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Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Table 1: Previously

Table 1: Previously Identified Archaeological Sites Within a 1-Mile Radius of the Project Area. Site Number Site Type Temporal Period Context/Artifacts 2 quartz side-notched 44CU0026 Temporary Camp Middle Archaic projectile points; flakes (quartz, greenstone) 44FQ0010 Base Camp Middle Woodland 1 quartz triangular point; quartz flakes 44FQ0048 Industry/Processing/Extraction Nineteenth Century None reported 44FQ0116 Temporary Camp Middle Archaic 1 Halifax point; flakes; debitage 44FQ0120 Temporary Camp Late Woodland 1 Shockoe ceramic and 1 FCR 44FQ0224 Civil War-Era Battlefield Related Site Third Quarter of the Nineteenth Century Cut nails, lime soda glass, amber bottle glass, 1 Minnie Ball, hand-made brick 44FQ0225 Civil War-Era Battlefield Related Site Third Quarter of the Nineteenth Century Cut nails, pistol bullet, green wine bottle glass There are approximately 54 previously-recorded architectural properties located within approximately one mile of the project area (Table 2, p. 27). A majority of the resources were built during the first half of the twentieth century. Within this large group are several single dwellings that are representative of styles that were common throughout Virginia during the early-twentieth century. The Dr. Ashby House (030-5392) was built in 1915 in the Queen Anne style. This style, which was popular around the turn of the twentieth century, commonly features an irregularly-shaped roof and asymmetrical front façade. Other homes, such as the House on Old Culpeper Road (030-5388), are examples of the Craftsman style, which was widespread throughout the United States for the first several decades of the twentieth century. Vernacular commercial buildings from the early decades of the 1900s can be found within one mile, such as the Groves Hardware Store (288-5003) and Andes Grocery (030-5390). Approximately 10 resources were either built or have a period of significance in the nineteenth century. Several of these are battlefields that are associated with the Civil War, including the Brandy Station Battlefield (023-5055), the Kelly’s Ford Battlefield (023-5048) and the Rappahannock Station Battlefield (023-5050). These have been recommended eligible by DHR staff under Criterion A for their association with the Civil War. Resource 023-5049 is the Rappahannock Station I Battlefield. The site is composed of a two mile arc south and west of the points at which Route 29 and the Southern Railroad intersect the Rappahannock River. On August 22–25, 1862, the Union and Rebel armies engaged in several minor skirmishes along the Rappahannock River including at 26

Waterloo Bridge, Lee Springs, Freemason’s Ford, and Sulphur Springs. The battles produced a few hundred casualties, but allowed the capture of Bristoe Station and the destruction of Federal supplies at Manassas Junction. Artifacts recovered from the battlefield include bullets and a belt buckle. A possible encampment is located one mile south of the point at which the railroad and river intersect. Resource 023-5050 is the Rappahannock Station II Battlefield. On November 7, 1863, a robust Union army stormed the isolated bridgehead. More than 2,000 Confederate casualties were reported, and every Southerner who did not flee the area was captured. This marked the most extensive reversal for the Confederates since the beginning of the war. While the center of the battlefield has been destroyed by residential and commercial building, much of the surrounding land has not changed since the time of the battles. The original Orange and Alexandria Railroad bridge support structures remain. Several small earthworks are still visible near the site of one of the forts at the head of the old railroad bridge. In addition, Cow’s Ford, also known as Rappahannock Station Ford, remains just south of the modern railroad bridge. A Confederate battery position is known to have been on a knoll just north of Route 29. Grave sites are also located on this knoll, locally designated as a Confederate cemetery, though no official determination of the type of cemetery has been made. A few nineteenth-century resources, including the Currier House (023-5222) and the house on N. Duey Road (030-5395), are representative of the I-house style home. This vernacular plan was common along the east coast from the nineteenth century into the early-twentieth century. Also within the one-mile radius of the project area are approximately 10 previously-surveyed modern buildings. A majority of these resources were constructed in the 1960s and 1970s, however there are a few, such as the apartments in the Wankoma Village (030-5408) and the House on N. Duey Street (030-5396), that were constructed in the 1980s and 1990s. There is one historic district within one mile of the project area—the Remington Historic District (288-5001) comprises a variety of commercial, residential and religious buildings that range in date of construction, style and function. It was listed on the NRHP in May 2005. Resource Number 023-0097 circa 1930 Table 2: Previously Identified Architectural Resources Within a 1-Mile Radius of the Project Area. Date Resource Description Bridge #1907, Routes 15 & 29 023-5048 circa 1863 Kelly’s Ford Battlefield 023-5049 1862 023-5050 1863 Rappahannock Station I (Bridge) Battlefield Rappahannock Station Battlefield 27 Post Modern steel and concrete bridge Associated with the Battle of Kelly’s Ford Location of the Battle of Rappahannock Station Location of the Battle of Rappahannock Station NRHP Eligibility Not Eligible Eligible Eligible Eligible

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