104 an economic system, whether for use in production and consumption activities or not, and whatever their origin is (domestic, rest of the world). Back to Ch 2. User-led innovation Innovation in which new goods or services are driven by customer demands or developed with stakeholders, thereby minimizing the risk of superfluous product features or functionality. Back to Ch 3.
Annex I. Barriers and drivers of eco-innovation in the EU-27 eco-innovation observatory The drivers and barriers in this annex are based on the EIO country profiles and depict the main determinants identified by country experts based on data analysis, literature review as well as interviews with national policy makers. Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Eco-innovation drivers in sectors according to EB2011 Drivers Barriers • High environmental standards • Generous funding for research • Uncertainty about future energy prices • Strong greening policy agenda (regional and national) • Strong national technological capabilities (HC,R&D efforts) • Increasing local and international demand in green technology and products • Economic payback • Targeted funds (programmes and credits) • The high quality and educational level • Growing financial support for Innovation and R&D • Flexible policy formulation, coordination and dissemination due to the small size of country • Focus on exchange of experience through participation in funded schemes • SME-type structure of the industry • Lack of linkages • Funding for high-risk/long-term research and demonstration projects • Pitfall in inter-regional coordination, integrated planning and decision making • “Picking the winner strategy” (bias towards climate related areas) • Lack of information • Lack of educated and experienced specialists • Lack of efficient organisational forms • Psychological barriers in the realization of innovative ideas • Indifferent to eco-innovation regulation • Lack of linkages/ communication between research and industry • No support in transfer of technologies. • Lack of financial instruments supporting eco-innovations in the private sector Annual Report 2010 105