Sustainable US Biofuels Expansion - Faap

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Sustainable US Biofuels Expansion - Faap

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produção da CONFERÊNCIA INTERNACIONAL DE

BIOCOMBUSTÍVEIS.

CHUM, Helena. A indústria de biocombustíveis: expansão

sustentável nos Estados Unidos. In: CONFERÊNCIA

INTERNACIONAL DE BIOCOMBUSTÍVEIS, 2010, São Paulo.

Apresentações (Painel IV). São Paulo: Faculdade de

Engenharia - FAAP, 2010.

Outline

1. Sustainable Biofuels – The thresholds

– Challenges and Opportunities

– Examples of EPA’s Results

2. Biofuels Technologies and Systems Progress

3. Biofuels part of agriculture and forestry systems,

along with the recurrent and end of life products use

– Food, Feed, Fiber, biomass, bioenergy, and ecosystems

services and land use need integrated systems

approaches

3

Sustainable

US Biofuels Expansion

Conferencia

Internacional de

Biocombustiveis

Dr. Helena Chum

NREL Fellow

FAAP

Sao Paulo, Brazil

May 28, 2010

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

EISA Mandated Production Targets

15 BGY [57 billion liters/yr] cap

on conventional (starch) biofuel

Renewable Fuel

Standard (RFS)

in the Energy 2022

Independence

and Security Act 2015

(EISA) of 2007

2012

EPAct

2005

2012

2010 EPA biofuels proportions:

8.25% renewable fuel

0.61% advanced biofuel

1.10% biomass-based diesel

0.004% cellulosic biofuel

Advanced Biofuels

(include cellulosic biofuels other

than starch-based ethanol)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Production Targets (Billions of Gallons)

Ethanol & Biodiesel Conventional (Starch) Biofuel Biodiesel

Cellulosic Biofuels Other Advanced Biofuels

EISA defines Cellulosic Biofuel as “renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or

lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas

emissions…that are at least 60 percent less than baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions.”

EISA defines Advanced Biofuel as “renewable fuel, other than ethanol derived from corn starch,

that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions…that are at least 50 percent less than baseline

lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions.”


Multiple Simultaneous Advances in Technologies for

Feedstocks --- Conversion --- End Use

Goal: Drive towards an

economic integrated

multistep process

DuPont Danisco

Cellulose Ethanol

USDA Data: 5-fold increase since 1940

Can industry reach these yields?

80 new hybrids in 2010


Exploring Routes to Convert Biomass

Feedstock

Production

& Logistics

• Energy

crops

• Forest

Residue

• Agricultural

wastes

• Algae

Integrated Biorefineries

Biochemical Conversion

Pretreatment &

Conditioning

Distillation

Enzymatic

Hydrolysis

Sugars Fermentation

Enzyme

By-Products

Production

Wastes/Residue

Thermochemical Conversion

Upgrading

Fast Liquid Zeolite Cracking

Pyrolysis Bio-oil Hydrogenolysis

Gasification Syngas

Lipid (Oil)

Extraction

Algal

Oil

Fischer Tropsch

Alcohol Synthesis

Transesterification

Upgrading

R E F I N I N G

Research on multiple conversion pathways aims to improve the

efficiency and economics of biofuels production.

DDGS (corn)

Lignin

(for power)

Ethanol

Butanol

Olefins

Gasoline

Diesel

Others

Program Areas & Key Challenges

Feedstock

Systems

– Diverse regional

biomass

resources

– Yield & price

– Water & fertilizer

– Land use

– Metrics &

standards

Sustainability

Research & Development Demonstration & Deployment

Conversion Technologies

Biochemical

– Cost & Efficiency

• Pretreatments

• Enzymes/yields

– Fermentation

Thermochemical

– Cost & Efficiency

– Gasification Process

– Fuel Stabilization

• GHG emissions

• Water quality

• Land use

• Socioeconomics

Integrated

Biorefineries

– Integrating

process

technologies

– Financing

– Technical

expertise

– Profit potential

Product Development

− Fuel purity & cost

− By-products/markets

− Infrastructure compatibility

Major DOE Biofuels Project Locations

Pacific Ethanol

(Boardman, OR)

