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Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Phase I

Phase I Archaeological Survey of the 23 Acre Rappahannock Landing Project Area Fauquier County, Virginia by Kerry K. Schamel and Kristen Bloss with Contributions from Kerri S. Barile, Ph.D. Prepared for Fauquier County Department of Parks and Recreation 320 Hospital Drive Suite 6 Warrenton, Virginia 20186-3043 Prepared by Dovetail Cultural Resource Group, LLC 3327 Bourbon Street Fredericksburg, Virginia 22408 Dovetail Job #06-008 August 2006

ABSTRACT On behalf of the Fauquier County Department of Parks and Recreation, Dovetail Cultural Resource Group, LLC conducted a Phase I archaeological survey of the 23 acre Rappahannock Landing project area located in Fauquier County, Virginia in May and June 2006. The project area is located 167.6 meters (550 feet) north of the Rappahannock River, 121.9 meters (400 feet) east of Business Route 15/29, 274.3 meters (900 feet) west of Route 15/29, and 182.9 meters (600 feet) south of west Main Street. The survey included an examination of approximately 6.07 hectares (15 acres) through surface observation, excavation of shovel test pits and metal detecting. The goal of the survey was to identify any archaeological remains from the Battle at Rappahannock Station and make recommendations on the need for any subsurface investigations. Archival research shows that the area is part of both the first and second Battles of Rappahannock Station. The first battle took place between August 22 and 25, 1862. It was part of a series of minor skirmishes that occurred along the river in this area. The second battle, on November 7, 1863, resulted in a major Confederate defeat. During the research, it was found that most of the original core of the battlefield has been destroyed by residential and commercial development, though much of the surrounding land has not changed since the time of the battles. The original Orange and Alexandria Railroad bridge support structures remain. Several small earthworks are still visible near the site of one of the forts at the head of the old railroad bridge. Two archaeological sites, four isolated finds, and eight metal detector hits were identified during this survey. 44FQ0225 is a third quarter of the nineteenth century site likely associated with the Battle of Rappahannock Station. The site measures approximately 53.34 meters (175 feet) north/south by 45.72 meters (150 feet) east/west and is situated in the central portion of the project area. The current survey recovered nine artifacts from this site, which include green wine bottle glass, nails, and a whole Colt Pocket Pistol bullet. This site is not recommended eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. 44FQ0224 is a third quarter of the nineteenth century historic site also likely associated with the Battle of Rappahannock Station. The site measures approximately 106.7 meters (350 feet) southeast/northwest by 22.86 meters (75 feet) north/south and is situated in the southwestern portion of the project area. The current survey recovered 78 artifacts from this site. Some of these include a 58-caliber Yankee bullet, machine cut nail fragments, lime soda container glass, a rusted cast iron fragment, porcelain, and a copper-plated finial fragment (possibly from a piece of furniture). In addition, a moderate amount of hand-made brick bats were visible on the surface within the site boundaries. This site is recommended potentially eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. i

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