5 years ago

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I IOO O N N AA A L L P P L L A A N N N N I I N N G G H H I I S S T TOO O R R Y Y S S OO O C C I I E E T T Y Y C C OO O N N F F E E R R E E N N C C EE E “Does the new city present a conception and a particular method of urbanism? Was there specific architecture? How did its insertion into the chosen environment for its establishment occur? Were the new cities a laboratory about the plan of architectonic, urbanistic and environmental quality? (Merlin; Sudarskis, 1991, 249). Merlin & Sudarskis (1991) draw our attention to the theme as a vast framework of project-linked experiences; as a set of themes with its “own language” (Vadelorge, 2005); or still, as “a privileged creation moment (...), a type of ideal laboratory” (Poitevin; Etteinger; Aantier, 1993). Something seen in the reverie of contemporary architects in the United Arab Emirates as they conceived the “ecological and selfsustainable city” of Ziggurat [Figure Figure 88]. 8 A NC designed in a pyramidal megastructure, with aeolic turbines and solar panels for the generation of electricity, in addition to transportation being carried out by a net of monorails and interconnected elevators, without the need of vehicles. An urbanistic and architectonic experience which brings the NCs close to the concepts of innovation or object-city. For Smadja (1987) “innovation is consubstantial to the NCs. From the start, the project and its implementation are situated in a context of opening to innovation”. For Boumaza (2006) each NC is an “object-city, a projection into the future from the lessons of history and the mishaps of the present time”. A recurrent situation in the large structures of Lilypad [Figure Figure 99] 9 by Belgian architect Vincent Callebaut, a floating city on the sea, identified as a new urban space of the society of the future (Rouat, 1996) – an emergency exit for sea level rise. Figure 8 – View of the NC of Ziggurat, in the United Arab Emirates (not built). The pyramid-shaped mega-structure, replete with technology, would be home to an entire city in a remote region. Source: Trevisan, 2009, 279. Figure 9 – View of tow Lilypad, implanted next to the Principality of Monaco. Floating selfsustainable cities able to house 50 thousand people, refugees from cities flooded due to the rise of sea levels. Source: Rouat, 1996, 60. Or even the creation of small city-states, an idea sponsored by billionaire North American Peter Thiel and commanded by the Seasteading Institute. These would be floating platforms anchored in international waters, bearing no relation with any given country, and therefore politically independent. Innovative and idealized objects, such NCs provide a minute study, thus serving as historic reference as highlights Aymeric Zublena: “If a historian of urban architecture wished to study the evolution of the architectonic conceptions between the years of 1960 and 1980, it is in the urban centers of the new cities that he would find the richest field of analysis.” (in FRANCE, 2007). 10

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I IOO O N N AA A L L P P L L A A N N N N I I N N G G H H I I S S T TOO O R R Y Y S S OO O C C I I E E T T Y Y C C OO O N N F F E E R R E E N N C C EE E Similar to the statements by Coulon (1993), when he situates the NCs as the temporal materialization of recurrent architecture and urbanisms of a given time: “The new cities are registered, in a spatial-temporal production, as physical witnesses of the evolution of the practices in a period of radical transformations, and formal contradictions that are inherent to the production system (space division and techno-practical juxtaposition) constituted the visible infrastructure of a physical image of a modern city.” (Coulon, 1993, 90). And Vincent Fouchier’s, when he qualified the French villes nouvelles: “The new cities were a privileged terrain for the architectonical experimentation attempts, where we can observe in loco the evolution along the course of its 40 years.” (in Diebold; Lemonier, 2001, 13). Choay & Merlin (2005), however, although they share the idea of NCs as laboratories, they make a distinction between urbanism and architecture present in the satellite-type cities: “If the NCs were frequently in their countries (former USSR, Great Britain, France, Holland, Sweden, Finland) laboratories in terms of urbanism, offering a way of life that was better than that found in ordinary outskirts; they did not constitute themselves, however, over the plan of architecture (with the exception of some isolated realizations such as Tapiola, in Finland), an ensemble of expected innovation.” (Choay; Merlin, 2005, 944). Whatever the employed reading may be, such in vivo laboratories of urbanism and architecture can currently be visited, studied, analyzed and criticized, as is the example of Chandigarh [Figure Figure 10 10] 10 and Brasília [Figure Figure 11 11], 11 true “outdoor modernist museums” (Pelletier; Delfante, 2000). Figure 10 – Assembly of the administrative NC of Chandigarh, India. Le Corbusier’s brutalist project is today a reference for architectonic studies. Source: Trevisan, 2009, 70. Figure 11 – National Congress of the NC of Brasília. Oscar Niemeyer’s modernist project as one of the tourist spots of the Brazilian Capital. Source: Author’s register 2010 (photograph). Even the French villes nouvelles, with their miraculous spatial solutions, have changed into a space for architectonic tourism (Wermes, 1991). After the initiative for the creation of the five NCs in the surroundings of Paris (Évry, Cergy-Pontoise, Marne-la-Vallée, Melun-Sénart and Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines), the State promoted a sequence of contests, each one bearing different levels of interventions, and divided into three major groups: 1) major urbanism contests (architecture and urban organization of areas having from 700 to 7 thousand of homes); 2) inhabitation contests (areas having from 70 to a few hundreds of homes); and 3) contests of public spaces. The number of contests enabled a diversity of projects, carried out by over 260 architects and urbanists, of whom the following stand out: Ricardo 11

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