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new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I IOO O N N AA A L L P P L L A A N N N N I I N N G G H H I I S S T TOO O R R Y Y S S OO O C C I I E E T T Y Y C C OO O N N F F E E R R E E N N C C EE E NEW NEW NEW CĐTĐES CĐTĐES CĐTĐES AS AS SOCĐAL SOCĐAL-SPATĐAL SOCĐAL SPATĐAL LABORATORĐES LABORATORĐES RICARDO RICARDO TREVISAN TREVISAN Address: Laboratório de Estudos da Urbe – LabEUrbe, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo – FAU, UNIVERSIDADE DE BRASÍLIA – UNB, Instituto Central de Ciências - ICC Norte - Gleba A, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro - Asa Norte, Caixa postal 04431 - CEP:70910-900 / Brasília/DF/Brasil e-mail: prof.trevisan@gmail.com ABSTRACT ABSTRACT The creation of new cities, which are planned in advance and professionally designed, can add interesting details to the history of urbanism. In certain cases, such cities are reflected as social and physical experimentation in search of better quality of life - thoughts traced by researchers and scholars concerned with characterizing this urban typology as laboratories, with all kinds of tests. The present work is situated in this context and uses specific bibliography and the articulation of a number of case studies, from utopias to realities, to reveal the planning of new cities, ascertaining, in the socio-spatial conditions, the offer of innovative proposals. Key-words: New cities; Utopia; Architecture & Urbanism. 1 1 _ _ NEW NEW CITIES CITIES It is a consensus: every existing city has already been a new city before, one that was generated from specific political, economic, social and/or cultural circumstances and implanted in sites of interest. However, the origin of a city can be differentiated by classifying it, as did Jean-Louis Huot: “Certain [cities] are born through its growth on a non-urban element (castle), others by the spontaneous development of a village, and still others are born by the wish of man in a place where nothing or few dwellings existed. When the plan of the city is thought beforehand and predicts the location of key organs, the urban agglomeration is developed within an artificial framework following a plan imposed by the will of man. Such type of agglomeration is often called created city.” (Huot, 1988, 8). For the French author, to understand the new city as an urbanistic type is to go beyond its foundation; it is to return to the antecedent period and investigate the circumstances and actions attached to them. Such dislocation enables us to separate spontaneous cities from New Cities (NCs), which were, at a moment prior to its appearance, conceived, formulated, idealized, intended, invented, thought, planned, premeditated, programmed, designed… Above are designations that have been used to qualify an urban agglomeration created ex nihilo, opposing to the traditional development of a city which little by little acquired its status. Following is the concept of NCs that was particularly developed (Trevisan, 2009) as urban nuclei: 1) cities which were created by the will of public power or private entrepreneurship and grounded on specific actions: 2) 1

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