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Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

embodiment of the

embodiment of the distinctive characteristics of a style; and Criterion D, for its potential to yield information important in history. Although materials that date to the Battle of Rappahannock Station are present, there is a general paucity of physical remains dating to this period from the site and other evidence of Civil War activity. This could be due to repeated looting by Civil War relic hunters or because of the extremely short-term occupation of the knoll during the battle. Because of the limited amount of cultural material recovered and the lack of subsurface cultural features, the Civil War component of this site does not exhibit the potential to yield significant information on military/defense, domestic life, or subsistence/agriculture in the Upper Piedmont during the Antebellum Period (1830–1860), the Civil War Period (1861–1865), the Reconstruction and Growth Period (1865–1917), the World War I to World War II Period (1917–1945), or the New Dominion Period (1945 to present). Based on the archaeological survey, the materials believed to be associated with the Old School House (030–0139) are a poor representation of the late-nineteenth historic occupation of the site. Furthermore, evidence of disturbance associated with the construction of Route 29 has compromised the integrity of the site and as such as lost all data potential to reveal information on school house’s in the piedmont during the Reconstruction and Growth Period (1865-1917), the World War I to World War II Period (1917-1945), or the New Dominion Period (1945 to present) (NRHP Criterion D). Due to the low quantity of prehistoric materials at this site, the recovery of artifacts from a disturbed plowzone context, and the lack of diagnostic materials this site lacks the potential to yield significant information on settlement patterns or subsistence during the Prehistoric Periods in the Piedmont Region (Criterion D). As such, this site is recommended Not Eligible for listing on the NRHP under Criterion D as an individual resource. There is no significant association between these deposits and significant persons (Criterion B), nor do the deposits illustrate the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction (Criterion C). Although the site is located within the boundaries of the Rappahannock Station Battlefield, the deposits do not have the potential to represent the significant attributes of the battle or present new information on battle activities or military occupation (Criterion A). Because the site does not reflect attributes that would make it significant under Criteria A–D, this site is recommended as Not Eligible for the NRHP as an individual resource. No further work is suggested at this site. However, because this site falls within the period of significance of the Civil War and there are known associations between the recovered materials and the Civil War activity in the area, this site is recommended as a potential contributing element to the battles of The Battle Rappahannock Station I (023-5049), Rappahannock Station II Battlefield (023-5050), Brandy Station Battlefield (023-5055) and the Rappahannock Landing Battlefield Park (030-5504). These four resources are eligible for the NRHP, and this site could reveal new information on the general history of each battle (Criterion D). 38

Site 44FQ0247 Site Description Site 44FQ0247 is a multi-component site representing a mid-late nineteenth century historic site possibly affiliated with the Civil War occupation of the area and a prehistoric site with an indeterminate temporal affiliation. This site is located in the northern portion of the project area in the open field (Figure 18; Photo 7 and Photo 8, pp. 40–40). It measures approximately 375 feet north-south x 325 feet east-west and comprises approximately 2.8 acres. This site boundary was determined by negative shovel tests on all sides (Figure 19, p. 41). Site 44FQ0247 is situated on the southeast facing slope of the primary terrace of the Rappahannock River located between 280 feet to 270 feet AMSL. The stratigraphy of the site is generally consistent and moderately-deep to deep. The excavation revealed that the average shovel test depth is approximately 11.9 inches and the deepest being 22 inches (Figure 20, p. 41). The average depth of Ap-horizon (plowzone) soils at the site was 8 inches with the deepest being 18 inches of dark reddish brown to yellowish brown, silty clay or sandy loam. All artifacts were recovered from the A-horizon. A culturally sterile B-horizon of yellowish red to yellowish brown, silty clay was encountered below the A-horizon. Site 44FQ0247 N Figure 18: Location of Site 44FQ0247 on the 1984 Remington USGS 7.5 Minute Topographic Quadrangle (USGS 1984). 39

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