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Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Rappahannock Landing Archaeological Survey ... - Fauquier County

Table of Contents

Table of Contents ABSTRACT......................................................................................................................... i INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION................................................................................................. 1 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING ........................................................................................ 3 Geology........................................................................................................................... 3 Soils................................................................................................................................. 4 HISTORIC CONTEXT ...................................................................................................... 6 Prehistoric Periods .......................................................................................................... 6 Paleoindian Period (13,000–10,000 B.P.)................................................................... 6 Archaic Period (10,000–3200 B.P.)............................................................................ 6 Woodland Period (3200–400 B.P.)............................................................................. 8 Contact Period............................................................................................................. 9 Historic Period ................................................................................................................ 9 Contact Period and the Seventeenth Century.............................................................. 9 The Eighteenth Century ............................................................................................ 10 The Nineteenth Century............................................................................................ 11 Civil War and the Battle of Rappahannock Station.................................................. 12 Reconstruction and Into the Twentieth Century ....................................................... 22 SURVEY METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................... 23 Archival/Historical Research........................................................................................ 23 Archaeological Fieldwork............................................................................................. 23 BACKGROUND RESEARCH ........................................................................................ 25 RESULTS OF FIELDWORK........................................................................................... 28 Site 44FQ0225 .............................................................................................................. 30 Site Description......................................................................................................... 30 Evaluation and Significance ..................................................................................... 33 Site 44FQ0224 .............................................................................................................. 34 Site Description......................................................................................................... 34 Evaluation and Significance ..................................................................................... 37 Isolated Finds, Metal Detector Hits, and Non-Cultural Features.................................. 38 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................... 40 REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 41 Appendix A: Project Map ................................................................................................. 47 Appendix B: Shovel Test Record ..................................................................................... 48 Appendix C: Artifact Catalog ........................................................................................... 70 Appendix D: Data Sharing System Forms........................................................................ 72 ii

List of Figures Figure 1: Map of Virginia and Fauquier County. ............................................................... 3 Figure 2: Location of Project Area on the 1981 USGS Remington 7.5 Minute Quadrangle.................................................................................................................. 5 Figure 3: Map of Virginia................................................................................................ 10 Figure 4: Map of the State of Virginia............................................................................. 12 Figure 5: Burning the Rappahannock Railway Bridge, Oct. 13th 1863. .......................... 13 Figure 6: Map of Culpeper County with parts of Madison, Rappahannock, and Fauquier counties, Virginia 1863............................................................................................. 15 Figure 7: Plan of the Battle of Kelly's Ford, Va., fought 7th November 1863................ 16 Figure 8: Map of Culpeper County and parts of the counties of Warren, Rappahannock, Madison, Orange, and Fauquier (1863). ................................................................... 17 Figure 9: A map of Fauquier Co. Virginia........................................................................ 17 Figure 10: The War in Virginia- Battle of Rappahannock Station November 7, 1863. .. 18 Figure 11: Plan of the Battle of Rappahannock Station November 7th 1863................... 19 Figure 12: Rappahannock Station, Va. Federal encampment near Railroad. .................. 20 Figure 13: The camp barber--taking a shave, Rappahannock Station, Virginia.............. 21 Figure 14: Rappahannock Station, Virginia, Officers of 50th New York Engineers. ...... 21 Figure 15: Location of Two Recorded Archaeological Sites, Shown on the Remington 7.5 Minute USGS Topographic Map........................................................................ 29 Figure 16: Representative Profiles for Shovel Tests at Site 44FQ0225. .......................... 31 Figure 17: Map of Site 44FQ0225.................................................................................... 32 Figure 18: Map of Site 44FQ0224.................................................................................... 35 Figure 19: Representative Shovel Test Profiles from Site 44FQ0224.............................. 35 Figure 20: The shelter of an enlisted soldier at Rappahannock Station............................ 37 List of Tables Table 1: Previously Identified Archaeological & Architectural Sites Within a 1-Mile Radius of the Project Area. ....................................................................................... 26 Table 2: Types and Counts of Artifacts Recovered From 44FQ0225. ............................. 31 Table 3: Types and Counts of Artifacts Recovered From 44FQ0224. ............................. 36 Table 4: Types and Counts of Artifacts Recovered From Isolated Finds........................ 38 Table 5: Isolated Artifacts Recovered from Metal Detecting........................................... 39 Table 6: Summary of Eligibility Recommendations. ....................................................... 40 List of Photos Photo 1: View of the Southwestern Portion of the Project Area, Facing West. ................. 2 Photo 2: View of Northwestern Portion of Project Area, Facing Northwest...................... 2 Photo 3: Overview of the Farm Complex, Looking East................................................. 28 Photo 4: General View of Site 44FQ0225, Facing North................................................. 30 Photo 5: General View of Site 44FQ0224, Facing West.................................................. 34 iii

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