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Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

BACKGROUND RESEARCH

BACKGROUND RESEARCH Prior to conducting fieldwork, the potential of the project area to contain significant archaeological resources and NRHP-eligible architectural properties was assessed by searching the Virginia Department of Historic Resources (DHR) site file maps and records, as well as examining the Civil War Sites Advisory Commission (CWSAC) maps for the area. The DHR site files and CWSAC maps revealed three archaeological sites, eighteen architectural resources, and one historic district within a one-mile radius of the project area (Table 1, p. 26). Site 44CU0026 was recorded during a 1997 reconnaissance archaeological survey conducted by Thunderbird Archaeological Consultants. It was determined to have been a Middle Archaic floodplain camp based on a modest debitage scatter—approximately one flake per 15 square meters—and two quartz side-notched projectile points, most likely Halifax. Site 44FQ0010 was documented by the College of William and Mary Center for Archaeological Research in 1997. An archaeological examination of the Middle Woodland base camp site revealed one quartz triangular point and a debitage scatter of one flake per square meter on the terrace decreasing toward the stream. Site 44FQ0116 was determined to be a Middle Archaic temporary camp in 1993 by John Milner & Associates (Balicki and Sanderson 1991). Their archeological survey revealed one quartz Halifax projectile point and a variety of flaked material, including rhyolite, chert, quartz, and quartzite, as well as five pieces of quartzite debitage. Resource 023-5049 is the Rappahannock Station I Battlefield. The site is composed of a two mile arc south and west of the points at which Route 29 and the Southern Railroad intersect the Rappahannock River. On August 22–25, 1862, the Union and Rebel armies engaged in several minor skirmishes along the Rappahannock River including at Waterloo Bridge, Lee Springs, Freemason’s Ford, and Sulphur Springs. The battles produced a few hundred casualties, but allowed the capture of Bristoe Station and the destruction of Federal supplies at Manassas Junction. Artifacts recovered from the battlefield include bullets and a belt buckle. A possible encampment is located one mile south of the point at which the railroad and river intersect. Resource 023-5050 is the Rappahannock Station II Battlefield. On November 7, 1863, a robust Union army stormed the isolated bridgehead. More than 2,000 Confederate casualties were reported, and every Southerner who did not flee the area was captured. This marked the most extensive reversal for the Confederates since the beginning of the war. While the center of the battlefield has been destroyed by residential and commercial building, much of the surrounding land has not changed since the time of the battles. The original Orange and Alexandria Railroad bridge support structures remain. Several small earthworks are still visible near the site of one of the forts at the head of the old railroad 25

Table 1: Previously Identified Archaeological & Architectural Sites Within a 1-Mile Radius of the Project Area. Property No. Site Type Temporal Period Context/Artifacts 2 quartz side-notched 44CU0026 Native American Middle Archaic projectile points; flakes (quartz, greenstone) 44FQ0010 Native American Middle Woodland 1 quartz triangular point; quartz flakes 44FQ0116 Native American Middle Archaic 1 Halifax point; flakes; debitage 023-5049 Historic 1862 Rappahannock Station I (Bridge) Battlefield 023-5050 Historic 1863 Rappahannock Station II Battlefield 1 Dwelling, 3 Silos, 2 023-5217 Historic 1930 Barns, 1 Privy Currier House, 1 Pool 023-5222 Historic 1880 House, 1 Barn, 2 Sheds, 023-5223 Historic 1930 Domestic Dwelling 030-0165 Undetermined N/A Providence Church 030-0973 Historic 1927 Tin Pot Run Bridge, Rt. 15/29 030-0975 Historic unknown Tin Pot Run Bridge, Rt. 651 1 Domestic Dwelling, 1 030-5193 Historic 1910 Silo, 1 Barn, 1 Shed, 1 Workshop 030-5383 Historic 1950 1 Domestic Dwelling, 1 Shed, 1 other 030-5388 Historic 1940 1 Domestic Dwelling 1 Commercial Building 030-5391 Historic 1940 (now Suzie’s Place Restaurant) 030-5392 Historic 1915 1 Domestic Dwelling 030-5393 Historic 1940 1 Garage 030-5397 Historic 1940 1 Shed 030-5398 Historic 1940 1 Dairy/Hay Barn, 2 Sheds 030-5399 Historic post 1880 Remington Cemetery 288-5001 Historic 1880 Remington Historic District 1 Commercial Building 288-5003 Historic 1905 (Groves Hardware Store), 3 Sheds 26

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