Nov ozymes

(Dav is, CA)

Genencor

(Palo Alto, CA)

Ceres, Inc

(Thousand Oaks, CA)

Verenium Corp (2)

(San Diego, CA)

BlueFire Ethanol

(Mecca, CA)

Eight Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects

Four Commercial-Scale Biorefinery Projects

Four Improved Enzyme Projects

Emery Energy

(Salt Lake City, UT)

Five Projects for Fermentation Organisms

Five Thermochemical Syngas Projects

DOE Joint Solicitation Biomass Projects

Five Thermochemical Bio-Oil Projects

Six University Conversion Projects

Montana State University

(Bozeman, MT)

Lignol

(Grand Junction, CO)

Abengoa

(Hugoton, KS )

Cargill Inc

(Minneapolis, MN)

Flambeau Riv er

(Park Falls, WI)

NewPage

(Wisconsin Rapids, WI)

Poet

(Emmetsburg, IA)

Office of Science Bioenergy

Centers

DOE Great Lakes, Madison, WI

DOE Joint Bioenergy Institute, Berkeley,

CA

DOE Bioenergy Science Center, Oak

Ridge, TN

Univ ersity of Minnesota

(Minneapolis, MN)

Iowa State (3) Univ ersity

(Ames, IA)

UOP, LLC

(De s Plaines, IL)

Infrastructure

– Transport

– Storage

– Codes &

Standards

(Blend wall)

– Demand/

markets

– Compatibility

• Predictive Modeling

• International

Purdue Univ ersity (2)

(West Lafaye tte, IN)

Alltech

Env irofine

(Washington

County, KY)

Southern Research

Institute

(Birmingham, AL)

Mascoma

(Kinross, MI)

Gas Technology Institute

(Des Plaines, IL)

Verenium Biofuels Corp.

(Jennings, LA)

Georgia Tech

(Atlanta, GA)

Range Fuels

(Soperton, GA)

Mascoma

(Lebanon, NH)

Univ ersity of Georgia

(Athens, GA)

Univ ersity of Maine

(Orono, ME)

Regional

Partnerships

South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK

Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR

RSE Pulp &

Chemical, LLC

(Old Town, ME)

Cornell Univ ersity Univ ersity of Mass

(Ithaca, NY)

(Amherst, MA)

GE Global Research

(Niskayuna, NY)

Stevens Institute of

Technology

(Hoboken NJ)

Univ eristy of

Toledo

(Toldeo, OH)

Virginia Tech

(Blacksburg, VA)

DSM Innovation Center

(Parsippany, NJ)

Dupont

(Wilmington, DE )

Research Triangle Institute (2)

(Research Triangle Park, NC)

Modified 10/1/2008


Key Recent Accomplishments and Deliverables

EPACT Section 932 “Commercial-Scale” Biorefineries

DOE investments in cellulosic biofuels will accelerate commercialization

and help create a biofuels market based on non-food feedstocks.

Performers

Poet

Emmetsburg, IA

Range Fuels

Soperton, GA

Abengoa

Hugoton, KS

Bluefire

Fulton, MS

Feedstock

Type

Corn Cob

Corn Fiber

Woody

Waste

Agricultural

Residue

Conversion

Technology

Fuel Type Status

Biochemical Ethanol Engineering and construction in

progress. Cobs feedstock

infrastructure set up

Gasification + Mixed

Alcohol synthesis

Mixed

alcohols

Engineering and construction in

progress.

Biochemical Ethanol NEPA EIS process initiated. Corn

stover infrastructure set up

Sorted MSW Biochemical-

Concentrated Acid

Hydrolysis

Ethanol Lease and NEPA issues being

resolved.

