 7 5 853

14-16 34 38 18 6 4 838

17-18 39 37 16 5 4 2269

19-21 37 39 15 6 3 1022

22 or over 38 38 13 6 5 819

Occupation

manager 47 28 16 8 2 262

professional/technical 28 43 16 6 6 362

other white collar 40 36 16 6 3 980

skilled manual 40 36 14 6 5 2607

semi skilled manual 35 40 16 5 4 500

unskilled manual 32 39 19 5 4 717

other 33 31 25 8 3 521

Political identity

Left 41 33 15 7 5 1225

centre left 29 40 21 5 5 361

Centre 38 37 16 5 4 938

centre right 32 38 18 9 4 423

Right 38 39 14 5 3 1991

base

129


Percentages strongly

agree

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

130

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

European 48 34 12 4 3 912

inclined to European 24 51 13 6 6 344

neutral 36 39 16 6 3 806

inclined to non European 28 38 25 6 3 319

non European 38 35 16 6 4 2331

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU

country

yes 35 37 19 5 6 404

no 38 37 16 6 4 5619

Whether been on holiday in

a EU country

yes 38 35 15 7 5 742

no 38 37 16 6 4 5314

base


Percentages strongly

agree

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 36 37 16 6 5 2606

public 40 37 14 5 4 2604

other 30 35 20 9 6 373

Industry

mining and quarrying 43 38 12 4 4 313

manufacturing 36 37 16 8 4 1512

electricity, gas and water 40 39 12 5 4 808

construction 34 39 15 7 5 108

transport 41 37 13 5 4 598

financial 44 28 16 8 4 25

information and

communication

base

39 34 13 9 4 122

public administration 36 36 18 5 5 386

education, health and social

work

37 30 14 12 7 160

tourism, hotel and restaurant 32 37 24 5 2 41

agriculture 37 37 15 8 3 294

other 38 35 19 4 4 1481

Workplace status

independent 37 38 15 6 4 2788

part of nationally owned

organisation

part of European

multinational company

part of non European

multinational company

39 38 14 6 4 1586

35 34 17 7 6 420

46 26 20 5 5 149

don’t know 34 29 26 7 4 577

131


Percentages strongly

agree

132

agree undecided disagree Strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 37 33 22 3 6 267

10-49 36 35 18 6 5 661

50-149 33 37 20 6 4 849

150-499 38 38 16 5 3 1406

500 or more 39 36 15 6 4 2922

All 45 35 12 5 3 6332

base


Table A7.5 Whether the EU should do more to bring together people of

different cultures, religions and histories (Turkish respondents)

