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Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Evaluation and

Evaluation and Significance Based on the artifacts recovered from the site, it appears that 44FQ0225 dates to the third quarter of the nineteenth century. Although architectural materials were recovered during the survey, the collection only comprises three machine cut nails. The assemblage also includes a small amount of domestic debris (green wine bottle glass, clear vessel glass, an iron kettle fragment). Together, this information suggests a short-term historic occupation. When combined with the recovery of a pistol bullet and the known history of the area, it is likely that the site is associated with the Battle of Rappahannock Landing. However, no features or specific artifact types were found during the survey to confirm the exact use of the site during the battle. The significance of site 44FQ0225 was evaluated in relation to the NRHP eligibility criteria. The site was evaluated in regards to Criterion A, for its association with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; Criterion B, for its association with people significant in our nation’s history; Criterion C, for its embodiment of the distinctive characteristics of a style; and Criterion D, for its potential to yield information important in history. Although materials that date to the Battle of Rappahannock Station are present, there is a general paucity of physical remains from the site and other evidence of Civil War activity. This could be due to repeated looting by Civil War relic hunters or because of the extremely short-term occupation of the knoll during the battle. Because of the limited amount of cultural material recovered and the lack of subsurface cultural features, this site does not exhibit the potential to yield significant information on military/defense, domestic life, or subsistence/agriculture in the Upper Piedmont during the Antebellum Period (1830-1860), the Civil War Period (1861-1865), the Reconstruction and Growth Period (1865-1917), the World War I to World War II Period (1917-1945), or the New Dominion Period (1945 to present) (NRHP Criterion D). There is no significant association between these deposits and significant persons (Criterion B), nor do the deposits illustrate the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction (Criterion C). Although the site is located within the boundaries of the Rappahannock Station Battlefield, the deposits do not have the potential to represent the significant attributes of the battle or present new information on battle activities or military occupation (Criterion A). Because the site does not reflect attributes that would make it significant under Criteria A–D, this site is recommended as Not Eligible for the NRHP. No further work is suggested at this site. 33

Site 44FQ0224 Site Description Site 44FQ0224 is a historic site dating to the third quarter of the nineteenth century and may represent the archaeological remains of a temporary structure associated with the Civil War occupation during the Battle of Rappahannock Station. 44FQ0224 is located in the southwestern portion of the project area, in an open field and on the top and eastern edge of a small knoll (Photo 5). This site measures approximately 91.44 meters (300 feet) southeast/northwest by 53.34 meters (175 feet) north-south and comprises approximately 0.49 hectare (1.205acres). The site is bound by negative shovel tests on the north, south, east and west (Figure 18, p. 35). Photo 5: General View of Site 44FQ0224, Facing West. The stratigraphy of Site 44FQ0224 is generally consistent and relatively shallow (Figure 19, p. 35). STPs excavated in this area showed an A- Horizon of an orange brown silty loam extending approximately 10.16 cm to 22.86 cm (4 to 9 inches). The large majority of the artifacts were recovered from this layer. A B-horizon of strong brown clay or silt clay was encountered below the A-horizon. No artifacts were recovered within this layer. 34

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