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Emerging animal diseases: from science to policy - Favv

Emerging animal diseases: from science to policy - Favv

18 References 1

18 References 1 Smolinsk, Mark, Hamburg, Margaret, Lederburg, Joshua. Microbial Threats to Health Emergence, Detection and Re- sponse. Washington D.C.: The National Academics Press, 2003. 2. Delgado, C. Livestock To 2020, The Next Food Revolution. Food, Agriculture, and the Environment Discussion Paper #28. Washington D.C., International Food Policy Research Institute, 1999. 3. Kimball, A.M. Risky Trade: Infectious Diseases in the Era of Global Trade. Hamshire, UK. Ashgate Publishing. 2006. 4. King, LJ, et al. Executive Summary of the AVMA One Health Initiative Task Force Report. JAVMA, July 15, 2008. Vol. 233, Number 2. 5. Knobler S. et al. Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak: Washington D.C. The National Academics, 2004. 6. Jones, KE, et al. Global Trends in Emerging Infection Diseases. Nature, February 21, 2008. 7. Johansen, R. Get There Early: Sensing the Future to Compete in the Present. San Francisco. Berrett – Koehler Publishers, Inc. 2007. 8. Crowl, T.A. et al. The Spread of Invasive Species and Infectious Diseases as Drivers of Ecosystem Charge. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment; Issue #5, Vol. 6, June 2008. 9. Beaglehole, R. and Bonita, R. Public Health at the Crossroads: Achievements and Progress. 2nd Edition: Boston, MA Cambridge University Press, 1997.

The epidemiological investigation of the 2006 multi-country Bluetongue outbreak: experiences from the European Food Safety Authority H. Deluyker, R. Reintjes European Food Safety Authority, Parma, Italy Background A number of food safety incidents in the last decade had raised concerns on the modern food production chain. This resulted in a decline in the public trust in food safety regulations and management. The European Commission responded to this development by issuing the General Food Law, which clearly describes the food safety framework in the EU including the role and responsibilities of its partners in the establishment of efficient tools for an early prevention of food borne outbreaks [EC 2002]. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the keystone of European Union risk assessment regarding food and feed safety, as well as plant health and animal health and welfare. In close collaboration with national authorities and in open consultation with its stakeholders, EFSA provides independent scientific advice and clear communication on existing and emerging risks. How this can work in reality can best be described by experience from an outbreak of an emerging disease that occurred in 2006 and affected several EU Member States. The Bluetongue outbreak Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants, affecting particularly certain breeds of sheep with severe clinical disease, and may be fatal. At present, 24 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been identified. They are transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides). BTV has a worldwide distribution between approximate latitudes 35°S and 40°N, although in parts of North America, China and Kazakhstan the virus may extend up to almost 50°N latitude. Until 2006 there has been a succession of BTV incursions into certain southern Member States of the European Union, including Italy, Greece, the French island of Corsica, the Spanish islands of Menorca and Mallorca, mainland Spain and Portugal. Several Balkan States and European and Anatolian Turkey have also been affected. On 14 August 2006, a private veterinary practitioner in the province of Limburg in the south of the Netherlands notified the veterinary authorities of BT-suspect cases on four different holdings in that country. These were the first indications of a rapidly spreading BTV-epidemic in North-West Europe, which affected cattle and sheep holdings in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France, and Luxembourg. 19

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