Percentages strongly

agree

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

HAK-İŞ 50 28 13 5 4 841

TÜRK-İŞ 41 31 16 7 5 1691

DİSK 41 27 19 7 5 806

position trade union member

shop steward 49 30 11 7 3 1640

not 40 31 17 7 5 4428

Age

Individual characteristics

15-25 36 29 22 10 4 329

26-30 37 31 20 7 5 826

31-35 42 31 16 7 4 998

36-40 43 29 16 8 4 1246

41-45 45 30 14 6 5 1372

46-50 47 29 14 6 5 898

51 and over 45 34 8 9 4 273

Sex

male 45 29 15 7 4 5053

female 34 34 21 7 4 875

Birthplace

rural area/village 42 31 16 8 4 2009

small or medium sized town 42 31 16 6 5 2044

large town/city 43 31 16 7 4 1933

base

133


Percentages strongly

agree

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

134

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

rural area/village 25 30 30 9 6 189

small or medium sized town 42 31 16 7 4 1364

large town/city 43 31 15 7 4 3798

Age ceased full time

education

13 or younger 38 30 19 8 6 860

14-16 39 28 21 7 6 842

17-18 43 30 16 7 3 2282

19-21 42 35 13 7 4 1024

22 or over 51 28 10 6 5 822

Occupation

manager 55 25 9 9 3 267

professional/technical 43 30 13 10 5 367

other white collar 42 31 16 7 3 984

skilled manual 45 29 14 7 5 2619

semi skilled manual 39 34 19 5 4 503

unskilled manual 38 33 18 7 5 722

other 34 31 24 9 3 520

Political identity

Left 47 27 15 7 4 1237

centre left 39 35 16 9 2 362

Centre 40 31 17 7 5 943

centre right 44 35 15 4 2 423

Right 44 29 15 8 5 1999

base


Percentages strongly

agree

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

European 55 29 10 4 2 923

inclined to European 35 46 12 5 3 349

neutral 44 32 15 6 4 805

inclined to non European 38 34 19 9 1 317

non European 42 27 17 9 6 2349

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU

country

yes 40 30 20 7 3 405

no 43 30 15 7 4 5641

Whether been on holiday in

a EU country

yes 44 30 16 6 5 749

no 43 30 16 7 4 5333

base

135


Percentages strongly

agree

136

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 41 33 15 7 4 2609

public 47 27 14 7 5 2623

other 34 30 16 11 9 375

Industry

mining and quarrying 43 36 13 5 2 315

manufacturing 42 31 17 7 4 1517

electricity, gas and

water

base

45 31 11 8 5 814

construction 39 27 22 8 4 110

transport 45 29 15 5 5 596

financial 42 4 17 33 4 24

information and

communication

39 27 21 11 3 122

public administration 39 29 20 7 6 388

education, health and

social work

tourism, hotel and

restaurant

44 23 14 13 7 163

33 29 19 17 2 42

agriculture 48 29 12 6 4 297

other 42 32 15 6 4 1482

Workplace status

independent 44 31 14 7 4 2798

part of nationally owned

organisation

part of European

multinational company

part of non European

multinational company

42 32 17 6 4 1598

41 28 16 11 4 422

50 22 17 7 5 148

don’t know 36 30 22 6 6 580


Percentages strongly

agree

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 40 33 15 7 6 267

10-49 43 30 15 9 4 655

50-149 39 31 19 7 4 850

150-499 41 33 15 6 5 1422

500 or more 44 29 16 7 4 2935

All 42 30 16 7 5 6337

base

137


Table A7.6 Whether the European Union should cease to exist (Turkish

respondents)

Percentages strongly

agree

138

Trade union characteristics

Trade union confederation

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

HAK-İŞ 17 13 29 25 17 833

TÜRK-İŞ 19 17 30 22 12 4658

DİSK 16 14 34 23 13 808

position trade union member

shop steward 18 18 29 24 12 1631

not 19 15 32 22 13 4406

Age

Individual characteristics

15-25 18 14 32 22 14 324

26-30 17 5 34 21 13 823

31-35 20 16 33 19 13 990

36-40 20 16 32 22 11 1241

41-45 17 17 28 25 13 1366

46-50 18 16 27 25 15 889

51 and over 15 12 32 26 16 276

Sex

male 19 16 30 23 13 5017

female 13 15 34 23 14 875

Birthplace

rural area/village 17 17 30 25 13 1993

small or medium sized town 19 15 31 22 12 2038

large town/city 19 15 32 21 13 1917

base


Percentages strongly

agree

Individual characteristics (cont.)

Present location

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

rural area/village 16 23 32 17 12 189

small or medium sized town 16 16 32 24 13 1357

large town/city 19 15 31 22 14 3775

Age ceased full time

education

13 or younger 16 14 31 24 15 862

14-16 16 18 33 22 12 836

17-18 19 15 32 22 13 2270

19-21 15 19 31 24 11 1008

22 or over 23 12 27 23 15 822

Occupation

manager 18 14 26 26 16 264

professional/technical 16 18 26 26 14 365

other white collar 20 18 32 21 9 971

skilled manual 19 14 30 24 13 2600

semi skilled manual 16 21 30 19 14 499

unskilled manual 18 13 37 18 14 720

other 19 16 34 20 12 524

Political identity

Left 18 16 28 24 14 1232

centre left 15 13 33 26 13 361

Centre 17 15 34 23 11 936

centre right 11 16 36 24 13 422

Right 22 16 29 22 12 1991

base

139


Percentages strongly

agree

140

Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

European 15 13 25 24 23 906

inclined to European 8 21 26 31 14 347

neutral 14 13 35 28 10 803

inclined to non European 13 18 38 22 9 317

non European 22 16 32 19 11 2339

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU

country

yes 19 22 25 23 12 405

no 18 15 32 22 13 5611

Whether been on holiday in a

EU country

yes 19 19 25 23 14 744

no 18 15 32 22 13 5302

base


Percentages strongly agree agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Sector

