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Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Evaluation and

Evaluation and Significance The amount of artifacts recovered from what appears to be a domestic context suggests a structure with a very brief occupation. The limited quantity of domestic debris (13%) and the high concentration of bricks and nails (70%) with the absence of window glass support this theory. In addition, two furniture-related artifacts, a copper-plated furniture finial fragment and an eschucion plate, were recovered during the survey. These artifacts could be from a desk or a high boy. It is likely that this structure was a temporary dwelling for a person who required shelter, such as a field doctor or possibly an officer, during the Battle of Rappahannock Station. Archival research showed that temporary buildings used by officers and upper-level staff were constructed this way during the battle, including brick chimneys and included larger furniture on the interior. The shelters of the enlisted men, however, usually did not exhibit such a level of refinement (Figure 20). Figure 20: The shelter of an enlisted soldier at Rappahannock Station (Library of Congress 1864). The significance of site 44FQ0224 was evaluated in relation to the NRHP eligibility criteria. The site was evaluated in regards to Criterion A, for its association with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of our history; Criterion B, for its association with people significant in our nation’s history; Criterion C, for its embodiment of the distinctive characteristics of a style; and Criterion D, for its potential to yield information important in history. 37

Due to the relatively high quantity of cultural material recovered and the evidence for a potential structure, this site does exhibit the potential to yield significant information on military/defense, domestic life, subsistence/agriculture and/or settlement patterns in the Upper Piedmont during the Antebellum Period (1830-1860), the Civil War Period (1861- 1865), the Reconstruction and Growth Period (1865-1917), the World War I to World War II Period (1917-1945), or the New Dominion Period (1945 to present) (NRHP Criterion D). There are significant associations between these deposits and a significant historical event or pattern of events, the Battle of Rappahannock Station (Criterion A), but not significant persons (Criterion B), and the deposits do not illustrate the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction (Criterion C). As such, this site is recommended potentially eligible for the NRHP under Criterion A and D. It is suggested that additional archaeological work in the form of test units be completed at the site to examine the integrity of the subsurface deposits and determine the site’s NRHP eligibility potential. Isolated Finds, Metal Detector Hits, and Non-Cultural Features Of the 246 STPs excavated across the project area, four of them contained a single artifact. When radial shovel tests were placed around the positive hole, no additional artifacts were recovered. For this reason each of these four artifacts has been defined as an isolated find rather than an archaeological site (Table 4). While they generally represent cultural activity at the site during a particular chronological period, they likely do not represent concentrated activities in a particular area. One of the artifacts, a secondary prehistoric flake recovered from STP K56, represents the only prehistoric artifact recovered during the survey. With only one artifact within the assemblage, it is not indicative of larger prehistoric occupation of this area, and it was therefore determined to be an isolated occurrence instead. Table 4: Types and Counts of Artifacts Recovered From Isolated Finds. Provenience Artifact Count Percentage Isolated Find #1 Ungalvanized Wire Nail 1 25% Isolated Find #2 Secondary Quartz Lithic 1 25% Isolated Find #3 58-caliber Yankee Bullet 1 25% Isolated Find #4 Smashed Bullet 1 25% Total 4 100% 38

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