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4 years ago

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I IOO O N N AA A L L P P L L A A N N N N I I N N G G H H I I S S T TOO O R R Y Y S S OO O C C I I E E T T Y Y C C OO O N N F F E E R R E E N N C C EE E all the preceding utopists. Not to the detriment of the merits of the genius, he regards the philosopher as “a protofascist”, who believed in the commanding role of the elite, in autarchy, in the use of lies to govern, in militarism, and in many other methods. By following this line of thought, the North-American historian believes that the majority of classical utopists bore dictatorial trends, and tried to impose a monolithical discipline on multiple human activities and the society’s game of interest. Mumford (1969) will think utopia as something opposed to the unilateral, partisan and specialized spirit. For the author, the one who follows the utopic method must regard life in the present and from all points of view, that is, “as an interrelated set, as an organ close to parts that are susceptible to better organization, with which it is important to keep the balance”. Romantic or realistic, the definitions found in the literature also allow us to establish an understanding of utopia from temporal, political-economic-social and physical aspects. From the temporal standpoint, the nostalgic search for a lost past, and the anxiety for an unattainable future, had rendered utopia a denial of the present. Aware of this, Giulio Carlo Argan states: “What attracts, both in the past and the future, is exactly the not being ‘present’. It is even possible to bring the two apparently contradictory categories together as one and regard it all as utopia: understood not so much as the prefiguration of a better time, but rather, as grief and the impossibility to live in the present.” (in Pessoa, 2006). Throughout history, utopias appear more regularly in transition periods and in times of great uncertainties. Examples of this are the propositions by the “utopic socialists”, in the 18 th and 19 th centuries, as alternative ways out of the flourishing industrial cities and their adversities. These thinkers, referred to as progressists by Choay (1997), believed that, grounded on the society’s enormous adaptability, denying the past was enough to obtain the key to a better future, rationally predicted in all aspects. So it was when French writer Etienne Cabet (1788 – 1856) created, in 1840, the city of Icara, the capital of a fictitious State: Icara, described by him in his book Voyage en Icarie. Another such example was when English doctor Benjamin Ward Richardson (1828-1896) formulated, also in a book, the city of Hygeia (1876) – City of Health. Other creators evoked an ancient type as a fundamental reference in all attempts for urban remodeling and restructuring – the culturalists, according to Choay (1997). A flag hoisted by Camillo Sitte (1843-1903), when he recovered for his Artistic City the features existing in medieval cities, especially the squares; so was the case of English philosophers John Ruskin (1818-1900) and William Morris (1834-1896) who, joined by architect Richard Norman Shaw (1831-1912), led the movement Arts & Crafts. However, in both strands, be it progressists or culturalists, common ground can be found: The rejection towards reality, nourished by an unsatisfactory politicaleconomic-social system. Alongside the time factor, the criticism towards the system in force makes utopia a quest for the ideal society, associated to notions of evolution, perfection and 4

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I IOO O N N AA A L L P P L L A A N N N N I I N N G G H H I I S S T TOO O R R Y Y S S OO O C C I I E E T T Y Y C C OO O N N F F E E R R E E N N C C EE E progress. Generally, individual interest should be substituted by collective interest, as a start point of world transformation. In this sense, North American Edward Bellamy (1850-1893) futurizes, in his book Looking Backwards (1888), the city of Boston in the year 2000 as: “a rationally organized society, grounded on the egalitarian sharing of products and labor, social solidarity, adequate use of the machine, centralized general planning…” (Sica, 1981). Such social grouping is similar to French writer Charles Fourier’s (1772-1837) Phalanstery: a single building occupied by 1.6 thousand people in the search of universal harmony; it would be a great dwelling machine, aimed at creating strictly integrated communitarian life. With the purpose of attaining the perfect social design, most utopists simultaneously formulated a new habitat, invariably a new city. It is as if the society and the city could not be dissociated. Thus, the urban space – the materialization of the dream – has always been the scenario of utopias, presented in such works as: Saint Augustine’s (410) City of God, Antonio Averlino Filarete’s (1460) Sforzinda [Figure Figure 33], 3 François Rabelais’ (1532) Abbey of Thelema, Johann Valentin Andreäe’s (1619) Christianopolis [Figure Figure 44], 4 Tomaso Campanella’s (1623) The City of the Sun, Francis Bacon’s (1624) New Atlantis, James Harrington’s (1656) Oceana, François de Salignac de La Mothe-Fénelon’s (1699) The Adventures of Telémaco, Denis Diderot’s (1772) Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville; in addition to the post- Industrial Revolution propositions, such as Piotr Alexeevich Kropotkin’s (1842-1921) country industrial villages. Figure 3 – Radio-concentric plan of Sforzinda, designed in 1460 by Italian Filarete. Geometry in favor of the ideal city. Source: Giordano, 1962, 193. Figure 4 – View of the city of Christianopolis, idealized by Johann Valentin Andreäe in 1619. Notice The religiousness in the name and the centrality of the NC, which still sheltered residential bars, intertwined by public spaces, and a protection wall. Source: Kruft, 1990, 89. Romanced into literary works as replies to an existing counter-utopia (uninhabitable place), such creations were also responsible for original urbanistic solutions, introduced in urban parts or in the totality of a NC. Utopic, radical, innovative, polemical, criticized or praised, these works took the initiative of rethinking, in a revolutionary way, the chaotic city, whether for urban planning according to 5

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