private 19 17 32 21 12 2590

public 18 14 30 25 14 2609

other 17 18 24 25 16 377

Industry

mining and quarrying 18 28 28 14 12 311

manufacturing 22 16 31 21 10 1505

electricity, gas and water 16 18 29 28 11 811

construction 17 15 32 28 8 107

transport 14 13 29 26 19 598

financial 33 13 13 33 8 24

information and

communication

base

21 16 21 27 16 121

public administration 21 15 29 22 13 383

education, health and

social work

tourism, hotel and

restaurant

22 17 29 23 9 162

23 15 33 25 5 40

agriculture 20 19 24 26 12 296

other 16 12 36 20 16 1473

Workplace status

independent 18 15 31 24 12 2796

part of nationally owned

organisation

part of European

multinational company

part of non European

multinational company

15 15 31 23 16 1584

22 22 32 15 10 412

26 13 38 16 8 146

don’t know 20 15 31 21 13 574

141


Percentages strongly

agree

142

agree undecided disagree Strongly

disagree

Sector, industry, workplaceand organisational characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

1-9 19 18 28 21 14 268

10-49 16 13 32 25 13 652

50-149 20 15 29 23 13 853

150-499 20 18 29 22 12 1408

500 or more 17 15 32 22 13 2916

All 18 16 31 22 13 6298

base


Table A7.7 What the EU should do in future (respondents from Turkey

and seven EU countries)

Percentages strongly

agree

Increase cultural togetherness

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

TR 42 30 16 7 5 6337

BE 26 36 23 12 2 223

EL 27 42 23 5 4 202

FR 36 32 20 8 5 231

IT 53 31 11 4 1 689

SE 20 7 23 1 0 239

SK 14 49 25 11 1 142

UK 41 38 14 6 2 202

Increase workers’ rights

TR 48 33 12 4 3 6367

BE 63 30 6 1 0 224

EL 49 41 7 2 2 202

FR 81 19 0 0 0 231

IT 68 27 4 1 0 689

SE 20 57 24 1 0 239

SK 47 43 9 0 1 143

UK 63 28 6 3 1 203

Increase labour market

flexibility

TR 38 36 16 6 4 6313

BE 13 29 21 27 11 223

EL 32 38 16 7 6 202

FR 6 7 14 33 40 229

IT 31 29 20 16 5 687

SE 18 53 28 1 0 239

SK 28 54 12 5 1 143

UK 16 26 35 16 8 201

base

143


Percentages strongly

agree

Increase attention to

environment

144

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

TR 54 35 12 5 3 6332

BE 43 38 16 4 0 223

EL 66 28 5 1 1 201

FR 59 32 8 1 0 231

IT 57 31 9 3 1 689

SE 32 46 21 1 0 239

SK 33 61 6 0 0 143

UK 36 41 16 5 3 203

EU should cease to exist

TR 18 16 31 22 13 6298

BE 3 3 17 38 40 223

EL 5 7 34 33 22 200

FR 7 2 19 33 40 233

IT 4 5 14 36 42 684

SE 4 6 18 62 11 239

SK 1 4 15 57 23 143

UK 10 7 16 27 39 202

base


Table A7.8 Whether in favour of Turkey becoming a full member of the EU

and views about whether the EU should cease to exist (Turkish

respondents)

Percentages Whether agree the EU should cease to

exist

Whether in favour of Turkey

becoming a full member of the

EU

strongly

agree

agree undecided disagree strongly

disagree

yes 12 12 27 31 18 3305

no 30 22 30 11 7 2329

don’t know 10 14 52 16 8 569

All 19 16 31 22 13 6203

base

145


146

ANNEX B

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE

This Annex provides information on the key characteristics of respondents in

Turkey. It presents unweighted data and distinguishes between:

