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Emerging animal diseases: from science to policy - Favv

Emerging animal diseases: from science to policy - Favv

40 Theme 3 Applications:

40 Theme 3 Applications: examples of animal diseases at risk of (re-)emergence

Preventing classical swine fever re-emergence: a continuous challenge Frank Koenen CODA-CERVA, Brussels, Belgium Classical swine fever (CSF) virus, also known as “hog cholera” is a highly contagious viral disease of worldwide importance and classified as such by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE). Clinical signs of CSF were reported in the early 19th century and the pathogenic agent was recognized as of viral origin in 1903 (CSFV). Historically per acute, acute, chronic or even prenatal forms of CSF were attributed to different levels of virus virulence. However, characterisation of the strain virulence is difficult since the same isolate can induce different signs depending on pigs breed, age, health status and immune status. Wild and domestic pigs are the only natural host for CSFV, but they are also susceptible to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV). CSFV, BVDV and BDV are small, enveloped, positive, single stranded RNA viruses in the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. The clinical picture of CSF has changed in recent decades, shifting from per-acute or acute forms to more sub-acute or even subclinical disease appearance making the “field” diagnosis more difficult. At the same time, changes in farm production, resulting in greater geographical concentration of pig numbers and increased pig movements, have exacerbated the consequences for reintroduction of the disease within the domestic pig population. The economic and socio-economic impact of CSF is very high worldwide, including the territories of the EU. In 1993 and 1994, 10.7 and 21.4 million Euros respectively were spent on outbreaks in Belgium and Germany, with a further 130 million Euros of market support in 1994. In 1997, an epizootic outbreak centred in The Netherlands resulted in the compulsory slaughter and disposal of more than 10 million pigs, with costs estimated at over one billion Euros. An estimation of the overall economic loss results in several times these amounts. Although, this was the last major CSF- outbreak in the region, the situation is dynamic and also very recently (2006) more than 120,000 pigs had to be culled in Germany due to a small outbreak of CSFV in domestic pigs. Domestic pig populations in North America, Australia and New Zealand are free of CSF. Extensive areas in Central and South America continue using vaccination to control the disease. Although the situation in Africa is not well characterised the disease has been identified in Madagascar and more recently severe outbreaks occurred in South Africa. CSF remains endemic in Asia. Eradication of CSF in domestic pigs has been achieved in several areas within the EU. However, despite intensive efforts on national as well as on international level, the complete eradication of CSF in Europe has proved to be elusive, since 41

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