100 ing solution that reduces the use of natural resources (including materials, energy, water and land) and decreases the release of harmful substances across the whole life-cycle. Eco-innovation paradox The potential for benefiting from eco-innovation is often highest in the regions and sectors where the capacity to develop or apply ecoinnovations is limited. Back to Ch 3. Ecological rucksack The ecological rucksack describes the resource requirement of producing products and offering services. For products, it is the complete material input needed to manufacture that product from the cradle to the point of sale, minus its own weight. For services, it is the sum of the shares of the rucksacks of the technical means (“Service delivery machines”) employed (for example, vehicles, refrigerators, buildings, etc.), plus the sum of materials and energy used to deliver a unit of service (Schmidt-Bleek 2011). Back to Ch 1, Ch 2. Frugal innovation Eco-innovations designed to be inexpensive, robust and easy to use. This kind of innovation has been dubbed as “reverse” or “constraintbased”. It also means being sparse in the use of raw materials and their impact on the environment. Back to Ch 5. Hydrolysis Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which water is split into hydrogen cations. Back to Ch 7. Incremental innovation Innovations concerned with improving components of products or services, processes or streamlined organisational set-ups that do not lead to a substantial change in a short time. Over time, however, incremental innovations or sequences of incremental innovations may cause systemic, positive or negative changes. On a large scale they may lead to significant impacts in e.g. energy efficiency gains as in the example of the insulation of buildings. Back to Ch 1. Indirect flows Indirect material flows refer to up-stream material requirements of imported or exported products, which are used as material inputs along the production chain in foreign countries. In contrast to direct flows of traded products, indirect flows do not cross the national boarder. Back to Ch 2. Industrial metabolism A sustainable development perspective which regards societies and their economic systems as embedded in the larger environmental system. Societies are shown to have a “metabolism” with the surrounding natural systems in a similar way to plants, animals or humans. The ‘inputs’ in industrial metabolism include resources such as raw materials (including fossil fuels), water, air and land. These resource inputs are transformed into products (goods and services) and are finally disposed back to the natural system in the form of outputs; mainly solid wastes, waste water and air emissions (Schütz and Bringzu 2008). Back to Ch 7. Industrial photosynthesis The use of captured carbon dioxide and solar energy to produce energy rich compounds for materials and fuels. This is a vision for the future. Back to Ch 7.
eco-innovation observatory Land grabbing The large scale land acquisition – be it purchase or lease – for agricultural production, often by foreign investors. Back to Ch 5. Life-cycle assessment Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is the assessment of every impact associated with all life stages of a product, from raw material extraction, over production, selling and application and up to disposal or re-use, often in comparison with another, competitive product. Back to Ch 7. Life-cycle wide Refers to all life phases of a product, from raw material extraction over production and use to recycling/disposal. Material flow analysis Material flow analysis (MFA) refers to the monitoring and analysis of physical flows of materials. It can be applied to a wide range of economic, administrative or natural entities at various levels of scale (world regions, whole economy – economy-wide MFA, regions, industries, firms) and can be applied to materials at various levels of detail (individual materials or substances, groups of materials, all materials) or products (Schütz and Bringzu 2008). Back to Ch 2, Ch 7. Material flow innovation Material flow innovation captures innovations across the material value chains of products and processes that lower the material intensity of use while increasing service intensity and well-being. It aims to move societies from the extract, consume, and dispose system of today’s resource use towards a more circular system of material use and re-use with less total material requirements overall. Back to Ch 1. Material productivity At the company level, material productivity expresses the amount of economic value generated by a unit of material input or material consumption. On the economy-wide level it is calculated as GDP per material input/consumption. Back to Ch1, Ch 2. Material security The availability and access to the material resources on which economies depend, as well as the ability to cope with volatility, increasing scarcity and rising prices. Back to Ch 1. Material stock The materials contained within the built environment of an economy. Back to Ch 7. MIPS MIPS means the material input per unit of service. It is “the life cycle-wide input of natural material (MI) which is employed in order to fulfill a human desire or need (S) by technical means” (Factor 10 Institute). It is used to compare the material and energy requirements of functionally comparable goods or services. Back to Ch 7. Organizational EI Eco-innovation (EI) towards organizational methods and management systems that improves environmental issues in the production and products. The EIO considers such organizational changes to be the socio-economic dimension of process innovation, especially as it is closely linked to learning and education (see Bleischwitz 2003). Back to Ch 1. Problem shifting The displacement or transfer of problems between different environmental pressures, product groups, countries or over time. Back to Ch 1. Annual Report 2010 101