5 years ago

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

new c?t?es as soc?al new c?t?es as soc?al-spat?al laborator?es ...

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I IOO O N N AA A L L P P L L A A N N N N I I N N G G H H I I S S T TOO O R R Y Y S S OO O C C I I E E T T Y Y C C OO O N N F F E E R R E E N N C C EE E imposed needs (for example, the works of Pope Sixtus V in Rome, in the 16 th Century, or the interventions by Haussmann in 19 th Century Paris, whether for the creation of NCs. Concept-cities which, conceived by thinkers and reformers attentive to the disturbing situation of a determined reality, brought about physicalsocial transformations by isolated or absolute appropriations throughout time. In this direction, utopia seen for its physical aspect received special attention by Emmanuel Eveno in his book Utopies Urbaines, 1998. For the author, urban utopia is a political act, the aim of which is globally divided into two large families: the “mirror-utopias” (utopies-miroirs) and the “project-utopias” (utopies-projets). The family of the “mirror-utopias” is that of the inverted world (the subtle optical inversion of the mirror). They represent a way of political expression and can be an act of opposition, criticism or contestation. This idea is shared by French architect Yannis Tsiomis, who defines utopia as “a counter reality, an inversion of reality, term by term, a version of a text that builds another space that is not non-existent, but which is an inversion of the existing space” (in Machado, 2006). On the other hand, the family of “project-utopias” presents itself from two main aspects: the “complete utopias” and the “fragments of utopias”. The “complete utopias” lie on pragmatism of new foundation, justified in a revolutionary act to fully organize a new society; these utopias are frequently associated with Renascence, Illuminism and some NCs of the colonized Americas. This case is illustrated by the entrepreneurial NC of Chaux [Figure Figure 55], 5 in France, designed by architect Claude- Nicolas Ledoux (1736-1806) and built between 1774 and 1779; or North American New Harmony (1824), designed by Robert Owen (1771-1858). The “fragments of utopias”, in turn, focus on the theme from the projective dimension; the fragments aim at signaling that, in the project, the revolutionary principles and those of a new foundation are secondary. In it architecture and urbanism are clearer means of intervention. This trait is recurrent in the 20th Century, when pragmatism diluted the utopic project in the tension that exists between project-decision-realization, conferring on utopia a place in the design of the project. This utopic form is justified by its exemplification, as it accommodates experimentations that are limited in the urban space, as Kiyonori Kikutake’s Marine City, 1968, and Spencer Pupo Nogueira’s Urban-Industrial-Agro-Forestial Systematic City, in the 1980’s [Figure Figure Figure 66]. 6 This physical utopia, both urban and architectonic, was fostered by several theories from the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Its genitors, Howard, Soria y Mata, Le Corbusier, Clarence Stein e Henry Wright, F.L. Wright, Team X, Archigram, among others – were responsible for a rich production of urbanistic typologies. As a consequence, different NCs arose, all idealized with the purpose of establishing a new path to follow, a compass placed at the service of society. Here is a north, observed in the several examples of ideal cities that, though they were not put into effect (immaterial), they ended up influencing later urbanistic practices. Whether they were geometrical, symmetrical or regular types, or dotted by a centrality; whether they were closed types, delimited by great walls, moats, cliffs or green belts; whether they were bi-dimensional (outlined) or tri-dimensional (woven) types; these laboratory-cities left the virtual field, the utopia, to become part of our everyday, urban realities. 6

1 5 t t h h I I N N T T E E R R N N A A T T I IOO O N N AA A L L P P L L A A N N N N I I N N G G H H I I S S T TOO O R R Y Y S S OO O C C I I E E T T Y Y C C OO O N N F F E E R R E E N N C C EE E Figure 5 – Saltworks of Chaux, by Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (1774). Establishment of isolated and morphologically identical buildings tangent to the outer limit of an ellipsis. The director’s house and the plant are centrally positioned. Source: Kruft, 1990, 91. Figure 6 – Details of the community idealized by Brazilian architect Spencer Nogueira (1980’s). The technology employed favors the sustainable occupation of the Amazon Forest. Source: Revista AU (Magazine), 1987. 3 3 _ _ NEW NEW CITIES CITIES AS AS AS SO SOCIAL SO SOCIAL CIAL-SPATIAL CIAL PATIAL LABORATORIES LABORATORIES To create a new city always means to create a new culture, that is, the individual and common models of attitudes. Augustyn Banka, (in Haumont, 1997, 84) Utopic or real, the NCs were also social and physical experimentations in the search of better quality of life. An outline traced by scholars and researchers concerned with characterizing the NCs as laboratories, with the most varied types of essays. The largest part of propositions for idealized cities arose as criticism to the contemporary city and owing to the will to create the condition of social re-balance, thus educating their inhabitants by means of its organization and architecture, by providing them with the necessary means for socio-economic development. This is a type of “unitarily designed city, the absolute promptness of the idealizer and the builder to be able to predict the physical, psychic needs of the inhabitants and translate them into architectonic forms” (Bertuglia; Tich; Stanghellini, 2004, 90). Above are concretizations of an idea, many of which were destined to be modelcities, having: “... in common a starting idea, which are not limited to lodging and infrastructure, but rather a physical manifestation of a certain idea of urban life. [...] political manifests of something understood as urban life for its inhabitants.” (Safier, 1977, 4). From ideal to real, the NCs were constantly fed by the search of better conditions, by means of “innovative and experiential actions” (Montagu; Sokolsky, 1995), as those implemented in the first Garden-City: Letchworth (1903) in England, and in the agricultural colony of Ceres (1941) in the state of Goiás, Brazil. These are two cities 7

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