4 years ago

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I IOO O N N AA A L L P P L L A A N N N N I I N N G G H H I I S S T TOO O R R Y Y S S OO O C C I I E E T T Y Y C C OO O N N F F E E R R E E N N C C EE E Bofill, Christian de Portzamparc, Jean Nouvel, Alain Sarfati, Tomasz Fiszer, Manuel Nuñez Yanowsky etc. This rich urbanistic and architectonic collection contain: The “Spaces of Abraxas”, a residential complex composed of three buildings: Theater, Palace and Arch [Figure Figure 12 12], 12 designed by Spanish architect Bofill in 1982; and the “Arenas of Picasso”, designed by Uzbek Yanowsky. Figure 12 – Residential complex (Palace and Arch) in the NC of Marne-la-Vallée, designed by architect Ricardo Bofill (1982). The use of post-modern architecture as a scenic space. Source: Author’s register, 2008 (photograph). Figure 13 – “Camembert” by architect Manuel Nuñez Yanowsky. Housing complex to cater for the needs of low-income population in the NC of Marne-la-Vallée. Author’s register, 2008 (photograph). Innovations and experimentations that reach exaggeration as in the projects of the Danish satellite city of Albertslund (1963), in the outskirts of Copenhagen, with the predominance of Mediterranean architecture; and for the Chinese NC of Gaoqiao, in the surroundings of Shanghai, with its Dutch architecture (Ming, 2003). Invariably, the programing of NCs is a building act, both in the spheres of the abstract and the real, of a utopic reality, which is coherent with the perspectives of the promoting State and signed by urbanist-architects or other professionals. NCs are laboratories that have absorbed formulas of experience, whether unparalleled or not, in an attempt to create an ideal society that is inserted into a planned space. These are experimentations which make NCs a particular type in urbanistics. 4 4 _ _ NEW NEW CITIES: CITIES: LABS LABS TO TO LEARN LEARN FROM FROM From the above-mentioned considerations, the conceptualization of NC, its historic and representative application, its utopic part, its real part, as a space for social and spatial experiments -, I can credit to the so-called urbanistic typology important relevance for the history, the theory, the planning and design of architecture and urbanism. This is an incontestable framework of tools and practices to be better analyzed, interpreted, tested and applied by those responsible for thinking and building today’s and tomorrow’s city. Taking the example of what happens on the catwalks of la haute couture, in the automobile salons and in the world exhibitions, the NCs are prototypes of an ideal, perfect, desired city; they are current representations of a future quotidian; they are allusions, by science fiction, of a not yet existing way of life; they are opportune translations of the past and the present, represented in what is still to come; they are space-concepts to serve as references for professionals, managers, realtors 12

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I IOO O N N AA A L L P P L L A A N N N N I I N N G G H H I I S S T TOO O R R Y Y S S OO O C C I I E E T T Y Y C C OO O N N F F E E R R E E N N C C EE E etc.; ultimately, they are innovative products to be regarded with more attention and dedication by us, researchers and scholars. They are reflexes of a future that can suitably be currently applied in emergency cases. Take, for example, conflict-stricken African countries, 2010 post-earthquake Haiti or 2011 post-tsunami Japan; those are scenarios that have been devastated by wars or natural disasters, where the application of the lessons yielded by the NCs could temporarily alleviate the damage. The use of the NCs as a solution to shelter thousands of war or natural disaster refugees would work as a protective device to ensure physical, feeding and sanitary safety for all of those escaping wars or those made homeless. Initially erected as an authentic desert or as a not-place, the fields can become cities, NCs emerged from a survival system. Whatever is the aimed chimera or the requested need, essays, tests, attempts, failures and successes are customary in this typology, true laboratories from/with which we can learn. 5 5 5 _ _ REFERENCES REFERENCES Berneri, M. L. Journey through Utopia. London: Routledge / Kegan Paul, 1950. Bertuglia, C. S.; Tich, S. P.; Stanghellini, A. Formazione di un’identitá urbana: il caso delle villes nouvelles. Milano: Franco-Angeli, 2004. Boumaza, N. et alii. Villes réelles, villes projetées : fabrication de la ville au Maghreb. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose, 2006. Choay, F. O urbanismo. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 1997. Choay, F; Merlin, P. Dictionnaire de l’urbanisme et de l’aménagement. Paris: Presses Universitaires de Paris, 2005. Coulon, A. “Les villes nouvelles et le projet urbain. Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines”. Cahiers de la recherche architecturale. France, No. 32-33, 1993, 89-102. Diebold, M.-C.; Lemonier, M. “Villes nouvelles”. Diagonal. France, No. 149, Mai/Juin 2001, 10-14. Ducon, E; Yokohari, M. “L’involution et urbaine dans l’aire tokyoïte : le déclin de la ville nouvelle de Tama“. Annales de la recherche urbaine. France, No. 100, 2006, 23-27. Eveno, E. Utopies Urbaines. Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail, 1998. Fachard, S. “Villes nouvelles et expérimentation sociale”. PCM. France, No. 1, Janvier. 1982, 37-40. France. Ministère de la Culture; Ministère de l’Équipement. Programme interministériel d’histoire et d’évaluation des villes nouvelles françaises. Paris: Ministère de la Culture, 2007. Giordano, P. L. L’idea della Città Giardino. Bologna: Calderini Bologna, 1962. Hall, P. Cidades do amanhã. São Paulo: Perspectiva, 1995. 13

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