Key Recent Accomplishments and Deliverables

Demonstration-Scale Biorefineries: FY08 Award One, Under Negotiation

Alltech-Envirofine

Washington County, KY

Lignol Innovations

Grand Junction, CO

Mascoma

Upper Peninsula, MI

NewPage

Wisconsin Rapids, WI

Pacific Ethanol

Boardman, OR

RSA

Old Town, ME

Performers Feedstock Type

Verenium Biofuels Corp.

Jennings, LA

Flambeau River Biofuels LLC

Park Falls, WI

Corn Cobs, Corn

Fiber

Conversion

Technology

Biochemical-Solid

State Fermentation

Woody Biomass Biochemical-

Organisolve

Ethanol

Ethanol

Woody Biomass Biochemical Ethanol

Woody Biomass

- Mill Residue

Wheat Straw,

Stover, Poplar

Residuals

Woody Biomass

- Mill residues

Energy Cane and

Bagasse

Forest residues

and wood waste

Thermochemical-

Fischer-Tropsch

Biochemical-Biogasol Ethanol

Biochemical-Pentose

Extraction

Biochemical Process Ethanol

Thermochem to

Fischer-Tropsch

Fuel Type

Fischer-Tropsch liquids

To be determined

Fischer-Tropsch liquids

Pilot Plant, Scotland, South Dakota

Key Stakeholder Relationships

Regional Biomass Energy Feedstock Partnership Bioenergy Crop Trials

In 2008, the Biomass Program, Sun Grant Initiative universities, and USDA selected, and

in some cases established the first round of replicated field trials of corn stover

removal and dedicated herbaceous energy crops.

This map shows

the selected

locations and

types of crops.


DOE

Office of

Science

Advanced

Feedstock &

Conversion

Technologies


Grand Challenge: Next-Generation Bioenergy Crops Center Strategies

• GLBRC – Engineer “model” plants and potential energy crops to produce new forms of lignin and more

starches and oils, which are more easily processed into fuels.

• JBEI – Enhance lignin degradation in “model” plants by changing cross-links among lignin subunits;

improve deconstruction and subsequent fermentation by altering linkages between lignin and other cellwall

components; translate genetic developments to switchgrass.

• BESC – Decrease or eliminate harsh chemical pretreatments by engineering plant cell walls in poplar

and switchgrass to be less recalcitrant; simultaneously increase total biomass produced per acre.

Grand Challenge: Discovery and Design of Enzymes and Microbes with Novel

Biomass-Degrading Capabilities Center Strategies

• GLBRC – Identify combinations of enzymes and pretreatment needed to digest specific biomass types;

express biomass-degrading enzymes in the stems and leaves of corn and other plants.

• JBEI – Develop new ionic liquid pretreatments that can completely solubilize and fractionate biomass

components; improve performance and stability of enzymes obtained from the rainforest floor and

other environments; engineer, through directed evolution, highly efficient cellulase enzymes.

• BESC – Screen natural thermal springs to identify enzymes and microbes that effectively break down

and convert biomass at high temperatures; understand and engineer cellulosomes (multifunctional

enzyme complexes for degrading cellulose).

Grand Challenge: Development of Transformational Microbe-Mediated Strategies

for Biofuel Production Center Strategies

• GLBRC – Start with an ethanol-producing microbe and add lignocellulose-degrading capabilities to

substantially reduce costs.

• JBEI – Connect diverse biological parts and pathways to create entirely new organisms that produce

fuels other than ethanol; engineer organisms to produce and withstand high concentrations of biofuels;

derive useful chemical products from lignin degradation.

• BESC – Start with a lignocellulose-degrading microbe and add ethanol-producing capabilities to

substantially reduce costs; develop a knowledgebase and pathway analysis tools to aid this manipulation.

