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Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Photo 9: Sample of

Photo 9: Sample of Artifacts Recovered from Site 44FQ0247. From left: horseshoe, cut nail, 3 3-ring bullets, and 1 quartz biface. The artifacts recovered from site 44FQ0247 indicate that this site represents a prehistoric lithic scatter with a mid-late nineteenth century historic component. While the prehistoric assemblage resembles a typical upland lithic scatter due to the lack of diagnostics, no temporal affiliation is attributed to the prehistoric component of this site. The historic component of this site is likely related to Civil War activities in the region based on the artifacts recovered; however, no features or specific artifact concentrations were identified during the survey to confirm the exact use of the site during the battle. Evaluation and Significance The significance of site 44FQ0247 was evaluated in relation to the NRHP eligibility criteria. The site was evaluated in regards to Criterion A, for its association with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; Criterion B, for its association with people significant in our nation’s history; Criterion C, for its embodiment of the distinctive characteristics of a style; and Criterion D, for its potential to yield information important in history. Although materials that date to the Battle of Rappahannock Station are present, there is a general paucity of physical remains dating to this period from the site and other evidence of Civil War activity. This could be due to repeated looting by Civil War relic hunters or because of the extremely short-term occupation of the upland terrace during the battle. 42

Because of the limited amount of cultural material recovered and the lack of subsurface cultural features, this site does not exhibit the potential to yield significant information on military/defense, domestic life, or subsistence/agriculture in the Upper Piedmont during the Antebellum Period (1830–1860), the Civil War Period (1861–1865), the Reconstruction and Growth Period (1865–1917), the World War I to World War II Period (1917–1945), or the New Dominion Period (1945 to present) (NRHP Criterion D). Due to the small quantity and lack of diagnostic artifacts this site does not yield the potential to provide new or additional information on settlement patterns or subsistence during the Prehistoric period (13,000–400 B.P.) of the Piedmont Region of Virginia (Criterion D) as an individual resource. There is no significant association between these deposits and significant persons (Criterion B), nor do the deposits illustrate the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction (Criterion C). Although the site is located within the boundaries of the Rappahannock Station Battlefield, the deposits do not have the potential to represent the significant attributes of the battle or present new information on battle activities or military occupation (Criterion A). Because the site does not reflect attributes that would make it significant under Criteria A–D, this site is recommended as Not Eligible for listing on the NRHP as an individual resource. No further work is suggested at this site. However, because this site falls within the period of significance of the Civil War and there are known associations between the recovered materials and the Civil War activity in the area, this site is recommended as a potential contributing element to the NRHPeligible Battle Rappahannock Station I (023-5049), Rappahannock Station II Battlefield (023-5050), Brandy Station Battlefield (023-5055) and the Rappahannock Landing Battlefield Park (030-5504) due to its potential to reveal information on area history (Criterion D). Site 44FQ0248 Site Description Site 44FQ0248 is a multi-component site located in the southern portion of the project area in an open field and is mostly situated in the flood plain of the Rappahannock River (Figure 21, p. 44). This site measures approximately 625 feet southwest-northeast by 325 feet northwest-southeast and comprises approximately 4.6 acres. Site 44FQ0248 almost entirely encompasses the southwestern half of the project area and is located in a fallow field of tall grass and briars (Photo 10 and Photo 11, pp. 45–45). A small wooded patch of some larger mature trees is found in the southern portion of this site. This small wooded patch also contained large push pile mounds of earth, vegetation, and cow skeletons. This site is situated on a relatively flat, flood plain along an oxbow in the Rappahannock River at approximately 262 feet AMSL. The site boundary was determined by negative shovel tests and the Rappahannock River (Figure 22, p. 46). 43

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