Trade union characteristics

Individual characteristics

Sector, industry, workplace and organisational characteristics

Table B1 Trade union characteristics of Turkish respondents

Trade union confederation

N percentage

HAK-İŞ 2235 34

TÜRK-İŞ 2747 42

DİSK 1632 34

Position trade union member

shop steward 1665 25

not 4552 69

don’t know 116 2

no answer 281 4


Table B2 Individual characteristics of Turkish respondents

Age

N percentage

15-25 348 5

26-30 882 13

31-35 1122 17

36-40 1337 20

41-45 1362 21

46-50 804 12

51 and over 263 4

no answer 496 8

Sex

male 5135 78

female 970 15

no answer 509 8

Birthplace

rural area/village 2025 31

small or medium sized town 2290 35

large town/city 1869 28

no answer 430 7

Present location

rural area/village 208 3

small or medium sized town 1764 27

large town/city 3644 55

no answer 998 15

147


Table B2 Individual characteristics (cont.)

Age ceased full time education

148

N percentage

13 or younger 959 15

14-16 915 14

17-18 2105 32

19-21 1044 16

22 or over 970 15

no answer 621 9

Occupation

manager 275 4

professional/technical 413 6

other white collar 902 14

skilled manual 2471 37

semi skilled manual 541 8

unskilled manual 804 12

other 728 11

no answer 480 7

Political identity

Left 1390 21

centre left 418 6

Centre 918 14

centre right 394 6

Right 2117 32

no answer 1377 21


Table B2 Individual characteristics (cont.)

European identity

N percentage

European 900 14

inclined to European 353 5

neutral 826 13

inclined to non European 349 5

non European 2572 39

no answer 1614 24

Experience of EU countries

Whether worked in a EU country

yes 446 7

no 578 88

no answer 383 6

Whether been on holiday in a EU country

yes 810 12

no 5157 83

no answer 347 5

149


Table B3 Sector, industry, workplace and organisational

characteristics of Turkish respondents

Sector

150

N percentage

private 2613 40

public 2619 40

other 474 7

no answer 908 14

Industry

mining and quarrying 351 5

manufacturing 1430 22

electricity, gas and water 650 10

construction 150 2

transport 492 7

financial 35


Sector, industry, workplace and organisational

characteristics (cont.)

Workplace size (employees)

N percentage

1-9 359 5

10-49 742 11

50-149 1051 16

150-499 1412 21

500 or more 2754 42

no answer 296 5

151


152

ANNEX C

DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE OF TRADE

UNIONISTS IN SEVEN EU MEMBER STATES

This Annex provides information on the contribution of the various trade union

confederations in Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, Slovakia, Sweden and the

United Kingdom.

The contribution of respondents by the trade union confederations in the various

countries differs in several respects

Countries were set different numbers of respondents as targets

They differed in their achievement of these targets

The contribution of trade union confederations within countries also differs and

is not necessarily representative.

All these considerations mean that these data on different EU countries can at

best be regarded as broadly indicative. It should be regarded as such when

reading the Report. Basic data is provided in Table C1.

Table C1 Contribution of various trade union confederations to EU

member state samples

Confederations Belgium France Greece Italy Slovakia Sweden United

Kingdom

CGIL 247

CISL 450

CGSLB 107

CSC 84

FGTB 35

GSEE 202

KOZSR 145

LO 239

TUC 205

not stated - 235 - - - -

all 191 235 202 697 145 239 205

target 500 2,000 500 3,000 500 500 1,000

target

achieved

45% 12% 40% 23% 29% 48% 21%


References

Emekdunyasi (2009) http://www.emekdunyasi.net/tr/article.asp?ID=4207 (last accessed

22 December 2009)

Eurobarometer 71 (2009a) Public opinion in the European Union, Standard

Barometer, European Commission, Brussels

Eurobarometer 71 (2009b) National Report Executive Summary – Turkey,

European Commission, Brussels.

Eurobarometer 71 (2009c) Avrupa Birliğinde Kamuoyu Bahar, European

Commission, Brussels.

Ministry of Labour and Social Security (2009)

http://www.cgm.gov.tr/article.php?article_id=295 (last accessed 23 December

2009)

153


154

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