Chum, 12/2009 Chum, 12/2009


Chum, 12/2009

NSF. 2008. Breaking the Chemical and Engineering Barriers to Lignocellulosic Biofuels: Next Generation Hydrocarbon

Biorefineries. Ed. George W. Huber, University of Massachusetts Amherst. National Science Foundation. Chemical,

Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems Division. Washington D.C. 180 p.

http://www.ecs.umass.edu/biofuels/Images/Roadmap2-08.pdf

Chum, 12/2009


Chum, 12/2009

Chum, 12/2009

Summary

• Promises

– Increased Understanding from Advances in Science and

Engineering Leading the Possibility of Designed Systems

– Recognized the Need for Integration of Technologies along the

Supply Chain, Systems and Uses – Buying Down Risk

• Challenges

– Technology Development and Learning Curves - timing

– Uncertainties and Risks – Financial, Regulatory, Security…

– Complexity of systems, families of technologies, multiplicity of

choices with no clear winner

• Innovation and Leadership

– Required for the Development of Integrated Sustainable Biomass

Systems


37

Update on EPA RFS2

Type of Model Example Explanation

General equilibrium models represent the

whole economy and the main interactions

between economic sectors of a single

region or multiple regions.

Partial equilibrium models give a detailed

description of a specific economic sector.

Optimization models aim to allocate

resources by maximizing or minimizing an

objective function, generally an economic

objective function of profit or utility.

Agent-based models focus on the

simulation of actors’ decisions

System Dynamics models simulate timedependent

phenomena such as land-use

change and account for feedbacks in the

system

GTAP Global Trade Analysis Project model, a multi-region, multi-sector, computable

general equilibrium model that estimates changes in world agricultural

production. Maintained through Purdue University, GTAP projects international

land use change based on the economics of land conversion. Website:

https://www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu/default.asp

FAPRI Integrated Food and Agricultural Policy and Research Institute with the

international models, as maintained by the Center for Agricultural and Rural

Development (FAPRI-CARD) at Iowa State University. Website:

http://www.fapri.iastate.edu/

FASOM Forestry and Agriculture Optimization Model (FASOM) of Texas A&M University

with a much more detailed economic description of the agriculture and

forestry sector. Website: http://agecon2.tamu.edu/people/faculty/mccarlbruce/FASOM.html

Carnegie- Linking global and local dynamics and modeling indirect land use change from

Stanford Biofuels biofuel demand (e.g., simulate sugarcane expansion dynamics in the Brazilian

project

agricultural frontier) .Work presented at Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels,

Sao Paulo, November, 2008.

http://cgse.epfl.ch/webdav/site/cgse/shared/Biofuels/Regional

%20Outreaches%20&%20Meetings/LUC%20Workshop%20Sao%20Paulo/

Presentations%20day%202/Fernandez.pdf

STELLA-based

SheehanBoyce

The Systems Thinking Experimental Learning Laboratory with

Animation (STELLA) simulate the biofuel production chain in the

U.S. accounting for land in the feedstock-production phase and the

greenhouse-gas emissions from indirect land-use changes.

http://www.bio.org/letters/CARB_LCFS_Sheehan_200904.pdf

Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) GREET Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation

Model, developed by Argonne National Laboratory. Website:

http://www.transportation.anl.gov/modeling_simulation/GREET/


EPA, 2010, Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS2)

Regulatory Impact Analysis, EPA-420-R-10-006,

February 2010,

http://www.epa.gov/otaq/renewablefuels/420r10006.pdf

CARB, 2010. January 10, 2010, FINAL REGULATION ORDER,

Subchapter 10. Climate Change, Article 4. Regulations to

Achieve Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions, Subarticle 7.

Low Carbon Fuel Standard,

http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/2009/lcfs09/lcfs09.htm

For information on current DOE Biomass

Program Activities see:

http://www.obpreview2009.govtools.us/review/

Support from the DOE Office of the Biomass Program is

greatly acknowledged

Helena.Chum@nrel.gov.

Visit us online at www.nrel.gov .

National Renewable

Energy Laboratory

Operated Innovation for the U.S. for Department Our Energy of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by Midwest Research Institute • Battelle

Future

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